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(source : mathisfun.com) Exponents are also called Powers or Indices The exponent of a number says how many times to use the number in a multiplication. In this example: 82 = 8 8 = 64

In words: 82 could be called "8 to the second power", "8 to the power 2" or simply "8 squared"

In words: 53 could be called "5 to the third power", "5 to the power 3" or simply "5 cubed" Example: 24 = 2 2 2 2 = 16

In words: 24 could be called "2 to the fourth power" or "2 to the power 4" or simply "2 to the 4th"

Exponents make it easier to write and use many multiplications Example: 96 is easier to write and read than 9 9 9 9 9 9 You can multiply any number by itself as many times as you want using exponents. In General So, in general: an tells you to multiply a by itself, so there are n of those a's:

Other Way of Writing It Sometimes people use the ^ symbol (just above the 6 on your keyboard), because it is easy to type. Example: 2^4 is the same as 24

2^4 = 2 2 2 2 = 16

Negative Exponents Negative? What could be the opposite of multiplying? Dividing! A negative exponent means how many times to divide one by the number. Example: 8-1 = 1 8 = 0.125 You can have many divides: Example: 5-3 = 1 5 5 5 = 0.008 But that can be done an easier way: 5-3 could also be calculated like: 1 (5 5 5) = 1/53 = 1/125 = 0.008 In General That last example showed an easier way to handle negative exponents:

Calculate the positive exponent (an) Then take the Reciprocal (i.e. 1/an)

More Examples: Negative Exponent 4-2 10-3 (-2)-3 Reciprocal of Positive Exponent 1 / 42 1 / 103 1 / (-2)3 Answer 1/16 = 0.0625 1/1,000 = 0.001 1/(-8) = -0.125

= = =

= = =

1 1 If the exponent is 1, then you just have the number itself (example 9 = 9)

But what about 00 ? It could be either 1 or 0, and so people say it is "indeterminate". It All Makes Sense My favorite method is to start with "1" and then multiply or divide as many times as the exponent says, then you will get the right answer, for example: Example: Powers of 5 .. etc.. 25 155

52

51 50 5-1 5-2

15 1 15 155 .. etc..

5 1 0.2 0.04

If you look at that table, you will see that positive, zero or negative exponents are really part of the same (fairly simple) pattern. Be Careful About Grouping To avoid confusion, use parentheses () in cases like this: With () : Without () : With () : Without () : (-2)2 = (-2) (-2) = 4 -22 = -(22) = - (2 2) = -4 (ab)2 = ab ab ab2 = a (b)2 = a b b

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