You are on page 1of 47


Summer Training (27 June-4 Aug)

th th

Mahima Rastogi B.E.(6th SEMESTER , 3rd YEAR) Instrumentation & Control Engineering NSIT, Dwarka, New Delhi

I would like to convey my deepest thanks to, Mrs. Rachna Singh Bhal, the Senior Manager (HR-EDC) for her valuable advice and support she has given me in writing this report. I would also like to thank, Mr.A.K. Aggarwal of C&I Department for his guidance under which I completed my training. Also I am extremely grateful to, Mr. Manmohan Singh, for giving us the wonderful opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organisation. I would like to extend my gratitude to the technical staff of BTPC to help me throughout during my training by giving me the prerequisite knowledge about the plant before visiting it.

Page | 2

This report is an account of the vocational training, which I undertook at NTPC for 6 Weeks. It also contains an account of various departments I visited during my course of training here. The training which I did at NTPC was a great learning experience and has helped me understand my subject as well as the industry better.

Page | 3


Page | 4

NTPC, India's largest power company, was set up in 1975. A current generating capacity of NTPC is 34,854 MW,which includes 15 coal based and 7 gas based() stations, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017. During 2008-09, NTPC accounted for 27.40% of total power generated in India. NTPC ranked 341th in the 2010, Forbes Global 2000 ranking of the Worlds biggest companies. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032. NTPC is lighting every third bulb in India. NTPC has gone beyond the thermal power generation. It has diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution.
Projects COAL GAS/LIQ. FUEL TOTAL No. of Projects 15 07 22 Commissioned Capacity (MW) 25,815 3,995 29,810

Page | 5

Corporate Vision:
A world class integrated power major, powering Indias growth, with increasing global presence

Core Values:
B-Business Ethics C-Customer Focus O-Organizational & Professional pride M-Mutual Respect and Trust I- Innovation & Speed T-Total quality for Excellence

Page | 6


1975 1997 2004 2005 2010

NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.5%. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2010 ranked it 341st in the world.

NTPC Limited
Type Founded Headquarters Key people Industry Products Revenue Public 1975 Delhi, India Arup Roy Choudhury (Chairman & MD) Electricity generation Electricity 50,188.52 crore (US$11.19 billion)(200910)
Page | 7

Net income Employees Website

8,837.65 crore (US$1.97 billion)(200910) 25,944 (2010)


Technology Initiatives
Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D The company sets aside up to 0.5% of the profits for R&D Roadmap developed for adopting Clean Development Mechanism to help get / earn Certified Emission Reduction.

Page | 8

Corporate Social Responsibility

As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives. NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level. NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare Measures on perennial basis. The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies. The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas.

Environment Management
All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified Various groups to care of environmental issues The Environment Management Group Ash Utilisation Division Afforestation Group Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection Group on Clean Development Mechanism

NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department.

Page | 9


Page | 10

N.T.P.C. Badarpur Power Plant is a Coal Based Steam Power Plant. Badarpur Thermal Power Station (BTPS) is owned by Govt. of India, Ministry of Energy & Power & is managed by National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) since 1st April 1978. Installed capacity Derated capacity Coal source 720 MW 705 MW Jharia Coal Mines in Jharkhand(Ash Content 28%) Water source Agra Canal Oil source Indian Oil Units Commissioned Unit I- 95 MW - July 1973 Unit II- 95 MW August 1974 Unit III- 95 MW March 1975 Unit IV - 210 MW December 1978 Unit V - 210 MW - December 1981 POWER SUPPLIED TO TOWNS 2LINES: SARITA VIHAR 2LINES: OKHLA 2LINES: MEHRAULI 2LINES: NOIDA 2LINES: BALLABHGARH 1LINE: ALWAR

Page | 11


Breaker House

25 mm Size

Coal Bunker RC Feeder

Boiler Feed Drum


Coal Mill

Electrostatic Precipitator I.D.(Induced Draft) Fan Ash Ash Treatment Plant Generator Steam (545o C) Turbine

F.D. (Force Draft) Fan Makeup P.A.(Primary Air) Water Fan Condenser Drum Air Preheater(120O C)

Electricity Generated To Grid


Page | 12

Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant:

Water intake: Firstly, water is taken into the boiler through a water source. If water is available in plenty in the region, then the source is an open pond or river. If water is scarce, then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil, coal or natural gas. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. When the turbine rotates, the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems. Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre heater. An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. An air pre heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process. Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere

Page | 13


Page | 14

Page | 15

Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverized fuel mill (16). There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler, where it turns into steam, and is passed to the boiler drum, where steam is separated from any remaining water. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into the pendant super heater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540C,sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11), the first of a three-stage turbine process. A steam governor valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point following. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine, and reduced in both pressure and temperature, is returned to the boiler reheater (21). The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9), and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The exiting steam, now a little above its boiling point, is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the Cooling tower) in the condenser (8), where it condenses rapidly back into water, creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12), and pre-warmed, first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set, and then in the economiser (23), before being returned to the boiler drum. The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1), creating a highly visible plume of water vapour, before being pumped back to the condensor (8) in cooling water cycle. The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 2025 kV). This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27).
Page | 16

The description of some of the components above is as follows:
Cooling towers
Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power plants, etc. The tower vary in size from small roof top units to very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller towers are normally factory built while larger ones are constructed on site. The primary use of large, industrial cooling tower system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating water system used in power plants, petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial facilities. The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical forced draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear power plants.

Three phase transmission line

Three phase electric power is a common method of electric power transmission. It is a type of polyphase system mainly used for power motors and many other devices. In a three phase system, three circuits reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Taking one conductor as reference, the other two conductor are delayed in time by one-third and two-third of cycle of the electrical current. This delay between phases has the effect of giving constant power over each cycle of the current and also makes it impossible to produce a rotating
Page | 17

magnetic field in an electric motor. At the power station, an electric generator converts mechanical power into a set of electric currents one from each electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The currents are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the same frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a three phase system, the phases are spaced equally giving a phase separation of one-third of one cycle. Generators output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to 30,000 volts. At the power station. Transformers step-up this voltage for suitable transmission. After numerous further conversions in the transmission and distribution network, the power is finally transformed to standard mains voltage i.e. the household voltage. The power may already have been split into single phase at this point or it may be still three phase. Where the step-down is three phase. The output of the transformer is usually star connected with the standard mains voltage being the phase neutral voltage.

Electrical generator
An electrical generator is a device that coverts mechanical energy to electrical energy, using electromagnetic induction whereas electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy with the help of electric motor. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating turbine steam engine. Turbines are made in variety of sizes ranging from small 1 hp(0.75 kW) used as mechanical drives for pumps, compressors and other shaft driven equipment to 2,000,000 hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity.

Boiler Feed Pump

A Boiler Feed Pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water into steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or retuning condensation of steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return system and can be of centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type. Construction and Operation feed water pumps range in size up to many horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. In either case, to force water into the boiler, the pump must generate sufficient pressure to overcome the steam
Page | 18

pressure developed by the boiler. This is usually accomplished through the use of centrifugal pump. Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detect a lowered liquid level in the boiler substantially increased. Some pumps contain a two stage switch. As liquid lowers to the trigger point of the first stage, the pump is activated. If the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump has failed, its supply has been cut-off or exhausted, or its discharge is blocked),the second stage will be triggered. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating), trigger an alarm or both.

Control valves
Control Valves are the valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, flow and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compares a set point to a process variable whose value is provided by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

A Deaerator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases from boiler feed water to make it non-corrosive. A deaerator typically includes a vertical domed deaeration section as the deaeration feed water tank. A steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam, condensate and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or suspended solids. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the metal. The solids will deposit on heating surfaces giving rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting control valves-the level by regulating condensate flow and pressure by regulating steam flow. Most deaerators guarantee that if operated properly, oxygen in deaerated water will not exceed 7ppb by weight.

Page | 19

Feed Water Heater

A feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Feed water heater improves the efficiency of the system. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to boiler metal when the feed water is introduced back into the steam cycle. Feed water heaters allow the feed
Page | 20

water to be brought upto the saturation temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility associated with heat transfer to the working fluid(water). A belt conveyer consists of two pulleys, with a continuous loop of material- the conveyer belt that rotates around them. The pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. Conveyer belts are extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural material, such as grain, coal, ores, etc.

A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.

Boiler Steam Drum

Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler. They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the hotterwater/and saturated steam into steam drum. Made from high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves temperatures 390C and pressure well above 350psi (2.4MPa). The separated steam is drawn out from the top section of the drum. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of the drum. The steam will reenter the furnace in through a super heater, while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down to the mud- drum /feed water drum by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve, water level indicator and fuse plug. A steam drum is used in the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is located at a lower level. So that it acts as a sump for the sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom.

Page | 21

Super Heater
A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which has been superheated is logically known as superheated steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives in quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam vehicles, and so stationary steam engines including power stations.

Economizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler, power plant, and heating, ventilating and air conditioning. In boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that heat fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boilers efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). Modern day boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations, are still fitted with economizer which is decedents of Greens original design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped to the boilers. A common application of economizer is steam power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input , in turn reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output . Economizer lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion damage if care is not taken in their design and material selection.

Air Preheater
Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The
Page | 22

purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack.

An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESPs continue to be excellent devices for control of many industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from electricitygenerating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills, and catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and robust) discharge electrode designs were developed, today focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many sharpened spikes are attached , maximizing corona production. Transformer rectifier systems apply voltages of 50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding damage to the components. Automatic rapping systems and hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while on line allowing ESPs to stay in operation for years at a time.

Fuel gas stack

A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside air. Fuel gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood or any other large combustion device. Fuel gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants such as particulates
Page | 23

matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by governmental environmental policies and regulations.


Fuel Preparation System
In coal fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizers may be ball mills ,rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point)in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100 C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles. Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil)is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.

Fuel Firing System and Igniter

From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal, the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide
Page | 24

for that purpose).Igniters use 10,000V(Stepped up from 110V) to produce the spark.

Steam Generator or Boiler

The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m)on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm)in diameter. Pulverized coal is air blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (370 C) and 3,200 psi (22.1 M a).It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine.

The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment
Page | 25

include forced draft (FD)fan, air preheater (A H),boiler furnace, induced draft (ID)fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or bag-house)and the flue gas stack.

Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum

Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapor in the water walls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum.

External View of an Industrial Boiler at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

The steam/vapor is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators
Page | 26

and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial startup. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger.

Air Path
External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

Page | 27

Steam Turbine

Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy. The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Indian System (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems. In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its
Page | 28

original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction" turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage isentropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilize percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction. Steam turbines can be configured in many different ways. Several IP or LP stages can be incorporated into the one steam turbine. A single shaft or several shafts coupled together may be used. Either way, the principles are the same for all steam turbines. The configuration is decided by the use to which the steam turbine is put, co-generation or pure electricity production. For cogeneration, the steam pressure is highest when used as process steam and at a lower pressure when used for the secondary function of electricity production.

Nozzles and Blades

Steam enthalpy is converted into rotational energy as it passes through a turbine stage. A turbine stage consists of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade (or bucket). Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into impulse and reaction forces caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine shaft or rotor. Steam turbines are machines which must be designed, manufactured and maintained to high tolerances so that the design power output and availability is obtained. They are subject to a number of damage mechanisms, with two of the most important being: Erosion due to Moisture: - The presence of water droplets in the last stages of a turbine causes erosion to the blades. This has led to the imposition of an allowable limit of about 12% wetness in the exhaust steam;

Page | 29

Solid Particle Erosion: - The entrainment of erosive materials from the boiler in the steam causes wear to the turbine blades.

Cogeneration Cycles
In cogeneration cycles, steam is typically generated at a higher temperature and pressure than required for a particular industrial process. The steam is expanded through a turbine to produce electricity and the resulting extractions at the discharge are at the temperature and pressure required by the process. Turbines can be condensing or non-condensing design typically with large mass flows and comparably low output. Traditionally, pressures were 6.21 MPa and below with temperatures 441o C or lower, although the trend towards higher levels of each continues. There are now a considerable number of cogeneration steam turbines with initial steam pressures in the 8.63 to 10 MPa range and steam temperatures of 482 to 510o C.

Bearings and Lubrication

Two types of bearings are used to support and locate the rotors of steam turbines: Journal bearings are used to support the weight of the turbine rotors. A journal bearing consists of two half-cylinders that enclose the shaft and are internally lined with Babbitt, a metal alloy usually consisting of tin, copper and antimony; and Thrust bearings axially locate the turbine rotors. A thrust bearing is made up of a series of Babbitt lined pads that run against a locating disk attached to the turbine rotor. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication. The oil is carefully filtered to remove solid particles. Specially designed centrifuges remove any water from the oil.

Shaft Seals
The shaft seal on a turbine rotor consist of a series of ridges and groves around the rotor and its housing which present a long, tortuous path for any steam leaking through the seal. The seal therefore does not prevent the steam from leaking, merely reduces the leakage to a minimum. The leaking steam is collected and returned to a low-pressure part of the steam circuit. Turning Gear Large steam turbines are equipped with "turning gear" to slowly rotate the turbines after they have been shut
Page | 30

down and while they are cooling. This evens out the temperature distribution around the turbines and prevents bowing of the rotors. Vibration The balancing of the large rotating steam turbines is a critical component in ensuring the reliable operation of the plant. Most large steam turbines have sensors installed to measure the movement of the shafts in their bearings. This condition monitoring can identify many potential problems and allows the repair of the turbine to be planned before the problems become serious

Auxiliary Systems
Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. Bottom Ash Collect on and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum.For this,continuous make up water is added to the boiler water system.The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water.Hardness in the make up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes.Thus,the salt s have to

Page | 31

be removed from the wa t e r and that is done by a water demineralising treatment plant (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed be dexchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However ,some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as VC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel .Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air.DM water make up is generally added at the steam space o f the surf ace condenser (i.e.,the vacuum side).This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases be ignore moved by the ejector of the condenser itself.

Page | 32


This division basically calibrates various instruments and takes care of any faults occur in any of the auxiliaries in the plant. This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this. Instrumentation can be well defined as a technology of using instruments to measure and control the physical and chemical properties of a material

Control and instrumentation has following labs: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Manometry lab Protection and Interlocks lab Water treatment plant Pyrometery Lab Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System Lab Actuator lab Electronics lab

Page | 33

Manometry lab
Transmitters - Transmitter is used for pressure measurements of gases

and liquids, its working principle is that the input pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance and from there it is conditioned and amplified. It gives an output of 4-20 ma DC. It can be mounted on a pipe or a wall. For liquid or steam measurement transmitters is mounted below main process piping and for gas measurement transmitter is placed above pipe. Manometer- Its a tube which is bent, in U shape. It is filled with a liquid. This device corresponds to a difference in pressure across the two limbs. Bourdon Pressure Gauge - Its an oval section tube. Its one end is fixed. It is provided with a pointer to indicate the pressure on a calibrated scale. It is of two types : (a) Spiral type : for low pressure measurement and (b) Helical type : for high pressure measurement

Flow measurement does not signify much and is measured just for metering purposes and for monitoring the processes ROTAMETERS A Rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It is occasionally misspelled as 'rotometer'. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters, which measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid travels through to vary, causing some measurable effect.

Page | 34

A rotameter consists of a tapered tube, typically made of glass, with a float inside that is pushed up by flow and pulled down by gravity. At a higher flow rate more area (between the float and the tube) is needed to accommodate the flow, so the float rises. Floats are made in many different shapes, with spheres and spherical ellipses being the most common. The float is shaped so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. This allows you to tell if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is not. For Digital measurements Flap system is used. For Analog measurements we can use the following methods : Flow meters Venturimeters / Orifice meters Turbines Mass flow meters ( oil level ) Ultrasonic Flow meters Magnetic Flow meter ( water level ) Selection of flow meter depends upon the purpose , accuracy and liquid to be measured so different types of meters used. Turbine type are the simplest of all. They work on the principle that on each rotation of the turbine a pulse is generated and that pulse is counted to get the flow rate.


Page | 35

Referring to the diagram, using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible fluids (such as the approximation of a water jet), the theoretical pressure drop at the constriction would be given by (/2)(v22 - v12). And we know that rate of flow is given by:

Flow = k (D.P)
Where DP is Differential Presure or the Pressure Drop.

A valve is a device that regulates the flow of substances (either gases, fluidized solids, slurries, or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but usually are discussed separately. Valves are used in a variety of applications including industrial, military, commercial, residential, transportation. Plumbing valves are the most obvious in everyday life, but many more are used. Some valves are driven by pressure only, they are mainly used for safety purposes in steam engines and domestic heating or cooking appliances. Others are used in a controlled way, like in Otto cycle engines driven by a camshaft, where they play a major role in engine cycle control. Many valves are controlled manually with a handle attached to the valve stem. If the handle is turned a quarter of a full turn (90) between operating positions, the valve is called a quarter-turn valve. Butterfly valves, ball valves, and plug valves are often quarter-turn valves. Valves can also be controlled by devices called actuators attached to the stem. They can be electromechanical actuators such as an electric motor or solenoid, pneumatic actuators which are controlled by air pressure, or hydraulic actuators which are controlled by the pressure of a liquid such as oil or water. So there are basically three types of valves that are used in power industries besides the handle valves. They are : Pneumatic Valves they are air or gas controlled which is compressed to turn or move them Hydraulic valves they utilize oil in place of Air as oil has better
Page | 36

compression Motorized valves these valves are controlled by electric motors

Pressure can be monitored by three types of basic mechanisms Switches Gauges Transmitter type For gauges we use Bourdon tubes : The Bourdon Tube is a non liquid pressure measurement device. It is widely used in applications where inexpensive static pressure measurements are needed. A typical Bourdon tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end and is coupled mechanically to an indicating needle on the other end, as shown schematically below. Typical Bourdon Tube Pressure Gages For Switches pressure switches are used and they can be used for digital means of monitoring as switch being ON is referred as high and being OFF is as low.

All the monitored data is converted to either Current or Voltage parameter.

Page | 37

The Plant standard for current and voltage are as under Voltage : 0 10 Volts range Current : 4 20 milliAmperes We use 4mA as the lower value so as to check for disturbances and wire breaks. Accuracy of such systems is very high . ACCURACY : + - 0.1 % The whole system used is SCADA based. Programmable Logic Circuits ( PLCs) are used in the process as they are the heart of Instrumentation .


Interlocking : It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so
that if one equipments fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are:

RELAY : It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in

electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity.

FUSES : It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts

Page | 38

heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time. b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.

Miniature Circuit Breaker : They are used with combination of the

control circuits to. a) Enable the staring of plant and distributors. b) Protect the circuit in case of a fault. In consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three types of MANUAL TRIP THERMAL TRIP SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP.

Protection and Interlock System : 1. HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT: For high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start. 2. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT: For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.415 KV A.C supply. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails

Area in plant where Interlocks is used

Page | 39

P.A. fan ,F.D. Fan and I.D. Fan are interlocked so that if either one of them fails other two also stops so as to maintain pressure inside Boiler.

Area in Plant Where Protection is provided

In Turbine if there is an axial shift of 1.7mm towards generator then Unit Trips

Water Treatment Plant

Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a Water Treatment Plant or Demineralised Water (DM). A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is
Page | 40

provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets derated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.
Treated With Alum To Remove Impurities Raw Water Clarified Water

Cation Exchanger

Mixed Bed Exchanger D.M.(Demineralised) Water To Drum

Anion Exchanger


Pyrometery Lab
LIQUID IN GLASS THERMOMETER :Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 degree Celsius which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places. ULTRA VIOLET CENSOR: This device is used in furnace and it measures the intensity of ultra violet rays there and according to the wave generated which directly indicates the temperature in the furnace. THERMOCOUPLES: This device is based on SEEBACK and PELTIER effect. It comprises of two junctions at different temperature. Then
Page | 41

the emf is induced in the circuit due to the flow of electrons. This is an important part in the plant. Range(0-1600o C) RTD (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTOR): It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. In this lab, also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices). Range(0-400o C)

OPTICAL PYROMETER: The Optical pyrometer temperature sensor for non contact high temperature measurement operates by allowing the operator to compare the intensity of light radiated from a target at visible .655m wavelength to the known brightness of an internal calibrated lamp.

Page | 42

Normally RTDs are used for low temperatures. Thermocouple selection depends upon two factors: Temperature Range Accuracy Required Normally used Thermocouple is K Type Thermocouple: Chromel (Nickel-Chromium Alloy) / Alumel (Nickel-Aluminium Alloy) This is the most commonly used general purpose thermocouple. It is inexpensive and, owing to its popularity, available in a wide variety of probes. They are available in the 200 C to +1200 C range. Sensitivity is approximately 41 V/C. RTDs are also used but not in protection systems due to vibrational errors. We pass a constant current through the RTD. So that if R changes then the Voltage also changes RTDs used in Industries are Pt100 and Pt1000 Pt100 : 0 0C 100 ( 1 = 2.5 0C ) Pt1000 : 0 0C - 1000 Pt1000 is used for higher accuracy The gauges used for Temperature measurements are mercury filled Temperature gauges. For Analog medium thermocouples are used And for Digital medium Switches are used which are basically mercury switches.

Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System Lab

This lab has the responsibility of starting fire in the furnace to enable the burning of coal. For first stage coal burners are in the front and rear of the furnace and for the second and third stage corner firing is employed. Unburnt coal is removed using forced draft or induced draft fan. The temperature inside the boiler is 1100 degree Celsius and its height is 18 to 40 m. It is made up of mild steel. An ultra violet sensor is employed in furnace to measure the intensity of ultra violet rays inside the furnace
Page | 43

and according to it a signal in the same order of same mV is generated which directly indicates the temperature of the furnace. For firing the furnace a 10 KV spark plug is operated for ten seconds over a spray of diesel fuel and pre-heater air along each of the feeder-mills. The furnace has six feeder mills each separated by warm air pipes fed from forced draft fans. In first stage indirect firing is employed that is feeder mills are not fed directly from coal but are fed from three feeders but are fed from pulverized coalbunkers. The furnace can operate on the minimum feed from three feeders but under not circumstances should any one be left out under operation, to prevent creation of pressure different with in the furnace, which threatens to blast it. FLAME SENSOR

A flame, even one that is barely visible, emits significant infrared content. Thus, the sensor of this circuit is an infrared-sensitive phototransistor Q1, which is basically a transistor whose base is excited by infrared rays instead of input current. As more infrared rays shine on Q1, the more conductive it becomes. When there is a flame or fire nearby, Q1 will conduct, feeding current to the base of Q2. At a certain threshold, this current will be large enough to turn on Q2, which will pull down the base of Q3. This will turn off Q3, causing Vout to be pulled high. Vout may be used to excite a light-emitting diode or an alarm circuit. In the absence of a nearby source of IR rays, Q1 will be 'off', and so will Q2. This will allow the base of Q3 to remain 'high', causing Q3 to remain 'on' to pull Vout to 'low'.
Page | 44

This circuit will require optimization of the sensor position and experimentations with the R1 and R3 values to achieve the proper sensitivity. An infrared filter might also be required by the phototransistor if it is being affected by too much ambient light. IGNITER SYSTEM Igniter system is an automatic system, it takes the charge from 110kv and this spark is brought in front of the oil guns, which spray aerated HSD on the coal for coal combustion. There is a 5 minute delay cycle before igniting, this is to evacuate or burn the HSD. This method is known as PURGING. PRESSURE SWITCH Pressure switches are the devices that make or break a circuit. When pressure is applied ,the switch under the switch gets pressed which is attached to a relay that makes or break the circuit. Time delay can also be included in sensing the pressure with the help of pressure valves. Examples of pressure valves: 1. Manual valves (tap) 2. Motorized valves (actuator) works on motor action 3. Pneumatic valve (actuator) _ works due to pressure of compressed air 4. Hydraulic valve

Actuator Lab
There are 4 types of Actuator MANUAL ACTUATOR: These types of work with the help of human TAP MOTORISED ACTUATOR: These work on the principle of servomotor. To make it work in reverse direction of valve two of the three phases are reversed
Page | 45





Current is passed in form of pulses. PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR: These type are operated by air pressure. Using I/P converter current is converted into air pressure. They generally use a diaphragm, spring etc

Pneumatic actuator

HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR: They work on the principle

Pressure applied to a confined fluid at any point is transmitted undiminished and equally throughout the fluid in all directions and acts upon every part of the confining vessel at right angles to its interior surfaces.
Page | 46

These respond very fast to change in liquid pressure hence are referred as fast switching device

Hydraulic Actuator

This lab undertakes the calibration and testing of various cards. It houses various types of analytical instruments like oscilloscopes, integrated circuits, cards auto analyzers etc.Various processes undertaken in this lab are: 1. Transmitter converts mV to mA. 2. Auto analyzer purifies the sample before it is sent to electrodes. It extracts the magnetic portion.

Page | 47