Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

DC Motor

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Introduction

There are 2 types of DC machines:- DC generator and DC motor

At present its use as a generator is limited because of widespread use of AC power.

The machine is therefore, extensively used as motor in industry.

Construction

The machine consists of 2 parts:-

o

Stator

- Have poles

- The poles are excited by DC current to produce magnetic fields

o

Rotor

- Has a ring-shaped laminated iron-core with slots.

- Coils with several turns are placed in the slots.

It has 2 types of windings:-

Field Rotor N S Stator with poles
Field
Rotor
N S
Stator with poles

Brush

DC Machine Construction

of windings :- Field Rotor N S Stator with poles Brush DC Machine Construction D. Johari,

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

DC Machine Winding

1

o

Armature winding

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

- Voltage is induced on it

- Placed on the rotor

- Winding arrangement depends on how the coils are connected to form a closed winding. 2 basic possibilities:-

connected to form a closed winding. 2 basic possibilities:- The armature winding arrangements (a) Wave winding

The armature winding arrangements (a) Wave winding (b) Lap winding

a) Wave connection

2 parallel paths regardless no of poles

Suitable for high voltage, low current DC machine

b) Lap connection

For a p pole machine, has p parallel path

Suitable for high current, low voltage DC machine

o

Field winding

- Carry dc current to create magnetic field

- Mounted on the poles (stator)

- Subdivided into:-

a) Separately excited winding

No direct connection between field & armature windings

b) Self-excited winding

Has a direct connection between field & armature windings

It can further be subdivided into: shunt, series, compound excitation

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

2

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Principle of Operation

DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy

Its operation can be described as follows:

o

The armature winding is connected to a dc power supply

o

Current flows through the armature winding

o

At the same time, the field winding is also connected to a dc power supply. (Hence, the stator becomes an electromagnet).

o

Since armature is within a magnetic field, a force is exerted on the windings.

o

This force causes the rotor to rotate.

o

As the rotor rotates, its winding will cut the flux causing emf to be generated on the armature winding.

o

The induced voltage is called counter emf because its polarity always acts against the

source voltage.

EMF Generated

The emf generated on DC motor is given by the following equation:-

EMF

gen

Where

Zp

60 c

N

k

g



Z = No of conductors in the armature circuit

p = No of poles

c = No of parallel path @ no of current path

(c = 2 for wave-winding, c = p for lap-winding)

N = Speed of armature rotation (rpm)

Φ = Useful flux per pole (Wb)

=

2

N

60

rad

/

s

Example 1

A 12-pole dc generator has a wound armature containing of 2880 conductors. Its flux per pole is 0.05 Wb. The armature is turning at a speed of 200 rpm.

a) How many current paths are there in this machine?

b) What is the generated armature voltage of this machine?

c) What is the generated voltage if the machine now has lap winding?

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

3

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Types of DC Motor

The type of dc machines is classified according to the way in which their fields are excited:

separately excited and self-excited.

Separately Excited Winding

When the dc field current is supplied by an external source, the machine is said to be separately excited.

There is no direct connection between field & armature circuits

Equivalent circuit for a separately excited dc motor is given as below:

for a separately excited dc motor is given as below: Stator Rotor Separately excited dc motor

Stator

Rotor

Separately excited dc motor

E

A

V I R

T

A

A

Self-Excited Winding

There is a direct connection between the armature and the field winding.

The armature winding will provide the current to create the magnetic field.

It may be classified as:

a) Series excitation

- Field winding is connected in series with the armature winding

b) Shunt excitation

- Field winding is connected in parallel with the armature winding

c) Compound excitation

- Field winding is connected in series & parallel with the armature winding

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

4

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

The equivalent circuits for self-excited DC motors are given as follows:

circuits for self-excited DC motors are given as follows: E A (  V  I

E

A

(

V I R R

T

A

A

f

)

Series DC motor

E A (  V  I R  R T A A f ) Series

E

A

V

T

I

A

R

A

Shunt DC motor

f ) Series DC motor E A  V T  I A R A Shunt

E

A

V

T

I

A

(

R

A

R

f 2

)

Compound DC motor

Example 2

Find the armature current and the counter emf for a shunt motor running at 1500 rpm at 51A with a 120 V source, 120 field winding and 0.1 armature resistance.

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

5

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Power Flow Diagram

Illustrates power flow from input to output

Represented as a fishbone. The branches indicate losses

In general, P in = P out + losses and the losses are given as follows:

P o u t + losses and the losses are given as follows:  The power

The power flow diagram

Losses in DC machine

as follows:  The power flow diagram Losses in DC machine Power flow diagram of series

Power flow diagram of series motor

Losses in DC machine Power flow diagram of series motor Power flow diagram of shunt motor

Power flow diagram of shunt motor

flow diagram of series motor Power flow diagram of shunt motor Power flow diagram of compound

Power flow diagram of compound motor

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

6

Power equation for DC motor:-

P

in

P

out

losses

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Total losses = P ca + P cf + P μ

P in = V T I L

P conv = E A I A

input power taken from dc supply

developed mechanical power

P conv

= P μ + P out

Motor Torque

The general equation for torque is defined as

T

P

60

P

2

N

Where T- Torque (Nm), N- Speed (rpm), P- Power (W), -

For load torque (or shaft/net/load torque):

For loss torque:

T

L

60 P

2

N

T

out

For mechanical torque (or induced torque):

T

m

Efficiency

It is given by:

P out

P

m

P

P

in

V

T

I

L

60 P

out

2

N

60 P

m

2

N

2

N

60

rad

/

s

Speed Regulation

Speed regulation in a motor is good if the speed of the motor is relatively constant over its normal range.

It is usually expressed as a percentage of full-load speed given by:

SR

N

nl

N

fl

N fl

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

x100%

7

Example 3

A 150V shunt motor has the following parameters:-

R a = 0.50Ω

R f = 150Ω

rotational loss = 250 W

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

On full-load, the line current is 19.5A and the motor runs at 1400 rpm. Determine:

a) The developed power

b) The output power

c) The output torque

d) The efficiency at full-load

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

8

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Starting of DC Motor

At the instant of start-up, counter emf is zero because the armature is not rotating.

So, full voltage is applied at this moment. The armature current could then be very high which can blow fuses & disconnecting itself from the supply.

It is therefore necessary to insert some resistance in series with armature circuit to limit this current. This practical arrangement is known as starter.

There are several types of starter, such as manual starter and automatic starter.

of starter, such as manual starter and automatic starter. Manual starter for shunt motor Automatic starter

Manual starter for shunt motor

and automatic starter. Manual starter for shunt motor Automatic starter connected to a shunt motor D.

Automatic starter connected to a shunt motor

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

9

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

DC Motor Speed Control

There are three basic methods of controlling the speed of a DC motor:

1. Armature resistance control

- Adding a resistor in series with the armature effectively increases the armature circuit resistance.

- This results in a reduction of the steady-state speed.

- The method is relatively simple and inexpensive.

- However, there are some drawbacks. By adding a resistance means increase losses; I 2 R and reduce the motor’s speed. Therefore, the speed of the motor that has resistance in the armature circuit is always lower comparing to the motor that do not have resistance in the armature circuit.

2. Field control

- This method of speed control is by changing the flux.

- To do so we connect a resistance in series with the field winding. The field current is decreased and the speed increases with a reduction in flux.

- This method also has some disadvantages. One of that is; we can only raise the speed at which the motor normally runs at a particular load. Another disadvantage is that the speed is increased without a corresponding reduction in shaft load, so we will be overloading the motor.

3. Terminal voltage control

- This method of speed control is by changing the terminal voltage of the motor.

- The most frequent method at least for shunt motors where the field winding is separately excited.

- The voltage control method lowers the speed in a similar fashion as the armature circuit resistance speed control method. However it does not have its drawbacks. The no-load speed and full-load speed can be reduced all the way down to zero if desired.

- There are various ways to obtain a variable DC voltage:

a) Ward-Leonard System

- In this system, the armature voltage is controlled by varying the field current of

DC generator. By using this system, the speed of DC motor can be smoothly

varied. Other advantage of the system is it allows the DC motor to run in either direction by reversing the field current.

b) Solid-state Speed Control

-

In recent years, solid-state converters have been used as a replacement for Ward-Leonard system.

-

The

converters used are controlled rectifier or choppers.

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

10