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KENNEDY ASSASSINATION

OSWALD AS MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE


CIA Experiments and the Murder of JFK
By Tom Slattery

AUTHOR'S PREFACE

In November 1979, sixteen years after the untimely death of President John
Fitzgerald Kennedy, I was living in the Berkeley Inn in Berkeley, California, an old hotel
built at the beginning of the 20th century and now torn down. This book grew from loose
discussions with a circle of thoughtful hotel residents, street people, and University of
California affiliates. At that time, only sixteen years after the assassination, the event was
still fresh in the minds of most people living in the United States, and indeed the world.
Most living people in November 1979 could tell you exactly where they were and what they
were doing when they heard the news on November 22, 1963.

As I began writing the first draft on a Hermes portable typewriter in those pre-desktop
computer days in my room in the Berkeley Inn, it was not even intended as an article. It was
just a comparison of three books that lay on the desk. In 1979 there was no search engine to
look up data. Indeed there were no PCs, let alone Internet. These three data-rich books were
thus invaluable.

The first of these books was The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate"; the CIA
and Mind Control, by John Marks (a former CIA employee) Times Books, 1978. It was the
first book to be published that revealed the vast secret mind-control experiments by the CIA
and had considerable factual material concerning it.

The second book was Legend; Who Assassinated a President, by Edward Jay
Epstein, Ballantine Books, 1978. Epstein attempts to show that Oswald was simply a
deranged young nut who finally cracked and murdered Kennedy. But in attempting to show
this, Epstein researched every little detail of Oswald's life that he could find. His book is
thus packed with the minute details of Oswald's life and became extremely useful in placing
Oswald in certain places at certain times.

The third book was the data-loaded Assassination of JFK by Coincidence or


Conspiracy? It was produced by the Committee to Investigate Assassinations under the
direction of Bernard Fensterwald, Jr. and published by Zebra Books, 1977. It contains
details of every aspect of the assassination and the various people with some kind of
knowledge of it who became peripherally involved. Many of these people died mysteriously.
Much of the material in the book was investigated by no one else, not even the Warren
Commission. It became an invaluable data bank for comparing where people other than
Oswald were before, during, and after the Kennedy assassination.

Most of the uncited material in my book is drawn from these three books. Due to the
fact that my book was begun merely as a probing first-look comparison of data revealed in
these three and other books and was never meant as a formal theory or paper, I did not
scrupulously make notations. When I wrote the first draft, which was mostly several pages
divided into two columns comparing details of Oswald's and others' lives and the available
data on the CIA experiments, I was living rent-free in an old hotel room in exchange for
desk-clerking on weekends. I was without adequate living resources let alone research
resources.
That 1979 first draft was largely meant to see for myself if there might be anything
to this rather unique assassination theory. Writers with intellectual and financial resources
and/or research backing and advances from publishers were still turning out new and
interesting JFK assassination books. For a while it seemed to have become an industry unto
itself. I was not seeking to compete with them, only to demonstrate my unique theory to a
small circle of Berkeley friends.

When I bought my first desktop computer in the early 1990s, a discount store-
demonstration Emerson with a Korean-made monochrome green screen and partial Word
Perfect software installed for demonstration purposes, I rewrote it into an article that might
be published in a magazine. It was intended for a paper magazine since the Internet was still
in its very early years. When no magazine was interested, I arranged it into a format for a
small self-published pamphlet and gave it to friends and interested parties.

These pamphlets assumed that most people knew the history and the context of the
Kennedy Assassination first hand. They were thus short and to the point. But as I begin this
expanded and intended book-length version in the year 2008, I realized that most people
now living on our tiny blue planet had not even been born in 1963, forty-five years earlier.
So I added a short history of events and context at the beginning.

A QUICK LOOK AT HISTORY


When John Fitzgerald Kennedy was elected President of the United States of
America in November 1960, his country had not quite emerged, mathematically or
functionally, from the fifth decade of the twentieth century. Moreover, most of the people
who voted to chose a president in that election were either born in the nineteenth century or
not long after the turn of the century. And the president that they chose would become the
first President of the United States born in the twentieth century.

Those voters had been raised and educated in a world where people still mingled
with horses and horse-drawn vehicles on the streets. In the world of their childhood, paved
streets were a luxury for the better sections of cities. Household water was hand-pumped
from wells and outhouses were out in back. Electricity was a luxury, and most houses used
oil lamps or gaslights for lighting after dark. Radios and radio stations had yet to come into
existence, and news was read in newspapers.

When those voters were young, veterans of the awful Civil war that had torn the
country in two and resultantly left half of it an occupied territory were still alive in large
numbers. External combustion steam engines powered almost everything and internal
combustion gasoline and diesel engines were novelties slowly coming into their own.
Airplanes had just been invented, and steam-powered trains were the way to travel between
cities and towns. Home refrigerators were not available to most people, and fresh food was
kept cool at home in iceboxes. An iceman delivered a large block of ice to these homes
several times every week, the name surviving now only in literature. Other home deliveries
included a newspaper, returnable glass quart bottles of pasteurized but un-homogenized
milk, and loaves of bread wrapped in waxed paper, the only practical wrapping available.

When most of those voters were young a great war had broken out in Europe that
involved, for the first time in history, the whole world. It used the best technology available
to massively kill the enemy and any civilians caught in it. It would end not in genuine
victory but in an armistice and would be called, for much of their lives, The Great War, the
War to End all Wars. And a good number of those voters had fought in that war and
celebrated its ending with Armistice Day.

John F. Kennedy was younger than most voters when he ran for President. He was
born in 1917, in the midst of that Great War. Others in his administration or who may have
played some part in his untimely death had also been born during the Great War, one notable
among them being E. Howard Hunt, born October 9, 1918, just weeks before the Armistice.

The Great War would be relegated to World War One in 1939. Only two decades
after it ended in that awesome armistice, another even greater and more spectacularly awful,
world war broke out. As far as Americans were concerned, World War Two, the most awful
and all-encompassing global war in human history broke out with a surprise attack on the
United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Lax and poor quality American military leadership
was responsible for the success of the surprise by the powerful and competent Japanese
military. But the citizens and voters of the United States were sensitized to the idea that a
surprise attack by a powerful military could seriously cripple the country's defenses and
leave it vulnerable to being overpowered.

With an awful national will and sacrifice to win that war against the most cruel and
unsavory dictatorships that the modern world had ever experienced, victory came not with a
gentlemen's armistice but with total unconditional surrender of the thoroughly despicable
and unforgivable enemy nations in 1945. That was only fifteen years before Kennedy would
be elected President, and much of the world was quite literally still recovering from the war-
caused physical damage. In the United States there were no physical scars, no gutted cities,
no relics of mass-murder death camps to mock all civilized values. But the images had been
seen on movie screens, in mass-circulation magazines, and very recently on black-and-white
television screens, and the emotional scars of fear and loathing affected everyone.

As the 1940s disappeared into the 1950s, the four victors on World War Two divided
into two powerfully armed camps, each fearing a potential surprise attack by the other and
guarding against it. On one side there was the Communist government of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, largely Russia but also containing recently absorbed nations of
eastern Europe, and on the other the non-Communist other three victors of World War Two,
Britain, France, and the United States.

Another victor of World War Two, China, had been given a permanent seat on the
United Nations Security Council but was in a state of civil war between the so-called
Nationalist government and the Communist government. And as the 1940s ended, that civil
war took a turn for the better for the Communist armies and a turn for the worst for the
Nationalist armies, and the latter fled to the island of Taiwan, recently restored to China
from occupation by the defeated Japanese Empire. On most maps Taiwan was still called by
its earlier name, Formosa, and the United States Navy patrolled the Straight of Formosa to
frustrate the Communist armies on the mainland from totally defeating the remnant
Nationalist armies on Taiwan.

With the effective collapse of Nationalist China and the absorption of much of
eastern Europe into the Communist-controlled sphere of influence, new fears arose of a
spreading monolithic Communist empire. On the new 1950 map, most of the land area of
Eurasia was now colored red to show that new conjectural monolith. So ten years prior to
Kennedy's 1960 election campaign and election, the 1950s began with a slogan for
American voters to stop the spread of Communism.

Fear became acute when Communist-controlled North Korea suddenly invaded


American-allied South Korea on June 25, 1950, and to American eyes the Cold war
suddenly became a hot war. It was not, however, officially a war. It was called by the
euphemism of a police action. This bypassed the absolute necessity spelled out in the
Constitution of the United States that Congress declare all wars. As a result of this
precedent, no American-involved war since World War Two has been an official war. The
last war that Congress declared was in December 1941.

The unprepared American military entered this new form of undeclared war on July
5 and suffered heavy losses. From there the American military situation deteriorated until
September, when American and South Korean forces held only ten percent of the Korean
peninsula. But by then constant re-supplying across the Pacific had brought American and
allied forces to greater strength than the North Korean forces and a counterattack ensued that
nearly drove the North Korean forces entirely out of Korea. At that point the Chinese
Communist armies became involved and pushed the American allied forces out of North
Korea. The seesaw war up and down the Korean peninsula lasted for the first three years of
the 1950s.

With some overtones that the United States could use a military leader, Dwight D.
Eisenhower, the war-hero Army general who had led U.S. and allied forces to defeat Nazi
Germany, was elected president in the midst of the Korean police action that was in every
way a war. On July 27, 1953, fulfilling a pledge made by Eisenhower during the election, an
armistice was signed and the military dividing line across the Korean peninsula was
effectively where it was when the war – or officially police action—began three years
earlier.

The fears generated by the growing hot and cold conflict between the Communist
bloc and the non-Communist bloc, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the Communist
bloc, and growing ability to deliver them to American targets in a matter of extended
minutes by intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) led to bizarre American behavior.
Notable among other things were the execution of so-called atomic spies Ethel and
Julius Rosenberg on questionable evidence and hysterical anti-Communist witch-hunts by
the House Un-American Activities Committee and by Senator Joseph McCarthy. The
American voters of the mid-twentieth century, who had been raised, and educated, and
drafted, and employed in the early twentieth century were still 1950s people when John F.
Kennedy, war hero among many of World War Two and an United States Senator, began
putting out feelers for his 1960 presidential campaign.

In the presidential election of November 1960 Senator John Fitzgerald Kennedy beat
sitting Vice President Richard Milhous Nixon by the narrowest margin in U.S. history. In the
end, Mayor Richard J. Daley (not to be confused with his son Richard M. Daley, who also
became mayor of Chicago) had delivered the Chicago votes. Chicago, always jokingly
suspect with folklore jokes about the dead being resurrected to vote early and often, was
perhaps the worst place to decide a very close election. From the far-right came bitter
allegations of election fraud.

The Cold War had shown its frightening potential to become a hot war. Hot spots
had grown out of World War Two in Occupied Germany and in divided Korea. Huge armies
of the Communist bloc faced armies of the non-Communist bloc across borders only as
wide as present Interstate highway widths. And on both sides these armies were backed by
enormous nuclear bomb arsenals, enough of them that if they all detonated at once it would
have probably ended human life on the whole planet. In Korea the Communist bloc and the
non-Communist bloc had fought a proxy hot war up and down the Korean peninsula for
several years, only to have it end in a temporary truce and a dividing line about where it had
been before it began.

Defeated Germany had been divided up between the four nations that had opposed
Hitler's mighty military machine and defeated it, Britain, France, the United States, and the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR)
In Occupied Germany the USSR had split off from the other three occupying powers
and had allowed the German Democratic Republic to be established in its occupation zone
and it was commonly called East Germany. The occupying western powers, Britain, France,
and the United States, countered this by allowing the Federal Republic of Germany to be
established in their occupation zone, and it was commonly called West Germany. But at the
end of World War Two the four powers had agreed that the former capital and largest city in
Germany, Berlin, should be shared between the four powers. Thus there was a western
powers presence smack in the center of East Germany. And through this loophole talented
Germans desperately needed to run the new country of East Germany were fleeing
dictatorial controls and low pay for greater personal freedom and higher pay offered in West
Germany. East Germany was hemorrhaging useful and vital citizens at an intolerable rate.

While the only "hot" war aspect of the Cold War confrontation that involved
American military forces had ended in Korea six years before Kennedy was elected, two
huge hair-triggered military machines faced each other across a narrow strip of land that had
been established to divide them. Korea, like Germany, had effectively become two separate
nations, North Korea and South Korea.

And a civil war had been fought in China between the Communist forces of the
People's Republic of China and the non-Communist forces of the Republic of China. The
latter had been effectively defeated on the Chinese mainland and had fled to the Chinese
territorial island of Taiwan, out of reach of military forces on the Chinese mainland and
protected from invasion by the United States Navy.

And there was one more established country that had become divided between a
Communist bloc affiliate and a non-communist bloc affiliate, Vietnam. It had been a French
colony. The French forces were defeated by the fiercely nationalist forces under Ho Chi
Minh who was able to establish the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the north, with a capital
in Hanoi. The remnant colonial forces with western, and especially U.S., backing were able
to establish the Republic of Vietnam in the south. And a line was arbitrarily drawn across
Vietnam just north of the old imperial capital of Hue. These two opposing political and
military entities became popularly known as North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

In November 1960 there was no real Vietnam War as such. The conflict had not
completely materialized to become the second proxy "hot" war between the Communist
bloc and the non-Communist bloc. It was still the simmering confrontation between the
nationalist forces in the north and the remnant colonial forces increasingly backed by the
U.S in the south. The simmering conflict was largely a guerilla war between the nationalist
forces from the south and in the south, called the Viet Cong, and the former colonial
politicians, business people, and military forces that had reorganized to become the Republic
of Vietnam.

There was one more country that was still in the process of becoming a player in the
East-West military and political confrontations, Cuba. Unlike Puerto Rico, Cuba had been
granted nominal independence after the Spanish-American War. In many ways, however, it
was still an American colony.
In January 1959, a year prior to Kennedy's first steps for the 1960 presidential
elections, Cuban guerilla forces under the leadership of Fidel Castro had defeated the
American-oriented, but unpopular and reputed Mafia-affiliated, President of Cuba,
Fulgencio Batista. Americans gambling in the casinos watched as Castro's troops took over
Havana and no doubt thought that it was just another of those perennial banana republic
coups. They might have had good reason. Batista was an archetype banana republic dictator.
He had served as president in the 1940s and then had retreated into the background to be a
major power broker. He had come to power in a military coup in 1952 and had run
unopposed (or else?) in 1954 and of course had won. Batista had been instrumental in
inviting Mafia-associated gambling into Cuba, had made Havana into a new Las Vegas, and
had become wealthy from it. In 1959 Cuban affiliates of the overthrown Batista regime,
including Batista himself, fled to Florida but Batista went on to live out his life in Spain.

Shortly this flight into Florida by Cubans would make Greater Miami the second
largest Cuban city in the world, second only to Havana itself. In that way one might also
regard Cuba as a country divided in two by the Cold War. The constant clamor by the exiled
Cubans to return to Cuba and by leaders of expropriated businesses, including gambling
casinos, to retake their Cuba, moved the Castro forces increasingly into the Communist
bloc. Eventually Fidel Castro claimed to be a Communist and began receiving massive
support from the Communist bloc countries, but this was not entirely the case in November
1960.

Yet even as Kennedy was preparing to take office as President of the United States,
outgoing President Eisenhower, whose Vice President, Richard Nixon, had just been
defeated by Kennedy, was continuing a clandestine military invasion preparation against the
Castro government of Cuba. This CIA-controlled planning, training, and equipping for a
military invasion of Cuba was kept hidden from the incoming Kennedy presidency people
and apparently from Kennedy himself.

Kennedy would inherit a country struggling with real and imagined Cold War fears,
an economy heavily burdened by Cold War spending, and nasty Cold War problems
surfacing here and there to keep the fears alive and the military budget burdensome. As
World War Two hero and Army general Eisenhower was about to leave office, he warned of
the growing strength of the "military-industrial complex" that could undermine American
democracy and freedoms.

One hot spot was the former German capital city of Berlin in Occupied Germany. In
March 1949 the "People's Congress" in the USSR-occupied zone of Germany had voted to
create the Soviet-styled German Democratic Republic, an independent country more
commonly called East Germany. The Soviet-controlled sector of the city of Berlin was
eventually made its capital. For all of the previous year the Russians had tried to isolate the
city of Berlin with a land blockade. A defiant airlift into Berlin's three main airports had
frustrated this blockade, and the Russians had backed down.
In May 1949 the West responded to the effective creation of the German Democratic
Republic and allowed the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in the zones
occupied by Britain, France, and the United States, more commonly called West Germany.
Bonn, a small town in the center of the three zones, the British, French, and American zones,
became the capital of this independent country.

Ten years later, as Kennedy was about to assume the presidency of the United States,
the two independent German states were permanent political fixtures and divided by an
almost impenetrable militarized barbed-wire separation line. But one large loophole
remained. And this was the city of Berlin. People could move with relative ease between the
East-controlled and the West-controlled sectors of Berlin. It was, after all, one city. This
made it possible for people in East Germany wishing to flee to more prosperous and less
restrictive West Germany to do so easily. As a result, East Germany was hemorrhaging
talented, educated, and skilled people necessary to keep society functioning.

The East German government could not, of course, allow this to continue. Various
devices were attempted to prevent this drain but none worked. Finally, exactly seven months
after Kennedy had been sworn in as President of the United States, the East German
government began building a high wall all around the Western Sector of the City of Berlin
with guards posted who would shoot anyone attempting to climb over it.

So as Kennedy became President in January 1961 there were a number of flash


points that could turn the Cold War into a hot and possible nuclear war. There was German,
and especially the Berlin problem. There was Korea, only in a state of temporary armistice
between the governments of North Korea and South Korea and the Chinese and American
forces backing them and facing each other across a demilitarized zone. There was the
smoldering Chinese civil war with two large Chinese armies facing each other across the
Straight of Taiwan, neither presumed foolish enough to attempt to launch an invasion force
against the other, but with the caveat of the always unknown possible foolish military
decision. And there was the smoldering civil war in Vietnam. All of these kept citizens
stirred up and their elected representatives resultantly appropriating billions of dollars to
Cold War military preparedness efforts and intelligence schemes, some of them very costly
and very bizarre.

When Kennedy took office in January 1961 the United States had been on a
permanent warfare standing for twenty solid years, from the lend-lease and early
preparedness of the beginnings of World War Two through the subsequent Cold War.
Moreover, for the last ten of those twenty years the United States had been on a hair-
triggered nuclear missile standing. And this almost came to a head and very nearly
precipitated total nuclear destruction in October 1962, after Kennedy had been in office for
over a year and a half.
On October 16, 1962, Kennedy had to call together advisors for a grim task. Good
reliable intelligence had shown that the USSR had been constructing possible nuclear
ballistic missile installations in Castro's Cuba that could be aimed at the United States. The
missiles themselves were now en route from the USSR to Cuba. A nuclear confrontation had
a potential to develop as the United States moved to effect a blockade of Cuba and prevent
the Russian ships from delivering their deadly devices. Top-level meetings and exchanges
over newly established hot lines between Moscow and Washington, as well as diplomatic
exchanges through normal channels, defused the frightful danger on a nuclear war. In a
secret agreement the Russians settled for the removal of American missiles in Turkey aimed
at them in exchange for the Russian ships turning back from destination Cuba and taking
their deadly nuclear missile cargo back home. Cooler heads prevailed on both sides. On
October 27 the Russian ships made a U-turn. Civilization was literally saved.

This was the Cold War background in which Kennedy assumed the office of
President and executed its duties. But there was one more problem gnawing at the soul of
the country. The racist remains of slavery were everywhere present but most obviously
present in the old Deep South of the former Confederacy.

The Kennedy brothers, President John F. Kennedy and his brother Attorney General
Robert Kennedy, had initiated efforts to bring an end to legal and overt racial discrimination
in the Deep South. As Kennedy began his presidency there were white-only and black-only
public rest rooms, white-only and black-only drinking fountains, and traditions where blacks
had to sit in the back sections of public buses. There were also white schools and black
schools, supposedly separate but equal but in reality not so at all. And equal voting was
denied by clever election legalistics like poll taxes and so-called literacy tests. Segregation
was the law of the land in the states of the Deep South.

The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren and the Kennedy brothers, as
well as small armies of very courageous people, sought to change this blot on the American
nation. The charismatic personality and brilliant mind of Dr. Martin Luther King lead the
ground forces of change, nonviolent marchers facing the violence of fire hoses, tear gas,
police batons, vicious police dogs, and even firearms. And conservative traditionalists
fought with a terrible fired-up fervor to prevent this change. Awful confrontations developed
all over the country, but nowhere more plainly and bitterly than in the Deep South. So Cold
War fears and race-related bitterness duped much of the citizenry into ridiculous
appropriations of their time, effort, and money. And as if this were not enough as Kennedy
began his presidency, into this boiling caldron came the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Three months after Kennedy took the oath of office a force of CIA-trained, paid,
equipped, and transported Cubans and others landed at a place in southwestern Cuba called
the Bay of Pigs in an attempt to overthrow the Castro government. Whether they further
wanted to restore the old Mafia-friendly Batista regime is not known, partly because it is not
clear what they might have done if they had been successful. In the heat of the cold War, the
secretive powers-that-were in the U.S. government, the CIA, the military, and corporate
leadership had been scared into action by an insidious drift of Castro's Cuba into the Soviet
bloc. It became, in part, a self-fulfilling prophesy. The more they put pressure on Castro and
Cuba, the more it forced Castro and Cuba into getting support from the Soviet bloc.

Kennedy was not immediately informed of the invasion plans. When he was, it was
probably too late to back out. On April 15, 1961, some World War Two vintage bombers that
probably should have been in museums bombed Cuban airfields in preparation for the
invasion. They failed to damage most of the Cuban Air Force, but it probably tipped their
hand as to their invasion intentions. When the small CIA army landed at the Bay of Pigs on
April 17, the Cubans were there and fully prepared for them. A battle raged for three days.
The invasion force urged President Kennedy to authorize modern U.S. Air Force air cover
support. He refused, citing dangerous precedents and the potential for worldwide protest,
and especially Latin American protest, over the use of the legitimate U.S. military to invade
a foreign country without provocation.

In the invasion force was one E. Howard Hunt, a high-ranking member of the
Central Intelligence Agency. This was the same E. Howard Hunt who was, eleven years
later, arrested as a result of the Watergate break-in of the Democratic Party offices on June
17, 1972, by Republican Party operatives during the Nixon presidency.

Hunt was one of many CIA officers who had been absorbed into the CIA from its
predecessor, the OSS, the wartime Office of Strategic Services. Like all of them, he had
developed his attitudes and skills as a hot warrior in a terrible and desperate hot war where
successful dirty tricks won praise and rank, no matter how deadly. The new Cold War
required more politically astute operations and less macho bravado. The Bay of Pigs
Invasion seems closer to the old school than the new realities, and it may have failed for
those reasons.

Hunt was captured when the invasion failed and he was held prisoner in Cuba until
Kennedy found enough wealthy contributors to pay an effective ransom for their release.

He and others apparently felt that if only Kennedy had provided the U.S. Air Force
air cover for the invasion, damned be the political consequences, it would have been
successful. This seems unlikely, but there is no way to know. Kennedy refused it. A
disproportionate amount of bitterness sprang from that refusal.

BACKGROUND TO THE MURDER OF A PRESIDENT

In 2003, forty years after the murder of President Kennedy, surveys found that most
people did not agree with the conclusions of the Warren Commission Report that Lee
Oswald acted alone in murdering the president. Ten years earlier the public felt the same
way. A media blitz came in response to the economic success of Oliver Stone's film "JFK."
Like the sleaziest used car salesman, media moguls sought to cash in on it. But much of the
blitz seems to have been an attempt to counter widespread, and definitely accurate, belief
that government agencies had large parts in covering up the assassination, and an increasing
widespread apprehension that employees of certain US government agencies may have
actually taken part in the murder.

The following is only a sketch of a hypothesis. It is largely in note form. Anyone


who might have the energy and resources to fill it out into material that would be more
readable and interesting should feel free to do so. But since this particular hypothesis has not
yet been put forth and really should be, here it is in its "notes" form. I begin with a source
list for most of the material that I used.

OVERVIEW OF GOVERNMENT EXPERIMENTS


AND THE PARANOIA OF THE COLD-WAR ERA

These were not isolated trivial experiments by graduate students. These were well-
funded experiments on a vast scale that reached across international borders and touched
and destroyed many lives
.
From Father, Son and CIA, by Harvey Weinstein, published by Formac Publishing Co,
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1988:

The history of officially sanctioned mind-control experimentation in the U.S. began in 1950,
when the Director of Central Intelligence approved the establishment of a project, code-
named Bluebird. Its objectives were as follows:

•To discover means of conditioning personnel to prevent unauthorized extraction of


information from them by known means
•To investigate the possibility of control of an individual by application of special
interrogation techniques
•To study memory enhancement
•To establish defensive means for preventing hostile control of Agency personnel
Subsequently, a fifth objective was added:
•To evaluate offensive uses of unconventional interrogation techniques, including
hypnosis and drugs.

In 1951, the CIA decided to coordinate efforts with the army, navy and air force, and
Project Artichoke was born. A 1952 memorandum describes its mission as follows:
•Evaluation and development of any method by which we can get information from a
person against his will and without his knowledge.

•How can we counter the above measures if they are used against us?
•Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against
his will and even against such fundamental laws of nature such as self-preservation?
•How could we counter such measures if they are used against us?

Not all of these CIA and DOD experiments were done in the United States. There
was, for instance, a psychiatrist, Dr. D. Ewen Cameron, at McGill University (often called
the Harvard of Canada) in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, who had the gall to use his own
patients in some of these experiments. He gained enough notice from some of these to be
elected president of the World Psychiatric Association in 1953.

He seems to have entered the CIA mind-control experimental scene around 1951
with the CIA's Project ARTICHOKE. In his book Manchurian Candidate John Marks says
it was so named because some of its interest revolved around the creation of a vegetable, a
human vegetable. Cameron progressed into such areas as "depatterning," rather self-
explanatory, and "psychic driving," where tapes of repetitive material would be played to
subjects for days on end without breaks, to sensory deprivation, where subjects would be
confined to a specially constructed "box" for sometimes more than a month. He then
progressed to experiments involving LSD, and then to severe electroshock experiments that
wiped minds clean and left patients unable to function normally for the rest of their lives.
McGill University eventually had to deal with multiple lawsuits over these. Dr. Cameron did
not. Death came to him early, like it did to many who might have had some insider
knowledge of the Kennedy assassination or secret illegal experiments on humans. He died in
1967 at the age of sixty-six while mountain climbing in the Canadian Rockies, four years
after the Kennedy assassination.

It should be of some slight interest here that Ted Kaczynski, the infamous Unibomber of the
mid-1970s through the early 1990s, apparently had been a subject in the CIA's MK/ULTRA
and related experiments. Around the year 1960 he volunteered to be an experimental subject
for a Harvard researcher, Dr. Henry Murray, a former OSS official. The OSS, Office of
Strategic Services during World War II, became the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, after
World War II ended and the Cold War began. Among other things, Ted Kaczynski was
apparently given several experimental mind-altering drugs similar to LSD and LSD itself.
What effect this may have had on his mind later on when he injured twenty-three people and
killed three people with his bombs in his one-man war against technology is an open
question. He was caught and sentenced to life in prison in May 1998. What the Unabomber
episode may show, however, is the extent of the tragedy caused by these secret Cold War
mind-control experiments largely done by the CIA.

Not all of these experiments were CIA-related, and not all were drug-related. In the
frenzied hysteria of the Cold War, some so-called researchers and their sponsors seem to
have viewed the entire population of the planet as a pool of experimental subjects—that is,
except for themselves. The Department of Defense had widespread experiments that used
unknowing human subjects to test the effects of radiation. Some of the rational seems to
have been to find out the effects of radiation on soldiers on the nuclear battlefield. Among
other things, the radioactive element plutonium was injected into unknowing sick and dying
patients. When someone finally blew the whistle on these secret experiments, way too late
for the people who suffered and died from them, Energy Department Secretary Hazel
O'Leary, with the blessings of President Clinton, released all the data under her control to the
public.

A program at the University of Cincinnati by Dr. Eugene Saenger that ran from 1960
to 1972 and was funded by the Department of Defense may offer some insight. In 1971 the
Washington Post exposed his nefarious experiments that irradiated "mentally enfeebled"
patients, all of them poor, most of them black, with doses known to be harmful. Dr. Saenger
simply lived with the notoriety from this and died of old age in October 2007. Others who
exposed wrongdoing by the Department of Energy or its predecessor the Atomic Energy
Commission (AEC) did not live to old age. There was Karen Silkwood, whose mysterious
death in a one-car accident inspired a major motion picture and is thus well known, and
there was the less known death of Dr. Dorothy Legarreta, co-founder of the National
Association of Radiation Survivors (NARS) who died in a mysterious one-car accident. The
aluminum briefcase that she always had with her because it contained evidence of massive
wrongdoing disappeared from the accident scene. When a deputy was asked about it, he said
that it had been too badly damaged and thrown away, which, of course, was a criminal act in
itself, but never investigated.

Cincinnati was not the only location where ill patients were injected with radioactive and
chemically deadly plutonium. It was done in hospitals in Rochester, Oak Ridge, Chicago,
San Francisco, and Los Alamos.

It appears that subjects for many of these experiments were subjects of convenience,
patients. There were Dr. Cameron's own psychiatric patients. There were local students, as
with Harvard math student Ted Kaczynski for Harvard researcher Dr. Henry Murray. And
there were the "mentally enfeebled" poor patients used by Dr. Saenger in the University of
Cincinnati radiation experiments.

But in at least one instance these CIA and DOD experiments used one of their own, a DOD
employee and CIA affiliate named Frank Olsen. As part of an experiment to see what might
happen if an unknowing subject took LSD, a meeting was held at an isolated former boy
scout camp in the woods in western Maryland in a log lodge called the Deep Creek Lodge.

Here is a quote from The Search for the Manchurian Candidate; the CIA and Mind
Control, by John Marks, Times Books, New York, c 1979. John Marks is a former CIA
employee and co-author of The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence.

"Olson attended all the sessions and apparently did everything expected of him during the
first two days at the lodge. After dinner on Thursday, November 19, 1953—the same day
that a Washington Post editorial decried the use of dogs in chemical experiments—Olson
shared a drink of Cointreau with all but two of the men present. (One had a heart condition;
the other, a reformed alcoholic, did not drink.) Unbeknownst to the SOD men, Sid Gottlieb
(a CIA executive in charge of these experiments) had decided to spike the liqueur with
LSD.[4] "
Reference 4, from the Notes section of Marks' book reads:

"4. Gottlieb stated just after Olson's death, at a time when he was trying to minimize his own
culpability, that he had talked to the SOD (Special Operations Division, an Army chemical
warfare developer unit) men about LSD and that they had agreed in general terms to the
desirability of unwitting testing. Two of the SOD group in interviews and a third in
congressional testimony flatly deny the Gottlieb version. Gottlieb and the SOD men all
agree Gottlieb gave no advance warning that he was giving them a drug in their liqueur."

Less than a month after drinking the concoction, Frank Olsen, apparently believing
that he was going crazy, leapt to his death from the thirteenth floor of the Statler Hotel in
New York City. More than two decades later, and after much adverse publicity for the US
Government and its CIA and resulting public outcry, Congress passed a special bill that
awarded $750,000 to Mrs. Olsen and their three children to bring some closure to the
incident.

The family of Harold Blauer, who was one of the top twenty championship tennis
professionals in the United States before he was killed, also eventually reached a settlement
decades later, but not so lucrative.

In 1979, Freedom, a newspaper of the Church of Scientology and handed out free at
street corners by church members and associates published "The Murder of Harold Blauer."
It meticulously covered how forty-one year old Harold Blauer was admitted as a patient to
the New York State Psychiatric Institute in Manhattan three weeks before Christmas 1952
and subsequently killed at the hands of CIA-sponsored psychiatrists on January 8, 1953. It
during a series of military and CIA drug experiments on him, without his knowledge or
permission, where he was injected with experimental substances identified only by code
names EA 1297, EA 1298, EA 1316. These injections were not for any therapeutic purposes.
Blauer was injected with EA 1297 at 9:53 a.m, January 8, and it brought on his death at
12:30 p.m., January 8, 1953, while experimental personnel under the direction of Dr.
Amadeo S. Marrazzi observed and took notes of the dying Blauer. The drug has since been
identified as methyl-diamphetamine (MDA), a derivative of mescaline. Blauer was
administered a highly toxic dose. Marrazzi was eventually charged with murder but was
represented by top-notch CIA-associated lawyers and acquitted in a cloud of legal
definitions and technicalities. Blauer's widow seems to have won a 1987 court decision
awarding the Blauer estate a $707,044 settlement, decades after he was killed.

Strange and certainly not without a certain amount of levity was the San Francisco,
California, brothel operated by the CIA under the direction of George Hunter White for an
experimental program was termed Operation Midnight Climax. White had been an Army
captain and OSS officer during World War Two. He later became a colonel in the California
Highway Patrol and people affectionately called him Colonel White. In the early 1950s, he
rented a house at 225 Chestnut Street in a residential San Francisco neighborhood under the
name Morgan Hall and set up a brothel in it to explore the effects of LSD on behavior for
the CIA. For several years he dosed unknowing brothel-using subjects, who had been
recruited, unwittingly, from San Francisco bars and nightclubs, with LSD. From behind a
two-way mirror he observed and noted their behavior. When White died in 1975 at the age
of 69, he willed his papers to Foothill college in the San Francisco suburb of Mountain
View. There they almost immediately became public, caused an uproarious uproar, and led
to a bronze historical plaque being affixed to one of the houses that had been used as a "CIA
whorehouse."

In January 1990 a sixty-four-year-old former career model named Jessica Arlene


Wilcox died of cancer in New York City. In her modeling and business career she had used
the name Candy Jones. She was an intelligent and resourceful woman who had been a
successful author and had owned and operated a modeling school for twenty years. But her
real claim to fame was as a nonfiction character in a book, The Control of Candy Jones, by
Donald Bain, first published in 1974. It was republished by Playboy Press in 1977 after the
CIA's MK/ULTRA programs had been revealed to the public. In 1960, as a result of a need
to treat mood swings, her second husband, John Nebel, used hypnosis on her. It was during
these sessions that Nebel became aware that Candy Jones had been a subject in government
mind-control experiments. The hypnosis sessions revealed a hypnotically created alternate
personality called Arlene. And this person had been used for nefarious intelligence-related
activities. She was also used in CIA demonstrations of how effective their hypnotic
techniques were. Nebel is reported to have been careful not to plant any ideas in Jones'
mind. If this is yet another instance of an unknowing CIA mind-control subject it might
make one wonder just how many there were and what they may have been made to do, or at
least made to demonstrate in closed CIA sessions.

And there were more experiments using military personnel as subjects. And at least
one may have involved CIA-connected researchers and Civil Air Patrol cadets. Specifically
it may have involved Civil Air Patrol officer and unit commandant David William Ferrie
who was a professional hypnotist, sometimes characterized himself as a "doctor," and had a
professional hypnotic therapy office, and a Civil Air Patrol cadet named Lee Harvey
Oswald.

The Civil Air Patrol had been officially founded six days prior to the surprise attack
on Pearl Harbor. Its original main mission was to locate German submarines in coastal
waters near the United States. When the U.S. Air Force was assembled from the U.S. Army
Air Corps and given equal service status in the new US Department of Defense in
September 1947, the Civil Air Patrol became an official auxiliary, a virtual volunteer civilian
arm of the U.S. Air Force. Members were mostly private plane pilots who obtained free fuel
and Air Force perks for the volunteer work in search and rescue and patrolling.

It had a cadet corps of high school age boys, and occasional girls, that largely served
as a pre-training program for the military. It funneled recruits toward the U.S. Air Force, a
competitor with the other four services, the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard for
young healthy capable warm bodies.

Cadets were drawn from a wide cross section. Some were noticeably bright and
capable young men and women who expected to go to college and get officer commissions
through the Reserve Officer Training Program (ROTC). Some wanted a chance to fly in
light planes, or any planes at all. Some wanted the companionship of other young people.
Some liked the prestige of wearing a military uniform some years prior to being old enough
to actually join a military service. And some were just drifting around looking for some
structure in their sometimes chaotic lives.

Cadets were paid nothing and had to purchase their own Air Force-style uniforms,
usually from Army-Navy stores that were still common after the end of World War Two.
This had an effect of restricting membership to those who could afford to buy uniforms and
other military-related materials. In the 1950s this excluded most blacks, and the Civil Air
Patrol Cadet program was almost one hundred percent white with prevailing attitudes of the
1950s.

Because the Civil Air Patrol was (and is) an official arm of the United States Air
Force, some low level security check was done on all applicants to the Civil Air Patrol Cadet
Program. After that, the cadet was given an official Civil Air Patrol Cadet six-digit serial
number. One might imagine that in the 1950s, at the height of the Cold War, the nuclear-
armed U.S. Air Force kept some tabs on these Civil Air Patrol members and their Civil Air
Patrol Cadets. Through their ID serial numbers and their uniforms virtually identical to US
Air Force uniforms, CAP Cadets and CAP volunteers had access to Air Force bases,
facilities, and personnel.

In the mid-1950s, the New Orleans-based Civil Air Patrol units would have been
seen as important to national defense. They would have patrolled a large swatch of the
shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico that could have included not only Louisiana, but part of
Texas, Mississippi, and Alabama. It would seem reasonable to assume that the volunteer
members and cadets in the New Orleans area might have been carefully scrutinized as a
result. In the mid-1950s David William Ferrie was a commandant of a Civil Air Patrol unit
in the New Orleans area and was associated with another one in the New Orleans area. This
Cleveland-born assassination figure and light plane owner had arrived in New Orleans after
being commandant of the Cleveland Fifth Squadron of the Civil Air Patrol in Ohio.
Interestingly, another Civil Air Patrol and US Air Force officer named James Ronald
Lewallen had also come to the new Orleans area from this same Cleveland squadron. He
was associated with David Ferrie in New Orleans in that he was one of three other Eastern
Airlines pilots who shared an apartment with David Ferrie there. There were two. One was
stationed at the Moisant Airport. The other was stationed at Lakefront Airport.

Lee Harvey Oswald joined the Civil Air Patrol Cadet program at Moisant Airport in
the summer of 1955. He moved to the Lakefront Airport Civil Air Patrol Cadet program
about a months later. He was given an official Civil Air Patrol Cadet serial number through
the U.S. Air Force, serial number 084965, although it was probably formally written 08-
4965. Because both Oswald and Ferrie were in these units, several fellow Civil Air Patrol
Cadets who served with Oswald at one or the other of the two New Orleans Civil Air Patrol
units gave testimony. Cadet Edward Voebel, who died mysteriously in 1971 at the age of
thirty-one, Cadet Colin Hamer, Cadet Fred O'Sullivan, and Cadet Anthony Atzenhofer, and
some others, all remembered Cadet Oswald well enough to talk to investigators about him.
These investigators were either from the FBI, the Warren Commission, the Garrison inquiry,
or the later "Oliver Stone" investigation that grew out of Stone's massively successful
documentary movie JFK.

Former cadet O'Sullivan told an investigator that David Ferrie demonstrated


hypnotizing someone at a Civil Air Patrol meeting. Former cadet Atzenhofer, a CAP platoon
sergeant in the Moisant Airport unit, gave an even more telling account. He said that Ferrie
had tried to recruit his cadets for a medical experiment and that Oswald was in his unit at
that time. Following the disastrous Garrison investigation a photograph surfaced that
showed both David William Ferrie and Lee Harvey Oswald together at a small Civil Air
Patrol gathering of about a half dozen. Clearly Ferrie and Oswald knew of one another. It
the height of Garrison's investigation in February 1967, his star witness, David William
Ferrie, died mysteriously. This undermined the entire case. On February 19, Ferrie, who had
been in Dallas, Texas, on the day Kennedy was shot, November 22, 1963, had told some
reporters that Garrison "apparently had me pegged as get-away pilot for the assassins."
Three days later he was found dead under mysterious circumstances.

But that case was not about the possibility that Oswald might have been a subject in
CIA programs to create an unknowing hypnotically programmed assassin as in the
Manchurian Candidate or at least a patsy for an assassination. It revolved around other
accusations and theories.

Oswald's Civil Air Patrol experiences and connections, however, could – indeed
should – lead one to wonder whether Oswald had, like Ted Kaczynski, volunteered for what
he, as a fifteen-year-old kid, thought would be a small harmless supervised-and-safe medical
experiment and had become entrapped in something beyond most people's wildest
imaginations. Or whether, alternatively, he had become an unknowing subject in vicious
Cold War CIA experiments that piled up data on his hot-buttons and manipulability so that
those in the know might use him for nefarious purposes when the time came.

The reader may want to look further into the Ewen Cameron experiments for the
CIA at McGill University in Montreal in Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control,
by Harvey M. Weinstein, MD (now Director of the Cowell Student Health Center, Stanford
University), American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC & London, 1990.

There is interesting related reading in The Assassination Tapes; an Electronic Probe


Into the Murder of John F. Kennedy and the Dallas Coverup, by George J. A. O'Toole,
Penthouse Press, New York, 1975.

OSWALD AS "MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE"


(revised from second draft text of 1993)

Introductory Note

I wrote the 1979 draft before modern PCs with word-processor programs were
developed. I rewrote it into the 1993 draft before the Internet came into full bloom. In this
2008 draft I am using a personal computer with a modern word-processing program and
accessing the Internet's search engines for additional details, some of which are surprising
even to me. With such amazing instruments as Wikipedia I have been able to fill in details
and make this piece more interesting.

This essay is not entirely intended to demonstrate a theory that Lee Harvey Oswald
may have been a CIA-programmed assassin. It is partly to leave an impression on the reader
of a potential for secret government projects going so terribly wrong that they literally
destroy democracy. Secrecy is the antithesis of democracy. While some secrecy is necessary
to protect democracy, secrecy nurtures fear and fear calls for more secrecy. In no time at all
secrecy gets completely out of control and its former protection becomes the destruction of
democracy and even the destruction of civilized values.

Democracy utilizes honest citizen input. When manipulation alters it—from


advertising to pressure groups and lobbies—the governed are removed by degrees from
deciding the makeup and policies of their government. The result is government working
poorly for the governed and increasingly working only for itself.

When government agencies themselves manipulate voters, we have, at very least, a


paradox. That paradox must eventually lead to stalemate, stagnation, resulting unrest, and a
downward spiral of increasingly hysterical efforts at manipulation by government. It is a
formula for the destruction of democracy.

The election scams of 2000, and the subsequent use of electronic voting machines
easily susceptible to tampering, have maximized voter distrust in the system. Recent
publicized efforts by the Republican Party to target voting blocks and then minimize voter
turn-out in them (and thus minimize voter input) should be a warning that our democracy is
in deep trouble. Taking that only a tiny step further with modern psychological techniques
spells an end to democracy.

Here, in this essay, is a suggestion—and not in any way a case or a proof—that one
of our elected leaders lost his life, and therefore his elected office, as a result of a CIA-
military project to use psychological techniques to create an assassin. This is not to say the
CIA itself did the dirty deed, but to illustrate how tax-funded CIA research may have gone
terribly out of control and could conceivably have been an influence in this undemocratic
removal-by-murder of an elected president from office.

Even if this shaky hypothesis turns out not to hold water, it points out a particularly
dangerous direction of secret psychological experimentation on human beings by the
apparatus of national security. Like earlier warnings about ill considered experiments in
physical sciences in the nuclear age, that potential should be taken seriously.

CIA and FBI cover-ups in the Kennedy assassination investigations are now well
known. Many feel that these were due to bureaucratic incompetence, honest regard to
national security, and exchanges of finger pointing. The CIA had been involved in the now
known plots with the Mafia to assassinate Castro. The FBI not only had Hoover's possible
sexual blackmail but massive illegal political spying on American citizens. None of it would
have served the country well in the aftermath of the president's murder.

But I present another more sinister possibility here—a possibility that not only
suggests a deliberate criminal cover-up but extrapolates a new threat to our always fragile
American democracy.

OSWALD AS "MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE"


A SORDID SORT-IT-OUT

Entangled in the powerful suggestions of conspiracy behind the assassination of


President Kennedy are: elements of organized crime, members of the intelligence
community, contractors with the intelligence community, upper-echelon Republican Party
magnates, well-funded right-wing extremists, and Cuban anti-Castro groups. (Some of the
same actors and some of the same questions also turn up in the Watergate fiasco and
coverup. And some turned up even later in the "October Surprise" conspiracy to continue the
detention of US Embassy personnel in Teheran to affect the US presidential election, and
following that, the "Iran-Contra Conspiracy" setting up a secret government in the White
House basement.) A thin thread running through the bizarre complexities of the Kennedy
assassination is the CIA, most notably, the CIA "mind-control" experiments of the 1950's
and 1960's.

In his book The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate"; The CIA and Mind
Control, former CIA executive John Marks retrieved enough of a smattering of overlooked
financial records to reconstruct and outline of some of these experiments.
What happened to the bulk of the documentation? Within days of the Watergate break-in,
CIA director Richard Helms personally supervised the destruction of what he believed were
all documents relating to the CIA "mind-control" experiments. The timing of the destruction
of these documents would be strange enough, but the personal involvement of the Director
of the Central Intelligence Agency cries out for explanation.

From what remained, Marks painted a tragic and frightening story of a US


government agency so consumed in Cold War paranoia that it licensed a gang of yahoos
with advanced academic degrees to destroy innocent and unsuspecting people's minds. It
drove some of them insane, and even literally killed unsuspecting people in pseudo-
scientific experiments performed in the name of national security.

A CIA inclination for subjecting double agents, defectors, and helpless incarcerated
persons—mental patients and prison inmates—to dangerous and possibly even terminal
experiments permeates the book. But the CIA also subjected its own employees—most of
the time without their direct knowing consent—to these experiments.
Marks chronicles the LSD-related death as the direct result of a CIA experiment of
Dr. Frank Olsen, a CIA employee, but his account overlooks an even more sinister CIA
experiment with psychedelic drugs that deliberately killed ranking amateur tennis player
Harold Blauer in January 1954. A detailed account of this murder, "The Killing of Harold
Blauer," appeared in the Scientology Church magazine Freedom, in late 1979.
Both Blauer's and Olsen's widows eventually received compensation for their
husbands' wrongful deaths at the hands of CIA and military experimenters, but only after
massive obfuscation efforts by the CIA and after the CIA sent in their best high-priced
lawyers to fight it tooth and nail. Marks' book would appear to have may have hit the
bookstores just prior to the Freedom article on the CIA killing of Harold Blauer, but it notes
enough potential similar cases to horrify readers.

Marks does more than horrify readers. He presents a reasonably thorough history of
the CIA mind-control experiments, beginning with a project named BLUEBIRD, which,
among other things, used a couple dozen North Korean prisoners of war in its experiments.
BLUEBIRD was organized in 1950 by Morse Allen, who previously gained dubious fame
for putting together dossiers on "Communists" when he worked for the U.S. Civil Service
Commission. Morse Allen was instrumental in setting up BLUEBIRD in Japan.

In 1951, BLUEBIRD was renamed ARTICHOKE. The CIA's ARTICHOKE


superseded and absorbed the Office of Naval Intelligence's similar program called
CHATTER. Included in the experimental mission was the construction of a small a gas
chamber at a yet undisclosed location in the United States where various psychoactive gases
were tested on human subjects.

An article in the January 1980 High Times by Martin A. Lee notes that an
ARTICHOKE document dated April 11, 1952, refers explicitly to the use of gas chambers in
oxygen deprivation studies. According to the report, oxygen deprivation "affects the higher
brain centers, resembling alcoholic inebriation. Some subjects become exhilarated, talkative,
or quarrelsome, with emotional outbursts or fixed ideas. Some complain of headache or
numbness. Voluntary coordination and attention are impaired ... burns and bruises are not
noticed."

On April 13, 1952, another set of mind-control experiments using psychedelic drugs,
including LSD, then called MK/DELTA, was renamed MK/ULTRA (and again renamed
MK/SEARCH shortly after the Kennedy assassination) in a bureaucratic reorganization
within the CIA. A year later the CIA was receiving the total world production of LSD from
Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland. The nefarious spooks were so worried about worried
about their monopoly on LSD that when a rumor surfaced that Sandoz might sell 22 pounds
(a hundred million doses) of LSD to someone else, the CIA sent top Agency people to
Sandoz to make sure they did not.

A year later, in 1954, ARTICHOKE experimenters discussed using an unsuspecting


subject in a hypnosis experiment designed to create an unsuspecting assassin. As Marks puts
it, "The Agency plan was to hypnotize him and program him into making an assassination
attempt. He would be arrested at the least for attempted murder and `thereby disposed of'
(page 184 -- the quoted phrase apparently from an involved CIA official)." That particular
plan was apparently not put into operation, but it illustrates the thinking.
That was what the CIA was doing. What was Lee Harvey Oswald doing? Well, most
of that time he was simply growing up in a working single-parent household. Here is a brief
biographical look from the British site Sparticus Educational, a part of Schoolnet.

"Lee Harvey Oswald was born in New Orleans on 18th October, 1939. His father,
Robert Oswald, died two months before his son was born. At the age of three his mother,
Marguerite Oswald, sent him to live in the Bethleham Children's Home.

"Oswald went to live with his mother in Benbrook, Texas when she married Edwin Ekdahl.
The marriage did not last and Marguerite Oswald took her three sons to a new home in Fort
Worth. The two elder brothers, John and Robert, found work and in 1952 Marguerite and
Lee moved to New York. Although considered an intelligent boy, Lee Harvey Oswald's
behaviour at school deteriorated. He was sent to a detention centre and underwent
psychiatric treatment.

"In 1955 Oswald joined the Civil Air patrol where he served under David Ferrie. The
following year Oswald became interested in politics. He read books written by Karl Marx
and told friends that he was a Marxist. He also joined the Young People's Socialist League.
He later told a friend that his involvement in politics dated back to reading a pamphlet about
the execution of Ethel Rosenberg and Julius Rosenberg.

"Oswald left school at sixteen and the following year joined the U.S. Marines."

Two things stand out in this brief biographical outline from Sparticus Educational. One is
that Oswald had less than a normal family and social framework while growing up. The
other is that he was, to utilize the cliché, a "disturbed child" who eventually required
psychiatric treatment. Given the use of psychiatric patients, one might wonder

In 1955 Oswald joined the Civil air Patrol and became Civil Air Patrol Cadet Lee
Harvey Oswald, serial number 08-4965. At least one group Civil Air Patrol photograph
shows another major Kennedy assassination figure, then Civil Air Patrol captain and prior
Civil Air Patrol squadron commandant David Ferrie and Lee Harvey Oswald in the same
picture. It would seem they more than just casually met each other. New Orleans District
Attorney Jim Garrison opened his investigation of Ferrie partly on the basis of this Civil Air
Patrol connection.

As Wikipedia notes, "Ferrie was born in Cleveland, Ohio (on March 28, 1918). A
Roman Catholic, Ferrie attended St. Ignatius High School , John Carroll University, St.
Mary Seminary, where he studied for the priesthood, and Baldwin-Wallace College. He next
spent three years at the St. Charles Seminary in Carthagena, Ohio."

Wikipedia follows Ferrie's Civil Air Patrol association with this. "Ferrie was involved with
the Civil Air Patrol in several ways: He started as a "senior" with the Fifth Cleveland
Squadron at Hopkins Airport in 1947. The Squadron Commander tried unsuccessfully to
bounce him in 1949. When he moved to New Orleans, he "transferred" to the New Orleans
Cadet Squadron at Lakefront Airport, first as instructor and later as Commander. After a
Ferrie-trained cadet pilot perished in a December 1954 crash, Ferrie's annual re-appointment
was declined. He was asked to be a guest lecturer at the smaller squadron at Moisant
Airport, and he did so, lecturing from June to September 1955. On July 27, 1955, 15-year-
old Lee Harvey Oswald joined this squadron. In March 1958, a former cadet-turned-
commander invited Ferrie back to the New Orleans Cadet Squadron. He served unofficially
for a time and was reinstated as Executive Officer in September 1959. Ferrie quit the
squadron in a huff in June 1960 after a disagreement during a bivouac. In September 1960,
he started his own unofficial squadron, called the Metairie Falcon Cadet Squadron. An
offshoot of this group was the Internal Mobile Security Unit, a group formed for the fight
against Castro's Cuba."

Wikipedia goes on to quickly link Ferrie with a CIA-connected anti-Castro group in


New Orleans, with former FBI agent Guy Bannister there, link Ferrie with Mafiosi Carlos
Marcello, head of the Cuban Mafia prior to Castro's overthrow of the Batista regime. And
then it notes how Bannister and one Jack Martin got in a fight over a file in Bannister's New
Orleans office on November 22, 1963, hospitalizing Martin.

Martin had no small tale to tell. He told reporters and investigators that Ferrie had
been involved in the assassination, that Ferrie had known Oswald since the Civil Air Patrol,
and had given Oswald lessons on shooting a rifle with a telescopic sight.

To borrow one more paragraph from Wikipedia: "On November 25, Martin was
contacted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He told them that he thought Ferrie had
hypnotized Oswald into assassinating Kennedy. The FBI considered Martin's evidence
unreliable. Nevertheless, they interviewed Ferrie twice and interviewed about 20 other
people in connection with the allegations. They were unable to develop a substantial case
against Ferrie."

Whatever the CAP connection between Ferrie and Oswald may have been, there are
several interesting considerations that should be taken into account. Not only is there a
possibility that Ferrie and Oswald knew each other, but there is the inadequately
investigated fact that Oswald had been a Civil Air Patrol cadet. The Civil Air Patrol was
then, and continues to be, an auxiliary of the U.S. Air Force. Civil Air Patrol personnel had
intriguing access to U.S. Air Force facilities, equipment, and personnel. As a result, those
who needed to be in the know about Civil Air Patrol personnel would have been in the
know.

It is possible that very young, and to use another cliché, "mixed-up" Oswald, a boy
whose single-parent family lived on the edge of poverty, was chosen precisely because he
lacked connections to any power source that might later prove troubling. This would have
made him a desirable subject in military-CIA "mind-control" experiments, known now to
have been in progress when he was a cadet in the Civil Air Patrol.

A background check was made of each applicant in this time of McCarthyism and
high Cold War paranoia. It took months to get a Civil Air Patrol identification card with its
quasi-military serial number, but such a card was necessary due to Civil Air Patrol access to
U.S. Air Force bases, facilities, and material for training. Such a background check created a
usable military file, including peripheral personality assessments.
There is something even more troubling about the apparent Oswald-Ferrie-CAP
connection a decade prior to the Kennedy assassination in Dallas.

At the time of the assassination, the New Orleans City Directory listed Ferrie as a
"psychiatrist," a term that generally requires a medical or osteopathic degree even though
Ferrie had no formal training or degree in the field. What Ferrie actually had done was to set
up a private practice as a hypnotist, a hypno-therapist.
An anonymous CIA agent who had been assigned to Oswald is reported to have
been convinced that Ferrie had hypnotised Oswald to kill Kennedy in a hypnotic trance. If
some may doubt it, it still calls into additional question the coincidence of a hypnotist who
apparently knew of Oswald, and therefore to know of Oswald's hypnotic susceptibility, for
years prior to the Kennedy assassination. In the same year that Ferrie and Oswald are
pictured together at a Civil Air Patrol function, the CIA began its research to create a
"Manchurian Candidate" who would assassinate under the influence of hypnotic suggestion.
One can only wonder.
Garrison's Kennedy assassination investigation of David Ferrie—now famous as a
result of Oliver Stone's film in which the late Jim Garrison can be seen in a cameo playing
the part of Earl Warren—centered on Ferrie's skills as a pilot. Ferrie had been a CIA contract
pilot flying missions over and in and out of Cuba, a U-2 pilot, a fired Eastern Airlines pilot,
and the pilot of a plane that flew out of Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.

On that fatal day, Ferrie had spent much of the day waiting at a telephone booth in a
metropolitan Dallas ice skating rink—and left after a single call to that phone booth. When
Oswald was arrested he had on him a current New Orleans library card made out to David
Ferrie.

Garrison's investigation never got as far as inquiring into or testing Ferrie's skills as a
hypnotist. In the middle of the investigation this star witness became another of the many
mysterious deaths associated with the Kennedy assassination. Before the district attorney
could even finish questioning him, David Ferrie died under strange circumstances of a brain
hemorrhage.

In 1956, four years before President Kennedy was elected and three years before he
was murdered, two CIA researchers, Harold Wolfe and Lawrence Hinkle, completed a study
into brainwashing methods for then CIA Director Allen Dulles.

Also in 1956, Oswald began making inquiries into left wing organizations such as
the Young Peoples Socialist League. It is difficult to see how this would not have been
noted. It was recently revealed that the government had "mail covers" on all of these
organizations. Moreover, one might wonder why Oswald began making these inquiries. Was
it part of building a new identity, possibly under post-hypnotic suggestion? Someone who
could be termed a "Socialist" or a "Communist" would, after all, make a much better
assassin or patsy for an assassination for a group of vicious murderous right-wingers than
just some troubled kid.
In those pre-computer days cross-referencing would have been a laborious task.
While a Civil Air Patrol military file for Oswald was by then in existence, it is unlikely that
anything red-flagged it—unless Oswald had, as a psychological warfare subject, been
included in a much more sensitive and secret national security file.

Oswald joined the U.S. Marine Corps on October 24, 1956, at the age of seventeen.
After an almost three-month delay, he was sent to boot camp at Camp Pendleton, California,
on January 20, 1957. After finishing several months basic military training there, he was
sent to the U.S. Naval Technical Training Center, Jacksonville, Florida, to learn the latest
functional military radar techniques. On May 3, 1957, he was routinely graduated, made an
"Aviation Electronics Operator" (MOS 6740), and given a "confidential" security clearance.

Back at the CIA in 1957, researcher Alden Sears, doing his work at the University of
Denver, complained that his hypnosis experiments could not be further developed in the
restrictions of the university atmosphere. He wanted more serious experiments to ascertain
whether a "Manchurian Candidate" subject could be made to kill, forget (presumably a
killing), and otherwise be manipulable. Sears also wanted to perform other hypnotic
experiments to aid CIA spy activities.

Known or unknown to Sears—one has to wonder—on September 12, 1957,


Oswald's brief journey through life brought him to Yokusuka U.S. Navy Base just south of
Tokyo, Japan, after fourteen days at sea that it took to cross the Pacific Ocean. He was
quickly assigned to high national security radar duty in Marine Air Control Squadron One at
Atsugi U.S. Naval Air Station in southwest suburban Tokyo, where unidentified radar blips
were reported to Iwakuni Air Base for immediate tactical air response.

Atsugi was also Asian headquarters for top secret CIA surveillance overflights of the
USSR, China, and other Asian areas by U-2 spy planes. This would have been a reasonable
place for all varieties of CIA personnel, possibly including those involved in psychological
experiments. Oswald's barracks were barely a football field length from the then top secret
U-2 spy plane hangers, and Oswald, of course, would have seen their strange activities on
his radar screen. It is very difficult to imagine a bright young Marine not asking at least a
few bewildered questions about the strange sleek aircraft and the odd character of their
flights on the radar screens.

Oswald celebrated his eighteenth birthday at Atsugi on October 18, 1957. One might
wonder why a seventeen-year-old had been assigned to such sensitive and important
military duty adjacent to such a top-secret intelligence operation. It is in this time period that
very young Lee Harvey Oswald was seen several times with a sleek and expensive-looking
Eurasian woman at the Queen Bee entertainment emporium in the heart of the Ginza, the
downtown Tokyo department store shopping and entertainment area. The Ginza was thirty-
five miles from Atsugi, over an hour-and-a-half ride by commuter train in those days. The
Queen Bee was an up-scale bar and prostitution pick-up place catering to well paid
American military officers A "date" there would have cost $60 to $100, and Oswald made
less than $85 a month Marine take-home pay.
The Queen Bee was definitely not, that is to say, one of the numerous sleazy joints
frequented by U.S. military service people near the Atsugi base and the adjacent U.S. Army
Camp Zama base complexes. Oswald's reported presence at the Queen Bee in the distant
Ginza of downtown Tokyo has always raised questions.

Speculation about the "Eurasian" woman has ranged from prostitute to Russian spy.
Recently released KGB reports from the now defunct USSR on Oswald fail to show any
contact with him in Japan, "Eurasian," or otherwise. In fact, the Soviet intelligence services
seem not to have known anything about Oswald when he later arrived in the USSR.

f she was not a "Russian spy" or a prostitute, the "Eurasian" woman may well have
been a CIA "operator" or at least somehow involved in the now known ongoing CIA mind-
control experiments with goals to create a "Manchurian Candidate" assassin.

Oswald had been at Atsugi a little over a month when on October 27, he claimed to have
shot himself accidentally with an illegal small pistol. The minor wound was officially
covered up as resulting from an accidental discharge of a legal weapon.

About a month after that, on November 20, 1957, presumably with the wound
largely healed, Oswald was shipped to the Philippines aboard the LST USS Terrill County in
a military exercise named "Coffee Mill." At the time, the CIA was involved in a massive
effort to create an insurrection against left-leaning Indonesian president Achmed Sukarno,
next door to the Philippines. The effort so strained the precariously balanced collective CIA
mind that it broke down into a ludicrous scheme of plastic surgery to create a Sukarno look-
alike who performed in pornographic movies, presumably for surreptitious distribution in
Indonesia.

U-2 and other tactical flights would surely have been involved in the insurrection
assistance effort, but there is no information on any direct or indirect involvement by young
Oswald.

The CIA-sponsored Indonesian insurrection failed in 1958. President Eisenhower


ordered Vice President Nixon to purge the CIA. Heads rolled. Nixon, who would later resign
in disgrace from the presidency, brusquely relieved from duty popular CIA deputy director
Frank Wisner (who committed suicide in 1966).

On January 15, 1958, Oswald and his Marine buddy from radar school days, Private
Martin Schrand, were still involved in the "Coffee Mill" military operation. That night,
Schraud, assigned to guard duty at an aircraft hanger where members of the unit remember
that the sleek blue-black U-2 spy planes were sometimes housed, was found dead of a
gunshot wound not likely to have been self-inflicted.

The death of apparently his best buddy would have represented a terrible
psychological shock to a young man, but there has also been speculation that Oswald was
somehow involved in the murder. But anyone who has read John Mark's book about the CIA
search of a "Manchurian Candidate" assassin will recall repeated mentions of "terminal"
experiments. One has to wonder about Martin Schrand's death.

A few days later the military exercise in the Philippines was disbanded, perhaps just another
coincidence.

The Marine unit was shipped to Corregidor, sight of the famous World War Two
battle in the Philippines, probably for the usual rest and recuperation after a large military
exercise.

On March 7, 1958, seven weeks after Schrand's death, the unit returned to Japan
aboard the LST USS Wexford County. There, on April 11, 1958, Oswald was found guilty of
discharging an unregistered weapon in the October incident. He was sentenced to 20 days
hard labor, but not imprisoned. Oswald apparently took it hard and immediately applied for
a hardship discharge from the Marine Corps.

In 1958 -- among other things, but to illustrate the Cold War desperation and
paranoia—the CIA was sponsoring "depatterning" experiments by the notorious Dr. Ewen
Cameron, professor at McGill University in Montreal and president of the World Psychiatric
Association. Cameron's CIA funds were laundered through the Rockefeller Foundation.

CIA "depatterning" meant zapping people's brains with overdoses of electro-shock


to destroy their memory, theoretically to make them susceptible to new memory encoding.
(see: Psychiatry and the CIA: Victims of Mind Control, by Harvey M. Weinstein, MD
[Director of the Cowell Student Health Center, Stanford University], American Psychiatric
Press, Washington DC & London, 1990)

Dr. Cameron utilized his own patients in these "treatments," without their knowledge
or consent, and destroyed many of their lives by making near zombies out of them and even,
eventually, killed some. One woman, for instance, came into his office for a mild case of
neurosis and was given massive electro-shock every two hours. She now survives as a
fragment of her former self, not able to remember routine details for normal living, required
to write down everything on a note pad and refer constantly to it.

Dr. Cameron suddenly quit his job in 1964 -- not long after the Kennedy assassination—and
died, perhaps mysteriously, while mountain climbing in Canada in 1967.

In the meantime in Japan in May 1958, Oswald, just after having finished his
twenty-day hard labor sentence for the gun incident, tried to pick a fight with one of his
superiors, Sergeant Miguel Rodriguez, a Texan. According to the reports, Oswald spilled a
drink on Rodriguez at what appears to have been a U.S. Marine and especially "Coffee Mill"
hangout bar named the Bluebird Cafe, an name that suspiciously recalls the early CIA mind-
control experiment series code-named Project BLUEBIRD (see above), organized in Japan
by the CIA in 1950 and renamed ARTICHOKE in 1951.
If nothing else, the "Bluebird Cafe" adds one more curiosity to a great number of
coincidences surrounding the Kennedy assassination of interest to students of Jungian
"synchronisity." But more seriously, the derivation of names of military hangout bars,
especially in Asia, are often conjured up from local military nomenclature.

As a result of the fracas in the Bluebird Cafe, young—and on the face of it, clearly
destabilized—Lee Harvey Oswald ended up in the brig, a military prison situation designed
to make punishment very stressful and uncomfortable. The stress, exertion, and minimal
sleep associated with this type of punishment would also lend itself to making an
experimental subject very susceptible to programming and hypnotic suggestion.

In fact, way before his April 11 minor court martial for the gun discharge, Lee
Oswald had become just the kind of human subject that the CIA and military mind-control
experimenters liked to use. He was essentially helpless and vulnerable, from a poor and
unstructured home, without helpful family backing, and far from home and familiar
surroundings. But after April 11, convicted Oswald was a social outcast and misfit,
alienated, physically and mentally exhausted as part of the punishment, and thus hostile.
Being so in the tight regimented conformist machine of the military reward system, he was
even more susceptible to aims of experimental designers.

After he was sent to the brig on July 27, 1958, to serve a twenty-eight-day sentence
he would have been even more so. But this is only speculation. Thus far no concrete
evidence has been found to demonstrate that Oswald was, in fact, a knowing or unknowing
experimental subject at this time. One can see, however, opportunity and CIA mind-control
experimenters needs and will.

At this time in 1958, for instance, Morse Allen, organizer of BLUEBIRD (later
renamed ARTICHOKE), and another CIA researcher named Maitland Baldwin were doing
secret CIA "black box" sensory deprivation experiments with eventual goals to create a
"Manchurian Candidate." Allen was known to object to obtaining consent from subjects
because he thought since they knew they were part of an experiment, they would have
certain attitudes and confidences about it that would not hold in real life situations. A "black
box" is not so much an instrument as a technique.

The basic idea is to deprive a person of light, sound, touch (as much as possible by
creating carefully temperature-controlled super-comfort) and even smell. Often the subjects
are confined to small totally dark rooms that are padded to minimally reflect sound and
completely insulated from outside sound. At best, the average person can remain in one only
for a few days before becoming so disoriented as to be temporarily insane. Longer
confinement in one can lead to permanent mental instability.

A person who had been confined to a "black box" would probably be aware of it and
leave a gap in his or her personal history, and therefore make a poor assassin. Obviously less
conspicuous techniques had to be found.
Oswald was apparently granted and early release from the horrors and stress of the
brig on August 13. In September 1958, he and his unit were sent to Taiwan aboard the attack
cargo ship USS Skagit, probably as part of the effort to contain the Quemoy-Matsu flareup
of the ongoing Chinese Civil War.

On Taiwan we see a first tangible hint—and nothing more—of Oswald possibly


being a knowing or unknowing subject in the CIA mind-control experiments. possibly
MK/ULTRA or ARTICHOKE.

Soon after the unit arrived there, Lieutenant Charles R. Rhodes, an immediate
commanding officer Oswald's Marine radar unit, reported a strange incident that remained in
Oswald's permanent Marine Corps file.

Oswald had been assigned nighttime guard duty with Rhodes acting as officer of the
guard. It was a "wartime" situation. In the radar unit a fear of spies abounded after the
Communist Chinese had gotten hold of or discovered for themselves the overflight
identification coding system, presumably for U-2's. But the island of Taiwan itself was fairly
secure, and small temporary Marine post would not reasonably be considered a target of an
infiltrating or raiding party. Thus the routine posting of Oswald for what was on the face of
it expected to be uneventful guard duty was just traditional Marine practice.

But it would not be uneventful. Around midnight Lieutenant Rhodes later recalled
that he was startled by "four or five shots fired from the position Oswald was guarding." The
lieutenant drew his issued forty-five caliber pistol and ran toward some trees where the
gunfire sounds seemed to come from. He found Oswald slumped against one of the trees,
holding his issued M-1 rifle across his lap. "When I got to him, he was shaking and crying,"
Rhodes later said.

According to Rhodes, Oswald said he had seen men in the woods, that he had
challenged them, and then began shooting. Rhodes, in his capacity of fatherly unit officer,
put his arm around Oswald's shoulder and slowly walked him back to his tent.

"He kept saying he just couldn't bear being on guard duty," Rhodes said.

Rhodes, of course, reported the incident to his superiors. Almost immediately,


Oswald was shipped back to Japan.

Keeping in mind that his Marine buddy and friend Private Martin Schrand's death
from a gunshot wound while on similar guard duty in front of a U-2 hanger at Cubi Point in
the Philippines, some of young Oswald's strange behavior might be somewhat
understandable. And if that were the case, this would seem to rule out Oswald's alleged
involvement in his friend's death.

But does it really make sense?


Would an armed Marine in a wartime situation, who had recently seen his friend
killed on similar guard duty, be slumped up against a tree crying with his rifle on his lap if
he had really seen "enemies" lurking in the area? Nor does Lieutenant Rhodes' behavior
really mesh with his reported facts of the incident.

Keeping in mind the earlier mysterious death one of the men in his unit on guard
duty, would an officer of the guard relieve Oswald of further duty and slowly walk him back
to his tent if spies or infiltrators were even vaguely insinuated?

On the other hand, the incident on Taiwan does suggest an LSD or related
psychedelic drug experiment. When this happened in 1958, LSD was unknown outside a
limited and largely secret community of professional experimenters. Even if Lieutenant
Rhodes had been peripherally on the inside in a secret CIA-military experiment,it is unlikely
he would have known of the existence, let alone the effects, of LSD or similar
hallucinogenic drug.

It would appear that Oswald had a hallucination that someone or something was
lurking out there in the dark—and it could very well have been a drug-induced hallucination
—and Lieutenant Rhodes may have been aware something strange and not related to
"enemy" activity could happen that night.

Moreover, Oswald's strange reaction of slumping against a tree and crying would be
typical of someone under the influence of LSD.

In addition, Oswald, who had already been punished for an discharging an


unauthorized weapon and served additional severe punishment in the dreaded brig, would
not have been likely to have discharged his Marine weapon unless under either the duress of
a real threat or a hallucinogen-induced mental state. And it is clear that he felt no real threat
of the kind that would force a trained Marine whose buddy had been killed on guard duty to
seek cover from enemy fire and search the nighttime area in an extremely agitated state of
alert, rifle ready.

In short, the Oswald incident on Taiwan looks for all the world like a CIA-military
hallucinogenic drug experiment.

The Marine Corps by then had Oswald's application for a hardship discharge. If no
hallucinogenic drugs were involved, Oswald after that incident certainly would have
appeared too unstable for continued military duty, at very least too unstable for continued
duty in the high national security radar outfit monitoring Cold War enemy air intrusions,
including potential nuclear intrusions.

And indeed, shortly after the incident, on October 6, Oswald was returned to Atsugi,
Japan, for "medical treatment," but this appears to have been for a lingering minor case of
gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease not uncommon to military personnel serving in
Asia. Oswald attempted to disguise this by complaining that the urethral discharges were
from "heavy lifting" on Taiwan. In other words, the record shows the Marine Corps treating
a "normal" young Marine behaving like a normal young Marine.

It should be noted here for future reference that the MK/ULTRA researcher later in
charge of LSD experiments in San Francisco and Marin County, California, was one David
Rhodes, probably no relation, but a curious coincidence.

Another item of interest is that one of Oswald's Marine buddies from this late 1950s
period, Kerry Thornley, began in early 1962 -- about the time Oswald returned from the
USSR—to write a book about a Marine's gradual moral breakdown. He used a character
named Lee Shellburn, drawn rather directly from Oswald. It not only points out Oswald's
visible mental and moral deterioration, it raises questions as to how much Thornley may
have found out about or been in on the possible use of Oswald in mind-control experiments
—but they are only vague questions, without answers.

More to the point is the mention at the beginning of chapter six of Marks' book on
CIA mind-control experiments. He notes that after the death in late 1953 of Frank Olsen as a
result of a CIA LSD experiment, CIA experimental director Sid Gottlieb cabled two field
stations that had LSD supplies, Manila, and Atsugi, Japan. The cable told them not to use the
hallucinogen for the time being. One can only speculate that they might have again been
using it when Oswald was at Atsugi and in the Philippines when Oswald was there four
years later.

And, of course, one can only speculate on Oswald's strange behavior in the Taiwan
incident and whether experimentation, if indeed there had been, came to an end with that.
With the rest of his Marine unit still on Taiwan, Oswald was reassigned to Iwakuni Marine
Base just south of Hiroshima—at the other end of Japan from Atsugi where, among other
things, there would be very little risk of his running into old buddies. He was thus thrown
into a completely new social environment and totally alienated.

There was, however, one person from the old days, a fellow radar school graduate
named Owen Dejanovich. He also saw Oswald with a strange "Eurasian" woman—now
several hundred miles from the Queen Bee in Tokyo, perhaps, though, not the same one.
"She was much too good looking for Bugs (Oswald's nickname)," Dejanovich is reported as
saying.

It has been speculated that the so-called "Eurasian" woman during the Atsugi period
was actually Oswald's cousin, Marilyn Dorothy Murret, described a tall attractive woman
with long black hair, known to have been in Japan at this time. Murret is reported to have
"been linked in some manner" with a research associate of the CIA-connected organization,
Center for International Studies at MIT, Professor Harold Isaacs, who was also an
occasional Christian Science Monitor and Newsweek reporter.

I find this speculation possible but unlikely. As an American who not only lived in
Japan for several years but worked on a project with "Amerasians" there, I have difficulty
believing that Americans would not recognize other Americans and repeatedly label one of
them "Eurasian."

Whatever it was, it did not last long. A little over a month later, on November 2,
1958, after thirteen months in Asia and largely in Japan, Oswald boarded the USS Barrett at
Yokusuka U.S. Navy Base in the Tokyo area and sailed on this troopship for San Francisco.
It should noted that Oswald's military pay records do not entirely agree with his military
personnel file during this period. This may have been due to military records sloppiness or it
may have been to provide cover in case something went wrong.

Shortly before Christmas 1958, Oswald formally reported in to his new unit, Marine
Air Control Squadron Nine in Santa Ana south suburban Los Angeles, California. The area
has long been known as a center for intense radical right-wing political activity and
philosophy.

While at the Santa Ana facility Oswald was observed in contact with people who
appeared to be Latin American, in itself not remarkable because even then there was a large
Mexican-America population in the area. What is remarkable is that while there, young
unstable Oswald gained a proficiency in Russian language that exceeded Berlitz and
military test levels.

In addition, he openly—in the fishbowl military atmosphere during the height of


Cold War paranoia—subscribed to Russian language newspapers and, interestingly, the
Communist Party daily, Peoples World. One might be tempted to wonder. Either Oswald
had become apathetic (drug-induced apathetic?) to his intensely Cold War anti-Communist
surroundings, not only in the distinctively patriotic Marine Corps itself but in the heart of
ultra-conservative southern California. Or he was consciously going about constructing a
new public image of himself. Or someone or some group was constructing a useful
representation of his person for their own purposes.

In addition to making these overt and hardly unnoticeable representations, he also


applied for admission to liberal Albert Schweitzer College in Switzerland, not far from
where Swiss corporate drug giant Sandoz Laboratories was still making the total world
supply of LSD exclusively for the CIA.

After less than a year at this southern California Marine facility, Oswald, on August
17, 1959, applied for a dependency discharge, ostensibly to help in ailing mother. He was
granted an honorable discharge from the U.S. Marine Corps for reasons of dependency on
September 3, 1959.

Two weeks later, on September 17, 1959, Oswald boarded the freighter Marion
Lykes and arrived in La Harve, France, on October 8. A week later, on October 15, three
days before his nineteenth birthday, Oswald crossed the USSR border from Vainikala,
Finland. Thus began his now well-revealed sojourn in the old USSR, where he married a
lovely young Russian woman, Marina Nikolaevna Prusakova, whose maternal uncle,
Colonel Ilya Vasilyevich Prusakov, was an engineer for the MVD, responsible for internal
civil law enforcement.

Oswald was not the only American defector to the USSR in this time period. There
were at least another half dozen. For whatever reasons, the CIA set up an "SR/6 soft file" in
1960 entitled "American Defectors to the USSR" that included defectors in 1959-1960.
There had been others prior to these years, but they were not included.

It was late 1959. In the United States, John F. Kennedy had been working all year
initiating a campaign for president, but not even the New Hampshire primary had yet been
held. Dwight D. Eisenhower was president, and Richard M. Nixon was vice president with
an assumed access to most national security data. If, at this point, Oswald had been
"programmed" in a "Manchurian Candidate" experiment by the CIA, it could hardly have
been to kill a still-to-be-nominated future President Kennedy. At this point, if that might
have been the case, it would seem that he had either been one of the numerous experimental
subjects who had turned out bad, or he might have been a "resource" for some yet unknown
operation.

The swiftness of the change from U.S. Marine to defector living in the old USSR has
caused many to wonder whether Oswald was not some kind of CIA agent. Released KGB
files and interviews with KGB personnel show that the Russians, after interviewing and
watching him, apparently concluded he was too young, too unstable, and too
unknowledgeable to be a CIA agent, although they wondered exactly what he was
throughout his stay.

If Oswald had been a subject in what now appear to be a very preliminary level of
mind-control experiments funded by the CIA, he may have sensed, as a smart unstable
young person could, that something was terribly wrong. There would have been, after all, no
place he could feel he could hide in the so-called Free World. If the foregoing is even
minimally correct, he could well have been experimented on in several countries in Asia and
in the United States.

While Oswald was clearly an alienated and mixed-up teenage Marine, he was also
undoubtedly quite intelligent, and he might have found out some of the people ostensibly
working with him but apparently working on him were, indeed, associated with the CIA.
Who could he—a teenager from a poverty-stricken single-parent family—talk to about it?
Who would believe him if he did? While it is not greatly likely, he could thus have
discovered some things that he kept bottled up all his life until Jack Ruby murdered him. We
may never know.

Another more likely possibility is yet one more CIA human-subject experiment—to
create a defector or even an assassin in Russia, it doesn't matter—out of control. Could
Oswald have gotten from the Santa Ana Marine facility to Russia entirely on his own? It is
possible, but it stretches the imagination.
All during the time Oswald was in the USSR, from October 15, 1959, until he
arrived from there in the United States aboard the Holland-American Line's SS Maasdam at
Hoboken, New Jersey, on June 13, 1962, all mail from the USSR to the United States was
being opened and read by CIA people from the office of Counterintelligence Chief James
Jesus Angleton. A significant part of this information was forwarded to the FBI.

Moreover, it should be noted here that since 1960 the CIA Technical Services Staff
had been cooperating with Angleton's Counterintelligence Staff in "operational" uses of
hypnosis.

From reading his mail and applying psychological profiles and analyses, CIA
personnel could have understood Oswald's feelings and intentions considerably in advance.

It is almost impossible to imagine that both the CIA and the FBI would not have
been acutely interested in Oswald after the Russians shot down Francis Gary Powers' super-
secret U-2 spy plane on May 1, 1960, while on a CIA mission. The CIA had to know by
then, if not much earlier, that this type of spy aircraft had been at least peripherally
connected by proximity to Oswald's Marine radar unit and his other Marine Corps units
when he had been stationed in several places in Asia.

It is therefore interesting to note that the Oswalds were met at the dock in Hoboken
by one Spas T. Raiken, ostensibly because Raiken worked for Travelers Aid International,
certainly an international organization in a position to provide the CIA and others with
needed intelligence information. A journey to the United States that began with an apparent
ticket from one Michael Jelisavcic of American Express in Moscow who had possible CIA
ties ended with a greeting from Spas T Raiken as the boat docked in New Jersey. One might
be forgiven for coming to a conclusion that the CIA was guiding and even protecting the
Oswalds all the way back from Moscow to Fort Worth.

Raiken came to the attention of the CIA as a recruit either from their efforts or his in
1960, two years before he greeted Lee and Marina Oswald as the ship docked. There is a
CIA document: TITLE: Routing Sheet Note About Potential Contract Recruit (Spas T.
Raiken). DATE: 07/22/60. But Raiken was also active in a number of anti-Communist fronts
and organizations and their counterparts in Asia and elsewhere overseas. And it should also
be noted that Raiken was a prominent member of the "Fairness to the President Committee"
that attempted to salvage Richard Nixon's presidency during the Watergate Hearings. There
would seem to be too many Watergate and JFK assassination overlaps to be just sheer
coincidence.

With money that Travelers Aid and welfare agencies managed to extract from
Oswald's brother Robert, who had to mortgage his car to provide it, the hard-pressed
Oswalds headed for Fort Worth, Texas. The Delta Airlines flight was routed through Atlanta.
Apparently some of the Oswalds' luggage was lost en route.

Before continuing with possible MK/ULTRA and other experimental so-called


mind-control programs sponsored by the CIA that may have connections to E. Howard
Hunt, something that did not exist until recently must be brought in. There is his now well
reported "deathbed confession" to his son St. John Hunt. In it the dying and said to be
occasionally delirious Howard Hunt asserted that Vice President Lyndon Johnson was
behind the murder of President Kennedy. Hunt, one must be reminded, was a professional
spy skilled at deception and dirty tricks.

The accusation of involvement by Lyndon Johnson seems far-fetched and may have
been a calculated smear meant to damage the reputation of the outstanding liberal Democrat.
Hunt, a friend and former CIA boss of conservative talk-show host and publisher William F.
Buckley, hated liberals and Democrats and is said to have resigned from the CIA on May 1,
1970, because there were too many Democrats in it. And Hunt was not only associated with
groups in Watergate days that utilized smear fictions and dirty tricks, he was a published
creative writer of legitimate fiction. Hunt authored 41 novels published under his own name
or under pseudonyms as well as three nonfiction books. He sold the film rights to one of his
novels to Warner Bros, and his last novel, Sonora, was published in the year 2000. He could
and did create salable fiction before and after the Kennedy assassination and Watergate. The
inclusion of Lyndon Johnson in the list below has a dull unpleasant ring of smear fiction.
The others, however, seem disturbingly credible.

Here is what Hunt told his son, taken from "The Last Confession of E. Howard
Hunt: US government/CIA team murdered JFK," by Larry Chin in Online Journal, April 3,
2007, three months after Hunt died on January 23, 2007. According to E. Howard Hunt,
these were participants in the murder of President Kennedy:

_ Lyndon B. Johnson: LBJ, whose own career was assisted by JFK nemesis J. Edgar
Hoover (FBI), gave the orders to a CIA-led hit team, and helped guide the Warren
Commission/lone gunman cover-up.

_ Cord Meyer: CIA agent, architect of the Operation Mockingbird disinformation


apparatus, and husband of Mary Meyer (who had an affair with JFK).

_ David Atlee Philips: CIA and Bay of Pigs veteran. Recruited William Harvey
(CIA) and Cuban exile militant Antonio Veciana.

_ William Harvey: CIA and Bay of Pigs veteran. Connected to (Havana, Cuba)
Mafia figures Santos Trafficante and Sam Giancana.

_ Antonio Veciana: Cuban exile, founder of CIA-backed Alpha 66.

_ Frank Sturgis: CIA operative, mercenary, Bay of Pigs veteran, and later Watergate
figure.

_ David Morales: CIA hit man, Bay of Pigs veteran. Morales was also a figure
involved with the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.
_ Lucien Sarti: Corsican assassin and drug trafficker, possible "French gunman,"
Grassy Knoll (second) shooter.

Keep in mind that Hunt himself fingered these men in his so-called deathbed
confession, partly tape-recorded from Hunt's own mouth by his son nicknamed "Saint," and
partly handwritten by E. Howard Hunt himself. These are not unsupportable accusations by
one or more assassination buffs. Chin's article continues with more details about the
confession. Readers can access the article through Google and other search engines.

The three tramps that Chin mentions in his article are now part of Kennedy
assassination folklore. Three tramps were arrested on the Grassy Knoll immediately after the
shooting because witnesses said some shots had come from there. News photographs were
taken of their arrests. These tramps were not held and no identifications were taken. Nine
years later, after publicity from his arrest as a result of the Watergate break-in, people called
attention to the fact that one of the three tramps looked exactly like Hunt. Another looked
somewhat similar to Sturgis.

In his assassination book Plausible Denial, Mark Lane showed how Hunt lied about
not being in Dallas on November 22, 1963.

While the so-called deathbed confession does not say Hunt was in Dallas, it says that
Hunt knew beforehand of the plot to kill President Kennedy and chose not to stop it or tell
anyone about it. It is therefore not unreasonable to say that E. Howard Hunt was in Dallas
on the day of the assassination. Attorney Mark Lane proved in court that E. Howard Hunt
was in Dallas on November 22, 1963. Photographs of a so-called "tramp" arrested on the
Grassy Knoll who looks remarkably like E. Howard Hunt were taken by news
photographers immediately after the shooting on November 22, 1963. And Hunt himself
admitted in his deathbed confession that he had been included in the plot to assassinate
President Kennedy.

In view of this, one might be tempted to wonder if Hunt might not have actually
pulled a trigger on the Grassy Knoll that sent a fatal bullet into Kennedy. His deathbed
confession could have been couched in terms that revealed damning facts but purposely left
out those facts that could have led a sick old man to be charged with murder, for which there
is no statute of limitations.

In 1961, during Oswald's two-and-a-half years in the USSR, E. Howard Hunt was
involved in the CIA's Domestic Operations Division by the new CIA Director of Plans,
Richard Helms. Helms would later become director of the CIA from 1966 to 1973 and was
in that position during the Watergate break-in. Shortly after the Watergate break-in was
discovered in 1972, Helms had all of the MK/ULTRA files covering about 150 separate
projects destroyed. No one will ever know what was in them. One might, of course, wonder
about an E. Howard Hunt connection to these MK/ULTRA files and a desperate effort at
damage control by CIA Director Helms.
E. Howard Hunt had earlier been a personal assistant to CIA Director Allen Dulles
who headed the agency between 1953 and 1961. Hunt was an old hand at the CIA from its
earliest days as the World War Two Office of Strategic Services. He clearly was close to the
awesome levers of executive power and had all-encompassing top-secret knowledge. Dulles
resigned from the agency in November 1961, closely following the resignations of Director
of Plans Richard Bissel and Deputy Director Charles Cabell who had been more directly
responsible for the Bay of Pigs fiasco. (Ironically, President Lyndon Johnson appointed
Allen Dulles as one of seven members of the Warren Commission that investigated the
assassination of President Kennedy.) When Dulles resigned in 1961, Hunt went to work for
Helms. E. Howard Hunt remained with the CIA until 1970 and then was employed by the
Nixon White House as a "plumber" and became involved in the Watergate fiasco.

It is difficult to see how the later world famous "dirty tricks" artist of the 1970s
Watergate Era could not have been a party to the planning and development of the CIA
mind-control experiments to create an assassin in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. At very least, it
probably can be assumed that Hunt was extremely knowledgeable from the onset.

As noted above, following the CIA's Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba fiasco in April
1961, President Kennedy, only in office for a few months, forced CIA Director Allen Dulles
to resign. Hunt who had played a major role in the invasion planning, had been captured by
Castro's Cuban forces and understandably bitter at Kennedy, whose last minute withdrawal
of U.S. Air Force air cover contributed to the invasion's failure.

President Kennedy also forced CIA Deputy Director (at the time also a U.S. Air
Force Major General) Charles P. Cabell to resign. General Cabell, who had planned the air
cover for the ill-fated Cuban invasion, had called President Kennedy a "traitor" for his last
minute decision to withdraw that air cover from the invasion, one of the several reason the
effort failed.
One of the many fascinating coincidences surrounding the murder of President
Kennedy is that General Cabell's brother, Earl Cabell, was Mayor of Dallas, Texas, on
November 22, 1963.

His brother General Charles Cabell's name joined long list of mysterious deaths
connected in some way with the Kennedy assassination. On May 25, 1971, a year before the
1972 Watergate break-in and ten years after the Bay of Pigs fiasco, General Cabell died of
an apparent heart attack just minutes after a physical examination in which he had been
given a perfect bill of health at Fort Meyers Army Hospital near the Pentagon.

That aside, the America to which Oswald returned in June 1962 with his Russian
wife Marina and their baby was different from the America that he had left and had
renounced. Kennedy had been president for a year-and-a-half. The Civil Rights Movement
was beginning to show its strength. CIA and military people were visibly nervous over
perceived easing of confrontation with the Soviets, including nuclear test ban initiatives.

It created great anxiety in conservatives and drove the right-wing into frenzies. The
newly created ultra-right John Birch Society fed on it. Birch members and sympathizers,
whose cars often sported the old Ku Klux Klan slogan "Support Your Local Police," now
also added "Impeach Earl Warren," aimed at the liberal Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
—later head of the Warren Commission—whose liberal civil rights decisions worried
conservatives and angered the lunatic right.

Everyone was aware that the lunatic right ground their collective teeth even more
viciously over the mere fact that liberal John F. Kennedy was president.

In Cuba, Castro had declared himself a Communist and sided with Russia in the
Cold War, and US policy was midway between the April 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion fiasco
and the yet-to-come October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Castro had kicked out the last of
the Mafiosi who had run lucrative Casino Havana prior to his takeover, and bitter Cubans
had fled their country and were plotting, with massive CIA help, to overthrow the Cuban
Communist dictator.

Often noted is the fact that the Oswalds, one a Cold War defector, the other a Soviet
citizen and niece of a Russian security colonel, had less trouble than one might think in
slipping through the paperwork, travel, and emigration-immigration barriers to get from
Moscow to Fort Worth, Texas. But one might wonder if a serious effort to use Oswald and
thus to begin manipulating him did not begin then. Cost may have been a factor in not
putting the Oswalds on a two-or-three-day flight from Moscow to Texas. But one may
wonder. It took the Oswalds, Lee, Marina, and their baby, twenty-two days to go from
Moscow to Fort Worth by train, ship, and then plane, the first part of it a grueling three days
and nights on a train from Moscow to Rotterdam. Intentionally softening them up for
manipulation is not out of the question. And if not that, they still would have been exhausted
and somewhat disoriented due to the exhaustion and as a result easier to manipulate.

On an excellent small website created in 2007 Perry Vermeulen reveals details of the
journey from the USSR back to the United States by Marina and Lee Harvey Oswald and
their infant child. They obtained tickets from the earlier mentioned Michael Jelisavcic, a
Yugoslav-born naturalized American working at the American Express office in Moscow
who may have had CIA ties. Due to Vermeulen's clever research we now know that Marina
and Lee Oswald departed Moscow on Friday, June 1, 1962, at 04:10 p.m. and began a
grueling three-day train trip that would get them to Rotterdam, Netherlands, on Sunday,
June 3 at 11:22 a.m.

Jelisavcic, or somebody, apparently had made arrangements for them to pick up their
steamship tickets at the American Express outlet in Rotterdam. In addition to that, he may
have found them a pleasant place to stay at 250 Mathenesserlaan, away from the tourist
hotels near the docks. Curiously, this was a pension, a long-term apartment for older people
and not used for hotel-like overnight stays. The manager at the time denied that he rented
any rooms overnight to the Oswalds or anyone else. So one can only wonder what kind of
unusual arrangement had been made for them to stay one night in this apartment for older
people and what the place really may have been, as for instance a safe-house of some kind.
Vermeulen's research shows that they stayed in that Rotterdam pension only
overnight. It was clearly necessary after that grueling three-day train trip across Europe, but
hardly offered enough time to fully recover from it. Oswald then had to go to the American
Express outlet at 92 Meent to pick up his steamship tickets. The ship, the SS Maasdam,
departed Rotterdam for Hoboken, New Jersey, at about noon on June 4, 1962 for a nine-day
voyage across the Atlantic.

Vermeulen also found that in a letter to her aunt and uncle Valya and Ilya Prusakova
in Minsk, Marina Oswald said that it took twenty-two days from the time they left Minsk
with their baby to the time they arrived in Fort Worth. Constantly traveling without a home
of their own with a baby for twenty-two days and then only to find themselves staying at
Oswald's brother's house would have been exhausting and disorienting.

Oswald was now a family man with a wife and a child to support. Oswald was also a
notorious and world famous political defector who had returned home to a very uncertain
future. For two-and-a-half years he had enjoyed being an interesting and decently
established foreigner with a steady job, adequate income, and satisfactory apartment in
Minsk. Now he was back in a world he understood all too well, a lone poverty-stricken
pariah in a very unsympathetic culture.

As the child of a poor and wandering single-parent family, he had grown up with no
father for future family input and amid instability that left him with few examples and
values. The police and intelligence agencies who began watching him of course knew that
and knew all his vulnerabilities due to it.

As might be expected with his background and that situation, Oswald was a
miserable—in all senses of the word – family man. He apparently beat his wife. He tried
hard but could not adequately provide for his family. And all this, of course, must have been
terribly frustrating to both Lee and Marina Oswald. The marriage was foreordained to
failure and all the additional stress and trauma of that.

On their arrival in the Dallas-Fort Worth area, the Oswalds were forced to stay with
his brother and sister-in-law Robert and Vada Oswald at their house. His first project was to
contact a professional typist to assist him in writing a book about "My Life in Russia."
Oswald claimed to the typist, Pauline V. Bates, that he had a friend in Texas, an engineer of
Russian origin in the oil business, possibly George de Mohrenschildt or Peter Paul Gregory,
was going to help him publish the book.

I should be noted here that high-school dropout Oswald almost certainly could not
drive a car and could not type. Those theorists that suggest that Lee Harvey Oswald might
have been a CIA agent might wonder what he may have had to offer the agency that was so
valuable that they could overlook the fact that he was inadequately educated and could not
drive and type.
After paying ten dollars that his mother had given him for ten single-spaced
typewritten pages, Oswald told Bates he could not afford any more typing. Oswald rejected
Bates' offer to type the rest without payment and took his material and left.

It is curious that no one was interested enough in Oswald's Russian experience to


purchase rights to a book, almost as if he had been shielded from either the monetary gain or
the publicity for more nefarious purposes.

The Texas Employment Commission recommended Oswald to Peter Paul Gregory


as a translator. He had, after all, good Russian language skills and an ear for recent idiomatic
uses. Gregory appreciated Oswald's command of Russian but had no immediate work for
him.

With the FBI and other intelligence agencies watching him closely, Oswald
attempted to restore his honorable Marine discharge, which had been summarily changed to
dishonorable while he was in Russia. It was one more handicap to gaining employment in
addition to his widely known defection and lack of a drivers license.

Although he may have had useful skills in language and background in military
radar and electronics, exactly one month after the boat docked at Hoboken, Oswald finally
went to work for $1.25 an hour (minimum wage) on July 13, 1962. He assembled doors and
windows Leslie Welding Company in Fort Worth, undoubtedly by then providing a
desperately needed paycheck.

After cashing his second $56 weekly paycheck at the end of July 1962, Oswald
rented an apartment, the first privacy for his wife and him since they had left Moscow at the
beginning of June 1962.

After they had lived in that apartment for two weeks, they were visited by FBI
agents John Fain and Arnold J. Brown, who further interviewed Oswald alone, outside by
their car. Oswald was uncooperative. Mysteriously, according to the records, the FBI
national security case on Oswald was temporarily closed four days later.

Oswald, a pariah making minimum wage, trying against all odds to be a father and
support his family, was, of course, extremely manipulable by an assembly of powerful
forces all around him. In view of the now known desperate acts of the CIA, other
government agencies, and right wing extremist groups in the Cold War hysteria of the time,
how could any or all of these have passed up the various chances to utilize him?

The CIA apparently continued its interest in Oswald through other channels, some of
which were apparently included in the central Texas White Russian community.

As the summer progressed, the Oswalds became more and more involved with
staunchly anti-Communist and financially well-off White Russian emigres, including
George de Mohrenschildt, understandable on the face of it in view of Marina's isolation
from Russia and Russian-speaking contact other than these people. The Warren Commission
interview with de Mohrenschildt may offer a glimpse into a social networking of the
displaced elite of Russia. Educated, sophisticated, and comfortable in social situations, they
offered small and large support to one another. In addition, they were understandably anti-
Communist and found a new political home in the prevailing militant anti-Communism of
the Cold War.

Lee and Marina Oswald were thrust by the circumstances of their lives into the
midst of this community. They were by and large pleasant people trying to live in a world
that circumstance had thrust upon them. But for Lee Harvey Oswald they may have seemed
a singularly unpleasant group of people with strange aristocratic etiquette and conventions.
Moreover, the extremities of their rather clubby little group reached out into the more
vicious far-right and racist elements of marginally Deep South Texas and Louisiana.

So when they connected Oswald with always minimum-wage jobs, he ended up


working for racists, right-wingers, and Cold Warriors. With skills and experience that he felt
he could sell, he ended up being required to work for people that he did not like in miserable
survival-wage jobs. Either the group of people who were ostensibly helping him were
actually taunting him, or circumstances had made his life a miserable mockery from which
there seemed no escape. He was, to say the least, vulnerable to manipulation.

George de Mohrenschildt is prevailingly referred to as Oswald's "CIA handler."


Whether this may be true or not, de Mohrenshildt seems to have initially come into contact
with Lee Harvey Oswald at the request of J. Walter Moore of the CIA's Domestic Contact
Service in Dallas.

George de Mohrenshildt was born to an aristocratic family in Russia in April 1911,


three years before World War One broke out and six years before the Bolshevik Revolution.
He died in Florida in the United States as a result of an apparently self-inflicted 20-gauge
shotgun blast into his mouth on March 29, 1977. When this fatal gunshot wound occurred
he had been been on a lunch break from and interview with assassination author Edward Jay
Epstein, who expected him to return after a lunch break and continue the interview. Within
this timeframe, but not on that day, de Mohrenschildt was also continuing conversations
with Dutch journalist and investigator Willem Oltmans. And he had had just received a
notification, a virtual summons, from Gaeton Fonzi, an investigator for the House Select
Committee on Assassinations. (later Willem Oltmans played de Mohrenshildt in Oliver
Stone's film JFK.)

In his interview with the Warren Commission over a dozen years earlier, de
Mohrenschildt said he had been in Haiti since April 1963, and far from Dallas in November
22. Nothing has been found to contradict this claim. But one might wonder what
information he might have been willing to divulge to one or both investigative writers a
dozen years later or to the second committee investigating the Kennedy assassination that
had just notified him of their additional interest in him. If he might have been in Haiti on
November 22, prior to April, de Mohrenschildt had been rather deeply involved in the lives
of Lee Harvey Oswald and his Russian wife Marina. And at least one curious claim in on the
Internet that de Mohrenschildt reported directly to George H. W. Bush, then with
connections to the CIA, later Director of the CIA, after that Vice President or the United
States, and then President of the United States.

According to Wikipedia George de Mohrenschildt's father had been named Sergius


Alexander von Mohrenschildt and was a wealthy Russian before the Bolshevik revolution.
He escaped into Poland from Russia and died a refugee living in Germany during World
War Two. The Mohrenshildt family had settled in Russia from Sweden, and George de
Mohrenshildt told the Warren Commission that Swedish custom allows one to use either
"de" or "von" before a family name. His brother, however, used the "von" form of the family
name.

George de Mohrenschildt received the equivalent of a doctorate in international


commerce from the University of Liege in Belgium in 1938. He received a master's degree
in petroleum geology from the University of Texas in 1945 and was working for the U.S.
State Department as a petroleum geologist when President Kennedy was assassinated.

He had a long history of suspected intelligence connections, apparently including


some contact with Nazi German intelligence in Mexico during World War Two. He publicly
stated that he had been connected with allied intelligence during World War II.

While George de Mohrenschildt's application to join the OSS (predecessor of the


CIA) was rejected, his older brother Dimitri von Mohrenschildt's application was not
rejected. He went on to become part of the CIA's Radio Free Europe complex. Also
according to Wikipedia, Dimitri's "contacts included top officials of the agency." He died at
the age of 100 in 2002.

George de Mohrenschildt's former son-in-law, Gary Taylor, told the Warren


Commission "whatever his (Mohrenschildt's) suggestions were, Lee (Oswald) grabbed them
and took them, whether it was what time to go to bed or where to stay." Many have assumed
that George de Mohrenschildt was Oswald's "operator" (in the hypnotic sense of the word).

George de Mohrenschildt's death in March 1977, just as he was about to be


interviewed by a reporter and while the House Select Committee on Assassinations, the
second official inquiry into the assassination of President Kennedy was ongoing, silenced
whatever he knew and might have been willing to tell. Mohrenschildt apparently first met
Oswald at the home of Admiral Henry C. Bruton, U.S. Navy, connected with the Office of
Naval Intelligence. He probably would have had some access to the CIA through his rank as
an admiral. Ostensibly these meetings were part of a local Russian-speaking group.
Oswald's wife Marina was Russian. Oswald also spoke Russian. But whatever these
meetings may have been, one is forced to ask questions about poverty-stricken defector-
pariah and self-proclaimed Communist's inclusion in the circles of the powerful military
elite and extremely wealthy anti-Communist Texas oil figures.

Mohrenschildt is known to have been in Guatemala City as part of a "long vacation"


in April 1961, coinciding with training for the Bay of Pigs invasion taking place in
Guatemala then, training directed by E. Howard Hunt, among others.
Through Mohrenschildt's connections, Oswald got a job at the Jaggers-Chiles-
Stovall map printing company and started there on October 11, 1962. Among the items
printed there were maps derived from photographs by U-2 aircraft. These U-2-derived
photos arrived at Jaggers-Chiles-Stovall even before they got to CIA headquarters in
Langley, Virginia. As an employee, Oswald had to walk through the room where these U-2
photos were laid out in order to get to the darkroom for his own regular work. It would
appear that the national security apparatus was very confident about having Oswald under
their control.

On March 25, 1963, on the same day that the now famous Mannlicher-Carcano rifle
arrived for one "A. Hidell" at Klein's Sporting Goods store in Dallas, Oswald was
psychologically dunned with a notice that his job with the map printing company would be
terminated on April 5, 1963. One might wonder whether this was coincidence or design.

About a month earlier, Oswald had been introduced to one Volkmar Schmidt who
had studied under a professor named Wilhelm Kuetemeyer at Heidelberg University. The
phonetic spelling of the first two syllables of the university name might have been the
derivation of the name "Hidell" Oswald apparently used to purchase the rifle. Schmidt's
professor, Kuetemeyer, taught psychosomatic medicine and religion. Schmidt brought up
the subject of General Edwin Walker, U.S. Army, who lived in Dallas and had been fired by
President Kennedy for distributing John Birch Society literature to his troops in Germany.

Like Kerry Thornley and his book about a Marine's moral breakdown, questions can
be raised about Schmidt. His interest in Oswald seems to have been research into the mind
of a fanatic. Some of the CIAs "terminal" mind-control experiments had been done in
Germany in the 1950s, and there may well have been some awareness of these in a
department teaching psychosomatic medicine. De Mohrenschildt had brought Schmidt into
contact with Oswald.

But testimony about Oswald's personality to the Warren Commission and others
shows a reasonable and stable young man who in addition liked Kennedy as president.
(some material below drawn from an article "Hasty Judgement" by Michael T. Griffith,
1998)

In her book Accessories After the Fact: The Warren Commission, the Authorities
and the Report, Sylvia Meagher lists a number of people who had in testimony and public
statements vouched for Oswald's character. In introducing this list of people and her careful
analyses of their statements, Meagher says that there is "no basis in any of the available
medical or psychiatric histories for allegations that Oswald was psychotic, aberrant, or
mentally unsound in any degree. His life history is consistent with the conclusion that he
was a rational and stable personality (which is not to say that he was appealing, admirable,
or untroubled). He was capable of marriage and fatherhood, with responsibility and
devotion, particularly to his two children. He was conscientious in his punctuality and work,
completed military service satisfactorily, paid his bills and repaid his debts promptly, and
managed his practical affairs capably."
Meagher first lists the person closest to Oswald, his wife Marina, who testified to the
Warren Commission that she considered Oswald "mentally sound, smart and capable, not
deprived of reason." George de Mohrenschildt himself testified that he did not think that
Oswald had any hatred in him.

Additional people who knew Oswald made similar comments to the Warren
commission or note that Oswald did not appear to be capable of the crime:

Sam Ballen of the Russian-speaking community who knew Oswald.

George Bouhe, his former boss, who did not think Oswald capable even though he
did not like Oswald.

Anna Meller, Elena Hall, Michael Paine, Paul Gregory, Lillian Murret (Oswald's
aunt), Marilyn Murret (her daughter), Lt. Donovan (Oswald's Marine commanding officer),
Adrian Alba (who knew Oswald in New Orleans in 1963), Tommy Bargas, (another of
Oswald's employers), Helen P. Cunningham (an employment counselor), FBI Agent Quigley
(interviewed Oswald after his arrest in New Orleans), Lt. Francis Martello (intelligence
division New Orleans Police Department) all found Oswald to be stable, could not believe
that he would kill anyone let alone President Kennedy, and said that Oswald liked Kennedy
as president.

Widespread belief that Oswald was some kind of a nut would seem on the surface to
have naturally grown from the audacity and national shock of the dastardly November 22
deed. But it does not seem totally impossible that some of it may have been carefully
planted and nurtured by highly skilled disinformation professionals hoping to cover criminal
tracks. And if this might have been the case, some groundwork smearing Oswald could have
been carefully laid prior to the November 22 murder.

It is now widely assumed that it was Oswald who shot at Walker on April 5, the day
his map company job was terminated, but evidence of this alleged act, as with most things in
the Kennedy assassination including Oswald's marksmanship, is ambiguous. General
Walker, before and after that after that a looming figure in far-right-wing Texas politics,
would be arrested years later for soliciting prostitution in a public men's restroom. It was
Marina Oswald's testimony that de Mohrenschildt had come over to the Oswald house and
shouted an ambiguous seeming taunt about firing a shot and missing General Walker that
brought de Mohrenschildt to the attention of the Warren Commission.

Two weeks after that incident, on April 25, Oswald arrived in New Orleans. Two
weeks after that, on May 9, he got a near minimum wage job with the William B. Reily
Company, importers and roasters of Latin American coffee. Owner William Reily was a
supporter of the militant right-wing and CIA-coordinated "Free Cuba Committee,"
sometimes called the "Crusade to Free Cuba Committee," which unabashedly mixed Mafia-
connected and CIA-connected Cuban exiles in anti-Castro activities. Through that
connection he probably would have had some acquaintance with David Ferrie, and David
Ferrie probably would have known of Oswald for eight years by then, from their days in the
Civil Air Patrol in New Orleans.

Oswald may have gotten the job there through an aunt whom he had not had regular
contact with since childhood, Lillian Murret. She was the mother of Marilyn Dorothy
Murret, the tall attractive woman with long black hair who had been in Japan while Oswald
was at stationed near the U-2 hangers at Atsugi and may been the "Eurasian" woman at the
Queen Bee in Tokyo.

Lillian may have had some loose and possibly unknowing connection to the CIA
through employment with the Mullen Company, a CIA-associated company which
apparently was caught laundering money during Watergate. Oswald put down her son, his
cousin John Murret, as a reference on the job application form. But however Oswald got his
job, it is strange in view of widespread CIA and right-wing knowledge of his past that this
company hired him.

In their 1992 book Deadly Secrets (Thunder's Mouth Press), Warren Hinckle and
William Turner noted that several men who had been hired by Reily Coffee at about the
same time as Oswald left to work at an NASA facility that had a CIA stations associated
with it. In attempting to debunk this in his article "Lee Oswald: Space Cadet?" Dave Reitzes
reveals that the source for this was probably the Garrison investigation made famous by
Oliver Stone's film and only two of those men went to work for NASA contractors in the
area.

Garrison had found the name of Dante Marochini (although he misspelled it, and as
a result it turns up misspelled in several accounts) who had been a William B. Reily
Company employee at the same time as Oswald. He had been employed at Reily's nearby
Standard Coffee Company facility and it is certainly not impossible that through that he
could have been aware of Lee Harvey Oswald.

Marochini resided at 1309 Dauphine Street, although the address notation has been
somewhat muddled. Garrison's investigation and charges centered on wealthy New Orleans
businessman and CIA associate Clay Shaw and noted that Shaw lived at 1309 Dauphine
Street and that another resident of the building was James Lewallen, who had once, with
other Eastern Airlines pilots, shared an apartment with David Ferrie. James Lewallen was
also connected with David Ferrie through the Civil Air Patrol. Both had been officers in the
Cleveland Fifth Squadron before coming to New Orleans.

Reitzes notes that two fellow contemporary employees of Oswald at Reily Coffee
did go on from that job to two different NASA-associated facilities after Oswald left. Alfred
Claude went to the Chrysler Aerospace Division of NASA, and John Branyon, who went on
to the Boeing Aircraft Division of NASA in Michoud. It is possible that both of these men
simply went on to better jobs at these NASA-related facilities.

But Reitzes notes something interesting. James Ronald Lewallen, David Ferrie's
friend, fellow Eastern Airlines pilot, and fellow Civil Air Patrol officer, worked as a quality
inspector for the Boeing Company at the Michoud Saturn rocket plant in the New Orleans
area. It is a stretch. But it is also an awful coincidence.

The minimum-wage paycheck was enough for the Oswald family to rent a $65 per
month apartment on Magazine Street and set up housekeeping.

On May 26, 1963, about two weeks after beginning work at the Reily Coffee
Company on May 9, Oswald wrote a letter to the Castro-supporting "Fair Play for Cuba
Committee" proposing to set up a branch in New Orleans. He asked for applications and "a
picture of Fidel suitable for framing." One might wonder if something stirred him up to do
that or if someone manipulated him into doing something like that. Lee Harvey Oswald and
his wife and child were getting settled down to a normal life in an apartment at 4905
Magazine Street after she had moved there from Texas on May 11.

Three days after writing this letter to the "Fair Play For Cuba Committee" and
without bothering to wait for a reply, Oswald, using the name Lee Osborne, ordered a
thousand copies of a "hands off Cuba" flier from a downtown New Orleans printer, the
Jones Printing Company.

Then he rented the famous office at 544 Camp Street, in the same building but
around the corner from the 531 Lafayette Street offices of the "Cuban Revolutionary
Council" headed by former FBI agent and far-right-wing supporter of anti-Castro causes,
Guy Banister.

In the early 1960's, the CIA had assigned E. Howard Hunt and Bernard Barker of
later Watergate fame to consolidate anti-Castro Cuban efforts, and both spoke of their deep
involvement with the "Cuban Revolutionary Council."

Banister, who died of a "heart attack" in 1964, also had ties to New Orleans Mafia
boss Carlos Marcello, the former Mafia boss in Havana whom Castro had kicked out Cuba.
Because Attorney General Bobby Kennedy, the president's brother, had unceremoniously
forced Marcello into exile in Guatemala, The Mafia kingpin hated the Kennedy brothers and
swore revenge.

An associate of Banister in his detective business was David Ferrie, the professional
hypnotist who had been the commanding officer in Oswald's Civil Air Patrol unit in the
early 1950s. On November 24, 1963, immediately after the assassination of President
Kennedy, Banister closed his 531 Lafayette Street office.

David Ferrie had been involved in the Bay of Pigs operation in 1961, presumably as
a pilot. The Garrison investigation focused on possible assassination planning links between
Ferrie and Oswald, clearly unaware at the time of the massive CIA mind-control program to
create an assassin under way during the very minutes of the Kennedy assassination.

It is now well known that Ferrie not only had strong CIA ties but worked for ex-
Cuban Mafia chieftain and at that time New Orleans Mafia boss Carlos Marcello, this at a
time when there was an ongoing CIA program to utilize Mafia people to assassinate Fidel
Castro.

In July 1963, the CIA's ARTICHOKE (formerly BLUEBIRD when it was set up in
Japan) project attempted to demonstrate instant hypnotic techniques on a "double agent" in
Mexico. The experiment, however, was recorded as a laughable failure. One has to recall,
though, proposed earlier ARTICHOKE experiments along this line going back at least to
1954.

People have claimed that in September 1963, when Oswald took a bus to Mexico
City, Hunt was CIA Station Chief there. He probably was not. E. Howard Hunt admitted
working at the Mexico station several times, but denied he was there in 1963. But researcher
and journalist Tad Szulc says that he was the station chief there. The credible rumor does
raise questions as to how much of the truth Hunt may have been telling. People seem to
remember seeing him in Mexico at this time.

On September 25, 1963, Oswald crossed the Mexican border aboard a Continental
Trailways bus bound for Mexico City, arriving there after a grueling overnighter on
September 27.

On September 28, he seems to have gone to the Russian embassy, but the
photographs supplied by the CIA show, for whatever reasons, someone who is clearly not
Oswald. Recent records and testimony made available by Russian and Cuban embassy
officials seem to support the allegations that Oswald did, indeed, visit these embassies, so
the apparent CIA deception with the surveillance photographs is puzzling. Was someone in
the spook bureaucracy initially afraid that "Manchurian Candidate" programs would be
revealed?

CIA Counterintelligence chief James Jesus Angleton handled the release of the
mysterious non-Oswald photographs. Additionally, CIA surveillance tapes of Oswald's
conversations in these embassies were—in a suggestion of later Watergate tactics—
mysteriously destroyed. What was the CIA trying to hide?

After failing to obtain visas to either Cuba or the USSR, Oswald returned to Texas
aboard a Transporte del Norte bus on September 28.

A few days later, through the Oswald's friend Ruth Paine, apparently then working
for the American Friends Service Committee, Oswald heard of a minimum-wage warehouse
job opening at the now famous Texas Book Depository Building. Mrs. Paine, who had been
introduced to the Oswalds by de Mohrenschildt on February 22, had become a good friend
and supporter of Marina Oswald.

In 1976, Senator Frank Church's intelligence committee found a large number of


classified documents relating to Ruth Paine and her husband Michael. Perhaps these have
been released unaltered by now. A Warren Commission document belatedly released in 1976
(#206, page 66) discloses a wiretap on Michael Paine apparently shortly after the
assassination. It concerns a conversation between his wife and him: "advised that male voice
was heard to comment that he felt sure that LEE HARVEY OSWALD had killed the
President but did not feel that Oswald was responsible." He further stated: "We both know
who is responsible." Could this mean that they were aware of some external psychological
or hypnotic control of Oswald?

It is also interesting that there is no record of any FBI or CIA wiretaps on Oswald
prior to the Kennedy assassination. Here was a man with a Russian wife related to an MVD
officer, a man with military radar knowledge who had defected and lived for years in the
USSR before returning, and a man who had recently visited the Cuban and Russian
embassies in Mexico City. Why not?

On October 20, 1963, the Oswalds' second child was born at Parkland Hospital,
where both the president and Oswald would die about a month later.

On November 21, the evening before the fatal and fateful day, Oswald hitched a ride
with fellow Texas Book Depository employee Buell Wesley Frazier to suburban Irving,
where both Frazier and the Paines lived. Oswald's wife Marina, separated by then, was
living at the Paine's house.

Frazier claimed that Oswald told him he was going to pick up curtain rods. But
former CIA voice stress analyst expert George O'Toole (The Assassination Tapes; an
Electronic Probe Into the Murder of John F. Kennedy and the Dallas Coverup, by George
J.A. O'Toole, Penthouse Press, 1975) used his sophisticated instruments on tape recorded
answers to questions. O'Toole concluded that Frazier was not telling the truth.

While the Psychological Stress Evaluator my not in itself be convincing, especially


when used as a lie detector, the difficulties O'Toole had in locating Frazier in 1974, eleven
years after the assassination, strongly suggest either a continuing FBI investigation or a
continuing FBI coverup. Frazier was then in the U.S. Army and unusually isolated from
public contact at Fort Hood, Texas, south of Dallas.

O'Toole's publisher had to pay a private detective to locate Frazier and record
answers to questions so O'Toole could test these with the Psychological Stress Evaluator. If
the device is to be given any credibility as a lie detector, Frazier flunked it. Might Frazier
have been in on a CIA operation to manipulate Oswald?

The assassination was, by then, only hours away. And a murder is a comparatively
easy thing to accomplish. Any brainless nut with a weapon can murder.

The assassination of a great imperial head of state, however, is hardly just any old
murder. For one thing, the intent is not necessarily to kill the human being but to change the
direction of bitterly opposed policy. When Brutus, Cassius, and the others killed Julius
Caesar in 44 BC, it was not because they disliked Julius but because they hoped to save the
Roman republic from looming dictatorship. The lesson of history is that the murder
succeeded And Julius Caesar died. But the assassination—partly because Brutus, Cassius
and the others were identifiable and strikingly obvious about their intentions—failed. The
death of Julius Caesar marks the end of the Roman republic and the beginning of Imperial
Rome.

An assassination by calculated design needs to distance itself as much as humanly


possible from the political motives of the murderers, even more so if the motives are well
into the political minority and poorly understood by the public.

In other words, a patsy has to be found—someone appearing to have quite different


political motives who can take the public rap for the act. A patsy may be someone totally
innocent of the crime, or he or she might be stirred up by others to participate in committing
it, and the CIA mind-control experiments seem to have pursued this line. But the CIA mind-
control experiments went a step farther and tried to create an assassin who would murder on
hypnotic suggestion—still, of course, a patsy even though the actual murderer.

O'Toole suggests that Frazier bought financially strapped Oswald's Mannlicher-


Carcano rifle on the evening of November 21. Oswald had in his possession at the time of
his arrest almost exactly the amount of money he had originally paid for the gun, and this
sum would represent the least amount an anxious buyer would have had to put up for it.

The Mannlicher-Carcano rifle was the one left in the Texas Book Depository
Building that linked Oswald to the murder of President Kennedy. It had been wiped clean of
fingerprints except for an Oswald palm print in a suspect location.

As for Frazier, he was arrested after the assassination with a British 303 rifle in his
car and was, for a time, as much a suspect as Oswald.

Another interesting discovery O'Toole's psychological stress evaluator made from


the private detective's tape recording was a moderate stress reading indicating deception
when Frazier commented that he thought Oswald was more intelligent than most people
thought. Might Frazier have known of a scheme to make Oswald seem more intelligent than
he really was? There are certainly suggestions of the creation of a "legend" around Oswald
going at least as far back as his ostensibly unaided circuitous route into the USSR.

It was Frazier's testimony about the curtain rods wrapped in brown paper he said
Oswald brought into the Book Depository Building that linked the alleged murder weapon,
the Mannlicher-Carcano rifle, to both Oswald and the scene of the crime.

All we know now is that the rifle Oswald had recently owned was found by the
building window where witnesses said they heard the shots come from and that Frazier said
he saw Oswald carrying "curtain rods" into the building that morning.

Dallas police officer Marrion L. Baker leapt from his motorcycle at the moment of
the shooting and ran into the Book Depository Building. Joined by Roy Truly, the building
manager, they found Oswald standing calmly by a soft drink machine on a different floor
than the noticeably open window where the shooting seemed to have been done and where
the rifle was later found.

Officer Baker asked the building manager if Oswald worked there. Roy Truly told
him he did, and they went on to search the building.

Though later arrested for the murder of Dallas Police Officer J.D. Tippet, with
probable cause links that stretch the imagination—from the mob of police personnel present
to arrest Oswald for sneaking into a theater without paying admission of less than a dollar, to
the link, because of the distances and times involved, with the murder of Tippet. Oswald
was never given the opportunity to explain himself in a courtroom. He was murdered by
Jack Ruby on November 24, two days after the murder of the president.

During his interrogation on November 22, Oswald said, "I haven't any views on the
President. I like his family very much."

O'Toole's voice stress analyses of Oswald's media recorded statements as he was


being brought to and from his jail cell for interrogation indicate he is probably telling the
truth in his famous "patsy" comment.

It is not surprising that a defector who knew he was being watched—and had been
interviewed—by police officials would suggest that he was being set up as a patsy. One has
to wonder, though, how much Oswald really knew.

O'Toole, a former CIA employee, offered a unique theory, and considerable voice
stress data to back it up, that the assassination and conspiracy came from within the Dallas
Police Department. It is interesting as far as it goes, but might O'Toole have somehow
limited and restrained himself?

Earl Cabell was mayor of Dallas and nominally the police chief's boss. Earl's brother
was fired by Kennedy. He was CIA deputy director and Air Force major general Charles
Cabell, who had expressed his hatred toward Kennedy. E. Howard Hunt and General Cabell
worked together on Bay of Pigs invasion planning and operations, and it is difficult to
imagine that Hunt would not have at least once briefly met the mayor of Dallas, Texas.

There was, therefore, a potential "Bay of Pigs" and CIA connection with the Dallas
Police Department, and possibly O'Toole unknowingly uncovered some parts of it. But there
is another potential connection going back prior to 1961 between the federal government,
including the CIA, and the nation's police forces. Housed in the Treasury Department was
"The Technical Investigation Aids School."

After 1961, more centralized similar training was set up in Florida called "The
National Intelligence Academy," (later the Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit) using
"untraceable" Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) funds.
Alumni of these went on to participate in Watergate-famous illegal operations such
as COINTELPRO, operation CHAOS, and operation SHAMROCK.

It brings to mind Richard Sheridan's famous humorous drama, "School for Scandal,"
except that there was nothing funny. These schools became training centers for quasi-fascist
tactics and might even be said to have evolved into sinister criminal organizations
threatening the fragile American democracy while piously concealing criminality in law
enforcement nomenclature and purposes.

In the fear and paranoia of the Cold War Warfare State, Congress became
exceedingly liberal in funding harebrained hair-raising secret projects, and many went
haywire without effective oversight. The point is that the CIA did not have a complete
monopoly.

Government secrecy, of course, leads to trouble. There is no dispute that the cover-
up, for sinister reasons or not, began immediately after President Kennedy was shot.

Three so-called "tramps" who had been on the railroad tracks behind the Grassy
Knoll when President Kennedy was shot were briefly arrested by police. They wore
disheveled old clothes but had on expensive new shoes. News photographers, suspecting
these three gentlemen might have something to do with the shooting, took a number of
photographs. Strangely though, these three "tramps" were taken down the street by FBI
agents and released—without so much as getting their names as potential witnesses.

If one looks at the good glossy photographs, the "tramps" do not look at all like
tramps or winos. They are all clean shaven and have a healthy glow and military bearing.
One of the tramps, moreover, looks exactly like E. Howard Hunt making a contrived "funny
face" to minimize recognition or identification, probably a taught skill at the CIA. In 1963,
nearly a decade before Watergate, no one knew who E. Howard Hunt was. Following Hunt's
arrest for his part in the Watergate break-in, a number of assassination researchers pointed
out his amazing resemblance of one of the "tramps." On his deathbed Hunt admitted to
being knowledgeable of the plot and is said to have admitted being in Dallas.

One has to wonder how much Hunt knew and took to the grave with him.

A sharp-eyed man named Lee Bowers saw the "tramps" in a freight train beginning
its scheduled move out of the rail yard behind the Grassy Knoll. He called police attention to
them before the train got away. And he was one of the many witnesses who died mysterious
deaths after the assassination. He was killed when his car hit a bridge, and one has to recall
the attempts related in Congressional testimony to put a CIA-developed substance on the
steering wheel of Jack Anderson's car in the Watergate era. One has to wonder at the long
list of mysterious deaths of witnesses to the Kennedy assassination and other knowledgeable
people. It also recalls whistleblower Karen Silkwood's fatal car accident.

One has to wonder what the mysterious Watergate burglary was all about. Did guilt-
ridden former and active CIA personnel think the Democrats had some goods on President
Nixon or his immediate associates? Nixon, as vice president during the Eisenhower
administration, had to be "inside the loop" on Bay of Pigs planning and the CIA mind-
control efforts to create a "Manchurian Candidate" assassin or patsy.

Richard M. Nixon is perhaps the only American who did not know exactly where he
was on November 22, 1963. He was, in fact, in Dallas earlier in the day. But in testimony to
the Warren Commission, he claimed he could not remember where he was.

Another Republican president, George Bush, seems to have been involved in the
CIA Bay of Pigs operation, around which both the Kennedy assassination and the Watergate
burglary seem to swirl. There is a large gap in Bush's biography at the time of the invasion
preparations in Guatemala. Bush, at the time, was ostensibly involved with offshore oil
drilling in the Caribbean, but may well have really been involved with shipping CIA
supplies to the Cuban exile and CIA forces training for the invasion, forces led by E.
Howard Hunt.

After Hunt was arrested for his part in the Watergate burglary, he made at least one
attempt to stay out of jail. In the June 21, 1972 White House tape recording Nixon was
forced to release, Nixon, who was himself aware of the White House taping for historical
purposes, says to Haldeman:

". . . this Hunt, that will uncover a lot of things. You open that scab and there's a hell
of a lot of things . . . This involves these Cubans, Hunt, and a lot of hanky-panky.

. . . just say (unintelligible) very bad to have this fellow Hunt, ah he knows too
damned much, if he was involved—you happen to know that? If it gets out that this is all
involved, the Cuba thing, it would be a fiasco. It would make the CIA look bad, its going to
make Hunt look bad, and it's likely to blow the whole Bay of Pigs thing which we think
would be very unfortunate—both for the CIA and for the country."

The Bay of Pigs was history by then, and E. Howard Hunt's involvement in it was
well known. So what was Nixon really worried about? The "Cuba thing" may well have
been the now well known but then highly secret CIA use of the Mafia in attempts to
assassinate Castro, something extremely damaging to a Nixon White House already under
stress for connections to the Watergate burglary. But "Bay of Pigs thing," as used here by
Nixon, clearly indicates something even more damaging than that. Could it be a code phase
for known CIA programming of Oswald to kill Kennedy, or to be a convenient patsy to
cover the tracks of the real killer or killers?

In the final chapter of his book, John Marks notes that a few months after Richard
Nixon was re-elected and while the Watergate investigation was still largely being done by
obscure news people yet to make a big name for themselves, Nixon decided to "purge"
Richard Helms from the CIA directorship. For whatever reasons, Nixon appointed Helms as
ambassador to Iran. Before leaving the CIA to accept that post, Helms personally supervised
the "wholesale destruction" of all MK/ULTRA and its successor MK/SEARCH "documents
and tapes."
A CIA director presiding over such mundane matters as document destruction has to
remind one of Oliver North's later efforts as part of the Iran-Contra cover-up, participants of
which turn up in both Watergate and the Kennedy assassination investigations. It raises a
question as to whether it might not have been a similar situation—even whether there might
not be a thread running through all three of these great American criminal investigation
cover-ups.

Marks felt that Helms destroyed the CIA mind-control experiment documents to
minimize information that might later be used against him. And who would a CIA director
like Helms most fear but the growing eventuality of Congressional investigations? These
very investigations—that forced President Nixon to resign from the presidency before being
impeached—were then getting under way. If these documents had not been destroyed, might
they have linked Watergate to the Kennedy assassination through the CIA efforts to create a
"Manchurian Candidate" assassin?

Were top Republican Party and CIA officials knowledgeable of a CIA use of Oswald
as a "Manchurian Candidate" assassin, or patsy for an assassination? Is this what Nixon was
really worried about?

Or, in view of the revelations coming out of Watergate, one has to wonder how far
upper echelons of the Republican Party might have begun to use CIA mind-control data in
American politics. If the chief strategist of large political party publicly brags about efforts
minimize minority voter turn-out in a recent state gubernatorial election campaign, what
might such a campaign do with hypothetical but probably researched sophisticated
psychological warfare techniques to maximize and minimize voter turn-out in elections?

Watergate revealed a whole closet full of dirty tricks, and large numbers of people
have voiced concern over numerous Kennedy assassination and Watergate links. If another
of those links turned out to be the application of secret CIA mind-control research to
American politics, we might have need for far greater effort to insure genuinely democratic
elections.

What really concerns the public in the Kennedy assassination is not the sloppy
police work in a non-routine murder, but the strong suggestions of skillfully executed
political assassination and subsequent careful cover-up for the sole purpose of bypassing
Constitutionally elected government.

Watergate was, of course, another, apparently less lethal, attempt and was met with a
similar public reaction. And the chief architect of Watergate was E. Howard Hunt.

While E. Howard Hunt was in jail, his wife flew to Chicago. The plane crashed and
she and all of the other passengers were killed. Something like fifty FBI agents immediately
pounced on the crash site, strange because the FAA, not the FBI, investigates airplane
crashes. Were they looking for a link between Oswald and the CIA mind-control
experiments to create a "Manchurian Candidate" assassin that Hunt planned to use to extort
himself out of jail?

My objectives are not so much to add more Kennedy assassination questions to the
already considerable heap. I sought here to set JFK assassination questioning off in a
different direction, not only in respect to the Kennedy assassination itself but the larger issue
of democratic government in an age of increasingly sophisticated psychological
technologies, technologies only minimally understood by the voting public.

There is no argument that the CIA did years of considerable research to create an
assassin. Was that research used in any way, manner, or form to undemocratically and
unconstitutionally remove a president of the United States from office by assassination?
Might the taxpayers have funded the murder of their elected president? Was Oswald a CIA
"Manchurian Candidate" assassin or programmed patsy for an assassination?

There is no direct evidence, but there is a suspicious trail of coincidences.

And as a final thought let me add this. It is from "Truthout" on January 9, 2007, and
titled "Bush Senior Early CIA Ties Revealed," by By Russ Baker and Jonathan Z. Larsen of
The Real News Project.

George Herbert Walker Bush long denied that he had any connections to the CIA
prior to becoming its director in 1976 under President Ford.

The article says, however: "According to a CIA internal memo dated November 29,
1975, Bush's original oil company, Zapata Petroleum, began in 1953 through joint efforts
with Thomas J. Devine, a CIA staffer who had resigned his agency position that same year
to go into private business. The '75 memo describes Devine as an "oil wild-catting associate
of Mr. Bush." The memo is attached to an earlier memo written in 1968, which lays out how
Devine resumed work for the secret agency under commercial cover beginning in 1963."

Researchers have apparently linked the Zapata Petroleum to operations linked to the
Bay of Pigs invasion. And the failure of the CIA's Bay of Pigs invasion would appear to
have links to the Kennedy assassination. Possible use in the assassination of secretly
developed CIA mind-control techniques in programs like MK/ULTRA to create an assassin
or patsy for an assassination by rogue CIA personnel and associates may have stemmed
from this.

The foregoing is not meant to be an accusation or yet another JFK assassination


theory. I toss it out into the Internet ether as a raw suggestion so that others with better
minds and access to more facts might look in this direction. Who knows what they might
find?
Berkeley, 1979-80 (revised, Bay Village, December 1993, January 2008)

Other Books by Tom Slattery


Books by Tom Slattery published by iUniverse.com in 2000 and 2001
1. End of the Road
By Tom Slattery
ISBN 0-595-15902-8 / Paperback
Kent State University students interview a 110-year-old man in a nursing home in 2050
about his drive around the USA at the turn of the century in a $200 car.

2. The Goddess of Love and the Angel of Death


By Tom Slattery
ISBN 0-595-10070-8 / Paperback
Begun as a modernization of the Adam and Eve story, this novel eludes to nudity and
pornography, but is not in any way a porn novel. It is a love story about a nude model and a
nude stripper who are thrust into the world of art, attempt to become successes in it, but
succumb to tragedy. In the end their art becomes more of a success than they ever would
have dreamed.

3. Immodest Proposals
Through the Pornographic Looking Glass
By Tom Slattery
ISBN 0-595-15974-5 / Paperback

This is a nonfiction work exploring pornography from its historical beginnings and
questioning its impact on the modern world.

4. Norikaeru
By Tom Slattery

ISBN 0-595-15248-1 / Paperback


This is a short science fiction novel playing with crossing dimensions and largely set in a
dimension where the American Revolution failed because Thomas Jefferson had a
horse-and-buggy accident at a critical time in its beginnings.

5. Open 25 Hours
Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Ghost Stories
By Tom Slattery

ISBN 0-595-14022-X / Paperback

This is a collection of science fiction and ghost short stories by Tom Slattery. It contains
"The Spore," a science fiction yarn not without some satire that is remarkably similar to
the much later movie "Evolution" starring David Duchovny.

6. Preshrunk Ponderings and Rumpled Rememberings


By Tom Slattery
ISBN 0-595-16349-1 / Paperback .

This small book is a collection of largely autobiographical essays around technology and
social change.
7. Sinking Into Summer's Arms
By Tom Slattery

ISBN 0-595-09673-5 / Paperback


This is a short science fiction novel that opens with the discovery of a body of a
Neanderthal in a rapidly melting Alpine glacier in the early 21st century. The body is
secretly taken to a lab in the Netherlands, but the group of scientist there become
entangled in a plot to assassinate the new United Nations Secretary for Global Warming.
Simultaneously this United Nations Secretary learns that global warming is about to
precipitate a new ice age. The Neanderthal does play a part, but not what one might
expect.

8. The Tragic End of the Bronze Age


A Virus Makes History
By Tom Slattery
ISBN 0-595-12146-2 / Paperback
This is a nonfiction book centering on the author's apparent discovery of the initial smallpox
pandemic that wiped out bronze-age civilization in the mid-twelfth century BC. In addition,
the politics and economics of comparatively rare tin ore, the strategic mineral of the Bronze
Age, similar to the strategic mineral petroleum today, are explored.

To be pulished. Or posted on the Internet:

9. In the Year After Mom Died


By Tom Slattery
To be published in 2008 by iUniverse.com as a paperback book.
This nonfiction book is a mix of biography of a woman born in the early years of the
twentieth century who lived into the twenty-first century and additional autobiography of
her son. A very famous American author and a moderately famous American author in the
family had minor influences on their lives. But mostly it is a book about dealing with grief
after the death of a loved one.

10. The Last Human


by Tom Slattery
This novel that modernizes Mary Shelley's 1826 novel The Last Man, posted on scribd.

11. Forethought
by Tom Slattery
This is a full-length one-act stage play modernizing Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus,
complete play posted on scribd