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AIR POLLUTION INTRODUCTION: Air Pollution is the introduction of chemical, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gases system that is essential support life planet earth, stratosphere ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the earths ecosystems. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the worlds worst pollution problems in the 2008 Black Smith institute worlds worst polluted places report. A substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment is known as an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles liquid droplets or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made. Pollution can be classified as primary or secondary, usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted form a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption the carbon monoxide gas form a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone, one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog some pollutants may be both. Primary and secondary that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. MAJOR PRIMARY POLLUTANS PRODUCED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY INCLUDE Sulfur oxides (So2) Especially sulfur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula so2 is produced by volcanoes is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Sine coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds; their-combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of So2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as No2, forms H2So4, and thus acid rain. This is one of the causes for concern the environmental impact of the use of there fuels as power sources. NITROGEN OXIDES: Especially nitrogen dioxides are emitted form high temperature combustion can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula No2. It is one of the several Nitrogen Oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor No2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants. CARBON MONOXIDE: Carbon Monoxide is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2)

A colorless, odorless, non toxic green house gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted form sources such as combustion cement production, and respiration. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND: VOCS are an important outdoor air pollutant in this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhance global warming. Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant- greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene exposure 1. 3- Butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses. PARTICULATE MATTER: Particulates alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PN) or fine particles, or tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas to gather, sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally originating form volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grass and fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amount of aerosols. A verged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols, those made by human activities, currently account for about to percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere. Increased levels of fine particles such as heart disease, altered lung function and lung cancer, Here are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. In most developed countries land use planning is an important part of social policy, ensuring that land is used efficiently for the benefit of the wider economy and population as well as to protect the environment. REDUCTION EFFORTS: Efforts to reduce pollution form mobile sources includes primary regulation- (many developing countries have permissive- regulations), expanding regulation to new sources (such ass cruise and transport ships, form equipment, and small gas- powered- equipment such as lawn trimmers, chainsaws, and snowmobiles), increases fuel efficiency-(such as through the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethical, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles) Biosphere Definition: The biosphere is the global sum of all eco systems. It can also be called the zone of life on earth. From the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. THE END

2. Solid waste management by biotechnology POLLUTION It depends upon undesired change with physics, biological chemical on air water and soil. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The blacksmith institute issues an annual list of the worlds worst polluted places. Pollutant: Pollutants are those substances that cause pollution chemical, biological, physical agent. Soil Pollution: Definition: Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. Soil pollution is the contamination of soil with harmful substances that can adversely affect the quality of the of the soil and the health of those living on it. Or Soil pollution is caused by the presence of Xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. Causes Of SOIL POLLUTION: Soil polltion also commonly known as soil contamination, is a conditionn that occus when soil loses its sctructure, biological properties.and chemical properties due to the use of various man-made chemicalsand chemical properties due to the soil environment. This form of pollution is generally more common in developed countries ,such as the USA and the United Kingdom, as compared to developing countries. Factors often believed to contribute to soil pollution include the use of chemicals such as fertilizers, the salinity of the soil and environmental changes. Soil Pollution Effects: Causes cancers including leukaemia. Lead in soil is especeally hazardous for young children causing developmental damage to the brain.

Mercury can increase the risk of kidney damage; Cyclodienes can lead to liver toxicity. Causes neuromuscular blockage as well as depression of the central nervous system. Also causes headaches, nausea, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rash. Other Notes: Contact with contaminated soil may be direct (from using parks, schools etc). Soil pollution may also result form secondary contamination of water supplies and form deposition of air contaminants (for example, via acid rain). Contamination of crops grown in polluted soil brings up problems with food security. Since it is closely linked to water pollution, many effects of soil contamination appear to be similar to the ones caused by water contamination. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT BY BIOTECHNOLOGY: In order to solve the problem of soil pollution caused due to extensive use of herbicides, pesticides and insecticides, the bioremediation of soil using microorganisms is being carried out. The most common pollutants are: hydrocarbons, chlorinated, solvents, poly chloro biphenyls and metals. The bioremediation of soil involves two processes: A) Bio stimulation- Bio stimulation involves the stimulation of microorganisms already present in the soil. This can be done by adding nutrients e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus etc, by supplying cosubstrates e.g. methane which can degrade trichloroethylene, by adding surfactants to disperse the hydrophobic compounds in water. B) Bio augmentation- Addition of specific microorganisms to the polluted soil constitutes Bio augmentation. Some of the pollutants like polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), trinitrotoluene (TNT), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) etc are not degraded by only native soil microorganisms so a combination of microorganisms referred to as consortium or cocktail of microorganisms is added to achieve bioaugmentation. C) Bioventing Bioventing involves Bio degradation of pollutants by circulating air through subsurfaces of soil and is one of the very cost effective and efficient techniques used for the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. It is very effectively used for degradation of soluble paraffins, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. D) Phytoremediation Bioremediation by using plants is called phytoremediation. Certain plant species which have the capability to stimulate biodegradation of pollutants (especially near the soil adjacent to roots-rhizophere) are cultivated near the sites of polluted soil. This is a cheap and environmentally friendly process but takes a long time to finish the clean up process. E) Land farming Landfarming is a technique for the bioremediationof hydrocarbon contaminated soils. In this the soil is excavated, mixed with microorganisms and nutrients and spared out on a liner just below the polluted soil. THE END 3. POLLUTION AND PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES

INTRODUCTION: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutions, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances /energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is when human activity or natura disasters cause the environment to become contaminated or dirty. The discharge of a toxic or contaminating substance that is likely to have an adverse effect of the natural environment or life. The Harm of Noise Pollution for Human Health 1. Loud noises can cause ear discomfort, such as ear ringing, ear pains and hearing loss, etc. noises above 115db can even lead to deafness. According to statistics, about 50 percent of those who are exposes to the noise above 80 db for a long time lose their hearing. 2. Noises can cause decrease word efficiency. Under the circumstances of noises above 85db, one may feel discomfort and distracted, thus he can not concentrate on his work or study. 3. Harm to blood vessels of human hearts. Noise is a dangerous factor for heart diseases, speeding up the aging process of hearts, causing high rate of myocardial infarction incidence. Long-term exposure to noises may lead to high blood pressure. Especially in night, noises cause much higher rate of incidence of a disease. 4. Noises can make nervous system disorder, mental disturbance and incretion disorder. 5. Noises disturb and sleep. One may feel exhausted after one nights exposure in noises. This condition continuing for a long time may lead to Neurasthenia. 6. Harm for womens physiological function. Noises can cause abnormal menstruation, abortion, premature delivery, and even abnormal embryo. 7. Noises are more harmful for childrens body and mind health that that of adults, b/c their organs are still weak. Noises can easily hurt their hearing organs, causing hearing damage or loss. 8. Noises harm for eyesight. According to experiments, when the loudness of noises is above 90db, mans visual receptor cells sensitivity decreases rapidly and the reaction time for faint light is lengthened. When the loudness reaches 95db, about 40% of people get mydreasis and blurred vision. And when exposes to noises of 115 db, most people have difficulty to react to lightness. So those who are in the environment of loud noises for a long time can easily get strain, eye pain, blurred vision, and tearing. Beside, noise can cause the abnormity in color vision and eyeshot. How can air pollution hurt my health? Short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Other symptoms can include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions.

Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. In the great Smog Disaster in London in 1952, four thousand people died in a few days due to the high concentration of pollution. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution effects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly. Soil Pollution Health Effects: Soil pollution impacts human health predominantly by contaminating drinking water supplies, such as reservoirs, ground water and wells. Contaminants include metals like aluminum, lead and cadmium, as well as pesticides and microorganism. Effects on human health will vary depending on the contaminant and its concentration in the water. For example, low concentrations of nitrate, a chemical used in fertilizer, can cause shortness of breath. On the other hand, aluminum can cause severe damage to the central nervous system. Nearly all toxins are naturally occurring in the environment. Health Impacts of water Pollution Water-borne diseases are infectious disease spread primarily through contaminated water. Though these disease are spread either directly or through files or fifth, water is the chief medium for spread of these diseases and hence they are termed as water-borne diseases. Most intestinal (enteric) diseases are infectious and are transmitted through fecal was waste. Pathogens-which include virus, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms are disease-producing agents found in the faeces of infected areas with poor sanitary conditions. These pathogens travel through water sources and interfuses directly through persons handling food and water. Since these diseases are highly patient. Hepatitis, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid are the more common water-borne diseases that affect large populations in the tropical regions. A large number of chemicals that either exits naturally in the land or are added due to human activity dissolve in the water, thereby contaminating it and leading to various diseases. Pesticides: The organophosphates and the carbonates present in pesticides affect and damage the nervous system and can cause cancer. Some of the pesticides contain carcinogens that exceed recommended levels. They contain chlorides that cause reproductive and endocrinal damage. Lead: Lead is hazardous to health as is accumulates in the body and affects the central nervous system. Children and pregnant women are most at risk. Fluoride: Excess fluorides can cause yellowing of the teeth and damage to the spinal cord and other crippling diseases. Overview of main health effects on humans form some common types of pollution:

1. Increased respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing, or difficulty breathing, for example. 2. Decreases lung function 3. Aggravated asthma. 4. Development of chronic bronchitis. 5. Irregular heartbeat. 6. Nonfatal heart attacks: and 7. Premature death in people with heart or lung disease. 8. Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. 9. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. 10. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. 11. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects. 12. Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By reducing air pollution levels, we can help countries reduce the global burden of disease, and lung cancer. 13. Carbon monoxide (co), an odorless, colorless gas, which can cause sudden illness and death, is produced any time a fossil fuel is burned. 14. Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and night time or early morning coughing. 15. Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. 16. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and congestion. 17. Water pollution causes approximately 14000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. 18. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to proper toilets and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. 19. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. 656,000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. 20. In India, air pollution is believed to cause 527, 700 fatalities a year. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50,000. REACTIONS / SOLUTIONS: To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. Pollution Control: Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products from consumption,

heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, weather they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff. Practices: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recycling. Reusing . Reducing. Mitigating. Preventing.

Pollution Control devices: 1. Dust collection system: Bag Houses. Cyclones. Electrostatic precipitators 2. Scrubbers: Baffle spray scrubber. Cyclonic spray scrubber. Ejector venture scrubber. Mechanically aided scrubber. Spray tower. Wet scrubber. 3. Sewage treatment: Sedimentation (Primary treatment). Activated sludge bioreactors (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial waste water) Aerated lagoons. Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff). 4. Industrial wastewater treatment; API oil-water separators Biofilters. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) Powdered activated carbon treatment. Ultra Filtration. Conclusion: According to my opinion pollution is very much harmful for not only human beings but for all living organisms including plans, animals, micro organisms, our environment etc, and if we dont take any precautionary steps for is all our beautiful earth and their living organisms will no longer remain.

THE END 4. POLLUTION AND POLLUTANTS POLLUTION Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristic of air, water, soil due to addition of material in quality and quantity, which is harmfull to living being and man. Pollutants The pollutants are the substances that are added to the environment and leads to undesirable effects for living organism. Pollutants are residues of things we make, use and throw away. These are by products of transportation, industry and agriculture. As these human activities expand, the pollutants increase so as the pollution. Types of pollution: Air Pollution Air pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural composition and chemistry of the air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust or excessive gases like carbon dioxide or other vapors that cant be effectively removed through natural cycles, such as the carbon cycle or the nitrogen cycle. Sources: Air pollution comes form both natural and man made sources. Vehicle or manufacturing exhaust. Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, dry soil erosion, and other natural sources. Building construction or demolition. Basicallly the air pollution is caused by the burning of fuel that directly releases hazardous chemicals into the air. Motor vihicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution in China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions.

Effects: Depending on the concentration of air pollutants, several effects can be noticed. Smog increases. Higher rain acidity, and Global warming are all related to increased air pollution. For example the burning of coal releases sullphur dioxide, a poisonous gas which is responsible for acid rain. Water Pollution:

Water pollution involves any contaminated water, whether form chemical, particulate, or bacterial matter that degrades the waters quality and purity. When pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds water pollution can occur in oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground reservoirs, and as different waster souces flow together the pollution can spread. Sources: Casuses of water pollution include: Increased sediment from soil erosion. Improper waste disposal and littering. Leaching of soil pollution into water supplies. Organic material decay in water supplies.

Effects: The effects of water pollution include: o o o o Decreasing the quantity of drinkable water available, Lowering water supplies for crop irrigation. Impacting fish and wildlife populations that require water of certain purity for survival. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these of water.

Soil Pollution: Soil, or land pollution, is contamination of the soil that prevents natural growth and balance in the land whether it is used for cultivation, habitation, or a wildlife preserve. Some soil pollution, such as the creation of landfills, is deliberate, while much more is accidental and can have widespread effects. Sources: Soil pollution sources include: Effects: Soil contamination can lead to poor growth and reduced crop yields, Loss of wildlife habitat, water and visual pollution, soil erosion, and desertification. Noise Pollution: Hazardous waste and sewage spills. Non-sustainable farming practices, such as the heavy use of inorganic pesticides. Strip mining, deforestation, and other destructive practices. Household dumping and littering.

Noise pollution refers to undesirable levels of noises caused by human activity that disrupt the standard of living in the affected area Noise is defined as an unpleasant sound that has an adverse affect on the human ear. Sources: Effects: Effects may include: Hearing loss. Wildlife disturbances and a general degradation of lifestyle. Unwanted sound (noise) can damage physiological and psychological health. It leads to hypertension, stress, aggression and annoyance. Moreover, it causes depression and forgetfulness. High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects. Traffic. Airports. Railroads. Manufacturing plants. Construction or demolition. Concerts some noise pollution may be temporary while other sources are more permanent.

RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION: Radioactive pollution is one of the types of pollution that is rare but extremely detrimental, even deadly, when it occurs. Because of its intensity and difficulty of reversing damage, there are strict government regulations to control radioactive pollution. Sources: Sources of radioactive contamination include: Nuclear power plant accidents or leakage Improper nuclear waste disposal Uranium mining operations. Effects: Radiation pollution can cause birth defects, cancer, sterilization, and other health problems for human and wildlife populations. It can also sterilize the soil and contribute to water and air pollution.

Pollution Problems in Pakistan Pollution is a major environmental problem in the most developing as well as developed countries. Most of these countries such as U.S have been quite successful in solving these problems by passing out certain environmental laws and producing alternatives to such sources which cause a lot of pollution such as coal and oil power sources which cause a lot of pollution such as coal and oil powers station. There are also laws which make sure that the waste form the industries is being disposed off correctly and is not in any way harmful to the environment. However in Pakistan the pollution problems have been rising since it got its independence. Very few people have concern about the negative effects of pollution on themselves as well as their environment. Hence this problem is increasing day by day which may lead in the destruction of our natural environment as well as our own. In Pakistan there are three major sources of pollutio but I am explaining two of them. 1. Air Polltution: In Pakistan the most common sources of air pollution is mainly vehicles whose exhaust fumes pollute the air. Unlike other developed countries wherethere are catalye converters and efficient is totally opposite. As most of the people are poor they dont have enough money to repair or spend money on their vehicles dont have enough money torepair or spend money on their vehicles so that they can become environment friendl. Even the cas manufactureres dont make their cars much environment friendly and people are forced to buy these cars. More fuel is burned as most roads of Pakistan are broken and there are a lot of traffic jams which increases the journey time. Many industries in big cities such as Karachi and Lahore give out harmful pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. The government and the authorities take little concern about these industries. As a result of this the sky of Lahore and Karachi are coverd with thick smog. This may lead animals living in such places. Even in Islamabad, the cleanest city in Pakistan we could see thich smog over the city from the Margalla hills and while traveling to Muree there was so much of exhaust fumes form vehicles that we had to keep our car windows closed. 2. Land Pollution: As Pakistan is not a rich country, it doesnt have enough money to spend on waste disposal system. As a result most of the home waste and other kinds of wastage is usually thrown away on empty plots next to the houses and is then burned which may be harmful to the people living in the area. Only less than 5 % of the waste is recycled and most of it is disposed directly on the ground. There are only a few garbage cans along the roads so people living far away have to dispose off their waste somewhoere else. This attracts flies which then spread diseases. Apart from this, the rubbish thrown would disintegrate in a 1000 years from now. Hence an increase in land pollution may in turn slowlly destroy our natural environment which is already at risk. SOLUTION OF THE POLLUTION PROBLESMS Here are a few solutions: SOLUTION OF AIR POLLUTION:

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the waste products form consumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, wheter they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment. Pollution Control Device1-A Dust Collector is a system used to enhance the quality of air relaeased from inustrial and commercial processes by collecting dust oter impuriteis from air or gas. Designed to handle high-volume dust loads, a dust collector stysem consists of a blower, dust filter, a filter-cleaning system, and a dust receptacle or dust removal system. It is distinguished form air cleaners, which use disposable filters to remove dust instead of using private cars we must use public transport more often and wald for short distances. There should be a greenbelt constructed in big cities such as Karachi. The trees in the dgreen belt would reduce the amount of fumes in the air and give out clean oxygen. We should use unleaded petrol in our vehicles. It is already available at most petrol stations. Unleaded petrol is more efficient for the car and is less harmful to the environment. Most of the leading car manufacturers should install catalye converters in their cars. SOLLUTION OF WATER POLLUTION 2-Sewae tretment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants form waste water and houlsehold sewage, both runoff(effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to romove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a soolid waste (or treaeted sludge) suitable for disposal or refuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking wate, although singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a produchtion scale in its procutcion of NEW water. The factory waste should be first filtered and then disposed properly into sea or river. If this is not done, the government should take legal action against them. Instead of using clean water, we can use the filtered industrial water for flushing toilets, watering the plants and washing the cars. The governments should ask the local citizens for proper beach cleaning once in a year. Besides it should also fine those people who throw their waste into the sea or river. There must be a regular cleaning of all the canals and channels by the government workers. The government should pass strict environmental laws concerning oil spill. We must all cooperate with one another to save our marine life as much as possible.

A) B) C) D) E) F)

SOULUTION OF LAND POLLUTION A) Instead of throwing all our rubbish away we can give some of it for recycling such as old newspapers etc. We must also reuse polythene bags for other purposes such as for carrying things.

B) There must be a landfill area where all the rubbish can be disposed off. There must also be incinerators where the remaining garbage can be burned. C) The government should place garbage cans and bins in many places so that people can throw their rubbish there. D) We can play a part by throwing plastic wrappers and other kinds of waste into the garbage cans and not on the roads. E) We can also help by keeping our environment around us clean as well as educating others to do so. F) All the shop keepers must use paper bags instead of polythene ones. These are more environments friendly and can be recycled. REFERENCE Pollution is a biggest problem for Pakistan and the whole world. Now Pakistan Government and Environmental NGOs are working with full strength and resources against this pollution problem. On the other side different Environmental NGOs are also working and contributing so much in this mission. A pollution free Pakistan is like a dream but we hope that all these efforts of EPD (Environment Protection Department) and Environmental NGOs will change this critical. But the first thing is complete awareness of environmental problem, issue and their solutions. A common man is not know with these problems and dont know that how a single person can help to protect environment. There for EPD and different Environmental NGOs trying in many ways to aware the people about the environment and environmental solutions. CONCLUSION: Environment becomes polluted because so human activities so its our duty to keep our environment and country clean. Being a good human being we should follow the laws of our government. THE END