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# Bird Electronic Corporation www.bird-electronic.

## com (866) 695-4569 2/6/06 JN By: Jim Norton, Applications Engineer

RF Calculators

Calculators available include Power, VSWR & Return Loss, Frequency & Wavelength, Attenuation, Directivity, Cable Loss, Masking Effect, Field Strength, Free Space Loss and Metric Conversions.

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

Power Calculator
Enter power and select units to determine equivalent values.

## 44.000 46.435 44,000,000,000,000.000 44,000,000,000.000 44,000,000.000 44,000.000 44.000 0.044

6 dBm Picowatts (pW) Nanowatts (nW) Microwatts (uW) Milliwatts (mW) Watts (W) Kilowatts (kW)

1 kW = 1,000 W 1 W = 1,000 mW = 1,000,000 uW 1 W = 1,000,000,000 nW = 1,000,000,000,000 pW Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## VSWR & Return Loss Calculator

Enter forward and reflected power or match to determine equivalent values.

## Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates

Forward Power Reflected Power VSWR Return Loss Match Efficiency Rho

Watts Watts dB %

Enter = = = =

## Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB

VSWR = Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Pf = Forward Power (Watts) Pr = Reflected Power (Watts) VSWR = [1+Sqrt(Pr / Pf)] / [1-Sqrt(Pr / Pf)] Return Loss (dB) = 10 x Log ( Pr / Pf ) Match Efficiency (%) = 100% x (1 - Pr / Pf) Rho = Sqrt ( Pr / Pf )

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## Frequency & Wavelength Calculator

Enter frequency or wavelength and select units to determine equivalent values.

## 150.000 150,000.000 150.000 0.150 2.000 200.000 6.562 78.740

2 Kilohertz (kHz) Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Meters (m) Centimeters (cm) Feet (ft) Inches (in)

1 MHz = 1,000 kHz 1 GHz = 1,000 MHz Wavelength (Meters) = 300 / Frequency (MHz)

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

Attenuation Calculator
Enter power or attenuation to determine values.

## Watts dB dBm dBm Watts

Output Power (dBm) = Input Power (dBm) - Attenuation (dB) Power (dBm) = 10 x Log [ Power (Watts) ] + 30 dB

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## Directivity Error Calculator

Enter directivity, forward power and reflected power to determine directivity errors. Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Directivity of Coupler Forward Power Reflected Power Forward Power Minimum Forward Power Maximum Forward Power Min Error Forward Power Max Error Reflected Power Minimum Reflected Power Maximum Reflected Power Min Error Reflected Power Max Error VSWR Minimum VSWR VSWR Maximum Return Loss Minimum Return Loss Return Loss Maximum 30.000 100.000 4.000 98.739 101.269 -1.261 1.269 2.835 5.365 -29.123 34.123 1.402 1.500 1.608 -15.529 -13.979 -12.649 dB Watts Watts Watts Watts % % Watts Watts % % Directivity is a measure of the ability of a directional coupler to discern between the forward and reflected traveling wave in a transmission system. Power meters, antenna monitors and analyzers are coupler based test equipment which are used to measure forward and reflected power as well as VSWR and return loss. Directivity errors result in measurements which may vary between maximum and minimum values. dB dB dB

The following is a step-by-step procedure to calculate the results which are displayed above: Given Directivity of Coupler 30.000 dB Dir = Directivity of Coupler Given Forward Power 100.000 Watts Pf = Forward Power Given Reflected Power 4.000 Watts Pr = Reflected Power Calculates Directivity Power Ratio 1,000 Directivity Power Ratio = 10 ^ (Dir / 10) Calculates Directivity Forward Power 0.004 Watts Pfd = Pr / Directivity Power Ratio Calculates Directivity Reflected Power 0.100 Watts Prd = Pf / Directivity Power Ratio Calculates Forward Voltage 70.711 Volts Vf = Sqrt (Pf x 50 Ohms) Calculates Reflected Voltage 14.142 Volts Vr = Sqrt (Pr x 50 Ohms) Calculates Directivity Forward Voltage 0.447 Volts Vfd = Sqrt (Pfd x 50 Ohms) Calculates Directivity Reflected Voltage 2.236 Volts Vrd = Sqrt (Prd x 50 Ohms) Note, voltage vectors add when in phase or subtract when 180 degrees out of phase with each other

Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates

Forward Voltage Minimum Forward Voltage Maximum Reflected Voltage Minimum Reflected Voltage Maximum Forward Power Minimum Forward Power Min Error Forward Power Maximum Forward Power Max Error Reflected Power Minimum Reflected Power Min Error Reflected Power Maximum Reflected Power Max Error Rho Minimum Rho Rho Maximum VSWR Minimum VSWR VSWR Maximum Return Loss Minimum Return Loss Return Loss Maximum

70.263 71.158 11.906 16.378 98.739 -1.261 101.269 1.269 2.835 -29.123 5.365 34.123 0.167 0.200 0.233 1.402 1.500 1.608 -15.529 -13.979 -12.649

## Volts Volts Volts Volts Watts % Watts % Watts % Watts %

dB dB dB

Vf (Min) = Vf - Vfd Vf (Max) = Vf + Vfd Vr (Min) = Vr - Vrd (or 0 if Vrd > Vr) Vr (Max) = Vr + Vrd Pf (Min) = (Vf (Min) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pf (Min) - Pf) / Pf Pf (Max) = (Vf (Max) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pf (Max) - Pf) / Pf Pr (Min) = (Vr (Min) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pr (Min) - Pr) / Pr Pr (Max) = (Vr (Max) ^ 2) / 50 Ohms Error = 100% x (Pr (Max) - Pr) / Pr Rho (Min) = Sqrt (Pr (Min) / Pf (Max)) Rho = Sqrt (Pr / Pf) Rho (Max) = Sqrt (Pr (Max) / Pf (Min)) VSWR (Min) = (1 + Rho (Min)) / (1 - Rho (Min)) VSWR = (1 + Rho) / (1 - Rho) VSWR (Max) = (1 + Rho (Max)) / (1 - Rho (Max)) Return Loss (Min) = 10 x Log (Pr (Min) / Pf (Max)) Return Loss = 10 x Log ( Pr / Pf ) Return Loss (Max) = 10 x Log (Pr (Max) / Pf (Min))

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## Cable Loss Calculator

Enter cable, jumper, connector and other loss parameters to determine transmission cable system insertion loss. Cable loss is the total insertion loss of your transmission cable system. This typically includes insertion loss of the transmission cable, jumper cables, connectors and lightning protection. Loss of other components (e.g. VSWR/power monitor, duplexer, combiner or filter) may also come into play.

Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Calculates Enter Enter Enter Calculates

Cable Loss/100 m or ft Cable Length (m or ft) Cable Loss Top Jumper Loss/100 m or ft Top Jumper Length (m or ft) Top Jumper Loss Bottom Jumper Loss/100 m or ft Bottom Jumper Length (m or ft) Bottom Jumper Loss Loss per Connector Number of Connectors Connector Loss Lightning Protection Loss VSWR/Power Monitor Loss Other Component Loss Total Cable System Loss

1.13 230.00 2.60 3.23 10.00 0.32 3.23 20.00 0.65 0.05 8 0.40 0.10 0.00 0.00 4.07

dB m or ft dB dB m or ft dB dB m or ft dB dB dB dB dB dB dB

Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Transmission Cable Insertion Loss Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Top/Antenna Jumper Cable Insertion Loss Loss per 100 Meters or Feet at Frequency Length in Meters or Feet Bottom/Tx Jumper Cable Insertion Loss Connector Insertion Loss Two Connectors per Pair Connector Insertion Loss Lightning Protection Insertion Loss VSWR/Power Monitor Insertion Loss Loss of Combiner, Duplexer, Filter, etc. Transmission Cable System Insertion Loss

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

Enter cable loss and match or forward and reflected power to determine the masking effect.

## 3.00 dB 1.50 2.33

Antenna measurements taken at the transmitter end of the cable will be masked by the cable loss.

## 3.00 dB -14.00 dB -8.00 dB

CL = Cable Insertion Loss RLt = Return Loss at Transmitter RLa = Return Loss of Antenna = RLt - (2 x CL)

Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates

Cable Insertion Loss Forward Power at Transmitter Reflected Power at Transmitter Rho at Transmitter VSWR at Transmitter Return Loss at Transmitter Forward Power at Transmitter Forward Power at Antenna Reflected Power at Transmitter Reflected Power at Antenna Forward Power at Antenna Reflected Power at Antenna Rho of Antenna VSWR of Antenna Return Loss of Antenna

3.00 100.00 4.00 0.20 1.50 -13.98 50.00 47.00 36.02 39.02 50.12 7.98 0.40 2.33 -7.98

dB Watts Watts

## dB dBm dBm dBm dBm Watts Watts

dB

CL = Cable Insertion Loss Pft = Forward Power at Transmitter Prt = Reflected Power at Transmitter Rhot = Sqrt (Prt / Pft) VSWRt = (1 + Rhot) / (1 - Rhot) RLt = 10 x Log (Prt / Pft) Pft (dBm) = 10 x Log (Pft (Watts)) + 30 dB Pfa (dBm) = Pft (dBm) + CL Prt (dBm) = 10 x Log (Prt (Watts)) + 30 dB Pra (dBm) = Prt (dBm) - CL Pfa (Watts) = 10 ^ ((Pfa (dBm) - 30) / 10) Pra (Watts) = 10 ^ ((Pra (dBm) - 30) / 10) Rhoa = Rho of Antenna = Sqrt (Pra / Pfa) VSWRa = (1 + Rhoa) / (1 - Rhoa) RLa = 10 x Log (Pra / Pfa)

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## Field Strength Calculator

Enter signal power level, frequency and antenna gain to determine field strength.

## Enter Enter Enter Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates Calculates

Signal Power Level Frequency Receive Antenna Gain Antenna Factor Signal Level Signal Level Field Strength Field Strength Field Strength

## dBm MHz dB dB dBuV dBuV/m V/m mV/m uV/m

The field strength of the signal emitted by a radio antenna is usually expressed in units of microvolts per meter (uV/m). This may be calculated if the signal power level (dBm), frequency and the gain of the receive antenna are known.

Antenna Factor (dB) = 20 Log (Frequency (MHz)) - Antenna Gain (dB) -29.8 Signal Level (dBuV) = Signal Level (dBm) + 107 dB Signal Level (dBuV/m) = Signal Level (dBuV) + Antenna Factor (dB) Field Strength (uV/m) = 10 ^ (Signal Level (dBuV/m) / 20) 1 V/m = 1,000 mV/m = 1,000,000 uVm

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

## Free Space Loss Calculator

Enter frequency and distance to determine free space loss.

## 800.000 MHz 1.000 Miles 94.662 dB

Free Space Loss is the power loss of a radio signal as it travels through free space. Losses due to sources such as earth, trees, buildings, cables and connectors as well as antenna gains are not considered.

## 800.000 MHz 1.000 Kilometers 90.529 dB

Free Space Loss (dB) = 36.6 + 20 x Log (Frequency (MHz) x Distance (Miles)) 1 Mile = 1.6093 Kilometers

## Bird Electronic Corporation

www.bird-electronic.com

(866) 695-4569

JN

Metric Conversions
Enter quantity and select units to determine equivalent values.

Length Enter = = = = = = = 1.000 160,934.400 63,360.034 5,279.936 1,759.979 1,609.344 1.609 1.000 7 Centimeters (cm) Inches (in) Feet (ft) Yards (yd) Meters (m) Kilometers (km) Miles (mi) 1 mi = 1.6 km Enter = = = = = = =

Weight 1.000 1,000.000 35.274 2.205 1.000 0.022 0.001 0.001 1 oz = 28.35 g 4 Grams (g) Ounces (oz) Pounds (lb) Kilograms (kg) Hundredwt (cwt) Tons (ton) Tonnes (t) 1 t = 1.1 ton

1 in = 2.54 cm

1 m = 3.28 ft

1 kg = 2.2 lb

Area Enter = = = = = = = 1.000 10,000.000 1,550.005 10.764 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 4 Square cm Square in Square ft Square m Acres Square km Square mi Enter = = = =

Temperature 0.000 32.000 0.000 491.690 273.150 2 Fahrenheit (F) Celsius (C) Rankine (R) Kelvin (K)

## 1 sq in = 6.45 sq cm 1 sq m = 10.76 sq ft 1 sq mi = 2.6 sq km

Volume Enter = = = = = = = 2.000 2,000.000 67.628 2.113 2.000 0.528 0.071 0.002 4 Milliliters (ml) Fluid Oz (fl oz) Quarts (qt) Liters (l) Gallons (gal) Cubic Ft (cu ft) Cubic M (cu m)