Sie sind auf Seite 1von 48

www.islamhouse.

com

SeventyMattersRelatedto

Fasting


SheikhMuhammadSalihAlMunajjid

www.islamhouse.com
FirstEdition,1425/2004 AllrightsreservedIslamQ&A19972004 Permissionisgrantedtoalltotakematerialfromthisbook,subjecttothefollowingtwoconditions:(1)Materialusedmust be attributed to www.islamqa.com, (2) Material must be reproduced faithfully and without alteration or omission. And AllaahistheSourceofstrength. Ifyouhaveanycorrections,comments,orquestionsaboutthispublication,pleasefeelfreetocontactusat: en@islamhouse.com

1425H [2394]
Publishedby: TheIslamicPropagationOfficeinRabwah Tel.+44549004916065Ext.2627 Email:en@islamhouse.com www.islamhouse.com

www.islamhouse.com
/ - : : www.islamqa.com: : . . : en@islamhouse.com

: - : en@islamhouse.com : www.islamhouse.com

www.islamhouse.com

Introduction
PraisebetoAllaah,wepraiseHimandseekHishelpandforgiveness.We seekrefugewithAllaahfromtheevilofourownselvesandfromourevil deeds.WhomsoeverAllaahguidescannotbemisled,andwhomsoeverHe leavesastraycannotbeguided.Ibearwitnessthatthereisnogodexcept Allaah alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that MuhammadisHisslaveandMessenger. Allaah has blessed His slaves by assigning for them certain seasons of goodness in which hasanaat (rewards for good deeds) are multiplied, sayyi`aat (bad deeds) are forgiven, peoples statuses are raised and the hearts of believers turn to their Master. Those who purify themselves attainsuccess and those who corrupt themselves fail. Allaah has created HisslavestoworshipHim,asHesays: AndI(Allaah)creatednotthejinnsandhumansexceptthatthey shouldworshipMe(Alone).[SurahadhDhaariyaat51:56] One of the greatest acts of worship is fasting, which Allaah has made obligatoryonHisslaves.He()says: Observing alsiyaam (the fast) is prescribed for you as it was prescribedforthosebeforeyou,thatyoumaybecomealmuttaqoon (thepious).[SurahalBaqarah2:183] AllaahencouragesHisslavestofast: Andthatyoufast,isbetterforyou,ifonlyyouknow.[Surah alBaqarah2:184] HeguidesthemtogivethankstoHimforhavingmadefastingobligatory onthem:

www.islamhouse.com

thatyoushouldmagnifyAllaahforhavingguidedyousothat youmaybegratefultoHim.[SurahalBaqarah2:185] Hehasmadefastingdeartopeopleandhasmadeiteasyforthemsothat theydonotfindittoodifficulttogiveuptheirhabitsandwhattheyare accustomedto.Allaahsays: forafixednumberofdays[SurahalBaqarah2:184] Hehasmercyonthemandkeepsthemawayfromdifficultiesandharm, asHesays: but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (shouldbemadeup)fromotherdays[SurahalBaqarah2:184] Itisnowonderthenthatinthismonth,theheartsofthebelieversturnto theirMostMercifulLord,fearingHimabovethem,andhopetoattainHis rewardandthegreatvictory[ofParadise]. As the status of this act of worship is so high, it is essential to learn the ahkaam(rulings)pertainingtothismonthoffastingsothatMuslimswill knowwhatisobligatoryinordertodoit,whatisharaam(forbidden)in order to avoid it, and what is permissible so that they do not unnecessarily subject themselves to any hardship by depriving themselvesfromit. This book is a summary of the rulings, etiquette and Sunnah of fasting. MayAllaahmakeitofbenefittomeandmyMuslimbrothers.Praisebeto Allaah,LordoftheWorlds.

www.islamhouse.com

TheDefinitionofSiyaam(Fasting)
(1) Linguistically, siyaam in Arabic means abstinence. In Islamic terminology, it means abstaining from things that break the fast, from dawnuntilsunset,havingfirstmadetheintention(niyyah)todoso.

TheRulingconcerningFasting
(2) The Ummah (Islamic nation) is in agreement to the fact that fasting the month of Ramadan is obligatory, the evidence for which is in the Qur`aanandSunnah.Allaah()says: Oyouwhobelieve!Observingalsawn(thefasting)isprescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may becomealmuttaqoon(thepious).[SurahalBaqarah2:183] TheProphet()said: Islamisbuiltonfive[pillars]1 amongwhichhementionedfastinginRamadan.2 WhoeverbreaksthefastduringRamadanwithoutalegitimateexcusehas committed a serious major sin, The Prophet () said when describing a dreamthathehadseen: until I was at a mountain where I heard loud voices. I asked, What are these voices? They said, This is the howling of the people of Hellfire. Then I was taken [to another place], and I saw people hanging from their hamstrings with the corners of their mouthstornanddrippingwithblood.Isaid,Whoarethese?They

1 2

AlBukhaari. ReportedbyalBukhaari,alFath,1/49.

www.islamhouse.com

said,Thepeoplewhobroketheirfastbeforeitwasthepropertime todoso(i.e.,beforethetimeofbreakingfast).3 AlHaafidhalDhahabi(mayAllaahhavemercyonhim)said, Amongthebelieversitiswellestablishedthatwhoeverdoesnotfastin Ramadanwithoutavalidexcuseisworsethananadultererordrunkard; theydoubtwhetherheisevenaMuslimatall,andtheyregardhimasa hereticandprofligate. ShaykhalIslam[IbnTaymiyyah](mayAllaahhavemercyonhim)said: If a person does not fast in Ramadan knowing that it is haraam but makingithalaal(permissible)forhimselftodoso,hemustbeexecuted; and if he does it because he is immoral [but believes it is haraam (impermissible)],thenhemustbepunishedfornotfasting.4

TheVirtuesofFasting
(3)Thevirtuesoffastingaregreatindeed,andoneofthethingsreported in authentic (saheeh) ahaadeeth is that Allaah has chosen fasting for Himself,andHewillrewarditandmultiplytherewardwithoutmeasure, asHesays[inaHadeethQudsi5]: ExceptforfastingwhichisonlyforMysake,andIwillrewardhim forit.6

3 4 5

SaheehalTargheeb,1/420. MajmooalFataawaaa,25/265.

HadeethQudsi:ahadeethwhichtheProphet()narratesfromAllahexactlywhatHesaid. ItdiffersfromtheQur`aninthatitisnotrecited,anditdiffersfromaregularhadeethinthat thewordsthemselvesarerevealedandnotjustthemeanings.


6

AlBukhaari,alFath,no.1904;SaheehalTargheeb,1/407.

www.islamhouse.com

Fastinghasnoequal7,andtheduaa(supplication)ofthefastingperson willnotberefused.8 Thefastingpersonhastwomomentsofjoy:onewhenhebreakshisfast, andonewhenhemeetshisLordandrejoicesoverhisfasting9. FastingwillintercedeforapersonontheDayofJudgmentandwillsay, OLord,Ipreventedhimfromhisfoodandphysicaldesiresduring theday,soletmeintercedeforhim.10 Thesmellthatcomesfromthemouthofafastingpersonismorebeloved toAllaahthanthescentofmusk.11 Fastingisaprotectionandastrongfortressthatkeepsapersonsafefrom theFire.12 WhoeverfastsonedayforthesakeofAllaah,Allaahwilldistancehim fromtheFireadistanceofseventyyearsfromtheFire.13 WhoeverfastsonedayseekingthepleasureofAllaah,ifthatisthelast dayofhislife,hewillenterParadise.14 In Paradise there is a gate called alRayyaan through which those who fast will enter, and no one will enter through it except them; whentheyhaveentereditwillbelocked,andnooneelsewillenter throughit.15
7 8 9

AlNasaa`i,4/165;SaheehatTargheeb,1/413. ReportedbyalBayhaqi,3/345;alSilsilatalSaheehah,1797. ReportedbyMuslim,2/807.

10

ReportedbyAhmad,2/174.AlHaythamiclasseditsisnaadashasaninalMajma,3/181. SeealsoSaheehalTargheeb,1/411. Muslim,2/807. ReportedbyAhmad,2/402;SaheehalTargheeb,1/411;SaheehalJaami,3880. ReportedbyMuslim,2/808. ReportedbyAhmad,5/391;SaheehalTargheeb,1/412. AlBukhaari,Fath,no.1797.

11 12 13 14 15

www.islamhouse.com

Ramadan is a pillar of Islam, the Qur`aan was revealed in this month, andinitthereisanightthatisbetterthanathousandmonths. When Ramadan begins, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gatesofHellareclosed,andthedevilsareputinchains.16 FastingRamadanisequivalenttofastingtenmonths.17 WhoeverfastsRamadanoutoffaithandwiththehopeof(Allahs) reward,allhisprevioussinswillbeforgiven.18 Withthebreakingofeveryfast,Allaahwillchoosepeopletofreefrom Hellfire.19

TheBenefitsofFasting
(4)Thereismuchwisdomandnumerousbenefitsinfastingwhichrelate tothetaqwaaAllahmentionedintheaayah(verse): that you may become almuttaqoon (the pious). [Surah al Baqarah2:183] The interpretation of this aayah is that if a person refrains from halaal things hoping to gain the pleasure of Allaah and out of fear of His punishment,itwillbeeasierforhimtorefrainfromdoingharaamthings. When a persons stomach is empty and he is hungry, many of his other facultiesarekeptfromfeelinghungerordesires;butwhenhisstomachis satisfied, his tongue, eyes, hands and private parts start to feel hunger.

16 17 18 19

ReportedbyalBukhaari,alFath,no.3277. SeeMusnadAhmad,5/280;SaheehalTargheeb,1/421. ReportedbyalBukhaari,Fath,no.37. ReportedbyAhmad,5/256;SaheehalTargheeb,1/419.

www.islamhouse.com

Fasting leads to the defeat of Shaytaan; it controls desires and protects onesfaculties. When the fasting person feels the pangs of hunger, he experiences how the poor feel, thus he feels compassion towards them and gives them somethingtowardofftheirhunger.Hearingaboutthemisnotthesame assharingtheirsuffering,justasariderdoesnotunderstandthehardship ofwalkinguntilhegetsdownandwalks. Fasting trains the person to avoid desires and to keep away from sin; it helps a person to overcome his own nature and to wean himself away frombadhabits.Italsotrainsapersontogetusedtobeingorganizedand punctual, which will solve the problem that many people have of being disorganized,ifonlytheyrealized. Fasting is also a demonstration of the unity of the Muslims, as the Ummah(Islamicnation)fastsandbreaksitsfastallatthesametime. Fastingalsoprovidesagreatopportunityforthosewhoarecallingothers to Allaah. In this month many people come to the mosque for the first time,andalsothosewhohavenotbeentothemosqueforalongtime,and their hearts are open, so we must make the most of this opportunity by preachinginagentlemanner,teachingappropriatelessonsandspeaking beneficial words, whilst also cooperating in righteousness and good deeds.Theteachershouldnotbesopreoccupiedwithothersthoughthat heforgetshisownsoulandbecomeslikeacandlethatlightsthewayfor otherswhileitisitselfconsumed.

TheEtiquettesandSunanofFasting
Someaspectsoffastingareobligatory(fard)andothersarerecommended (mustahab).

10

www.islamhouse.com

Weshouldmakesurethatweeatanddrinksomethingatsuhoor(thetime beforedawn),andthatwedelayituntiljustbeforetheadhaanofFajr.The Prophet()said: Havesuhoor,forinsuhoorthereisblessing(barakah).20 Suhoor is blessed food, and it involves being different from the peopleoftheBook.Whatagoodsuhoorforthebelieverisdates.21 One should not delay iftaar (breakfast after dusk), because the Prophet ()said: The people remain upon goodness so long as they do not delay iftaar.22 A person should break his fast in the manner described in the hadeeth narratedbyAnas(): The Prophet () used to break his fast with fresh dates before praying; if fresh dates were not available, he would eat (dried) dates;ifdrieddateswerenotavailable,hewouldhaveafewsipsof water.23 After iftaar, it is Sunnah to recite the words reported in the hadeeth narratedbyIbnUmar(mayAllaahbepleasedwiththemboth),according towhichtheProphet(),whenhebrokehisfast,wouldsay: Dhahabaadhdhama,wabtallatilurooq,wathabatalajruinshaa Allaah (The thirst has gone, the veins are flowing again, and the rewardisconfirmed,inshaaAllaah).24

20 21 22 23

ReportedbyalBukhaari,Fath,4/139. ReportedbyAbuDawood,no.2345;SaheehalTargheeb,1/448. ReportedbyalBukhaari,Fath,4/198.

ReportedbyalTirmidhi,3/79andothers.Hesaiditisaghareebhasanhadeeth.Classedas saheehinalIrwaa,no.922. ReportedbyAbuDawood,2/765;itsisnaadwasclassedashasanbyalDaaraqutni,2/185.

24

11

www.islamhouse.com

Keepingawayfromsin,becausetheProphet()said: Whenanyofyouisfasting,lethimnotcommitanysin25 TheProphet()said: Whoever does not stop speaking falsehood and acting in accordance with it, Allaah has no need of him giving up his food anddrink.(AlBukhaari,alFath,no.1903) The fasting person should avoid all kinds of haraam actions, such as backbiting,obscenityandlying,otherwisehisrewardmayallbelost.The Prophet()said: It may be that a fasting person gets nothing from his fast except hunger.26 Amongthethingsthatcandestroyoneshasanaat(gooddeeds)andcause sayi`aat(baddeeds)toberecordedisallowingoneselftobedistractedby quizshows, soap operas, movies and sports matches, idle gatherings, hanging about in the streets with evil people and timewasters, driving around for no purpose, and crowding the streets and sidewalks. The monthoftahajjud,dhikrandworshipformanypeoplebecomesamonth inwhichtheysleepduringthedaysoastoavoidfeelinghungerand spend their nights in entertainment and indulging in their desires. This further causes them to miss their prayers and the opportunity to pray themincongregation.Somepeopleevengreetthismonthwithfeelingsof annoyance, thinking only of the pleasures they will miss out on. In Ramadan, some people even travel to the lands of the disbelievers to enjoyaholiday!Eventhemosquesarenotfreefromsuchevils,aswomen also attend wearing makeup and perfume. Even the Sacred House of Allaah (Kabah) is not free of these ills. Some people make this month a season for begging, even though they are not in need. Some entertain themselves with dangerous fireworks and the like, and some of them
25 26

ReportedbyalBukhaari,alFath,no.1904. ReportedbyIbnMaajah,1/539;SaheehalTargheeb,1/453.

12

www.islamhouse.com

waste their time in the markets, wanderingaround the shops, orhaving newclothesstitchedandfollowingfashions.Someshopownersintroduce newproductsandnewstylesintheirstoresduringthelasttendaysofthe month,thuskeepingpeopleawayfromearningrewardsandhasanaat. A person should not allow himself to be provoked, because the Prophet ()said: Ifsomeonefightshimorinsultshim,heshouldsay,Iamfasting,I amfasting.27 Onereasonforthisistoremindhimself,andtheotherreasonistoremind the one who is provoking him. But anyone who looks at the conduct of manyofthosewhofastwillseesomethingquitedifferent.Itisessentialto exerciseselfcontrolandbecalm,butweseetheoppositeamongthecrazy driverswhospeedupwhentheyheartheadhaanforMaghrib. Apersonshouldnotovereat,becausetheProphet()said: ThesonofAdamfillsnovesselworsethanhisstomach.28 Thewisepersonlivesnottoeat,butrather,eatstolive.Thebesttypeof foodisthatwhichistheretobeused,notthatwhichistheretobeserved. People indulge in making all kinds of food (during Ramadan) and treatingfoodpreparationasavirtualartform,andthushousewivesand servantsspendalltheirtimeonmakingfood.Thiskeepsthemawayfrom worship,andpeoplespendfarmoreonfoodduringRamadanthanthey ordinarilydo.Thusthemonthbecomesthemonthofindigestion,obesity andgastricillnessinwhichpeopleeatlikegluttonsanddrinklikethirsty camels. When they stand to pray Taraaweeh (the night prayer in Ramadan) they do so reluctantly, and some of them leave after the first tworakahs.

27 28

ReportedbyalBukhaariandothers.AlFath,no.1894. ReportedbyalTirmidhi,no.2380;hesaid,thisisahasansaheehhadeeth.

13

www.islamhouse.com

Apersonshouldincreaseinhisgenerositybysharingknowledge,giving charity, using ones position of authority or physical strength to help others,andhavingagoodattitude.AlBukhaariandMuslimreportedthat IbnAbbaas()said: TheMessengerofAllaah()wasthemostgenerousofpeople[in doing good], and he was most generous of all in Ramadan when Jibreelmetwithhim;heusedtomeethimeverynightinRamadan andteachhimtheQur`aan.TheMessengerofAllaah()wasmore generousindoinggoodthanablowingwind.29 How can people prefer stinginess to generosity and laziness to action to theextentthattheydonotdotheirworknortreatoneanotherproperly, andtheyusefastingasanexcuseforallthis?! Combiningfastingwithfeedingthepoorisoneofthemeansofattaining Paradise,astheProphet()said: In Paradise there are rooms whose outside can be seen from the inside and the inside can be seen from the outside. Allaah has preparedthemforthosewhofeedthepoor,thosewhoaregentlein speech,thosewhofastregularly,andthosewhoprayatnightwhen peopleareasleep.30 TheProphet()said: Whoever gives food to a fasting person with which to break his fast, he will have the reward equal to his (the fasting person), withoutitdetractingintheslightestfromtherewardofthefasting person.31

29 30

ReportedbyalBukhaari,alFath,no.6.

ReportedbyAhmad5/343;IbnKhuzaymah,no.2137.AlAlbaanisaidinhisfootnote,its isnaadishasanbecauseofothercorroboratingreports.
31

ReportedbyalTirmidhi,3/171;SaheehalTargheeb,1/451.

14

www.islamhouse.com

Shaykh alIslam [Ibn Taymiyah] (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, Whatismeantisthatheshouldfeedhimuntilheissatisfied.32 A number of the Salaf33 (mayAllaah have mercy onthem) preferred the poor over themselves when breaking their fast at the time of iftaar. Among these were AbdAllaah ibn Umar, Maalik ibn Deenaar, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others. AbdAllaah ibn Umar would not break his fast unlesstherewereorphansandpoorpeoplewithhim.

WhatshouldbedoneinthisGreatMonth
Prepare yourselves and your environment for worship [by doing the following]: HastentorepentandturnbacktoAllaah. Rejoiceattheonsetofthismonth. Fastproperly. Have the correct frame of mind and fear Allaah when praying Taraaweeh. Donotbecometiredduringthemiddle34tendaysofthemonth. SeekLaylatalQadr. ReadtheentireQur`aanrepetitively,trytoweep,andtrytounderstand whatyouarereading.

32 33 34

AlIkhtiyaaraatalFiqhiyyah,p.109. Salaf:Ourpiouspredecessors,particularlythoseofthefirstthreegenerations.(Editor)

Usuallypeoplestartoffthemonthwithgreatenthusiasm,andalsospendthelasttendays inworshipduetoitsgreatmerits.Asaresult,peoplemayfeelapatheticduringthemiddle ofthemonth.(Editor)

15

www.islamhouse.com

Umrah during Ramadan is equivalent to Hajj [performed with the Prophet()]. Charitygivenduringthisvirtuoustimeismultiplied. Itikaaf(retreatinthemosqueforworship)isaconfirmedSunnahofthe Prophet(). There is nothing wrong with congratulating one another at the beginningofthemonth.TheProphet()usedtotellhisCompanionsthe goodnewsoftheonsetofRamadanandurgethemtomakethemostofit. AbuHurayrah()said: The Messenger of Allaah () said, There has come to you Ramadan,ablessedmonth.Allaahhasmadeitobligatoryonyouto fast(thismonth).Duringit,thegatesofParadiseareopenedandthe gatesofHellarelocked,andthedevilsarechainedup.Initthereis a night that is better than a thousand months, and whoever is deprivedofitsgoodnesshasindeedbeendeprived.35

SomeRulingsconcerningFasting
(6) One kindof fasting is that which must be done on consecutive days, such as the fast of Ramadan, fasting in expiation for killing someone by mistake, divorcing ones wife by dhihaar36, or having intercourse during thedayinRamadan.Also,onewhomakesavowtofastconsecutivedays mustfulfillit. Another kind of fasting is that which does not have to be done on consecutivedays,suchasmakingupdaysmissedinRamadan,fastingten
35 36

ReportedbyalNasaa`i,4/129;SaheehalTargheeb,1/490.

Ajaahiliformofdivorceinwhichamansaystohiswife,Youaretomeasthebackofmy motherTranslator.

16

www.islamhouse.com

days if one does not have a sacrifice [in Hajj], fasting for breaking an swornoath(accordingtothemajority),fastingtocompensateforviolating the conditions of ihraam (according to the most correct opinion), and fasting in fulfillment of a vow in cases where one did not have the intentionoffastingconsecutivedays. (7) Voluntary fasts make up for shortcomings in the obligatory fasts. ExamplesofvoluntaryfastsincludeAashooraa,theDayofArafah(for those not performing Hajj), Ayyaam alBeed37, Mondays and Thursdays, sixdaysofShawwaal,andthespecificsfastsofMuharramandShabaan. (8) It is not permitted to single out Friday for fasting38 or to fast on a Saturdayunlessitisanobligatoryfast39.Whatisintendedhereissingling itoutwithouttherebeingavalidreason.Itisnotpermittedtofastforan entirelifetime,ortofastfortwodaysormorewithoutabreak(i.e.,tofast two or three days [straight] without breaking ones fast each day after Maghrib). ItisharaamtofastonthetwoEiddaysorontheAyyaamalTashreeq the 11th, 12th and 13th of DhulHijjah, for these are days of eating, drinking and remembering Allaah. It is permissible though for pilgrims performing Hajj to fast them (Ayyaam alTashreeq) in Minaa if they do nothaveasacrificetooffer.

HowistheOnsetofRamadanDetermined?
(9)TheonsetofRamadanisconfirmedbythesightingofthenewmoonor bythecompletionofthirtydaysofShabaan.Whoeverseesthecrescentof the new moon or hears about it from a trustworthy source is obliged to fast.

37 38 39

The13th,14thand15thdaysofeachHijrimonthTranslator. AlBukhaari,FathalBaari,no.1985. ReportedandclassedashasanbyalTirmidhi,3/111.

17

www.islamhouse.com

Using calculations to determine the onset of Ramadan is a bidah (innovation),becausethehadeethoftheProphet()clearlystates: Fastwhenyouseeit(thenewmoon)andbreakyourfastwhenyou seeit.40 If an adult, sane, trustworthy, reliable Muslim who has good eyesight saysthathehasseenthecrescentwithhisowneyes,thenweshouldtake hiswordforitandactaccordingly(i.e.,startfasting).

WhoisObligatedtoFast?
(10) Fasting is an obligation on every adult, sane, resident [i.e., not traveling]Muslimwhoisabletofastandhasnothingtopreventhimor herfromdoingso,suchasmenstruationorpostpartumbleeding. A person is deemed to have reached adulthood when any one of the followingthreethingsoccur: 1)emissionofsemen,whetherinawetdreamorotherwise; 2)growthofcoarsepubichairaroundtheprivateparts; 3)attainmentoffifteenyearsofage. Inthecaseoffemales,thereisafourth,namelymenstruation.Whenagirl reachesmenarche(startsherperiods),sheisobligedtofastevenifshehas notyetreachedtheageoften. (11) Children should be instructed to fast at the age of seven if they are ableto,andsomescholarssaidthatasinthecaseofSalaah,achildmaybe physicallydisciplinedattheageoftenifhedoesnotfast.41Childrenwill berewardedforfasting,andtheirparentswillberewardedforbringing
40 41

Muslim.(Editor) SeealMughni,3/90.

18

www.islamhouse.com

them up properly and guiding them to do righteous deeds. AlRubayyi bint Muawwidh () said, speaking about Ramadan when it was made obligatory: Weusedtomakeourchildrenfast,andwewouldmakethematoy made out of wool. If any one of them started to cry for food, we wouldgivethemthattoytoplaywithuntilitwastimetobreakthe fast.42 Somepeopledonotthinkthatitisimportanttoinstructtheirchildrento fast.Indeedachildmaybeenthusiasticaboutfastingandmaybecapable of doing it, but his father or mother may tell him not to fast out of so calledpityforhim.Theydonotrealizethattruepityandcompassion consistofhelpinghimtobecomeaccustomedtofasting.Allaahsays: Oyouwhobelieve!Wardofffromyourselvesandyourfamiliesa Fire(Hell)whosefuelismenandstones,overwhichare(appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allaah, but do that which they are commanded.[SurahalTahreem66:6] Extra attention must be given to the matter of girls when they have just reachedtheageofmaturity,fortheymayfastduringtheirmensesoutof shynesswithoutmakinguptheirfastslater. (12)Ifakaafir(nonMuslim)becomesMuslim,ifachildreachespuberty, or if an insane person comes to his senses during the day, they should refrain from eating until dusk, for they are now among those who are obligatedtofast.Theydonot,however,havetomakeupforthedaysof Ramadan that they have missed, for at that specific time they were not amongthoseuponwhomfastingwasobligatory. (13)Theinsanearenotheldresponsiblefortheiractions(theirdeedsare not recorded), but if a person is insane at times and sane at others, he

42

AlBukhaari,Fath,no.1960.

19

www.islamhouse.com

mustfastduringhisperiodsofsanityandisexcusedduringhisperiodsof insanity.Ifhebecomesinsaneduringtheday,thisdoesnotinvalidatehis fast,justasisthecaseifsomeonebecomesunconsciousbecauseofillness or some other reason, for he had the intention of fasting when he was sane.43Asimilarcaseistherulinggoverningepileptics. (14) If someone dies during Ramadan, there is no debt on him or his heirswithregardtotheremainingdaysofthemonth. (15)IfsomeonedoesnotknowthatitisobligatorytofastRamadanorthat it is haraam to eat or have sexual intercourse during the day in this month, then according to the majority of scholars, this excuse is acceptable. This may be the case for a new convert to Islam, a Muslim living in Daar alHarb (nonMuslim lands) and a Muslim who grew up among the kuffaar. As for those who were raisedamongst Muslims and wereabletoaskquestionsandfindout,theyhavenoexcuse.

Travelers
(16)Foratravelertobeallowedtobreakhisfast,certainconditionsmust be met. His journey should be lengthy, or else be known as traveling (althoughthereisawellknowndifferenceofopinionamongthescholars on this matter), and he should have left the city and its suburbs. The majorityofscholarssaythatthetravelershouldnotbreakhisfastbefore hepassesthecitylimits.Theysaythatajourneyhasnotreallybegununtil a person passes the city limits, and a person who is still in the city is settledandpresent.Allaahsays: Sowhoeverofyousights(thecrescentonthefirstnightof)the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe sawm(fasts)thatmonth[SurahalBaqarah2:185]
43

MajaalisShahrRamadaanbyIbnUthaymeen,p.28.

20

www.islamhouse.com

Heisnotconsideredatraveleruntilhehasleftthecity.Ifheisstillwithin the city, he is regarded as a resident and is not permitted to shorten his prayers.Hisjourneyshouldalsonothavebeenoneundertakenforsome sinfulpurposes(accordingtothemajorityofscholars),orforthepurpose ofevadingthefast. (17)Atravelerisallowedtobreakhisfastaccordingtotheconsensusof theUmmah,andnoregardsistakenastohislevelofabilityordifficulty indoingso.Evenifhisjourneyiseasyandhehassomeonetoservehim, heisstillpermittedtobreakhisfastandshortenhisprayers.44 (18) Whoever is determined to travel in Ramadan should not have the intention of breaking his fast until he is actually traveling, because somethingmayhappentopreventhimfromsettingoutonhisjourney.45 A traveler should not break his fast until he has passed beyond the inhabitedhousesofhistown;oncehehaspassedthecitylimits,hemay break his fast. Similarly if he is flying, once the plane has taken off and has gone beyond the city limits, he may break his fast. If the airport is outsidehiscity,hecanbreakhisfastthere,butiftheairportiswithinhis cityorattachedtoit,heshouldnotbreakhisfastintheairportbecausehe isstillwithintheboundsofhisowncity. (19) If the sun sets and he breaks his fast on the ground, and then the plane takes off and he sees the sun, he does not have to stop eating. He hasalreadycompletedhisdaysfasting,andthereisnowaytorepeatan actofworshiponceithasalreadybeencompleted.Iftheplanetakesoff beforesunsetandhewantstocompletethatdaysfastduringthejourney, heshouldnotbreakhisfastuntilthesunhassetfromwhereverheisin theair.Thepilotisnotpermittedtobringtheplanedowntoanaltitude fromwhichthesuncannotbeseenjustforthepurposesofbreakingthe fast,forthiswouldjustbeakindoftrickery.Ifthepilotweretobringthe

44 45

MajmooalFataawaaa,25/210. TafseeralQurtubi,2/278.

21

www.islamhouse.com

plane down lower for a genuine reason though, and the disk of the sun disappearsasaresult,hemaybreakhisfast.46 (20) Whoever travels to a destination and intends to stay there for more thanfourdaysmustfastaccordingtothemajorityofscholars.Thus,ifa persontravelstostudyabroadforseveralmonthsoryears,thenaccording tothemajorityofscholarsincludingthefourimaamsheisregardedas one who is settled there and so he has to fast and pray his prayers in full. Ifatravelerpassesthroughacityotherthanhisown,hedoesnothaveto fastunlesshisstaythereislongerthanfourdays.Ifitisso,hemustfast, becausetherulingsthatapplytothosewhoaresettledapplyalsotohim.47 (21) Whoever begins fasting while he is settled, then embarks on a journey during the day is allowed to break his fast, because Allaah has madetravelingeneralalegitimateexcusenottofast.Allaahsays: andwhoeverisilloronajourney,thesamenumber[ofdayson which one did not observe sawm must be made up] from other days[SurahalBaqarah2:185] (22) A person who habitually travels is permitted not to fast if he has a home to which he returns, such as a courier who travels to serve the interests of the Muslims (and also taxi drivers, pilots and airline employees,eveniftheirtravelisdaily),buttheyhavetomakeupthefasts later. The same applies to sailors who have a home on land. But if the sailorhashiswifeandallheneedswithhimontheshipandisconstantly traveling,thenheisnotallowedtobreakhisfastorshortenhisprayers.If nomadicbedouinsaretravelingfromtheirwinterhometotheirsummer homeorviceversa,theyareallowedtobreaktheirfastandshortentheir prayers. Once they have settled in either their summer home or their

46 47

FromtheFataawaaaofShaykhIbnBaaz,issuedverbally. SeeFataawaaalDawahbyIbnBaaz,977.

22

www.islamhouse.com

winter home though, they should not break their fast or shorten their prayers,eveniftheyarefollowingtheirflocks.48 (23)Ifatravelerarrivesduringtheday,thereisawellknowndifference amongthescholarsastowhetherheshouldstopeatinganddrinking.49To be on the safe side though, he should stop eating and drinking out of respectforthemonth,buthemustmakethedayuplaterwhetherornot hestopseatinganddrinkingafterhisarrival. (24) If he starts Ramadan in one city and then travels to another city wherethepeoplestartedfastingbeforehimorafterhim,heshouldfollow therulinggoverningthepeopletowhomhehastraveled.Heshouldonly endRamadanwhentheyendRamadan,evenifitmeansthatheisfasting formorethanthirtydays,becausetheProphet()said: Fastwheneveryoneisfasting,andbreakyourfastwheneveryone isbreakingtheirfast.50 Ifthismeansthathisfastislessthantwentyninedays,hemustmakeit up after Eid, because the hijri month cannot be less than twentynine days.51

TheSick
(25)Intheeventofanysicknessthatmakespeoplefeelunwell,apersonis allowednottofast.Thebasisforthisistheaayah:

48 49 50 51

SeeMajmooFataawaaIbnTaymiyah,25/213. MajmooalFataawaa,25/212. Muslim.(Editor)

FromFataawaaalShaykhAbdalAzeezibnBaaz:FataawaaalSiyaam,DaaralWatan, pp.1516.

23

www.islamhouse.com

andwhoeverisilloronajourney,thesamenumber[ofdayson which one did not observe sawm must be made up] from other days[SurahalBaqarah2:185] Butiftheailmentisminor,suchasacoughorheadache,thenitisnota validreasontobreakonesfast. Ifthereismedicalproof,ifapersonknowsfromhisusualexperience,or he is certain that fasting will make his illness worse or will delay his recovery,heispermittedtobreakhisfast.Rather,itisdisliked(makrooh) forhimtofastinsuchcases.Ifapersonisseriouslyill,heisnotobligated to have the intention during the night to fast the following day, even if there is a possibility that he may be well in the morning, because what countsisthepresentmoment.52 (26) If fasting will cause unconsciousness, he should break his fast and make up for it later.53 If a person falls unconscious during the day and recoversbeforeMaghriborafterit,hisfastisstillvalidaslongashewas fastinginthemorning.IfheisunconsciousfromFajruntilMaghrib,then accordingtothemajorityofscholarshisfastisnotvalid.Accordingtothe majorityofscholars,itisobligatoryforapersonwhofallsunconscious54 to make up his fasts lateron, no matter how long he wasunconscious.55 Somescholarshaveissuedfataawaa(verdicts)totheeffectthataperson whofallsunconscious,takessleepingpills,orreceivesageneralanesthetic foragenuinereasonandbecomesunconsciousforthreedaysorlessmust
Ifapersondoesnotmaketheintentiontofastthefollowingdayduetoillness,butthen awakensafterthebreakofdawnandseesthathehasrecovered,hemustrefrainfromeating and drinking until dusk, but he must make up for that fast later, for he did not have the intentiontofastbeforethedaystarted.(EditortakenfromanoralverdictgivenbySheikh AbdulQadiralAroosi)
52 53 54

AlFataawaa,25/217.

Itseemsasiftheauthorintendsheretomeanthosewhohavefallenunconsciuosbefore dawnuntilafterdusk,nomatterhowmanydaysoryearsthatmaybe.(Editor)

55

AlMughni maa alSharh alKabeer, 1/412, 3/32; alMawsooah alFiqhiyyah al Kuwaitiyyah,5/268.

24

www.islamhouse.com

makeupthefastslateron,forheisregardedasbeinglikeonewhosleeps. Ifheisunconsciousformorethanthreedays,hedoesnothavetomake upthefastsbecauseheisregardedasbeinglikeonewhoisinsane.56 (27)Ifapersonfeelsextremehungerorthirst,andfearsthathemaydieor that some of his faculties may be irreparably damaged, and he has credible grounds for believing this to be so, he may break his fast and make up for it later on, as saving ones life is obligatory. It is not permissible though, to break ones fast because of bearable hardship or becauseonefeelstiredorisafraidofsomeimaginedillness.Peoplewho workinphysicallydemandingjobsarenotpermittedtobreaktheirfast, andtheymusthavetheintentionatnightoffastingthefollowingday.If theycannotstopworkingandtheyareafraidthatsomeharmmaybefall them during the day, or they face some extreme hardship that causes themtobreaktheirfast,thentheyshouldeatonlywhatisenoughtohelp thembearthehardship,thentheyshouldrefrainfromeatinguntilsunset, but they must make the fast up later. Workers in physically demanding jobs, such as working with furnaces and smelting metals, should try to changetheirhourssothattheyworkatnightortaketheirholidaysduring Ramadan.Theyshoulddosoeveniftheirleavewereunpaid,butifthisis not possible, they should look for another job where they can combine theirreligiousandworldlyduties. And whoever fears Allaah and keeps his duty to Him, He will makeawayforhimtogetout(fromeverydifficulty).AndHewill provide him from (sources) he could never imagine. [Surah al Talaaq65:23]57 Students exams are no excuse for breaking ones fast during Ramadan, anditisnotpermissibletoobeyonesparentsinbreakingthefastbecause

56 57

FromtheFataawaaofShaykhAbdalAzeezibnBaaz,issuedverbally. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/233,235.

25

www.islamhouse.com

ofhavingexams.Thereisnoobediencetoanycreatedbeingifitinvolves disobediencetotheCreator.58 (28)Asickpersonwhohopestorecovershouldwaituntilhegetsbetter, and then make up for the fasts he has missed. He is not allowed just to feedthepoor.Thepersonwhoissufferingfromachronicillnessandhas nohopeofrecoveryandelderlypeoplewhoareunabletofastshouldfeed apoorpersonwithhalfasaaofthestaplefoodofhiscountryforevery daythathehasmissed.(Halfasaaisroughlyequivalenttooneandahalf kilograms of rice). It is permissible for him to do this all at once on one dayattheendofthemonth,orhemayfeedonepoorpersoneveryday. Hemustdothisbygivingactualfoodduetothewordingoftheaayah he cannot do it by giving money to the poor.59 He may however, give moneytoatrustworthypersonorcharitableorganizationtobuyfoodand distributeittothepooronhisbehalf. If a sick person does not fast in Ramadan while waiting to recover in order that he can make the days up later, and then finds out that his sicknessischronic,hemustfeedapoorpersonforeverydaythathedid not fast.60 If a person is waiting to recover from his illness and hopes to getbetterbutthendies,thereisnodebtowedbyhimorhisheirs.Ifa persons sickness is considered to be chronic and he does not fast but feedsthepoorinstead,thenmedicaladvancesresultinthediscoveryofa remedywhichheisadministeredandthenrecovers,hedoesnothaveto makeupthefastshehasmissed,becausehedidwhathehadtodoatthat time.61 (29)Ifasickpersonrecoversandisabletomakeupthemissedfastsbut doesnotdo sobeforehedies,moneyshouldbetakenfromhisestateto feed a poor person for every day that he missed. If any of his relatives
58 59 60 61

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/241. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/198. FromtheFataawaaofShaykhIbnUthaymeen. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/195.

26

www.islamhouse.com

wanttofastonhisbehalf,thenthisisfine,foritwasreportedinBukhari andMuslimthattheMessengerofAllaah()said: Whoeverdiesowingsomefasts,lethisheirfastonhisbehalf.62

TheElderly
(30)Theveryelderlywhohavelosttheirstrengthandaregettingweaker everydayasdeathapproachesdonothavetofast,andtheyareallowed not to fast so long as fasting is difficult for them. Ibn Abbaas () said concerningtheaayah: And as for those who can fast with difficulty (e.g., an old man, etc.),theyhave(achoiceeithertofastor)tofeedapoorperson(for everyday).[SurahalBaqarah2:184] This has not been abrogated. It refers to the old man and the old woman who cannot fast, so they should feed a poor person for every day.63 Those who have become senile and confused do not have to fast or do anything else, and their family does not have to do anything on their behalfeither.Suchpeoplearenolongercountedasresponsible.Iftheyare ofsoundmindsometimesandconfusedatothertimes,theyhavetofast when they are sound and they do not have to fast when they are confused.64 (31) As for those who are fighting an enemy or are being besieged by them,theyareallowedtobreaktheirfastifitmightmakethemtooweak to fight, even if they are not traveling. If they need to break their fast

62 63 64

FromFataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,volumeonDawah,806. AlBukhaari,KitaabalTafseer,BaabAyyaamanMadoodaat. SeeMajaalisShahrRamadaanbyIbnUthyameen,p.28.

27

www.islamhouse.com

before fighting, they may do so. The Prophet () once said to his Companionsbeforefighting: Inthemorningyouaregoingtomeetyourenemyandnotfasting willmakeyoustronger,sodonotfast.65 This is also the preferredopinion ofShaykhalIslam Ibn Taymiyah. The scholarsofDamascusalsoissuedfatwastothesameeffectwhentheircity wasattackedbytheTatars. (32)Ifapersonsreasonfornotfastingisobvious,suchasillness,thereis nothing wrong with him eating or drinking openly. But if the reason is hidden,suchasmenstruation,itisbettertoeatanddrinkinsecretsoas nottoattractaccusationsandthelike.

Niyyah(Intention)inFasting
(33) Niyyah (intention) is a required condition of the obligatory fast [of Ramadan] as well as other obligatory fasts, such as making up missed fastsorfastsdoneasanactofkaffaarah(expiation),becausetheProphet ()said: Thereisnofastforthepersonwhodidnotintendtofastfromthe nightbefore.66 Theintentionmaybemadeatanypointduringthenight,evenifitisjust a moment before Fajr. Niyyah means the resolution in the heart to do something; speaking it aloud is bidah (a reprehensible innovation), and anyone who knows that tomorrow is one of the days of Ramadan and wants to fast has [due to that knowledge, already] made the intention. (MajmooFataawaaShaykhalIslam,25/215)Ifapersonintendstobreak
65 66

ReportedbyMuslim,1120,AbdalBaaqiedition.

Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 2454. A number of the scholars, such as alBukhaari, al Nasaa`i, alTirmidhi and others thought it was likely to be mawqoof. See Talkhees al Habeer,2/188.

28

www.islamhouse.com

his fast during the day but does not do so, then according to the most correctopinion,hisfastisnotadverselyaffected;heislikeapersonwho wantstospeakduringtheprayerbutdoesnotspeak.Someofthescholars think that he is not fasting as soon as he stops intending to fast, so as a precaution, he should make up that fast later. Apostasy, however, invalidatestheintention;thereisnodisputeonthismatter. ThepersonwhoisfastingRamadandoesnotneedtorepeattheintention every night during Ramadan; it is sufficient to have the intention at the beginningofthemonth.Iftheintentionisinterruptedbybreakingthefast duetotravelorsickness,forexample,hehastorenewtheintentiontofast whenthereasonforbreakingthefastisnolongerpresent. (34) Making the intention the night before is not a condition of general nafil(supererogatoryorvoluntary)fasts,becauseofthehadeethnarrated byAa`ishah(),whosaid: The Messenger of Allaah () entered upon me one day and said, Doyouhaveanything(food)?Isaid,No.Hesaid,InthatcaseI amfasting.67 But in the case of specific supererogatory fasts such as Arafah and Aashooraa,itisbettertobeonthesafesideandmaketheintentionthe nightbefore. (35) If a person embarks on an obligatory fast, such as making up for a daymissedinRamadan,fulfillingavow,orfastingasanactofkaffaarah (expiation), he must complete the fast and is not permitted to break it unlesshehasavalidexcusefordoingso.Inthecaseofanafilfast: The person who is observing a voluntary fast is his own ameer (leader),ifhewisheshemay[continuehis]fast,andifhewisheshe maybreakit.68

67 68

ReportedbyMuslim,2/809,AbdalBaaqi. ReportedbyAhmad,6/342.

29

www.islamhouse.com

even if there is no reason to break it. The Prophet () awoke one morningandfasted,andthenheate.69Butwillthepersonwhobreakshis fast for no reason be rewarded for the fasting that he has already done? Someofthescholarssaythathewillnotberewarded70,soitisbetterfor thepersonwhoisobservingavoluntaryfasttocompleteitunlessthereis avalid,pressingreasonforhimtostopfasting. (36)IfapersondoesnotknowthatRamadanhasstarteduntilafterdawn, he must stop eating and drinking for the rest of the day and make that dayuplateronaccordingtothemajorityofscholars,becausetheProphet ()said: Thereisnofastingfortheonewhodoesnothavetheintentionto fastfromthenightbefore.71 (37) Ifa prisoner or captive knows that Ramadan has begun bysighting themoonhimselforbybeingtoldbyatrustworthyperson,hemustfast. Ifhedoesnotknowwhenthemonthisbeginning,hemusttrytodeduce ithimself(ijtihaad)andactaccordingtowhathethinksismostlikely.Ifat alaterpointhefindsoutthathisfastingcoincidedwithRamadan,thisis fine according to the majority of scholars, and if his fasting came after Ramadan, this is fine according to the majority of fuqahaa. But if his fastingcamebeforeRamadan,thisisnotacceptableandhemustmakeup thefast.IfpartofhisfastingcoincidedwithRamadanandpartofitdid not,whatcoincidedwithitorcameafteritisfine,butwhatcamebeforeis not.Ifthematterneverbecomescleartohim,thenhisfastingisacceptable becausehedidthebesthecould,andAllaahburdensnotapersonbeyond hisability.72

69

AsreportedinSaheehMuslim,inthestoryofthealhais(atypeoffood)thatwasgivento himasagiftwhenhewasinAa`ishahshouse;no.1154,AbdalBaaqi. AlMawsooahalFiqhiyyah,28/13. ReportedbyAbuDawood,2454. AlMawsooahalFiqhiyyah,28/84.

70 71 72

30

www.islamhouse.com

WhentoStartandStopFasting
(38)Oncetheentirediskofthesunhasdisappeared[belowthehorizon], thefastingpersonshouldbreakhisfastandnotpayanyattentiontothe redglowthatremainsonthehorizon.TheProphet()said: Once night comes from there and the day disappears from there, andthesunhasset,thefastingpersonshouldbreakhisfast.73 TheSunnahistohasteninbreakingthefast.TheProphet()wouldnot prayMaghribuntilhehadbrokenhisfast,ifonlywithasipofwater.74Ifa fasting person cannot find anything with which to break his fast, he should have the intention in his heart to break his fast and should not suck his finger [or the like], as some of the common folk do. He should bewareofbreakingthefastbeforethecorrecttime.OncetheProphet() sawsomepeoplehangingfromtheirhamstringswithbloodpouringfrom thecornersoftheirmouths.Whenheaskedaboutthem,hewastoldthat they were people who broke their fast before it was time to do so.75 If a personiscertain,thinksitmostlikely,orisinequaldoubtwhetherornot hebrokethefastbeforethepropertime,heshouldmakeupthefastlater on, for the basic principle is that the day has not ended.76 He should bewareofrelyingonthewordofsmallchildrenoruntrustworthysources, andheshouldalsobewareofthetimedifferencesbetweendifferentcities andvillageswhenhehearstheadhaanontheradioandsoon. (39) When dawn appears, which is the white light which spreads across thehorizonintheEast[wellbeforetheactualsunrise],thefastingperson muststopeatinganddrinkingstraightawaywhetherhehearstheadhaan
73 Reported by alBukhaari, alFath, no. 1954; the issue is also mentioned in Majmoo al Fataawaa,25/216. 74 75 76

ReportedbyalHaakim,1/432;alSilsilatalSaheehah,2110. ThehadeethisinSaheehIbnKhuzaymah,no.1986,andinSaheehalTargheeb,1/420. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/287.

31

www.islamhouse.com

ornot.Ifheknowsthatthemu`edhincallstheadhaanatdawn,hehasto stop eating and drinking as soon as he hears his adhaan, but if the mu`edhincallstheadhaanbeforeFajr,hedoesnothavetostopeatingand drinking when he hears it. If he does not know the mu`edhins usual practice,ortherearedifferencesamongthemu`edhinsandheisunableto determine the time of dawn for himself as is usually the case in cities duetolightingandbuildingsheshouldtaketheprecautionofreferring toaprintedtimetable,solongasheissurethatthecalculationsonwhich itisbasedarenotincorrect.77 The idea of taking precautionary measures by stopping eating and drinkingacertaintimebeforeFajr,suchastenminutesbefore,isbidah. On some timetables you can see one heading for imsaak (stopping eating and drinking) and another for Fajr. This is something that is contrarytoIslam. (40) The Muslims living in cities where there is a distinct alternation of night and day in every twentyfour hour period are obliged to fast, no matterhowlongthedayis,solongasthereisadistinctionbetweennight and day. In those places where there is no such distinction, Muslims should fast according to the times in the nearest city in which there is a distinctalternationofnightandday.

ThingsthatBreaktheFast
(41)Apartfrommenstruationandpostnatalbleeding,otherthingswhich break the fast are only considered to do so if the following three conditionsapply: 1)Ifapersonknowsthatitbreaksthefastandisnotignorant;
Heshouldalsomakesurethatthewatchheisusingissettotherighttime,forthismight leadthepersontobreakhisfastbeforeitspropertime.(Editor)
77

32

www.islamhouse.com

2)Ifheisawareofwhatheisdoingandhasnotforgottenthatheis fasting; 3)Ifhedoesitofhisownfreewillandisnotforcedtodoit. Among the things that break the fast are actions that involve the expulsion of bodily fluids, such as intercourse, vomiting, menstruation andcupping;andactionsthatinvolveingestingmatter,suchaseatingand drinking.78 (42)Amongthethingsthatbreakthefastarethingsthatareclassifiedas being like eating or drinking, such as taking medicines and pills by mouth,injectionsofnourishingsubstances,orbloodtransfusions. Injections that are not given to replace food and drink but are used to administer medications such as penicillin and insulin, tonics, or vaccinations do not break the fast regardless of whether they are intramuscular or intravenous.79 But as a precaution, all these injections shouldbegivenduringthenight. Kidneydialysis,wherebythebloodistakenout,cleaned,andputback with some chemicals or nourishing substances such as sugars and salts added,isconsideredtobreakthefast.80 Accordingtothemostcorrectview,suppositories,eyedrops,eardrops, havingatoothextractedandtreatingwoundsdonotbreakthefast.81 Inhalators used for asthma do not break the fast, because this is just compressedgasthatgoestothelungsitisnotfood,anditisneededat alltimes,inRamadanandothers. Havingabloodsampletakendoesnotbreakthefastandispermissible becauseitissomethingthatisneeded.82
78 79 80 81

MajmooalFataawaa,25/148. FataawaaIbnIbraaheem,4/189. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/190. MajmooFataawaaShaykhalIslam,25/233,25/245.

33

www.islamhouse.com

Medicinesusedbygarglingdonotbreakthefastsolongastheyarenot swallowed. If a person has a tooth filled and feels the taste of it in his throat,thisdoesnotbreakhisfast.83 ThefollowingthingsdoNOTbreakthefast: Havingtheearssyringed,nosedropsandnasalsprayssolongasone avoidsswallowinganythingthatreachesthethroat. Tablets that are placed under the tongue to treat angina and other conditions so long as one avoids swallowing anything that reaches the throat. Anythinginsertedintothevagina,suchaspessaries,douches,scopesor fingersforthepurposeofamedicalexamination. Insertion of a scope orintrauterinedevice(IUDor coil)and the like intotheuterus. Insertionintotheurethraformalesorfemalesofacatheter,opaque dye for diagnostic imaging, medication or solutions for cleansing the bladder. Dentalfillings,toothextractions,cleaningoftheteeth,useofsiwaakor toothbrushsolongasoneavoidsswallowinganythingthatreachesthe throat. Rinsing, gargling or applying topical mouth sprays so long as one avoidsswallowinganythingthatreachesthethroat. Subcutaneous,intramuscularorintravenousinjectionsexceptforthose usedtoprovidenourishment. Oxygen.

82 83

FataawaaalDawah:IbnBaaz,no.979. FromtheFataawaaofShaykhAbdalAzeezibnBaaz,issuedverbally.

34

www.islamhouse.com

Anesthetic gases so long as the patient is not given nourishing solutions. Medications absorbed through the skin, such as creams and patches usedtoadministermedicineandchemicals. Insertionofacatheterintoveinsfordiagnosticimagingortreatmentof bloodvesselsintheheartorotherorgans. Useofalaparoscope(instrumentinsertedthroughasmallincisioninthe abdomen)toexaminetheabdominalcavityortoperformoperations. Taking biopsies or samples from the liver or other organs so long as thisisnotaccompaniedbytheadministrationofsolutions. Gastroscopysolongasthisisnotaccompaniedbytheadministration ofsolutionsorothersubstances. Introduction of any instrument or medication to the brain or spinal column. (43)AnyonewhoeatsanddrinksdeliberatelyduringthedayinRamadan withnovalidexcusehascommittedakabeerah(gravemajorsin)andhas to repent and make up for that fast later on. If he broke the fast with something haraam, such as drinking alcohol, this makes his sin even worse. Whatever the case, he has to repent sincerely and do more voluntarydeeds,fastingandotheractsofworshipsoastoavoidhaving any shortfallin his recordof obligatory deeds,and so that Allaah might accepthisrepentance. (44)Ifheforgets,andeatsanddrinks,thenlethimcompletehisfast, forAllaahhasfedhimandgivenhimtodrink.84 Accordingtoanotherreport, He does not have to make the fast up later or offer expiation (kaffaarah).85
84

ReportedbyalBukhaari,Fath,no.1933.

35

www.islamhouse.com

Ifapersonseessomeoneelsewhoiseatingbecausehehasforgottenthat heisfasting,heshouldremindhim,becauseofthegeneralmeaningofthe aayah: Helponeanotherinrighteousnessandpiety.[SurahalMaa`idah 5:2] andthehadeeth, IfIforget,remindme.86 and that is because of the principle that this is a munkar (evil action) thatmustbechanged.87 (45)Thosewhoneedtobreaktheirfastinordertosavesomeonewhose lifeisindangermaydoso,buttheyshouldmakeituplater.Thisapplies incaseswheresomeoneisdrowning,orwhenfiresneedtobeputout. (46) If a person is obliged to fast but deliberately has intercourse during thedayinRamadanofhisownfreewill,andwherethetwocircumcised parts(genitals)cometogetherandtheheadofthepenispenetrateseither thefrontorbackpassage,hisfastisbrokenwhetherornotheejaculates, and he must repent. He should still fast for the rest of the day, but he must make up the fast later on and offer expiation (kaffaarah). In a hadeethnarratedbyAbuHurayrah: Whilst we were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessingsofAllaahbeuponhim),amancametohimandsaid:O Messenger of Allaah, I am doomed! He said, What is the matter with you? He said, I had intercourse with my wife whilst I was fasting.TheMessengerofAllaahsaid,Doyouhaveaslavewhom you could set free? He said, No. He said, Can you fast for two

85 86 87

ReportedbyibnKhuzaimah,ibnHibbaan,alHaakim,andDaaraqutni,Fath.(Editor) AlBukhaari.(Editor) MajaalisShahrRamadaan,IbnUthaymeen,p.70.

36

www.islamhouse.com

consecutive months? He said, No. He said, Do you have the wherewithaltofeedsixtypoorpeople?Hesaid,No88 The same ruling also applies in cases of zinaa (adultery or fornication), homosexualityandbestiality.89 If a person has intercourse during the day on more than one day in Ramadan, he must offer expiation for each day as well as repeating the fastforeachday.Notknowingthatkaffaarah(expiation)isobligatoryis noexcuse.90 (47)Ifamanwantstohaveintercoursewithhiswifebuthebreakshisfast byeatingfirst,hissinismoreserious,becausehehasviolatedthesanctity of the month on two counts, by eating and by having intercourse. It is evenmorecertaininthiscasethatexpiationisobligatory,andifhetriesto getoutofit,thatonlymakesmattersworse.Hemustrepentsincerely.91 (48) Kissing, hugging, embracing, touching and repeatedly looking at oneswifeorconcubine,ifamanisabletocontrolhimself,ispermissible, becauseitisreportedinBukhariandMuslimfromAa`ishah()thatthe Prophet()usedtokissandembracehiswiveswhilsthewasfasting,but hewasthemostincontrolofhisdesire.Withregardtothehadeethqudsi, HekeepsawayfromhiswifeforMy(Allahs)sake.92 thisisreferringtointercourse.Butifapersonbecomesarousedquickly andisunabletocontrolhimself,thenitisnotpermissibleforhimtokiss orembracehiswife,becausethatwillleadtohimbreakinghisfast,ashe

88 89

ReportedbyalBukhaari,alFath,4,no.1936.

Translators Note: Having Intercourse from the back passage, adultery, homosexuality, andbestialityaremajorsinsinIslamandare[evenmore]magnifiedifdoneduringtheday ofRamadhan. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/321. SeeMajmooalFataawaa,25/262. AlMundhiri,AlTargheebwalTarheeb.AlAlbanideclareditasSaheeh.(Editor)

90 91 92

37

www.islamhouse.com

cannot be sure that he will be able to avoid ejaculating or having intercourse.Allaahsaysinahadeethqudsi: andheleaveshisdesireforMy(Allahs)sake.93 TheIslamicguidelineisthatanythingthatleadstoharaamisalsoharaam. (49)Ifapersonisengagedintheactofintercourseanddawnappears,he is obliged to withdraw. His fast will be valid even if he ejaculates after withdrawal, but if he continues having intercourse until after dawn, he has broken his fast and must repent, make the fast up later, and offer expiation. (50) If morning comes and a person is in a state of janaabah (impurity followingsexualintercourse),thisdoesnotaffecthisfasting.Heorsheis permitted to delay doing ghusl whether it is for janaabah, following menstruation, or postnatal bleeding until dawn has appeared (though wellbeforesunrise)butitisbettertohastentodoghuslsothatonecan pray. (51) If a person who is fasting sleeps and experiences a wet dream, this does not break his fast according to scholarly consensus (ijmaa). The person should complete his fast. Delaying doing ghusl (until after dawn has appeared but well before sunrise) does not break the fast, but he shouldhastentodoghuslsothathecanprayandsothattheangelswill drawclosetohim. (52) If a person ejaculates during the day in Ramadan because of something that he could have refrained from, such as touching or repeatedlylookingatawoman,hemustrepenttoAllaahandfastforthe rest of the day and must make up that fast later. If a person starts to masturbatebutthenstopsanddoesnotejaculate,hemustrepent,buthe does not have to make the fast up later on because he did not ejaculate. The person who is fasting must keep away from everything that may provokehisdesire,andhemustrepelanybadthoughtsthatcometohim.
93

AlBukhaari.(Editor)

38

www.islamhouse.com

However,accordingtothemostcorrectopinion,ifheemitsmadhiy(pre seminalfluid),thisdoesnotbreakhisfast. The emission of wadiy (prostatic fluid), a thick sticky substance that comes out after urination with no sense of physical pleasure, does not breakthefast.Thepersondoesnothavetodoghusl,buthedoeshaveto doistinjaa(cleanhisprivatepartswithwater)andwudoo.94 (53) Whoever vomits unintentionally does not have to make up the fast later on, but whoever vomits on purpose does have to make up thefast.95 A person who vomits deliberately byinserting his fingerinto his throat, applyingpressuretohisstomach,deliberatelysmellingarepulsiveodor, orlookingatsomethingthatcouldmakehimvomitisobligedtomakeup thefastlateron.Ifhefeelsthatheisabouttovomitbutthenitsubsidesby itself,thisdoesnotbreakhisfastbecauseitisnotsomethingthathecan control. If the vomit though, comes into his mouth and he swallows it backdown,thisdoesbreakthefast.Ifapersonfeelssickinhisstomach, hedoesnothavetosuppresstheurgetovomit,becausethiscouldcause himharm.96 Ifapersonunintentionallyswallowssomethingthatisstuckbetweenhis teeth,orifitissosmallthathecouldnottellitwasthereorspititout,this iscountedasbeingpartofhissalivaanditdoesnotbreakhisfast.Butifit isbigenoughtospitout,heshoulddoso.Ifhespitsitout,thisisfine,but ifheswallowsit,thisbreakshisfast.Ifitcanbedilutedinthemouth,in wholeorinpart,andithasanaddedtasteorsweetness,itisharaamfor himtochewit.Ifanyofthissubstancereachesthethroat,thisbreaksthe fast. If a person spits out water after rinsing his mouth, his fast is not affectedbyanymoistureorwetnessthatisleftbehind,becausehecannot helpit.
94 95 96

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/279. SaheehhadeethnarratedbyalTirmidhi,3/89. MajaalisSharhRamadaan,IbnUthaymeen,67.

39

www.islamhouse.com

Ifapersonsuffersfromanosebleed,hisfastisstillvalid,becausethisis somethingthatisbeyondhiscontrol.97 Ifhehasgumulcersorhisgumsbleedafterusingthesiwaak(toothstick), it is not permissible for him to swallow the blood; he must spit it out. However,ifsomebloodentershisthroatbyaccidentandhedidnotmean for that to happen, thereis no need toworry.Similarly, if vomitrisesin histhroatandthengoesbackdowntohisstomachwithouthimintending forthistohappen,hisfastisstillvalid.98 With regard to mucus originating from the head (nose and sinuses) and phlegmoriginatingfromthechestbycoughingandclearingthethroat,if itisswallowedbeforeitreachesthemouth,thisdoesnotbreakapersons fast,becauseitisaproblemwhichallpeoplehave;butifitisswallowed after it reaches the mouth, this does break the fast. However, if it is swallowedunintentionally,itdoesnotbreakthefast. Inhaling water vapor, as may happen to people working in desalination plants,doesnotbreakthefast.99 Itismakrooh(disliked)totastefoodunnecessarilybecausethiscarriesthe riskthatthefastmaybebroken.Examplesofcaseswhereitisnecessary totastefoodincludeamotherchewingfoodforaninfantwhenshehasno otherwaytofeedhim,tastingfoodtomakesurethatitisfine,andtasting something when making a purchase. It was reported that Ibn Abbaas said: Thereis nothing wrongwith tastingvinegar oranything thatone wishestobuy.100

97 98 99

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/264. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/254. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/276.

100

ClassedashasaninIrwaaalGhaleel,4/86;SeealFath,commentaryonBaabIghtisaalal Saa`im,KitaabalSiyaam.

40

www.islamhouse.com

(54)UsingsiwaakisSunnahfortheonewhoisfastingatalltimesofthe day,evenifitisfreshandmoist.Ifapersonwhoisfastingusesasiwaak anddetectssomeheatorothertastefromitandswallowsit,orifhetakes thesiwaakoutofhismouthandseessalivaonitthenputsitbackinhis mouthandswallowsthesaliva,thisdoesnotbreakhisfast.101Heshould avoid what contains substances which can be diluted, such as the green siwaakorsiwaakthathasanyextraflavoraddedtoit,likelemonormint. Heshouldspitoutanysmallpiecesthatcomeoffthesiwaakinhismouth; he should not swallow them deliberately, but if he swallows them accidentally,thereisnoharmdone. (55)Ifafastingpersonisinjuredorsuffersanosebleed,orgetswateror petrol in his mouth by accident, this does not break his fast. If he gets dust,smokeorfliesinhismouthbyaccident,thisdoesnotbreakhisfast either.Thingsthatonecannotavoidswallowing,likeonesownsalivaor dustfromgrindingflour,donotbreakthefast.Ifapersongathersalotof salivainhismouththenswallowsitonpurpose,thisdoesnotbreakthe fastaccordingtothemostcorrectopinion.102 Iftearsreachonesthroat,ifapersonappliesoiltohishairormoustache orifapersonuseshennaandthendetectsthetasteofitinhisthroat,this doesnotbreakhisfast.Usinghenna,kohloroildoesnotbreakthefast.103 Thisalsoappliestocreamsusedtomoisturizeandsoftentheskin. Thereisnothingwrongwithsmellingpleasantfragrances,usingperfume, or applying scented creams and the like. There is nothing wrong with a fastingpersonusingincenseaslongashedoesnotuseitassnuff.104 Itisbetternottousetoothpasteduringtheday,andtoleaveittillnight time,becauseitscharacteristicsaretoostrong.105

101 102 103 104

AlFataawaaalSadiyyah,245. AlMughnibyIbnQudaamah,3/106. SeeMajmooalFataawaa,25/233,25/245. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/314.

41

www.islamhouse.com

(56) To be on the safe side, it is better for the fasting person not to be treated with cupping (hijaamah). There is a strong difference of opinion on this matter. Ibn Taymiyah suggested that the one who has cupping donebreakshisfast,buttheonewhodoesitdoesnotbreakhisfast. (57) Smoking breaks the fast, and it cannot be used as an excuse not to fast.Howcanasinbetakenasanexcuse?! (58) Immersing oneself in water or wrapping oneself in wet clothes in ordertocooldowndoesnotbreakthefast.Thereisnothingwrongwith pouring water over ones head to obtain relief from heat and thirst. Swimming is disliked because it might make one break the fast (by swallowingwater).Ifapersonsworkinvolvesdivingandhecanbesure thathewillnotgetwaterinhismouth,thereisnothingwrongwiththis. (59)Ifapersoneats,drinksorhasintercoursethinkingthatitisstillnight and then realizes that dawn has already broken, there is no harm done, because the aayah clearly states that it is permissible to do these things until one is sure that dawn has come. Abd alRazzaaq reported with a saheehisnaadgoingbacktoIbnAbbaas()thathesaid: Allaah haspermittedyou toeat anddrinksolong as there isany doubtinyourmind.106 (60)Ifapersonbreakshisfastthinkingthatthesunhasalreadysetwhen ithasnot,hemustmakeupthefastlateron(accordingtothemajorityof scholars).Thisisduetothefactthatthegeneralprincipleisthatitisstill day, and a fact that is certain cannot be rejected in favor of something doubtful.107

105 106

AlMajaalis,IbnUthaymeen,p.72.

FathalBaari,4/135;thisisalsotheopinionofShaykhalIslamIbnTaymiyyah,Majmoo alFataawaa,29/263. Shaykh alIslam Ibn Taymiyah thought that it was not necessary for a person in this situationtomakeupthefast.
107

42

www.islamhouse.com

If dawn breaks and a person still has food or drink in his mouth, the fuqahaaareinagreementthatheshouldspititout,andhisfastisvalid. Thisisliketherulingononewhoeatsordrinksbecauseheforgets,then remembersheisfastingifhehastenstospitoutthefoodordrinkinhis mouth,hisfastisstillvalid.

RulingsonFastingforWomen
(62)Awomanwhohasreachedtheageofpubertybutistooshytotell anyoneandthusdoesnotfastmustrepentandmakeupthedaysshehas missed. If the following Ramadan comes and she has not yet made up those days, she must also feed a poor person for each day as an act of expiationfordelayingherfast.Hercaseislikethatofawomanwhofasts thedaysofherperiodoutofshynessanddoesnotmakethemuplater. If a woman does not know exactly how many days she has missed, she should fast until she is fairly certain that she has made up the days she had missed and not made up from previous Ramadans, and offer the expiation for delaying for each day. She can do this at the same time as fastingorseparately,dependingonwhatsheisabletodo. (63)AwomanshouldnotfastexceptduringRamadanifherhusband is present without his permission, but if he is traveling then it does not matter. (64) When a menstruating woman sees the white substance which is dischargedbytheuteruswhentheperiodisfinishedbywhichawoman knows that she has now become taahir (pure), she should have the intention to fast from the night before and should fast. If she does not have a time when she knows she is taahir, she should insert a piece of cottonorsomethingsimilar,andifitcomesoutclean,sheshouldfast.If she starts to bleed again, she should stop fasting whether the blood is a

43

www.islamhouse.com

floworjustspotting,becauseitbreaksthefastaslongasitcomesatthe timeoftheperiod.108 If the cessation of bleeding continues until Maghrib, and she has fasted withtheintentionfromthenightbefore,thenherfastisvalid.Ifawoman feelsthemovementofmenstrualbloodinsideherbutitdoesnotcomeout untilafterthesunhasset,herfastisvalidandshedoesnothavetomake thedayuplater. If a womans period or postnatal bleeding ceases during the night, and shemakestheintentiontofast,butdawncomesbeforesheisabletodo ghusl,accordingtoallthescholarsherfastisvalid.109 (65) If a woman knows that her period will come tomorrow, she should stillcontinueherintentionandkeepfasting;sheshouldnotbreakherfast untilsheactuallyseestheblood. (66) It is better for a menstruating woman to remain natural and accept whatAllaahhasdecreedforherwithouttakinganymedicationtoprevent herfrombleeding.SheshouldbecontentwithwhatAllaahacceptsfrom her of breaking her fast during her period and making those days up later.ThisishowtheMothersoftheBelieversandthewomenoftheSalaf were. (Fataawaa alLajnah alDaa`imah, 10/151). Moreover, there is medical evidence to prove that many of the things used to prevent bleeding are in fact harmful, and many women have suffered from irregular periods as a result of taking them. However, if a woman does that and takes something to stop the bleeding and then fasts, this is acceptable. (67) Istihaadah (abnormal vaginal bleeding) does not have any effect on thevalidityofthefast. (68)Ifapregnantwomanhasamiscarriageandthefetushastakenshape or has a discernible outline of any part of the body, such as a head or
108 109

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/154. AlFath,4/148.

44

www.islamhouse.com

hand, then her bloodis considered nifaas (postpartum). If, however, she passessomethingthatlookslikeabloodclot(alaq)orachewedpieceof meat (mudghah) that has no discernible human features, her bleeding is istihaadah(falsemenstruation).Ifsheisable,shemustfast,otherwiseshe canbreakherfastandmakeituplateron.110Onceshebecomescleanafter having an operation to clean the womb (D&C), she should fast. The scholarsstatedthattheembryoisconsideredtostarttakingshapeafter80 daysofpregnancy. Ifawomanbecomescleanfromnifaasbeforefortydays,sheshouldfast anddoghuslsothatshecanpray.111Ifthebleedingresumeswithinforty daysafterthebirth,sheshouldstopfasting,becausethisisstillnifaas.If the bleeding continues after the fortieth day, she should make the intentiontofastanddoghusl(accordingtothemajorityofscholars),and anybleedingbeyondthefortiethdayisconsideredtobeistihaadah(non menstrual bleeding) unless it coincides with the usual time of her period,inwhichcaseitishayd(menstrualblood). If a breastfeeding woman fasts during the day and sees a spot of blood during the night although she was clean during the day, her fast is still valid.112 (69)Accordingtothemostcorrectopinion,awomanwhoispregnantor breastfeedingisregardedasbeinglikeonewhoisill,sosheispermitted not to fast. She is only obligated to make up the days that she missed, whethershefearsforherselforforherchild.TheProphet()said: Allaah has lifted the obligation of fasting and part of the prayer from the traveler, and He has lifted the obligation of fasting from thepregnantandbreastfeedingwoman.113

110 111 112 113

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/224. AlMughnimaaalSharhalKabeer,1/360. FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/150. ReportedbyalTirmidhi,3/85;hesaid(itisa)hasanhadeeth.

45

www.islamhouse.com

Ifapregnantwomanfastsandexperiencessomebleeding,herfastisstill validanddoesnotaffectitatall.114 (70) In the case of a woman who is obligated to fast, if her husband has intercourse with her during the day in Ramadan with her consent, then therulingthatappliestohimalsoappliestoher.Ifhoweverheforcesher todoso,sheshoulddoherbesttoresisthim.Ifshewasunsuccessful,she does not have to offer expiation. Ibn Aqeel (may Allaah have mercy on him)saidthatawomanwhosehusbandhasintercoursewithherduring the day in Ramadan whilst she is sleeping does not have to offer expiation. Asaprecaution,sheshouldmakeupthatfastlateron.115 A woman who knows that her husband cannot control himself should keepawayfromhimandnotadornherselfduringthedayinRamadan. WomenhavetomakeupthefaststhattheymissduringRamadan,evenif theydosowithouttheirhusbandsknowledge.Itisnotaconditionforan obligatory fast for a woman to have the permission of her husband. If a womanstartstoobserveanobligatoryfast,sheisnotallowedtobreakit exceptforalegitimatereason.Herhusbandisnotpermittedtoorderher tobreakherfastwhensheismakingupadaythatshehasmissed;heis notallowedtohaveintercoursewithherwhensheismakingupamissed fast,andsheisnotallowedtoobeyhiminthatregard.116 In the case of voluntary fasts, a woman is not permitted to start a non obligatoryfastwhenherhusbandispresentwithouthispermission,due tothehadeethnarratedbyAbuHurayrah(),inwhichtheProphet() said:

114 115

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/225.

ShaykhalIslamIbnTaymiyah(mayAllaahhavemercyonhim)wasoftheopinionthat thisdidnotinvalidateherfastatall.
116

FataawaaalLajnahalDaa`imah,10/353.

46

www.islamhouse.com

No woman should fast when her husband is present except with hispermission.117

117

ReportedbyalBukhaari,4793.

47

www.islamhouse.com

Conclusion
In conclusion, this is what I was able to write about issues concerning fasting.IaskAllaahtohelpustorememberHim,thankHimandworship Him properly, and to conclude our Ramadan with forgiveness, and to saveusfromtheFire. May Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad, and his family and companions,andgrantthempeace.

48