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1) Objective: The objective of this experiment is to investigate heat transfer in a spiral heat exchanger and to compute and compare the heat losses, log mean temperature and overall heat transfer coefficient for both co-current and counter-current modes of operation. 2) Introduction: Heat exchanger is a device which is used for transferring energy in the form of heat from one fluid to another. In some cases, a solid wall may separate

the fluids and prevent them from mixing. In other designs, the fluids may be in direct contact with each other. In the most efficient heat exchangers, the surface area of the wall between the fluids is maximized while simultaneously minimizing the fluid flow resistance. Fins or corrugations are sometimes used with the wall in order to increase the surface area and to induce turbulence.

Heat exchangers are widely used in the process industries so their design has been highly developed. Most exchangers are liquid-to-liquid, but gas and no condensing vapours can also be treated in them. A spiral heat exchanger may refer to a helical (coiled) tube configuration. A spiral heat exchanger is more compact than many other types of heat exchangers. It has two concentric spiral channels, one for the hot fluid and the other for the cold fluid. The main advantages of a spiral heat exchanger are its high overall heat transfer coefficient, compact size for a given heat exchange area, operational flexibility, relatively low pressure drop, and ease of cleaning. Good access for cleaning is available when needed by removing one or both of the ends of the heat exchanger, exposing the spiral channels from the side. It is, in fact, self-cleaning for many applications because the fluid turbulence created by the spacer studs and curved pathway for the fluids tends to flush away deposits as they form. An important feature of spiral plate exchangers is its capacity to handle high viscosity and highly suspended liquids, exhibiting lower tendency to fouling. Because of the well defined flow path through the spiral channels for both fluids and the fluid turbulence generated by the spacer studs and the curved fluid path, the overall heat transfer coefficient is typically higher for a spiral heat exchanger than for other heat exchanger types. Spiral heat exchanger flow

may be counter-current flow, co-current flow, or cross flow. In the counterflow heat exchanger, the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite sides. This is the most efficient design because it transfers the greatest amount of heat. In the parallel-flow heat exchanger, the fluids come in from the same end and move parallel to each other as they flow to the other side. The cross-flow heat exchanger moves the fluids in a perpendicular fashion.

3) Theoretical Background: The Heat Exchanger Design Equation Heat exchanger theory leads to the basic heat exchanger design equation: Q = U A Tlm , where Q is the rate of heat transfer between the two fluids in the heat exchanger in W, U is the overall heat transfer coefficient in W/m2.k, A is the heat transfer surface area in m2, and Tlm is the log mean temperature difference in K, calculated from the inlet and outlet temperatures of both fluids.

The basic heat exchanger design equation can be used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for known or estimated values of the other three parameters, Q, A, and Tlm. Each of those parameters will now be discussed briefly. Heat Transfer Rate, Q Heat transfer rate, Q can be calculated from the known flow rate of one of the fluids, its heat capacity, and the required temperature change. Following is the equation to be used: Qhot = mt Cpt (THin - THout) = Ws Cps (TCout - TCin) , where mt = mass flow rate of hot fluid, kg/s, Cpt = heat capacity of the hot fluid, J/s, Ws = mass flow rate of cold fluid, kg/s, Cps = heat capacity of the cold fluid, J/s, The required heat transfer rate can be determined from known flow rate, heat capacity and temperature change for either the hot fluid or the cold fluid. Then either the flow rate of the other fluid for a specified temperature change, or the outlet temperature for known flow rate and inlet temperature can be calculated.

Log Mean Temperature Difference The driving force for any heat transfer process is a temperature difference. For heat exchangers, there are two fluids involved, with the temperatures of both changing as they pass through the heat exchanger, so some type of average temperature difference is needed. Log mean temperature is defined in terms of the temperature differences as shown in the equation at below. Th,inand Th,out are the inlet and outlet temperatures of the hot fluid and Tc,in and Tc,out are the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cold fluid.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, depends on the conductivity through the heat transfer wall separating the two fluids. Overall heat transfer coefficient, U = Q / A Tlm , where Total exchange area, A : X Length of tube X Tube OD (m) Tube OD : coil tubing outer diameter (m) Tlm : log mean temperature difference in K

Mass velocity, Gt = mt/At Linear velocity, ut = Gt/ Ronolds No, Re = (Gt.de)/ Prandtl No, Pr = (.Cp)/k Tube side coefficient, hi = (0.023R0.8.Pr0.33.k)/di di: coil tubing inner diameter (m) mt : mass flow rate (kg/s) : fluid density (kg/m3) : fluid viscosity (Pa.s) k : thermal conductivity (W/m.K) Cp : heat capacity (J/kg.K) de : equivalent diameter (m) for laminar flow, where

Heat Transfer Coefficient At Shell Side Cross flow area, As = (D32 D22 + D12)./4 Mass velocity, Gs = Ws/As

Linear velocity, us = Gs/ Equivalent diameter, de = (D32 D22 + D12)/(D1 + D2 + D3) Reynolds number, Re = (Gs.de)/ Prandtl number, Pr = (.Cp)/k Nuselt number, Nu = 0.023Re0.8.Pr0.33 Stanton number, St = Nu/(Re.Pr) Heat transfer factor, jh = St.Pr0.67 Shell side coefficient, hs = (jh.Re.Pr0.33.k)/de, where d1 : coil outside diameter d2 : coil inside diameter d3 : shell inside diameter Ws : mass flow rate (kg/s)

4) Experiment Setup:

Equipment The apparatus used in this experiment are a Spiral heat exchanger, a cold water circuit consists of a 50L tank and centrifugal pump, a hot water circuit consists of a 50L tank and centrifugal pump, temperature and flow rate indicators from SOLTEQ, model HE158E.

Figure 3: Spiral Heat Exchanger Experimental Setup General Start-up Procedures A quick inspection was done to make sure the equipment is in a proper working condition. All the valves are made sure to be initially closed except V1 and V11. The hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose connected to V25. The valve was closed once the tank is full. The cold water tank was filled up by opening valve V26 and the valve was left opened for continues water supply. A drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point. Then, the main power and the heater for the hot water were switched on. The temperature controller was also set pointed to 50oC. The water temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set point. After that, the equipment is ready to be run. General Shut-down Procedures The heater was switched off and the hot water temperature was waited until it drops below 50oC . Then, pump P1 and P2 were switch off. After that, the main power was switched off and all water in the process lines were drained off. The water in the hot and cold water tanks was retained. Finally, all the valves were closed.

Experimental Procedure (Counter-current) A first, general start-up procedure was performed before the experiment begins. The arrangement of the valve of Spiral heat exchanger was switch to counter-current. Pump P1 and P2 were also switched on. Then, valves V3 for hot water while valve V13 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot water and cold water stream respectively.

The system was allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes. Data for Fl1/Fl2, Fl3/Fl4, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4 were recorded. These steps were repeated for different combinations of flow rate FT1/FT2 and Fl3/Fl4 as recorded in the result tables. Pump P1 and P2 were switch off when the experiment complete. All the results are tabulated under the tables below. After that, proceed to the co-current experiment.

Experimental Procedure (Co-current) A first, general start-up procedure was performed before the experiment begins. The arrangement of the valve of Spiral heat exchanger was switch to co-current as the experiment begins. Pump P1 and P2 were also switched on. Then, valves V3 for hot water while valve V13 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot water and cold water stream respectively. The system was allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes. Data for Fl1/Fl2, Fl3/Fl4, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4 were recorded. These steps were repeated for different combinations of flow rate FT1/FT2 and Fl3/Fl4 as recorded in the result tables. Pump P1 and P2 were switch off when the experiment complete. All the results are tabulated under the tables below. Finally, the equipment was shut-down.

5) RESULT: Counter-Current Spiral Heat Exchanger FL1/FL2 Hot Water (LPM) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 FL3/FL4 Cold Water (LPM) 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 TT1 Hot Inlet (C) 50.9 51.2 50.8 51.0 50.7 50.9 50.7 51.1 TT2 Hot Outlet (C) 47.8 47.9 47.0 46.5 43.7 46.1 47.0 47.8 TT3 Cold Outlet (C) 37.5 36.2 35.3 34.4 33.5 33.7 34.0 34.3 TT4 Cold Inlet (C) 31.0 31.4 31.2 31.2 31.1 30.9 31.2 31.2

Co-current spiral heat exchanger FL1/FL2 Hot Water (LPM) 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 FL3/FL4 Cold Water (LPM) 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 TT1 Hot Inlet (C) 50.8 50.9 51.1 50.9 50.7 50.8 50.8 51.1 TT2 Hot Outlet (C) 47.7 47.4 47.2 47.1 39.6 44.0 45.7 46.8 TT3 Cold Inlet (C) 31.1 32.6 31.8 31.5 33.1 34.4 35.8 35.0 TT4 Cold Outlet (C) 37.0 36.1 35.3 34.5 31.3 31.5 32.4 31.8

6) Data Analysis:

Typical Data Hot Water Density, t Heat Capacity, Cpt Thermal conductivity, Kt Viscosity, t Cold Water Density, s Heat Capacity, Cps Thermal conductivity, Ks Viscosity, s 995.67kg/m3 4183 J/kg.K 0.6155 W/m.K 0.0008007 Pa.s 988.18kg/m3 4175 J/kg.K 0.6436 W/m.K 0.0005494 Pa.s

Tube I.D. (di) : 7.05 mm Tube Length (L) : 5 m Shell diameter (d3) : 85 mm Coil Surface Area : 0.15m2 Coil I.D. (d2) : 34mm Coil O.D. (d1) : 44mm

Sample Calculation: Sample calculation is based on data from test 1 of fixed hot water flow rate at 5 LPM. a) Heat transfer rate for i) Hot water Qhot = mh Cp (T1-T2) =[(5.0 L/min).(1/1000 m3/ L) .(1/60 min/s).(988.18 kg/m3)] X (4175 J/kg.C) X (50.9-47.8) = 1065.17 W ii) Cold water Qs = WsCps (t1-t2) =[(2.0 L/min).(1/1000 m3/ L) .(1/60 min/s).(995.67 kg/m3)] X (4183 J/kg.C) X (37.5-31.0) = 902.39 W b) Heat lost rate = Qhot Qs = 1065.17W - 902.39W =162.78 W

d) Log mean temperature difference Tlm = [ (T1-t2) - (T2-t1) ] / ln [ (T1-t2) / (T2-t1) ] = -3.4 / ln (13.4/16.8) = 15.04C

e) Heat transfer coefficient at tube side Cross flow area, At = di2/4 = 3.142 X 0.007052m2 = 3.90 X 10-5 m2 Mass Velocity, Gt = mt/At = 0.0823 kg/s / 3.90 X 10-5 m2 = 2108.03 kg/m2.s Linear velocity, ut = Gt/t = 2108.03 kg/m2.s / 988.18 kgm-3 = 2.133 ms-1 Reynolds No, Re = (Gt X di)/t = [2108.03 kg/m2.s X (7.05/1000)m] / 0.0005494 Pa.s = 27050.62 (turbulent flow) Prandtl No, Pr = X Cp / k = (0.0005494 Pa.s X 4175 J/kg.K) / 0.6436 W/m.K = 3.56 Tube side coefficient, hi = 0.023Re0.8Pr0.33k/di = 11221.13 W/m2K

f) Heat transfer coefficient at shell side Cross flow area, As = /4 [d32 d22 + d12] = 0.00629 m2 Mass velocity, Gs = Ws/As = 0.033kg/s / 0.00629 m2 = 5.25 kg/m2.s Linear velocity, us = Gs/s = 5.25 kg/m2.s / 995.67kg/m3 = 0.00527 m/s

Equivalent diameter, de = (d32 d22 + d12)/(d1 + d2 + d3) = (852 - 342 + 442)mm2 / (85+34+44)mm = 49.11mm Reynolds No, Re = Gs X de / = 5.25 kg/m2.s X (49.11/1000)m / 0.0008007 Pa.s = 322.00 (Laminar flow) Prandtl no, Pr = X Cp / k = 0.0008007 Pa.s X 4183J/kg.K / 0.6155W/m.K = 5.44 Nuselt no, Nu = 0.023 X Re0.8 X Pr0.33 = 0.023 X 3220.8 X 5.440.3 = 4.08 Stanton no, St = Nu / (Re x Pr) = 4.08 / (322 X 5.44) = 0.00233 Heat transfer factor, jh = St X Pr0.67 = 0.00230 X 5.440.67 = 0.00715 Shell side coefficient, hs = (jh X Re X Pr0.33 X ks) / de = 0.00715 X 322 X 5.440.33 X 0.6155 W/m.K / 0.04911m = 50.46 W/m2.K g) Overall heat transfer Total exchange area, A = X 0.00953 m X 5m = 0.15 m2 Overall heat transfer coefficient, U = Qhot / (A.Tlm) = 1065.17W / 0.15m2 X 15.04K = 472.46 W/m2.K

Table Experiment 1: Counter-current spiral heat exchanger Fixed Hot Water Flow Rate at 5LPM Parameter Unit Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Hot Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, T1 Outlet temperature, T2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qhot L/min C C kg/s J/s 5.00 50.9 47.8 0.0823 1065.17 5.00 51.2 47.9 0.0823 1133.89 5.00 50.8 47.0 0.0823 1305.69 5.00 51.0 46.9 0.0823 1409.60

Cold Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, t1 Outlet temperature, t2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qs L/min C C kg/s J/s 2.00 31.0 37.5 0.033 902.39 3.00 31.4 36.2 0.050 999.57 4.00 31.2 35.3 0.066 1138.40 5.00 31.2 34.4 0.083 1110.64

Temperature difference T log mean Heat loss Efficiency C W % 15.04 162.78 84.72 15.74 134.32 88.15 15.65 167.29 87.19 15.94 298.96 78.79

Heat Transfer Coefficient Total exchange area, A Tube coefficient, hi Shell coefficient, hs Overall heat transfer coefficient m2 W/m2 .K W/m2 .K W/m .K

2

Table 3: Calculations for counter-current spiral heat exchanger ( fixed hot water at 5 LPM)

Fixed Cold Water Flow Rate at 5LPM Parameter Unit Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Hot Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, T1 Outlet temperature, T2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qhot L/min C C kg/s J/s 2.00 50.7 43.7 0.033 962.65 3.00 50.9 46.1 0.049 990.16 4.00 50.7 47.0 0.067 1017.66 5.00 51.1 47.8 0.082 1134.55

Cold Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, t1 Outlet temperature, t2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qs L/min C C kg/s J/s 5.00 31.1 33.5 0.083 832.98 5.00 30.9 33.7 0.083 971.81 5.00 31.2 34.0 0.083 971.81 5.00 31.2 34.3 0.083 1075.90

Temperature difference T log mean Heat loss Efficiency C W % 14.78 129.67 86.53 16.18 18.35 98.15 16.35 45.85 95.49 16.70 58.65 94.83

Heat Transfer Coefficient Total exchange area, A Tube coefficient, hi Shell coefficient, hs Overall heat transfer coefficient m2 W/m .K W/m2 .K W/m .K

2 2

Table 4: Calculations for counter-current spiral heat exchanger ( fixed cold water at 5 LPM)

Experiment 2: Co-current spiral heat exchanger Fixed Hot Water Flow Rate at 5LPM Parameter Unit Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Hot Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, T1 Outlet temperature, T2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qhot L/min C C kg/s J/s 5.00 50.8 47.7 0.0823 1065.80 5.00 50.9 47.4 0.0823 1203.32 5.00 51.1 47.2 0.0823 1340.84 5.00 50.9 47.1 0.0823 1306.46

Cold Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, t1 Outlet temperature, t2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qs L/min C C kg/s J/s 2.00 31.1 37.0 0.033 819.09 3.00 32.6 36.7 0.050 853.80 4.00 31.8 35.3 0.066 971.81 5.00 31.5 34.5 0.083 1041.22

Temperature difference T log mean Heat loss Efficiency C W % 15.16 246.71 76.85 14.50 349.52 70.95 15.60 369.03 72.48 16.00 265.24 79.70

Heat Transfer Coefficient Total exchange area, A Tube coefficient, hi Shell coefficient, hs Overall heat transfer coefficient m2 W/m2 .K W/m2 .K W/m .K

2

Table 5: Calculations for co-current spiral heat exchanger ( fixed hot water at 5 LPM)

Fixed Cold Water Flow Rate at 5LPM Parameter Unit Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4

Hot Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, T1 Outlet temperature, T2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qhot L/min C C kg/s J/s 2.00 50.7 39.6 0.033 1526.49 3.00 50.8 44.0 0.049 1402.72 4.00 50.8 45.7 0.067 1402.72 5.00 51.1 46.8 0.082 1478.36

Cold Fluid(Tube): Water Volumetric flowrate Inlet temperature, t1 Outlet temperature, t2 Mass flow, mt Heat transfer rate, Qs L/min C C kg/s J/s 5.00 31.3 33.1 0.083 624.73 5.00 31.5 34.4 0.083 1006.51 5.00 32.4 35.8 0.083 1180.05 5.00 31.8 35.0 0.083 1110.64

Temperature difference T log mean Heat loss Efficiency C W % 12.73 901.76 40.93 14.36 396.21 71.75 14.13 222.67 84.13 15.54 367.72 75.51

Heat Transfer Coefficient Total exchange area, A Tube coefficient, hi Shell coefficient, hs Overall heat transfer coefficient m2 W/m .K W/m .K W/m2 .K

2 2

Table 6: Calculations for co-current spiral heat exchanger ( fixed cold water at 5 LPM)

60 50 Temperature 40 30 20 10 0 hot cold 50.98 47.4

35.85 31.2

Figure 4: Temperature Profile For Counter Current Spiral Heat Exchanger (fixed hot water at 5 LPM) 2) Relationship between Heat Transfer Coefficient and Cold Water Flowrate

12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cold Water Flowrate (LPM) Shell coefficient, hs Tube coefficient, hi

Figure 5: Relationship between Heat Transfer Coefficient and Cold Water Flowrate for Counter Current Spiral Heat Exchanger (fixed hot water at 5 LPM)

3)

700 Overall Heat transfer Coefficient 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cold Water Flowrate (LPM) Overall heat transfer coefficient (countercurrent flowrate) Overall heat transfer coefficient (co-current flowrate)

Figure 6: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient versus Cold Water Flowrate for Counter Current Spiral Heat Exchanger (fixed hot water at 5 LPM)

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