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Australian Standard

Bin flow properties of coal

AS 38801991

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee MN/1, Coal and Coke. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 24 January 1991 and published on 13 May 1991.

The following interests are represented on Committee MN/1: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Australian Coal Association Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Australian Coal Preparation Society
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Australian Institute of Energy Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Confederation of Australian Industry CSIRO, Division of Coal and Energy Technology Department of Minerals and Energy, N.S.W. Department of Primary Industries and Energy Department of Resource Industries, Qld Electricity Supply Association of Australia Institution of Engineers, Australia Joint Coal Board National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia Queensland Coal Board Royal Australian Chemical Institute Standing Committee on Coalfield Geology of New South Wales University of New South Wales University of Queensland

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editi ons as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest editi on, and any amendments thereto. Full detail s of all Australian Standards and related publi cati ons wil l be found in the Standards Australi a Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australi an Standard, which subscribing members receive, and which gives detail s of new publications, new edit ions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggesti ons for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head off ice of Standards Australi a, are welcomed. Notif ication of any inaccuracy or ambiguit y found in an Australi an Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 86111.

AS 38801991

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Australian Standard
Bin flow properties of coal

First publi shed as AS 38801991.

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 6788 0

AS 38801991

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Subcommittee on Coal Preparation, under the supervision of the Committee on Coal and Coke and the direction of the Minerals Standards Board, to provide methods for measurement of the flow properties of coal.

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CONTENTS
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 NOTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 DETERMINATION OF YIELD LOCUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 DETERMINATION OF WALL YIELD LOCUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DETERMINATION OF BULK DENSITY/COMPRESSIBILITY . ... .. .. .. . ..... ... .. . .... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. .... . ... .. ..... .. .. . .. ... .. ... ..... ... .. ... .. ... ... ... ... . .. ... ... ... ... .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. Page 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 13 15 17

APPENDIX A BIN DESIGN PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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AS 38801991

FOREWORD
The transport and storage of large quantities of coal necessitates criteria for the design of such facilities as bins, bunkers and transfer chutes so that coal will flow in a predictable manner. This Standard provides a method for the measurement of those properties of coal that are important for storage and flow. The results provide sufficient data for the design of bins and chutes. The laboratory techniques presented in this Standard have been validated by successful bin construction. Although it is recognized that the material presented in this Standard represents a lengthy laboratory procedure, it is used primarily for design purposes. Research is being conducted into a simple, reliable test for production purposes. The half-angle that the side of a bin or hopper makes with the vertical profoundly affects the flow pattern within the bin. Below a critical angle, mass flow results, in which all material in the bin flows evenly downwards. Above this angle, a rathole forms along the vertical centre line of the bin, and coal flows down this, the remaining coal being stationary on the sides of the bin. The diameter of the bin outlet is also critical. Above a critical diameter, coal flows freely. Below this diameter, bridging and interference to flow will occur. The moisture content and particle size distribution are the more important coal properties identified with propensity of a coal to flow. An increase in moisture content, or a high content of fine material, contributes to poor flow properties. There are other factors, such as clay content, that contribute to flow properties; these are ill-defined at present, necessitating direct measurement of flow properties in the apparatus presented in this Standard. Prediction of flow properties is not possible. It is possible to carry out a series of measurements of the properties of a sample, and to use these to define a suitable hopper half-angle and bin outlet diameter that will allow that coal to flow freely. Reference may be made to work by Arnold, Roberts and Moore (see Appendix A). In general terms, the force necessary to shear the coal under a given load is determined as the yield locus. A measurement is also made of the bulk density of the coal. The rate of shear of coal interfacing with the proposed bin lining material is also made. These tests are repeated at a number of surface moisture levels in the coal, and the results are used to determine bin half-angle and outlet diameter, using the principles from the references mentioned above. Flow property measurements are carried out on samples having a range of total moisture, representative of the moisture content likely to be met in practice. The test is carried out on a minus 4 mm subsample from the main representative coal sample. This procedure is used because the major problems in flow are associated with the finer material. Any coarse material will generally improve flow properties. The results of the tests set out in this Standard can be used to predict bin half-angles and outlet diameters that will give satisfactory flow of the coal tested. It is usual to design using a worst case concept to ensure predictable flow, up to a limiting condition. The presence of coal greater than 4 mm in size provides a small safety factor. The instantaneous yield loci values cover steady-state flow of coal. Time yield loci measurements can be carried out over various periods to simulate the strength of coal after storage in a bin for that period. After prolonged storage, any increase in coal strength with time would require a greater bin outlet diameter, to ensure flow. This yield locus test may also be used to measure the comparative flow properties of different coals and the flow properties with different bin wall materials. The tests are carried out on a subsample of minus 4 mm coal, and the moisture content of this subsample will be significantly greater than for the full sample. Measurement of the moisture content of both the full sample and the subsample can be used as a guide as to whether the coal will flow in a satisfactory manner. It is also possible to construct a small-scale bin, such that flow through this size bin will ensure flow through the main system. The problem of ensuring that coal flows freely from bins is the opposite problem from ensuring that coal in a ships hold will not flow under adverse sailing conditions. Research is being conducted into the latter problem also; such research could eventually lead to an extension of this Standard.

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AS 38801991

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Bin flow properties of coal


1 SCOPE This Standard sets out methods for the measurement of the flow properties of coal, primarily for the design of bins and chutes. It also provides some guidance on the presentation of these data for analysis and design. The Standard consists of a bulk density test and a yield locus test giving information on material flow properties. It also describes a further test, called the wall yield locus, which measures the friction between coal and bin wall material. Although this Standard is nominally for coal, the principles and apparatus may be used for coke and other semi-cohesive particulate materials where a knowledge of flow properties is required.
NOTE: Some discussion of the relevance of coal fl ow propert ies to bin design philosophy is provided in Appendix A. This is a free 6 page sample. Access the full version at http://infostore.saiglobal.com.

2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard: AS 1038 Methods for the analysis and testing of coal and coke 1038.1 Part 1: Total moisture in hard coal 1152 Test sieves 2646 Sampling of solid mineral fuels 3881 Higher rank coalSize analysis 3 DEFINITIONS
NOTE: In this Standard, the terms pressure and stress are used synonymously because this convention is used in research and li terature on this subject. Some other terms have not yet been standardized in the lit erature. These are li sted below, together with a reference to the preferred nomenclature.

For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply. 3.1 Axi-symmetric flowsee mass flow. 3.2 Bulk densitythe mass of a sample of particulate solid, including moisture, divided by its total volume.
NOTE: The level of consolidation stress is cri ti cal to any measurement of bulk densit y.

3.3 Bulk materialsemi-cohesive particulate material such as coal and other minerals. 3.4 Cohesionthe shear stress at yield under zero normal stress.
NOTE: This parameter is not normally quantif ied.

3.5 Compactionthe process of permanent volume reduction of a bulk material by application of a consolidating stress. 3.6 Consolidationsee compaction. 3.7 Core flowsee funnel flow. 3.8 Critical consolidation, in a shear cellthe state existing in a bulk sample within a shear cell when the cell stem travel becomes independent of applied shear force.
NOTE: Under these condit ions, the bulk material is deforming without change in voidage. The materi al is said to be in its crit ical state.

3.9 Critical statesee critical consolidation. 3.10 Critical pipe or rathole diameterthe diameter of a rathole or pipe at which the rathole or pipe becomes unstable.
NOTE: The cri ti cal rathole diameter varies with consoli dati on pressures.

3.11 Effective angle of internal frictionthe angle with the horizontal axis of a line through the origin and tangent to the Mohr circle through the end point of the yield locus (see Figure 4). Symbol:
NOTE: The line through the origin is call ed the eff ecti ve yield locus.

3.12 Expanded flowflow from a bin, which has two distinct cross-section regimes: funnel flow exists in the upper cylindrical section of the bin while mass flow exists in the conical outlet hopper or hoppers. 3.13 Flow functionsinstantaneous (FF)for a given bulk material, a plot of the unconfined yield strength c versus the major consolidating pressure, values being obtained from the yield loci.
NOTE: This is a measure of the bulk str ength or flowabili ty of a bulk materi al, in a de-aerated state, when fir st loaded into a bin or consolidated in a shear cell. COPYRIGHT

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AS 3880-1991, Bin flow properties of coal


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