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Multiband Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications

A dissertation submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master of Technology In (Electronics & Communication) (Session: 2009-2011) Submitted By: Pradeep Kumar 2509768 04-CEP-174 Supervised By:
Mr. Monish Gupta (Assistant Professor)

University Institute of Engineering and Technology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119


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Declaration
I, Pradeep Kumar a student of Master of Technology (Electronics & Communication), in the Department of Electronics and Communication, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, under class Roll No.2509768, for the session 2009-2011, hereby, declare that the dissertation (MTECE-401) entitled Multiband Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications has been completed by me in Fourth semester. The matter embodied in this Dissertation has not been submitted earlier for award of any degree or diploma to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Date: 10th, AUGUST, 2011 (Pradeep Kumar)
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List of contents
DECLARATION ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii CERTIFICATES vi ACKNOWLEDGMENT viii ABSTRACT ix LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF TABLES xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1The Global Positioning System (GPS) 2 1.2WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) and Its Standards 3 1.3WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) and its standard 4 1.4. Organization of Project Report 5 CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW OF MICROSTRIP ANTENNA 6 2.1 History of Microstrip Antenna 6 2.2 Definition of Microstrip Antenna 6 2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Microstrip Antenna 7 2.4 Radiation Mechanism of Microstrip Antenna 8 2.5 Various Microstrip Antenna Configurations 10 2.5.1 Microstrip Patch Antenna 10 2.5.2 Microstrip or Printed Dipole Antennas 11 2.5.3 Printed Slot Antennas 11 2.6 Feed Techniques 12
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2.6.1 Microstrip Line Feed 12 2.6.2 Coaxial Feed 13 2.6.3 Aperture Coupled Feed 14 2.6.4 Proximity Coupled Feed 14 2.7 Methods of Analysis 16 2.7.1 Methods of Analysis 16 2.7.2 Transmission Line Model 17 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 21 3.1 History 21 3.2. Literature Survey For Various Multiband Techniques 21 CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVES 27 4.1. Problem Statement 28 4.2. Main goals 28 CHAPTER 5 METHODOLOGY 29 5.1 Selection of Substrate 30 5.2 Design Procedure for Rectangular Microstrip Antenna 33 5.3 Multiband Technique Investigation 34 CHAPTER 6 DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS 6.1 Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna 35 6.1.1 Initial Design Values 35 6.1.2. Antenna Design 39 6.1.3. Simulation Results of Antenna 41
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6.2. Results and Discussion 42 6.3. Multiband antenna 43 6.4. Design of Multiband Antenna 44 6.5. Results and Discussion 46 6.5.1. S11 Parameters Plot 46 6.5.2. Radiation Pattern Plots 47 6.6. Comparison of proposed antenna with Other multiband antennas 48 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE 7.1. Conclusion 51 7.2. Future scope 52 References 53 Authors publication 55 Appendix-A Ansoft HFSS Simulating Software 56 Appendix-B Matlab Codes 59
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University Institute of Engineering & Technology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra


Certificate
It is certified that Mr. Pradeep Kumar, a student of Master of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering), under class Roll No.2509768 for the session 2009-2011, has completed the dissertation entitled Multiband Patch Antenna for Wireless Applications under my supervision. The dissertation is, in my opinion, worthy for consideration for the award of Master in Electronics & Communication in accordance with the rules and regulations of University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra University. I wish him all success in his all endeavors. (Monish Gupta) Assistant Professor
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University Institute of Engineering & Technology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra


Certificate
It is certified that Mr. Pradeep Kumar is a bonafide student of Master of Technology (Electronics & Communication), under class Roll No.2509768. The dissertation is, in my opinion, worthy for consideration for the award of Master in Electronics & Communication. I wish him all success in his all endeavors. (Dr. C.C. Tripathi) F/I, ECE
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Any work employed consists of not only the experience but also the skills of a person & it also includes an organized body of people with their expertise & ideas put forward in completing the work as such many kind hearts behind the completion of this project. Firstly I am thankful to Dr. Dinesh Kumar, Director, University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra for his consistent encouragement, valuable suggestions and moral support. It is with deep sense of gratitude and reverence that I express my sincere thanks to my esteemed and worthly project guide, Mr. Monish Gupta, Asst. Professor of ECE Dept. UIET, for their guidance, encouragement, help and useful suggestions throughout. Their untiring and painstaking efforts, methodological approach and individual help made it possible for me to complete this work in time. Their affection, guidance and scientific approach served a veritable incentive for completion of this work. Words can never be able to express my heartiest thanks to Dr. CC Tripathi, (Associate Professor) Faculty Incharge (ECE) UIET, Kurukshetra for providing kind support in completion of my project work. I sincerely thank my advisor, Mr. Nikhil Marriwala, Asst. Professor of ECE Dept. UIET for his invaluable guidance, inspiration and discussions through all stages of this research. I shall ever remain indebted to the faculty members of University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra for their cooperation, kindness and general help extended to me during the completion of this work. (Pradeep Kumar)
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ABSTRACT
Antenna is the most important part of communication system in both transmitter and receiver. It is used to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves from one place to another. With the tremendous advancement in communication technology followed by ever growing consumer demands the need for multifunctional wireless communication devices is more than ever felt. Currently, different systems work with different standards such as cellular phones, WLAN and satellite communications. These different standards have different types of antennas operating at different frequencies. Many of the systems are being designed for to be compatible with more than one of these standards. To design such a system, it is required to operate a system at different frequencies, for this an antenna is required which can be used for different standards at different frequencies in same device or system. Microstrip patch antenna is suitable for such types of devices or system due to its small size, low profile, light weight, low cost on mass production, and easy integration with other components. The multiband characteristic in microstrip patch antenna is achieved by inserting slits at the radiating edge of patch. Although many antennas have been discussed in literature review, they are working on either three or four frequencies only with poor return loss corresponding to resonant frequencies. The proposed antenna having dimensions L = 27.81mm, W = 35.94 mm is considered designed on glass epoxy FR4 substrate having substrate relative permittivity r = 4.4, substrate height h = 1.5mm.Four identical slits of dimensions 8mm 1mm are inserted nearby the microstrip feed line . The simulation analysis is carried out by using Ansoft HFSS simulation software. The proposed antennas simulation results shows resonance at frequencies 1.7 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 3.5GHz, 4.7GHz, 7.5GHz and 8.6 GHz with return loss -12.66 dB,-13.23dB ,26.14dB, 26.49dB, -36.34 dB,-12.29 dB respectively The designed antenna has narrow bandwidth at resonant frequencies which makes it different from other multiband antennas. These results shows the designed antenna is capable of working at these frequencies for different applications like GPS, WLAN, WiMAX, C-band directional for defense and security applications, indoor UWB wireless

communication applications respectively.


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List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Structure of a Microstrip Patch Antenna 6 Figure 2.2 Electric field distributions in microstrip cavity 9 Figure 2.3 Charge distribution and current density on a microstrip antenna 9 Figure 2.4 Microstrip patch antenna shapes commonly used 11 Figure 2.5 Microstrip Line Feed 12 Figure 2.6 Probe fed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna 13 Figure 2.7 Aperture-coupled feed 14 Figure 2.8 Proximity-coupled Feed 15 Figure 2.9 Microstrip line and electric fields lines 18 Figure 2.10 Microstrip Patch Antenna 19 Figure 2.11 Top View of Antenna & Side View of Antenna 19 Figure 5.1 The geometry of patch antenna 33 Figure 6.1 The proposed geometry of patch antenna 40 Figure 6.2 The proposed design of patch antenna in HFSS 40 Figure 6.3 S
11

parameter Vs Frequency plot 41 Figure 6.4 The radiation pattern of antenna for 2.54 GHz at =0 degree & =90 degree respectively 41 Figure 6.5 The multiband patch antenna geometry 44 Figure 6.6 The multiband patch antenna geometry designed in Ansoft HFSS 44 Figure 6.7 The multiband patch antenna frequency vs. s11 parameters plot 45 Figure 6.8 Radiation pattern at 1.7 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 47 Figure 6.9 Radiation pattern at 2.4 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 47

Figure 6.10 Radiation pattern at 3.5 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 48 Figure 6.11 Radiation pattern at 4.7 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 48 Figure 6.12 Radiation pattern at 7.5 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 49 Figure 6.13 Radiation pattern at 8.6 GHz frequency for H-plane ( = 0) and E-plane ( = 90) respectively 49
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