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1. Who are the applicants?
DeepWater Desai, LLC is currently in discussion with public agencies that have expressed an
interest in pursuing an application for regulatory approvals as a public works project.
2. Who are the project partners?
DeepWater Desai, LLC has agreements and relationships with Dynegy Moss Landing Power
Plant, MFJK Partnership of the Capurro Ranch, PV2 Solar, and Ecomerit Technologies.
3. Is there a public agency partner?
DeepWater Desai, LLC is currently in discussions with Moss Landing Harbor District,
California State Lands and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary as NEPA and CEQA
lead agencies planning our EIR/EIS process.
4. Describe your proposal regarding builder, operator, turnkey, etc. -
DeepWater Desai LLC will permit, design, build, and operate the project through a public
agency relationship.
5. Experience in building this type of project?
DeepWater Desai's team has three members with local experience building seawater
processing systems at Moss Landing and Sand City, as well as two desalination experts with
extensive experience designing and building seawater desalination plants in California and
around the world.
Brent Constantz
Dennis Ing
Jim Heisinger
Jon Dietrich
Scott Jackson
Dr. Brent Constantz is the Managing Member (equity owner) of DeepWater Desai, LLC.
Mr. Dennis Ing is a Member (equity owner) of DeepWater Desai, LLC.
Mr. Jon Dietrich is a Member (equity owner) of DeepWater Desai, LLC.
Mr. K. Scott Jackson is a Member (equity owner) of DeepWater Desai, LLC.
See Exhibits A.S.l.- A.S.S. for individual summaries of relevant project experience.
Exhibits A.5.1- A.5.5
Exhibit A.5.1.
Brent Constantz
Dr. Constantz has supervised the design and construction of several cement manufacturing
operations over the last twenty five years. For medical cement products, these operations where
builtto FDA Good Manufacturing Practice Standards, as well as ISO EN46000 Standards. The most
recent was Calera's green cement demonstration facility on the old Kaiser National Refractories site
at Moss Landing. This involved constructing a pipeline from the Dynegy Moss Landing Power Plant
across Dolan Rd. to a $50 M cement demonstration production facility he built that drew sea water
from Moss Landing harbor and combined it with raw flue gas from the power plant to form green
cement. Constantz worked successfully with regulatory bodies to attain the necessary permits, so
that construction was completed far ahead of schedule, and at reasonable cost.
Exhibit A.5.2.
Dennis Ing
Dennis has a BS Engineering degree from University of Illinois-Chicago and has managed many
large engineering projects over the past 30 plus years. Most recently, Dennis was Chief Financial
and Administrative Officer of Moss Landing Cement Company. Dennis was instrumental in the
start-up of the green cement plant in Moss Landing and was responsible for many of the
construction management aspects of the build-out over a two year period. The plant went from an
initial feasibility stage, to pilot and then demonstration phase. Dennis managed over $30 million in
capital costs during this development and construction phase. The key project management efforts
consisted of processing all permits, managing the contractors' deliverables, purchasing, inspection
and sign-off on milestone completions, contractor payments per contract terms, recruitment and
hiring of over 50 technical and administrative staff. The projects were aggressively scheduled and
were completed on schedule and on budget.
Exhibit A.5.3.
James Heisinger
Jim is an experienced land use attorney. One of Jim's duties is serving as the City Counsel for Sand
City, where he guided the City with Mayor Pendergrass through the building of the only operating
municipally owned desalination plant in the State of California. This involved negotiating a
Design/Build contract with CDM Engineering in 2007, and setting performance criteria, and
supervising extensive testing through 2008. Construction took place between 2008 and 2010. Jim
successfully negotiated the many regulatory and organizational hurdles to successfully completing
this pioneering and complicated project..
Exhibit A.5.4
Jon Dietrich contributions with desalination.
Describe previous experience with desalination.
Seawater Desalination Facility, AI Our, Bahrain. Senior Process Commissioning Specialist for an IWPP BOT
desalination facility located along the Arabian Gulf. Responsible for process associated commissioning activities
and implementation of acceptance testing protocols. The 58 mgd (218,000 m3fd) SWRO desalination plant
utilizes an open-ocean intake, dissolved air flotation, conventional media pretreatment, a full two-pass RO
system, followed by post-treatment to meet strict potable water specifications.
Seawater Desalination Facilities -Asset Valuation.
Technical Advisor; providing independent expertise on all technical matters associated with plant process design,
intake, outfall, desalination facility and interconnections, condition and availability of equipment, commissioning
and acceptance testing, residuals management, operation and maintenance, and relevant environmental aspects
of plant operation.
Seawater Desalination Facility, Shuaibah Ill, Saudi Arabia. Development of pretreatment pilot testing
protocols and on-site pilot testing, operational and desalination troubleshooting services for an IWPP BOO
desalination facility located along the Red Sea. The combination 40 mgd (150,000 m
/d) membrane desalination
+ 232 mgd (880,000 m
/d) thermal MSF desalination facility utilizes an open-ocean intake, conventional media
pretreatment, and two-passes of reverse osmosis membranes.
Seawater Desalination Facility- Hamma, Algeria. Process operational guidance and desalination
commissioning services at a 52 mgd (200,000 m
/d) SWRO facility in Algiers. Facility utilizes an open-ocean
intake, conventional clarification, deep bed media pretreatment, single-pass membrane treatment. Additional
tasks encompassed the review and assessment of the desalination system functionality and chemical storage
and delivery systems' operational protocols.
Namibian Water Corporation (NamWater)- Namibia, South Africa. Seawater desalination consultant and
Owner's Engineer-Advisor for a 13 mgd (50,000 m
/d) expandable to 21 mgd (80,000 m3fd) facility to be
constructed along the coast near Swakopmund. The feed water is particularly challenging compared to most
coastal locations due to the occurrences of red tides and sulphur upwellings. Work includes pilot operational
guidance, treatment process guidance, development of EPC scope book and bidding documents.
City of Santa Cruz Water Department - Seawater Desalination Demonstration Program. Design and
Technical Engineering Review associated with the pilot demonstration program, including operational data and
water quality assessment; operational results compared to other similar desalination facilities; pretreatment and
membrane treatment process performance, data interpretation, and normalized membrane operating data
commensurate with a thorough technical review. Also responsible for technical support and recommendations
regarding intake methods.
West Basin Municipal Water District- Seawater Desalination Facility. Design and Value Engineering Review.
Work involved assisting the District in providing a comprehensive design review and value engineering
assessment of the District's Temporary Ocean Water Desalination Demonstration Facility plans and
specifications. Also, membrane Technology Support Services ranging from pilot testing support to general
process and engineering support. Work activities include pretreatment design and testing guidance,
development of layouts, cost estimates, and sharing institutional knowledge.
The project was awarded the National Water Research Institute's (NWRI) "Award of Excellence" for its
contribution to water desalination research and dedicated efforts to create a new, locally controlled sustainable
water supply.
Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates. Operational audit of seawater desalination facilities located
throughout the Middle East. Included assessment of the design and operational sustainability of numerous open-
intake configurations on seawater of vastly different qualities. Provided assessment of treatment efficacy for
numerous membrane desalination facilities treating Arabian Gulf seawater.
Carlsbad Seawater Pilot Demonstration Facility, Carlsbad, CA. Technical director and advisor in the
development of a 50 mgd (190,000 m
/d) SWRO in Carlsbad, CA. Responsibilities include conceptual plant
design, pilot plant operation, oversight and performance testing assessments, data collection and interpretation,
technical aspects of facility permitting, economic analyses.
Seawater Desalination Facility- Palmachim, Israel. Process operational guidance and desalination
troubleshooting services at a 22 mgd (83,000 m3/d) SWRO facility in Israel utilizing an open-ocean intake,
conventional media pretreatment, and multiple membrane treatment components. Additional tasks encompassed
the review and assessment of the desalination system and chemical storage and delivery systems' operational
Ras Tanura Petrochemical Facility; Saudi Arabia. Subject Matter Expert (SME), basic engineering assistance,
and preliminary process design development for a 62 mgd (235,000 m3/d) seawater reverse osmosis facility.
The grass-roots facility will incorporate membrane filtration as pretreatment on an open intake, followed by
seawater reverse osmosis membranes in a number of process configurations. Responsibilities include
assistance with the development of process flow diagrams, and piping and instrumentation diagrams, process
control strategy, pilot protocol development, and implementation of the pilot program including operational
guidance and data interpretation; review of vendor/EPC contractor submittals, cost guidance, negotiations
assistance, equipment and facility construction inspections, operator training, and facility commissioning
Brownsville Public Utility Board Seawater Desalination Pilot Program. Program implementation, process,
and operational guidance for a seawater desalination pilot consisting of four pretreatment configurations (one
conventional, three membrane-based) and two SWRO trains at the Brownsville, TX ship channel. Also included
pilot testing guidance, interpretation of operating data, and implementation of protocols.
Tampa Desalination Facility. At the Tampa, FL 25 mgd (95,000 m
/d) seawater desalination facility; provide
training to operations staff, development of Standard Operations Protocols for desalination process equipment
including warm and cold-water intakes, revised pretreatment system utilizing coagulation, flocculation, media
filtration and precoat microfiltration; a two-pass seawater process, and enhanced post treatment utilizing lime and
carbon dioxide. Develop facility commissioning framework for Operator and Owner consent. Provide guidance
to plant staff towards fulfilling NPDES discharge and operations permit requirements.
Iraq Water Theater. Subject Matter Expert, Operations Audit and development of a membrane operations
training program for desalination facilities and ice operations supporting United States and coalition troops. Tasks
encompassed pretreatment, process, membrane operations, chemical conditioning, hands-on training, testing
protocols, and operational guidance.
Texas Water Development Board Seawater Desalination Program. Seawater Desalination Engineering
Project Manager (EPM) for the State of Texas' implementation of the pilot plant study components of the
Brownsville seawater desalination initiative. Tasks include development of funding application package for
Developers/participants, assisting TWDB with developer negotiations, development of pilot protocol and
meaningful Demonstration Program guidance, pilot progress and operations inspections, data evaluation,
technical feasibility.
West Basin Municipal Water District, Temporary Ocean Water Desalination Demonstration Project.
Membrane process and support services in various capacities related to intake assessment, pretreatment
efficacy, and siting for the West Basin seawater desalination demonstration program. The project was awarded
"Project of the Year" by the WateReuse Association in 2011.
OPIC Petrochemical Facility; Sohar, Oman. Subject Matter Expert (SME) for the water utility and
infrastructure components of a petrochemical facility in Oman. The water facility is designed to utilize membrane
pretreatment on an open ocean intake, followed by seawater reverse osmosis membranes. Responsibilities
include process flow diagram and piping and instrumentation diagram development oversight, process control
strategy guidance, development of the water facility process design, technical review of vendor/EPC contractor
submittals, cost guidance, negotiations assistance, equipment and facility construction inspections, operator
training, development of operational protocols.
Algerian Energy Company/Seawater Desalination Program. Technical Advisor for pretreatment process and
facility design development, for 13 MGD to 50 MGD seawater desalination facilities in Algeria. The facilities are
designed to utilize conventional pretreatment on an open ocean intake, followed by seawater reverse osmosis
membranes. Responsibilities include process flow diagram and piping and instrumentation diagram development
and oversight.
Tampa Bay Water I Anclote Seawater Pilot Demonstration Facility, Holiday, FL. Project Principal for the
operation and performance assessment of parallel pretreatment followed by seawater reverse osmosis pilot
trains for a future, planned 25-MGD seawater desalination facility in the Northwest Tampa Bay area, on the Gulf
of Mexico, at Progress Energy's Anclote Power Generating Station. Treatment trains included membrane
pretreatment next to conventional media pretreatment, followed by seawater desalination and a second pass
reverse osmosis polishing array. Managed the pilot program, evaluated the sustainability of the processes,
directed the treatment operations and courses of action on-site and performed scale-up and economic analyses.
United States Bureau of Reclamation+ Tampa Bay Water- Anclote Seawater Pilot Demonstration Facility,
Holiday, FL. This is the second piloting component for the Seawater Pilot Demonstration Program at the Anclote
Power Generating Station; although with different pretreatment trains compared to the Tampa Bay Water
Component of the Program. Pretreatment trains included membrane pretreatment followed by UV inactivation,
next to a coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation system with a 2-stage media filter polishing system. Both
systems fed parallel single-pass seawater reverse osmosis systems. Managed the pilot program, evaluated the
sustainability of the processes, directed the treatment operations and courses of action on-site, and performed
scale-up and economic analyses.
Tampa Bay Desai, LLC I Tampa Bay Water- Tampa, FL. Development through completion of a 25 MGD
(95,000 m
/d) DBOOT/DBO seawater desalter in Tampa, FL. Responsibilities as Director of Technical Services
include pilot plant operation and oversight, owner-management of facility construction and overall
startup/commissioning oversight, adhering to schedules, and technical aspects of facility permitting (including
concentrate), public information, utility service coordination, EPC contractor replacement, O&M contractor
replacement, risk analyses, and intense economic analyses. Responsible for managing client relationships and
numerous consultant I engineer subcontractors.
Trinidad I Tobago, West Indies (for Private Client). Assistant to the Design Manager for a 65 mgd (250,000
m3Jd feed water capacity) membrane desalination pretreatment plant. Work included the preliminary conceptual
engineering, design, economic analysis of the pretreatment system design, chemical storage and feed systems,
plant layout and yard piping, site civil work and support facilities, and membrane system design quality control.
Oil Conglomerate - Exploration and Development Program (for Private Client). Subject Matter Expert for
development of platform mounted, hybrid seawater desalination systems utilized to enhance recovery of oil from
well fields.
Desalination System, City of Santa Barbara, CA (for Private Client). Process design of multimedia filter
systems for a seawater desalination facility.
NAWA/City of Vandalia and Tipp City, Ohio. Provided consulting engineering peer review services for
membrane pilot study and membrane conceptual design component of a proposed (7 mgd) ground water
treatment facility using reverse osmosis. Reviewed the applicability of membrane process to meet NAWA's
water quality and residual management goals, and performed a desktop assessment of iron and manganese
removal, and membrane cleaning frequency and fouling potential. Evaluated the capability of the proposed
piloted split-stream treatment system to adequately address manganese and iron removal in the pretreatment
stream and possible impacts of untreated feedwater on the performance of the RO system.
Town of Newton- Newton, NJ. Membrane plant design team leader including process design of a 2 mgd
advanced microfiltration membrane filtration facility to treat Morris Lake reservoir water. Tasks include evaluating
treatment alternatives and associated costs, plant layout and piping, process design and development of the
chemical storage and delivery systems for pre-treatment, membrane system design, and post-treatment chemical
Lee County Utilities- Lee County, FL. Development of and conceptual design of an approximately 10 (initial)
to 20 mgd (buildout) capacity, brackish water reverse osmosis potable water treatment system to supplement the
Lee County drinking water service area. Tasks involved with the project include review and recommendations for
surface and groundwater sources in light of competing treatment technologies and within a regulatory framework
for future compliance, design and siting alternatives, residuals impact and analysis, and intense economic
Collier County North Gwinnett County North Advanced Water Reclamation Facility- Gwinnett County,
GA. Membrane Technology Team Leader for the process design and economic analysis of a membrane-based
secondary effluent treatment system including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and chemical delivery
systems on secondary treated wastewater. Designed and operated bench-scale and pilot microfiltration,
ultrafiltration, and softening reverse osmosis systems for qualitative and quantitative performance analysis.
Membrane configurations included cross flow hollow fiber, dead-end flow, vacuum draw, and spiral wound type.
Performance data was utilized for the design of a full-scale secondary effluent reclamation plant.
Collier County North Regional Water Treatment Upgrade- Collier County, FL. Process design of reverse
osmosis, degasification, odor control, and chlorine scrubber systems for plant expansion.
City of Plantation, East Plant Upgrade- Plantation, FL. Process design of membrane softening system,
degasification system, emergency power system, and plant layout.
City of Hollywood, Water Treatment Plant Upgrade - Hollywood, FL. Process design, enhancement, and
facility start-up of membrane softening and reverse osmosis systems, degasification system, odor control system,
and chemical handling and delivery systems.
Advanced Micro Devices Manufacturing Facility - Austin, TX. Reverse osmosis process water treatment
system retrofit and process upgrade, including mixed bed ion exchangers and reverse osmosis system.
Kalaeloa Cogeneration Plant- Ewa Beach, HI. Process design of a process water treatment system upgrade
including pretreatment, reverse osmosis desalination, ion exchange, and value engineering.
IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center- Yorktown Heights, NY. Process design of reverse osmosis and vacuum
degasifier system retrofit and upgrade.
IBM Manufacturing Facility- East Fishkill, NY. Process design of reverse osmosis, vacuum degasifier,
chemical handling, and many other related treatment systems. Managed maintenance and analytical activities
for over 30 various configurations of water and chemical delivery systems throughout the 950-acre site.
B.F. Goodrich Manufacturing Facility- Louisville, KY. Design/build of reverse osmosis system for process
Exhibit A.S.S
K. Scott Jackson
Program/Project Management- Representative Project List
Chevron Corporation, Gaviota, CA
City of Cape Coral, FL
City of Englewood, FL
City of Fort Myers, FL
City of Majma'ah/ Arabian Bechtel
Ltd., Saudi Arabia
Douglas Aircraft Company, Long
Beach, CA
EcoFund, Warsaw, Poland
Exxon Company, USA, CA
Hutchinson Technology,
Hutchinson, MN
LSI Logic, Gresham, OR
Marin Municipal Water District,
Minnesota Corn Processors,
Marshall, MN
Orange County Water District,
Fountain Valley, CA
Pacific Gas & Electric Company,
Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power
Station, CA
Plains Electric Power Generation,
Public Service Company of New
Mexico, San Juan, NM
274,000 GPD seawater RO and
72,000 brackish water systems,
9 MGD low pressure RO system
3 MGD brackish water RO system
12 MGD membrane softening system (20
3.2 MGD brackish water RO system
127,000 GPD RO and 426,000 GPD Two-
stage waste treatment and reuse
$500,000 zero-discharge pilot scale
study RO and evaporator mine drainage
864,000 GPD MF system for recovery
and reuse of oil produced water and
water flood ns
2 each 130,000 GPD MF systems for
wastewater treatment and reuse
100 gpm CMP and 10 gpm Fluoride MF
wastewater treatment ''""'t-"''""
50 GPM MF pilot phase pretreatment
Pilot test, feasibility study and
comparative economic evaluation for 2
each 4.3 MGD RO s
Membrane and pressure vessel
replacement, 5 MGD municipal reclaim
576,000 GPD seawater RO system (First
large capacity seawater desal project
built in California)
500,000 GPD RO system
Membrane replacement and system
refurbishment, 2.88 MGD Zero Discharge
Royal Commission for Jubail and
Yanbu, Arabian Bechtel Company Turn-key 3 MGD brackish water RO system
St. Lucie West, FL Turn-key 1.2 MGD membrane softening plant
U.S. Army Turn-key
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yuma RO Membrane
Desalting Plant, Yuma, AZ Trains
City of Menifee, CA Turn-key 2.5 MGD municipal brackish RO system
City of Jupiter, FL Turn-key 2 MGD municipal brackish RO system
Boca Raton, FL
RO Membrane
40 MGD municipal brackish RO system
Palm Beach County, FL, Plant No. RO Membrane 22,880 MGD municipal brackish water
9 Trains RO
Wichita Falls, TX Turn-key
12 MGD municipal brackish water RO
City of O'Fallon, MO Turn-key
Oman Sur, Oman
RO membrane
UF Module
Supply and
38.7 MGD Ultrafiltration surface water
Eau de Paris, Paris, France Control System
treatment plant
support and
UF Module
Supply and
23.2 MGD Ultrafiltration surface water
City of Nancy, France related
treatment plant
Thames Water (London), UK
RO membrane
40 MGD Seawater RO Plant
Sharjah Electricity & Water
40 MGD UF Pretreatment System and 20
Authority, Al Hamriyah, Oman MGD SWRO Plant
Skikda & Beni Saf, Algeria
RO membrane
79 MGD combined Seawater RO Plant
Ulu Pandan
RO membrane
39 MGD Water Reuse RO plant
' ... ' . - ' . ' . ~ . :- . ,
Chennai, India
RO Membrane
26.5 MGD SWRO Plant
Tiemcen, Algeria
RO membrane
52.8 MGD SWRO Plant
Gold Coast, Australia
RO membrane
35 MGD Seawater RO Plant
City of Barcelona, Spain
RO membrane
6. Has the project been subject to independent third party review? If so, please attach a
DEEPWATER DESAL LLC, A Review of the Technical Feasibility of the Proposed Capurro
Ranch Desalination Facility, By Ian C. Watson, P.E.RosTek Associates, Inc., Tampa, Florida is
attached as Exhibit A.6. on the following page.
Mr. Ian C. Watson's CV is listed as Appendix A.6 (appended at end of document)
Exhibit A.6
A Review of the Technical Feasibility of the Proposed Capurro Ranch Desalination Facility
Ian C. Watson, P.E.l
#CH 4676
RosTek Associates, Inc.
Tampa, Florida
Deepwater Desai, LLC is proposing to develop a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) water treatment
facility for the production of potable water. The ultimate capacity of this facility is proposed to be
25,000 acre-feetjyear (22,000,000 gallons per day). The location is proposed to be on the Capurro
Ranch property, just north of Moss Landing, in Monterey County, California. The proposed location
of the various segments comprising the total project will be located in and around Moss Landing, in
Monterey County, California. Published information concerning the early planning phases of this
project is limited, but focused on the following main points:
1) The intake system, which will be required to pump approximately 50 million gallons per
day (MGD) of raw seawater, will be located in deep water below the phonic zone at or
inside the eastern rim of the submarine Monterey Canyon.
2) Existing easements and rights of way will be utilized to bring the raw seawater on shore.
An existing pump station on Dynegy Energy's property in Moss Landing will receive the
water from offshore. From there, after flowing through a heat exchange loop at the power
plant which will warm the water from about 10 C to over 30 C, the water will be pumped
to the SWRO plant through a new pipeline constructed in public rights of way.
3) The Capurro Ranch, an existing commercial property of over 8 acres with two existing
industrial buildings has been leased. The SWRO plant together with pre-and post-
treatment facilities and finished water storage and pumping will be located on this site,
utilizing the existing structures.
lan C. Watson CV is listed as Appendix A.6
4) Concentrate, filter backwash water, and membrane cleaning solutions will be discharged
to the existing Dynegy cooling water discharge, where a high level of dilution will occur.
In the opinion of the developer, DeepWater Desai, LLC (DWD), its proposal has merit compared to
other proposals being considered for this region. This position is taken based on the following
It is believed that locating the intake screen below the photic zone on the near shore deepwater of
the Monterey Canyon will result in less impingement and entrainment, will provide raw water with
consistently low turbidity, constant temperature and composition, and lower membrane fouling
potential. One of the ongoing operating issues with SWRO intake piping systems is the ability of
marine mollusks, such as mussels, to attach to the interior surfaces of the piping, and form
significant colonies. The proposed location of the inlet below the photic zone is expected to mitigate
this problem, due the low potential for the larvae and young mollusks capable of penetrating the
screen to be present in the a photic zone.
With respect to the ecological benefits, some research has already been completed by Tenera
Environmental to predict the potential entrainment of small planktonic organisms including the
eggs and larvae of fishes and invertebrates into the raw water supply to the proposed treatment
facility. This analysis was conducted with data collect between 2010 and 2011 for current and
larval densities from 2000, utilizing a well validated empirical model known as the Empirical
Transport Model (ETM). This model was originally proposed to estimate mortality rates from
cooling water withdrawals by power plants. Variations of this model have been used for previous
studies involving cooling seawater for California power plants. ETM provides an estimate of
mortality caused by entrainment based on estimates of the fractional loss to the source water
population. The assumption is that any entrained species will have a 100% mortality rate. Thus,
minimizing entrainment will also minimize mortality. Variables that have an effect on the results
include local currents, and the period of time that any particular species is present in the impacted
water column.
The 2010-2011 ETM model results of this research indicate that the rate of mortality of common
local species is extremely low under the conditions imposed on the model. The rate of seawater
abstraction input to the model was 25 MGD, which is approximately half the ultimate volume that
would be required for a 25,000 acre-feetjyear potable water production.
Current research is being conducted to generate more accurate data concerning the number and
proximity of eggs and larvae in the exact proposed intake locations. Two depths are included in this .
research, 60ft.of water above the intake screens, and 100 ft. of water above the intake. When these
data are collected and evaluated, a more accurate estimate of entrainment mortality at these depths
can be predicted.
Impingement, the second measure of an intake's impact on the marine environment, is generally
considered to be of importance relative to more mature fishes and invertebrates, larger than the
screen openings selected for the intake. Impingement occurs when the ability of the fish to escape
from the inward flow of water is compromised, and the fish are pinned to the screen. EPA and state
agencies address this issue in Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act, and have limited the approach
velocity to not more than 0.5 feet/second. While Section 316(b) technically applies to power plants
and some similar industrial users, the rule has by default been applied to intakes for coastal
desalination facilities, since the environmental concerns are the same, and the end use does not
dictate the intake's ultimate function.
While entrainment almost certainly results in mortality, impingement does not, although it is highly
probable. Careful selection of screen opening and inlet velocity based on research such as that
currently ongoing by DWD and its consultants are vital to minimize risk to fish and invertebrate
species present at the intake source. Various types of alternative intakes have been included in
competing proposals. These include slant wells, Ranney-type collectors, and engineered subsurface
collectors. The intended purpose is two fold: to avoid entrainment and impingement issues that
accompany an open intake; and to reduce or eliminate the need for elaborate pre-treatment ahead
of the RO process. While the former is probably a true statement, the latter is not, since RO
membrane fouling in seawater systems is for the most part caused by biofilms and organics, neither
of which are particularly influenced by subsurface intakes. What is true is that the physical quality
of the raw water is generally better than open intakes. Most plants using such intakes do not
._ ~
require flocculation and coagulation, thus avoiding the capital cost of such equipment, and the
expense and inconvenience of using the required chemicals. However, if the assumptions made by
DWD in its proposal development are valid, it is very likely that the physical quality of water
withdrawn from deepwater below the photic zone will have low turbidity on average with a
possible periodic excursion to 10 NTU or less. Thus the pretreatment for suspended solids removal
assumed in the DWD proposal of single stage filtration with little or no chemical addition would
appear to be valid, and no more onerous than the pretreatment that would be expected for raw
water from a subsurface intake of any kind.
The use of slant wells for securing a seawater supply for RO treatment has received a lot of publicity
in the industry recently, and even is the subject of a patent (US Patent #8056629B2-Dennis E.
Williams). While slant, or angled, wells have the benefit of potentially extracting seawater at greater
water depths, similar to a Ranney-type collector, the finished footprint on shore is less than a
Ranney-type collector, which typically would have a 16'- 20' diameter caisson on shore. And unlike
open intakes, the productivity of slant wells is directly influenced by the soils conditions at the
location of the perforated intake portion of the well casing. Extensive testing is required to correctly
predict the long term performance, and as in the case of the Orange County test well, the presence
of onshore brackish aquifer water in the water produced would require long term pumping to reach
equilibrium, or require that the slant well be extended further under the ocean to reduce the
influence of land base aquifers.
As yet there are not any known seawater RO plants anywhere in the world using slant wells as a
source of feed water. This technology is relatively recent, and while there are undoubted benefits
inherent in a successful project of this type, further development and understanding of the
technology is required. Clearly, this is a technology that is very site specific, as is any subsurface
solution that relies on local soil conditions for success.
Engineered intakes have been discussed and proposed for seawater RO systems supply for over 30
years. Missimer and Associates prepared a design for a seawater RO plant to be built in Al-Khafji,
Saudi Arabia, in 1981. The proposal was considered but not constructed, beach wells being
implemented. Several other proposals followed but no installations were recorded until the
construction of the Fukuoka (Japan) intake. This has now been in operation some seven years, and
operational reports are generally positive. Maintenance requirements include replacement of the
surface media periodically due to clogging or migration due to tides and currents. Construction of
such an intake requires appropriate subsurface conditions, such as excavation to 8-10 meters is
required, and the presence of rock subsurface would compromise the efficiency. Construction is
also costly, since published literature generally agrees that a maximum velocity through the buried
intake screens is 0.1 feetjsec
. The area offshore that must be piled and excavated to create this
condition would be very extensive, and require nearby docking and loading facilities for
transporting the engineered fill to the construction area, and for removing the excavated fill.
While subsurface supplies are valid and have been constructed for small plants, the vast majority of
the global seawater RO plant inventory over 10 MGD uses open intakes. Pre-treatment of seawater
from open intakes can be very extensive, and the trend around the world appears to be toward
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) followed by single stage filtration and membrane filtration. In many
cases the single stage filtration is left out. The DAF is very often used in conjunction with
flocculation and coagulation with ferric salts, which have some additional benefit for the reduction
of organics. If the water quality in the proposed DWD location below the photic zone is as expected,
eliminating the extensive pre-treatment usually associated with open intakes will significantly
reduce both the capital and operating cost, and accelerate the construction schedule.
The DWD proposal to locate an intake below the photic zone, where less marine species are present
in either larval or adult form shows every possibility of significantly reducing entrainment and
impingement, and has the capability of being constructed and commissioned relatively quickly and
at significantly lower cost, compared to any subsurface method under consideration. It is believed
that the success of such a scheme depends entirely on the extent and validity of real data available
both to the developer and to the designers and regulators, and further research is encouraged.
Onshore Raw Water Pipeline
"Water Supply Development Aquifer Storage, and Concentrate Disposal for Membrane Water
Treatment Facilities, Thomas M. Missimer, PhD, Schlumberger Water Service, 2009
It is proposed that water from the offshore intake be directed along an existing easement through a
48" diameter pipeline to the wetwell of an existing unused pump station on the Moss Landing
power plant property. This pipeline will be constructed in an existing easement that currently
includes an unused 24" pipeline that delivered oil to the power plant. The width of this easement is
20 feet at its narrowest location and opens up to 85+ acres offshore, but in all likelihood the existing
24" pipeline will need to be removed to allow space for the excavation necessary to properly bed
and install a 48" pipeline. Provision should be made to "pig" this section of the intake pipeline, and
also the pipeline that will extend from the pump station to the SWRO plant.
Use of the existing wetwell is considered to be a benefit to the project because it eliminates the need
to construct a new pump station at the on shore terminus of the intake piping from the intake
screens. However, the elevation of the bottom slab of the wetwell needs to be established to make
sure that sufficient head differential exists for water to flow from the intake screens with the
wetwell at a reasonable flow-rate, including the possibility of friction losses due to marine mollusk
colonies present in the off-shore and on-shore sections of the raw water pipeline
Pre-treatment and Post-treatment
As discussed earlier, it is expected that the physical water quality available from an intake located
below the photic zone will be good enough that typical pretreatment of surface seawater to an RO
plant as described earlier will not be required. The DWD proposal is that single stage dual media
filtration without coagulants are employed. While this seems a reasonable approach with the
limited information currently available, it is strongly recommended that some bench scale testing
be performed prior to commitment to this pretreatment scenario. In addition, consideration should
be given to control of potential bio-fouling should the feed water be warmed, as had been proposed.
Given the relatively low temperature expected from the proposed abstraction depths ( -S0-55
degrees Fahrenheit) it is reasonable to assume that bio-growth potential will be low.
A considerable data bank from decades of monitoring is available from CeNCOOS and MBARI, as
well as Moss Landing Marine Laboratories regarding the local chemical and physical parameters of
the waters off Moss Landing. No specific data are available concerning the water chemistry that may
be present either at the 60' for 100' proposed abstraction depths, although there is no reason to
believe it would be significantly different from the nearby collect sites of MOBARI or MOSS Landing
Marine laboratory. This information should be obtained as soon as possible, although any major
deviations from "standard" seawater quality are not expected, based on previous experience in this
and other locations around Monterey Bay. Therefore, the expectation is that the RO plant will be
designed for 50% recovery, and at conservative flux rates considering the low water temperatures
expected. This approach will minimize the operating pressure, and should produce a permeate
quality of around 300mg/l TDS, which will require post-treatment.
Post-treatment for seawater RO permeate typically consists of re-hardening and re-carbonation,
followed by disinfection, fluoride addition if practiced, and corrosion inhibitor if necessary.
Typically the permeate from a SWRO plant is a dilute solution of sodium chloride, and is very
aggressive to ferrous materials prior to stabilization. The selection of post-treatment technologies
may prove challenging, since it is anticipated that the water produced will be wholesaled to
multiple water purveyors. Any water sales agreement entered into between the developer and
purchaser should contain language describing the finished water quality to be delivered.
The SWRO plant and Infrastructure
The use of the existing buildings at the Capurro Ranch site will speed up construction. It is reported
that two metal builds are available for use, one of 18,000 sq. feet and the other of 36,000 sq. feet. An
estimating tool that has been used for determining space requirements for SWRO plants is that
approximately 1,300 square feet is required for the RO equipment for each million gallons per day
of permeate capacity. Thus the larger of the two existing buildings should be more than adequate
for housing the SWRO equipment, and its sub-systems. Clearly the planning should include
foundation studies to determine what if any strengthening of the existing concrete slabs is required.
Not reported is the available head room, which could have an impact on the ability of constructors
to install and use overhead cranes for setting pumps and motors, energy recovery devices and
piping and valves. It may also be necessary to sound proof the sidewalls of the buildings to meet any
local building code standards regarding noise. Regardless, the availability of the buildings is a
positive, and will certainly be a benefit during the construction phase.
What has not been reported is the power requirement to operate a SWRO plant of this capacity. It is
estimated that the on-site power needed will be of the order of 10 megawatts for full capacity
operation. It would be very beneficial to the overall economics of the project if a dedicated
transmission line and a long term agreement "bus" rate for energy use could be negotiated with
Dynegy, DWD has already entered an power purchase agreement with PV2 solar, a 400 MW solar
project located on transmission lines from Fresno to Moss Landing scheduled for completion in
2015. DWD is also encouraged to investigate the potential for wave energy and wind power
generation at the Capurro Ranch site to meet some of the power requirements of the SWRO plant.
DWD has further entered an agreement with Ecomerit to locate wave power generators off Moss
Landing in a project that is funded by the Department of Energy.
Project Execution
The current DWD management team appears to have been assembled with some care, and includes
two veterans of the reverse osmosis business. This in house capability supplemented as required by
additional specialized consulting services should allow the team to take a fresh and proactive
approach to the project development and execution. This team with some specialized additions
appears to have the capability of acting as its own construction manager at risk, largely self
performing many if not all of the tasks required to bring the project to completion, with resulting
savings in time and cost. The management team also includes significant experience in the legal and
financial expertise required for a project of this type and magnitude.
Review of the opinion of probable cost, which has been developed based on the assumption that
only basic pre-treatment will be required if the proposed intake below the photic zone is
implemented, appears at this stage of design development to be adequate. Clearly some
assumptions have been made based on the best information available today, and as more detail of
the design is developed, it is entirely possible that the projected finished water cost may change.
However, the individual components of the project, intake, pre-treatment, pipelines, RO equipment,
post-treatment and finished water storage and transmission, are fairly simple to conceptualize, and
material and equipment costs are available from manufacturers and suppliers. What is less clear at
this point are the costs associated with actually constructing the necessary facilities in terms of
labor, miscellaneous materials, the actual cost of power connections to the site, and so on.
Regardless, in our opinion, the final cost based on today's pricing should deviate by more than 10-
15% of the cost currently estimated.
In any project of this type, the schedule to complete is driven primarily by the time frame required
for permitting. The time required for construction can be fairly easily defined by comparisons to
existing facilities, and a thorough understanding of site constraints, lead times for critical
equipment, transportation schedules, and the availability of the labor skills needed in the region.
The time required for permitting however is very difficult to define. For this project some headway
has already been made, and with the assumption that any submittals to regulatory agencies are
thoroughly prepared, and completely comply with the submittal requirements of the agencies
involved, it is not unreasonable to expect that the entire permitting process can be completed
sometime in late 2013. If DWD is prepared at this point to release purchase orders for long lead
time equipment such as RO feed pumps, major electrical equipment, etc, and construction of the
intake, pipelines, pretreatment and other components commences in early 2014, the project should
be ready for commissioning in approximately 2 years.
In summary, although details of many of the project's facets has yet to be developed, it is our
opinion that the project as described thus far will in fact provide a fast track, reasonably priced, and
environmentally benign approach to providing the answer to urgent "new" water needs of the
region. However, this review has attempted to point out where some of the stumbling blocks may
be encountered. The developers are urged to continue with research on the
entrainment/impingement issue, characterize the fouling potential of the water from both 60 feet
and 100 feet depths, to start research into the possible use of renewable energy at least as a
supplement to conventional power and to start detail investigation and preliminary design of
pipeline and plant construction to better identify any potentially fatal flaws that may currently be
1. Provide basic description. Show the design and operational characteristics of each unit
process in both AFY and MGD.
Site location
DWD has secured a 34-year ground lease, together with options to extend the term for an
additional 64 years, with discussions of an option to purchase, on 8.14 acres of land located at
2250 Highway 1, in Moss Landing, at a site presently known as the Capurro Ranch (Figure 3).
The site will be used for the construction of a fast-track SWRO facility with a build-out capacity
to produce up to 2 5,000 AFY of high quality drinking water. The site is located immediately
north of the Moss Landing Harbor and approximately 1 mile from the proposed feedwater
intake. DWD has also secured an option for an additional eight acres immediately adjacent to the
Capurro Ranch property should additional space be required if expansion of the SWRO and
related facilities is desired. If expansion is proposed, DWD will reevaluate the expanded project
in a separate document. See Exhibit B.l. and Exhibit B.2.
Exhibit B.l
Exhibit 8.2
The current layout of the Capurro Ranch property.
The Capurro Ranch site contains two improved buildings of 18,000 and 35,000 square feet,
which provide ample space to accommodate the reverse osmosis (RO) system,
administrative offices, tankage, chemical storage and related process equipment. No
additional construction will be required to house the RO system equipment.
DWD is presently investigating whether the foundations within the buildings are sufficiently
strong to accommodate the weight loads associated with the RO system trains, pumps, and
tankage. However, we do not anticipate that any major construction or reconstruction will
be required prior to the installation of the RO system equipment. If certain parts of the
foundations need to be reinforced, the cost and schedule impacts will be relatively minor.
The site is presently equipped with an electrical substation; however electrical service will
need to be increased.
SWRO Desalination Plant
The proposed DeepWater Desai project will be constructed in phases to accommodate both
immediate and future demand. Phase 1 will be sized to produce 10,200 AF /Y (9.1 MGD).
However, the seawater intake, intake pipeline and transmission pipelines will be sized and
constructed to accommodate the full build-out capacity of 25,000 AF JY (22.3 MGD).
The desalination plant will consist of the following major components:
1. Screened, passive, deep-water intake
2. Intake pipeline
3. Intake pump station to convey seawater to the desalination facility
4. Pretreatment media filtration system
5. 10,200 AFY capacity (Phase 1), reverse osmosis seawater desalination system (SWRO);
with infrastructure in-place to ultimately produce 25,000 AFY
6. Energy recovery system
7. Chemical conditioning facilities
8. Post-treatment facilities
9. Product water pump station
10. Residuals management system- solids settling and filter presses
11. Electrical power supply
12. Brine discharge and conveyance
The Desalination Plant will be constructed on approximately 8-acre site located at the
Capurro Ranch, approximately 1 mile north of the Moss Landing Harbor adjacent to Highway
1. The project will utilize existing buildings and infrastructure to the greatest extent
possible to house the RO system equipment, control room, laboratory and offices. The RO
system equipment will be fabricated off-site and installed and assembled on-site, within
existing buildings and structures. On site construction activities will be limited to tankage,
pump stations, foundations, connecting pipelines, and a substation.
The desalination plant will be designed to accommodate both immediate and future demand
for high purity drinking water. Phase 1, will be built to provide a capacity of 10,200 AFY.
Additional production capacity will then be added in incremental blocks to meet future
demand with a "build-out" capacity presently fixed at 25,000 AFY.
Deepwater Ocean-Sited Intake System
The proposed deepwater ocean-sited intake consists of a passive seawater withdrawal
system containing a wedge-wire screened intake, supply pipeline and a feedwater pump
station. Feedwater will be withdrawn from a new 48-in. diameter pipe that will replace an
existing pipeline previously used by PG&E for offloading fuel oil for the MLPP during the
time the MLPP was owned and operated by PG&E. The intake of the new 10,000 linear foot
(LF) feedwater intake pipe will be located at a depth of approximately 65 ft. The pipe will be
screened with a passive, cylindrical wedge-wire screen constructed with slot openings of 2
mm. and designed such that the maximum velocity through the screen would never exceed
0.5 foot per second (fps) in order to eliminate impingement and reduce entrainment of
aquatic organisms. A feedwater pump station will be constructed in the existing wet well of
Dynegy's MLPP, which is located onshore below sea level at the terminus of the abandoned
PG&E fuel oil line. The feedwater pump station will be equipped with high-service pump(s)
with a rated capacity of up to 24 MGD (Phase 1). Exhibit B.3 shows the location of the intake
and piping. In Exhibit B.3. the 85 acre easement area delineated by the cyan colored lines
holds the existing pipeline shown in black. The existing pipeline in the easement extends
from 1.1 miles offshore to a subsea level wet well on the Moss Landing Power Plant property.
Exhibit B.3
SWRO Feedwater Conveyance System
The feedwater conveyance system includes piping and pumps to transport the feedwater to
the SWRO facility. The high-service pump(s) has a rated capacity of 13,000 gallons per
minute (gpm), Phase 1, at a discharge pressure of 75 pounds per square inch (psig). A 36-in.
diameter 100,000 linear ft. buried conveyance pipe will run from the feedwater conveyance
pump station along the west side of Highway 1 north to the Capurro Ranch, where the SWRO
will be located.
SWRO Plant & Pretreatment System (Refer to Exhibit 8.4)
Because of the high quality of the raw seawater taken from the deep-water intake, expensive
ultrafiltration membrane treatment will not be required. The pretreatment will instead
utilize a granular media filtration system, a robust and proven technology, to protect the
integrity and reliability of the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane system. The
pretreatment system will consist of a single-stage, deep-bed, dual media granular media
system with sufficient redundancy to ensure a reliable, sustainable supply to the
downstream desalination process. Coagulant and filter aid polymer systems will be
integrated to improve the efficiency of the pretreatment system during system operation.
The media filters are designed to utilize filtered seawater as a source of backwash water or
alternatively, RO concentrate. The filters will be fully automated and monitored to assure
trouble-free operation.
Cartridge Guard Filters
Following pretreatment, filtered water will be collected in a clearwell to insure a continuous
reliable supply of pretreated water to the downstream SWRO system. From the clearwell,
the pretreated water will be pumped through 20-micron cartridge filters that will serve as
guard filters and then forwarded to the high-pressure pumps feeding the SWRO. Chemical
dosing for pH adjustment and scale control will be implemented prior to the feed water
entering the SWRO membrane elements.
Reverse Osmosis System
Reverse osmosis desalination is a cross-flow separation process using polymeric membranes
to separate and concentrate dissolved minerals (salts) from seawater. In RO desalination,
the feed stream is split into high quality permeate and concentrated brine. Permeate is
produced by passing water through a semi-permeable membrane that has the ability to
effective reject all of the dissolved minerals (99.98% or greater) leaving the salts on the feed
side of the membrane. As permeate is produced, the volume of the feed is reduced and the
concentration of salts increases until the concentrated brine is discharged from the RO
membrane trains. For seawater, the ratio of the volume of desalted water to the volume of
the feedwater is approximately 45%. In other words, for every 100 gallons of feed
introduced into the RO system, approximately 45 gallons of high quality permeate are
produced and 55 gallons of concentrated brine are produced.
Seawater reverse osmosis desalination is a mature technology with thousands of plants in
successful operation around the world and the technology has made a major contribution to
alleviating water scarcity around the world.
During Phase 1, the feed flow rate to the SWRO system will be 18.2 MGD (at 50-percent
feedwater recovery); producing 9.1 MGD of high quality desalted drinking water. The
system will be designed with redundant capacity to ensure a reliable, sustainable source of
desalted water for post-treatment conditioning. High pressure feed pumps will produce
approximately 900- 1,000 psi (pounds per square inch) of pressure to drive the seawater
through the reverse osmosis membrane elements. An integrated energy recovery system
will recapture approximately 30-percent of the energy consumed for the high-pressure feed
pumps and apply the energy into the feed stream, effectively reducing the energy needed for
the treatment process. The entire membrane system will be automated and continuously
monitored using state-of-the-art sensors and computer control systems.
Permeate produced by the SWRO will require post-treatment conditioning with lime andjor
carbon dioxide; followed by disinfection and treatment for corrosion control to protect the
distribution pipeline.
The plant will supply product water of a quality that fully complies with all regulatory
requirements of the California Department of Public Health, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and
the California Title 22 code for drinking water standards. The finished product water from
the desalination plant will be compatible with the water quality of the other sources of
potable water delivered to the same distribution system.
Chemical Storage and Feed Facilities
Chemicals safe and certified for use in drinking water treatment will be used in the
desalination process to optimize pretreatment filtration, maintain the correct water quality,
and to maintain the RO membrane elements in a clean condition; and also for stabilization
and disinfection of the desalted water for distribution in a regulated potable water supply.
The chemicals used will be delivered to the site in bulk quantities and stored in fully
contained bulk storage tanks prior to being used in the process. All chemical storage,
handling and feed facilities will be designed, constructed and maintained in compliance with
all codes, OSHA requirements and best practices to insure safe storage and handling.
Waste Management
The desalination plant will generate waste streams consisting of concentrate from the SWRO
process, sludge from the media filter backwash, sanitary wastewater from bathrooms, spent
membrane cleaning solution, solid waste, and surface runoff. The plant will be designed and
constructed to handle all waste streams generated in an environmentally sound manner and
in compliance with all codes and regulatory requirements as may be applicable.
Brine Concentrate Convevance Svstem
Concentrated seawater (brine) produced by the RO process will be collected and piped by a
separate dedicated bring pipeline from the desalination plant site to the Moss Landing
Power Plant for discharge into the power plant's cooling water discharge where it would be
diluted close to ambient salinity levels by the 100 to 1,224 MGD cooling water outfall flow
from the MLPP. A submerged pipeline (up to 5,000 LF of 36-in. or 42-in. diameter pipeline)
will be used to convey up to 25 MGD of brine concentrate from the SWRO to the MLPP. The
brine concentrate will be transported either by gravity or pump. If the power plant converts
to air cooling in the future, or powers down, the brine will be conveyed to the Moss Landing
Harbor District's dredge spoiling discharge location deep in the canyon through 38:1
diffusers that will bring the discharge to within 2% the salinity of seawater.
Residuals Management
Filter backwash will be collected and discharged into the RO concentrate line, or
alternatively treated on site via the solids handling system. Discharge will be
regulated so that the suspended solids load will mix with and be diluted with the
particle free RO concentrate. Further dilution of the TSS load will occur during
mixing with the power plant cooling water discharge so that turbidity at the ocean
outfall will not exceed that of normal seawater.
"Spent" or used cleaning chemicals will be collected and treated prior to discharge
into the brine discharge line. Treatment will include pH neutralization. Residual
surfactants, if any, will be of low concentration and small volume and it is not
anticipated that any further treatment will be required prior to discharge.
Treated Water Storage and Distribution Pump Station
Desalted treated water will be temporarily stored on site prior to being forwarded to the
distribution pipeline. The storage facilities will be comprised of above ground circular
tank(s) that will provide sufficient residence time to meet all requirements for final
disinfection prior to forwarding to the distribution pipeline. The product water pump
station will provide high quality drinking water to the distribution pipeline at the flow and
pressure required for distribution.
Non-Process Facilities
Power will be provided to the project by the local electrical supply existing within the
footprint of the existing facility. Circuits feeding the desalination plant would be 4.1kV and
Facility Operation and Maintenance
The seawater desalination facility will be designed and constructed for continuous operation
(24 hours per day and seven days per week) and will be adequately staffed to support
continuous operations in accordance with California and Federal Law. The plant will be fully
automated and will have operations and maintenance staff of approximately 12 full-time
employees. Additionally, outside services will be required from electrical, equipment and
instrumentation contractors, and the service industry.
Seaw:7eJ o:alination
Supply System 1 Facility
Bypass for Split Stream
Exhibits B.4

Equalization Basin
Chlorine Contact
T ank/Ciearwell
en To Concentrate
ERD Booster

Stream Ac-ftl mgd
A 25,836 23,064,805
B 10,200 9,105,985
c 14,086 12,574,932
D 10,200 9,105,985
1,550 1,383,888
15,636 13,958,820

2. Will the Peninsula ratepayers be the only customers for product water from the system?
The Phase I product water system is designed to serve the replacement water needs of the
Monterey Peninsula Water Management District and California American Water.
3. If not, explain who the other customers will be, what is their current level of
commitment and how much water they will take.
Other areas around Monterey Bay also have needs for replacement water and will be
addressed in a later phase II. These areas include Santa Cruz where the City of Santa Cruz
and Soquel Creek Water Districts are proposing a desalination plant, the Pajaro Valley Water
Management Agency which has shows a need for a desalination plant in its Basin
Management Plan, and areas of North Monterey County which current do not have any
potable water supply. DeepWater Desai has had preliminary discussion with communities
along the Highway 101 corridor between Salinas and Santa Clara who also project a shortfall
in potable water supply.
4. Explain your understanding of the decision-making process by which your project might
be selected to product a component of the Monterey Peninsula's water supply. Cover
your role and the roles of the California Public Utility Commission, California American
Water Company and the Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Authority.
DeepWater Desai proposes to design, build and operate a 25 mgd seawater desalination
facility at Moss Landing, California. DWD proposes that the facility will be principally
entitled as a Public Works Project by the California Coastal Commission. DWD proposes that
the project will be owned by a JPA whose members are public agencies empowered to
supply potable water to their constituents, such as the City members of the Monterey
Peninsula Regional Water Authority. Once formed, the JPA will enter into water purchase
agreements with water purveyors in the central coast area. Given its current need for
additional water supplies, California American Water Company (CAW) is certainly a
prospective purchaser of water from the DeepWater Desai project. Unlike other public
agency water purveyors in the central coast area, California American Water Company is
regulated by the California Public Utilities Commission. DWD anticipates that CAW would
seek approval from the CPUC prior to entering into a water purchase agreement with the JPA
owner of the DWD project.
1. Has land acquired? If yes, describe. Show approximate layout of proposed facilities.
DeepWater Desai, LLC has entered a 34 year ground lease on the Capurro Ranch. (Exhibit
C.l) with an option to extend for 2 periods of 32 years each. Location address:
Capurro Ranch
2250 Highway 1
Moss Landing, CA 95039
Exhibit C.l
2. Has land been identified? If so, please indicate location by means of a site plan showing
the approximate layout of the proposed facilities. If not, please indicate how you will
obtain the needed land and property rights for intake, pretreatment and desalination
facilities, and concentrate disposal. If more than one site is involved for water
production, explain plans for going forward.
See response to C.3 below.
3. Describe transmission pipeline and easement requirements to connect to Cal Am
system in Seaside.
INTAKE- DeepWater Desai's seawater intake is located on an easement owned by Dynegy's
Moss Landing Power Plant that extend from an 85 acre area approximately 1.1 miles
offshore from Moss Landing Harbor, shoreward to a subsea level wet well on Moss Landing
Power Plant's property east of Highway 1. Intake water will be warmed to optimal
temperature for reverse osmosis by a heat exchange loop at the power plant before traveling
to the Capurro Ranch SWRO facility. Use of this facility is the subject of a confidential
agreement between Dynegy and DeepWater Desai that gives DeepWater Desai exclusive use
of this facility for sea water desalination. Please refer to plot C.l.
CONVEYANCE TO SWRO PLANT- Deepwater Desai has confirmed with TAMC and Caltrans
that an encroachment can be obtained to run pipelines from the Moss Landing Power Plant
property, north along Highway 1 to the Capurro Ranch, one-half mile north where the SWRO
plant is located.
owners of the Capurro Ranch, who are also owners of DeepWater Desai LLC, have entered a
Lease Option Agreement. The facilities will be located inside the existing structures at the
Capurro Ranch.
CONCENTRATE DISPOSAL- Concentrate will flow in a pipeline from the SWRO plant at the
Capurro Ranch, in the Highway 1 encroachment back south to the Dynegy Moss Landing
Power Plant and enter their outgoing cooling water for dilution and thermal neutralization.
The dilution factor of brine to outgoing cooling water is at least 40:1.
The DWD Product Water Pipeline will be constructed to deliver water south to the Monterey
Peninsula communities conveying product water from the DWD Desalination Plant to the
CAW distribution systems at Seaside. See Map below of proposed system.

': ..: ....::

The pipeline from Moss Landing to Marina will be approximately 8 miles of36-inch
diameter HDPE pipe that will follow Highway 1 through Moss Landing to Molera Road and
then south east to the Transportation Agency for Monterey County right of way (formerly
Southern Pacific Rail Line right of way) and following the right of way to the Monterey
Peninsula to the CAW meter located near the intersection of 1st Street and Beach Range in
Marina. The Transfer Pipeline is an approximately 15,000 LF, 36-inch diameter pipeline that
begins at the Delivery Point located in the general vicinity of Beach Ranch Road and the
Highway 1/lst Street interchange in Marina. The pipeline alignment will continue in a
southerly direction connecting with the Seaside just north of the intersection of Auto Center
Parkway and Del Monte Boulevard.
The Seaside Pipeline, approximately 13,000 LF with 36-inch diameter, will provide the
conveyance of desalinated water from the Transfer Pipeline to the Terminal Reservoirs to
balance CAW distribution system operation during periods of high customer demand. In
general, the pipeline alignment will extend east along Auto Center Parkway and Del Monte
Boulevard and will ultimately tie in to the Terminal Reservoirs and the ASR System facilities.
This pipeline alignment may contain two trenchless crossings on Auto Center Parkway of
500 LF each, namely at Del Monte Boulevard and at Fremont Street. Approximately 1,000 LF
of 30-inch diameter main was installed in Hilby Avenue in 2006 as part of another capital
project and, therefore, is considered an existing facility.
1. What is the source water for the project?
The raw seawater intake is located in the Pacific Ocean at 30m depth, approximately 1.1
miles off of Moss Landing in an existing easement. At this depth the impingement and
entrainment of marine life is significantly minimized and the source water quality and
consistency is optimal for SWRO due to its low turbidity.
2. What water rights are needed for the source water?
The federal Submerged Lands Act of 1953 ( 43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) granted ownership of
resources, including water within the area from the shoreline to 3 nautical miles offshore to
coastal States, including California.
3. Do you have them? Yes if not, how will you get them?
DeepWater Desai will obtain permission to use seawater from Moss Landing Harbor District,
the California Sate Lands Commission and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary who
represent the sovereign rights these waters.
4. If freshwater will constitute a portion of the source water, how do you intend to obtain
the right to export said groundwater?
Fresh water is not a constituent of our process. Our intake will not stress the currently over
drafted coastal aquifers furthering saltwater intrusion problems and destruction of river
5. Describe how the source water intake system complies with the SWRCB requirement
that the source be derived from the best location, best technology and best design.
Based on an Intake Assessment Study performed by TEN ERA Environmental, designed in
consideration of State Water Code Section 13142.5 (d), which states that, "independent
baseline studies of the existing marine system should be conducted in the area that could be
affected by a new or expanded industrial facility using seawater in advance of the carrying
out of the development", no significant impact was found. This shows that the proposed
intake will provide the best location, best technology, and best design for a seawater intake.
The project's intake is not subject to regulation under the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA)
Section 316(b) because it does not include a cooling water intake structure (CWIS). However,
Regional Water Quality Control Board members and staff recommend that 316(b)-type
studies be conducted for open water intakes. Section 316(b) requires that the design and
operation of CWISs minimize adverse environmental effects due to impingement and
entrainment of aquatic life. Impingement occurs when organisms are trapped against the
screening systems commonly used at CWIS entrances and entrainment occurs when
organisms pass through any screening system into a CWIS. This study addressed the
potential effects of entrainment; the intake system will be designed to reduce intake
velocities to levels that should eliminate any concerns regarding impingement. The
entrainment study uses sampling and analysis methods consistent with Section 316(b)
studies completed throughout California over the past several years.
6. Describe pre-treatment requirements based on source water quality and requirements
for the selected reverse osmosis system.
Pretreatment System
Because of the high quality of the raw seawater taken from the deep-water intake, expensive
ultrafiltration membrane treatment will not be required. The pretreatment will instead
utilize a granular media filtration system, a robust and proven technology, to protect the
integrity and reliability of the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane system. The
pretreatment system will consist of a single-stage, deep-bed, dual media granular media
system with sufficient redundancy to ensure a reliable, sustainable supply to the
downstream desalination process. Coagulant and filter aid polymer systems will be
integrated to improve the efficiency of the pretreatment system during system operation.
The media filters are designed to utilize filtered seawater as a source of backwash water or
alternatively, RO concentrate. The filters will be fully automated and monitored to assure
trouble-free operation.
.:-.- - : ~ .: - ~ " ~ .
Cartridge Guard Filters
Following pretreatment, filtered water will be collected in a clearwell to insure a continuous
reliable supply of pretreated water to the downstream SWRO system. From the clearwell,
the pretreated water will be pumped through 20-micron cartridge filters that will serve as
guard filters and then forwarded to the high-pressure pumps feeding the SWRO. Chemical
dosing for pH adjustment and scale control will be implemented prior to the feed water
entering the SWRO membrane elements.
1. Describe previous experience with desalination.
Please refer to Section A, Exhibits A.5.4 and Exhibit A.5.5
2. Describe the specific reverse osmosis system proposed.
Reverse Osmosis System
Reverse osmosis desalination is a cross-flow separation process using polymeric membranes
to separate and concentrate dissolved minerals (salts) from seawater. In RO desalination,
the feed stream is split into high quality permeate and concentrated brine. Permeate is
produced by passing water through a semi-permeable membrane that has the ability to
effective reject all of the dissolved minerals (99.98% or greater) leaving the salts on the feed
side of the membrane. As permeate is produced, the volume of the feed is reduced and the
concentration of salts increases until the concentrated brine is discharged from the RO
membrane trains. For seawater, the ratio of the volume of desalted water to the volume of
the feedwater is approximately 45%. In other words, for every 100 gallons of feed
introduced into the RO system, approximately 45 gallons of high quality permeate are
produced and 55 gallons of concentrated brine are produced.
Seawater reverse osmosis desalination is a mature technology with thousands of plants in
successful operation around the world and the technology has made a major contribution to
alleviating water scarcity around the world.
During Phase 1, the feed flow rate to the SWRO system will be 18.2 MGD (at 50-percent
feedwater recovery); producing 9.1 MGD of high quality desalted drinking water. The
system will be designed with redundant capacity to ensure a reliable, sustainable source of
desalted water for post-treatment conditioning. High pressure feed pumps will produce
approximately 900 - 1,000 psi (pounds per square inch) of pressure to drive the seawater
through the reverse osmosis membrane elements. An integrated energy recovery system
will recapture approximately 30-percent of the energy consumed for the high-pressure feed
pumps and apply the energy into the feed stream, effectively reducing the energy needed for
the treatment process. The entire membrane system will be automated and continuously
monitored using state-of-the-art sensors and computer control systems.
Permeate produced by the SWRO will require post-treatment conditioning with lime and/or
carbon dioxide; followed by disinfection and treatment for corrosion control to protect the
distribution pipeline.
The plant will supply product water of a quality that fully complies with all regulatory
requirements of the California Department of Public Health, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and
the California Title 22 code for drinking water standards. The finished product water from
the desalination plant will be compatible with the water quality of the other sources of
potable water delivered to the same distribution system.
3. Describe any current or necessary agreements for pilot or feasibility work, and with
Pilot testing is only necessary to:
1) Validate assumptions with regard to the quality and sustainability of flows from
subsurface intakes obtained using slant wells (please also refer to the independent
engineering report prepared by Ian C. Watson, P.E.); and
2) Validate that the treatment process can produce treated water that is fully compliant with
applicable codes and standards for potable water.
Unlike the two competing projects where pilot testing is either mandatory or strongly
recommended because:
CalAm Project- slant wells for seawater supply are as of yet an unproven technology for
large capacity RO plants and neither their performance nor the quality of water produced
can be ascertained prior to construction and extended pumping to stabilize the water
quality produced and to assess the permeability of the soil structure; and
The Peoples Project- water quality in the Moss Landing Harbor is highly variable,
generally of poor quality and is subject to seasonal contamination from agricultural
pesticides, storm water run-off, bilge discharges and other contaminants resulting from
river discharges and maritime activity.
The DeepWater Desai project is taking its source water from a deepwater, open ocean intake
that is not subject to seasonal variability, pesticide contamination or trace oil contamination.
Our intake location will reliably produce high quality water of a known composition for
desalination. Therefore we believe that there is no technical justification to conduct pilot
studies for either the pretreatment process to confirm its ability to produce RO feedwater
within the required specifications or the RO system design to confirm its ability to produce
permeate that is fully compliant with applicable health and safety codes and standards. With
no technical justification to pilot, our project will avoid the time delays and substantial cost
that would otherwise be necessitated by long-term pilot testing.
1. Describe concentrate disposal system.
Concentrated seawater (brine) produced by the RO process will be collected and piped by a
separate dedicated bring pipeline from the desalination plant site to the Moss Landing
Power Plant for discharge into the power plant's cooling water discharge where it would be
diluted close to ambient salinity levels by the 100 to 1,224 MGD cooling water outfall flow
from the MLPP. A submerged pipeline (up to 5,000 LF of 36-in. or 42-in. diameter pipeline)
will be used to convey up to 25 MGD of brine concentrate from the SWRO to the MLPP. The
brine concentrate will be transported either by gravity or pump. If the power plant converts
to air cooling in the future, or powers down, the brine will be conveyed to the Moss Landing
Harbor District's dredge spoiling discharge location deep in the canyon through 38:1
diffusers that will bring the discharge to within 2% the salinity of seawater.
2. What facilities, easements; agreements exist, or must be obtained
DeepWater Desai, LLC has confidential agreements in place with Dynegy's Moss Landing
Power Plant for use of their cooling water discharge facilities for brine disposal. Should the
power plant go to air cooling in the future, and cease to discharge cooling water for dilution
of brine, the agreements contemplate the conversion of the existing cooling water discharge
lines to brine diffusion lines consistent with current guidelines and regulations.
Repurposing the cooling water discharge lines for brine disposal should the power plant
abandon water cooling is consistent with the policies of the Monterey Bay National Marine
Sanctuary for minimizing new pipelines extending into the Marine Sanctuary.
3. Describe how the proposed concentrate disposal system complies with best location,
best technology and best design requirements of SWRCB.
DeepWater Desai, LLC has met with the Regional Water Quality Board regarding the best
location, best technology and best design requirement for brine disposal from this location
and has been advised that disposal of the brine concentrate into the power plant's cooling
water discharge is the preferred option. Should the power plant go to air cooling in the
future, and cease to discharge cooling water for dilution of brine, the agreements
contemplate the conversion of the existing cooling water discharge lines to brine diffusion
lines consistent with current guidelines and regulations.
Repurposing the cooling water discharge lines for brine disposal, should the power plant
abandon water cooling, is consistent with the policies of the Monterey Bay National Marine
Sanctuary for minimizing new pipelines extending into the Marine Sanctuary, and removing
unused pipelines.
1. Provide a total planning level cost breakdown of the expected costs to plan, design and
build the entire system being proposed. Include an estimate for all pre-design costs such
as permitting, CEQA and, as appropriate, NEPA compliance. Include a contingency
Exhibit G
-------- -
2. Show capital costs separately for product water and for transmission to Cal Am
Please reference Exhibit G.
1. Provide a planning level estimate of annual O&M costs over a 30-year time
period. Use 2012 dollars.
Please reference Exhibit G.
1. Base all calculations on 30-year debt financing. If your proposal is based on a different
amortization term, show it separately?
Our calculations are based on 30 year amortization.
2. Will there be public agency financing available? Explain ifyes.
The proposed financing is through tax-free municipal bonds issued by a Joint Powers
Authority composed of the public water agencies delivering Water Purchase Agreements to
the JPA.
3. Explain the proposed financing and interest rate assumptions. Show for each funding
source. Do not include possible offsets from government loans and grants.
Our assumptions for financing are a weighted average cost of 4%. The current yields for
private activity bonds subject to AMT range from 4- 5.5% dependent upon the credit rating
of the agencies. We believe we will qualify for SRF funds but assume only a smaller portion
may apply.
Financing Terms (See CWSRF guidelines below)
CWSRF Guidelines
Interest Rate -
h most recent General Obligation (GO) Bond Rate at time of
Preliminary Funding Commitment
Financing Term- 20 Years; up to 30 years for small disadvantaged Communities
Financing Amount- Maximum $50 Million per agency jper year (may be waived)
Repayment- Begins 1 year after completion of construction
4. Show separately the planned use of possible low interest loans and grants, and the
underlying assumptions. Indicate the basis of your eligibility for any grants and low
interest loans that might be included in your proposal.
No grants are assumed. Access to CWSRF rates per published guideline
5. Summarize your proposal for use of all sources of financing used to arrive at the total
project cost, annual operating cost, total annual cost, including debt service.
DWD is proposing the entire project be funded from the issuance of municipal bonds. A
portion of the project may, but does not depend on, access to CWSRF funding. The municipal
bonds fall into Private Activity Bond status subject to AMT. We used the same 4% rate for all
phases of the project and 30 year operation. The 30 year amortization assumes full bond
retirement at the end of term.
6. What are the capital requirements for conducting the work up to the time when cash is
available from debt financing and do the project proponents have sufficient funds
available to finance this cost?
DWD is raising private equity for all work completed prior to public funding. DWD will be at
complete risk for pre-funding activities in the event the project does not get funded. Upon
successful funding of the project, DWD will seek reimbursement of expenses committed on
behalf of the JPA. We expect these expenses to be approximately $5.1 million including all
applicable permits.
7. Will the capital component of the Cal Am water rates be determined based on annual
debt service of total capital expenditures, or on an expected return on investment and
depreciation pursuant to CPUC rate setting procedures?
The JPA will deliver product water to CAW at Seaside for the rates per AFY identified in
Exhibit G. CAW will assess the users at CPUC approved rates.
1. Show total estimated construction cost, broken down by project component. Provide a
table showing annual amortized capital cost as well as operating and maintenance
costs over a 30-year term, both on a total annual cost basis and as total cost per AF.
Please reference Exhibit G.
2. Show O&M costs annually, and as cost per AF.
Please reference Exhibit G.
1. What is the energy source(s) for the project?
Due to a gravity fed wet well on the site of the power plant, some of the force to move the
raw seawater from the ocean to the wet well is gravity-driven. The balance of the energy in
the project is electricity. We are in a series of confidential agreements with Dynegy Moss
Landing Power Plant that include having our intake co-located on the Dynegy Moss Landing
Power Plant property, a direct power purchase agreement. Grid purchased electrical power
from PG&E's transmission system at Moss Landing will be available from PV2 Solar, a
planned 400 MW solar farm who DeepWater Desai has an agreement with. PV2 Solar
recently entered a partnership with Duke Energy facilitating the completion of the project.
2. Explain if alternative energy sources are planned.
Several important developments in California energy policy are driving how the state meets
its energy goals. In 2006, Sacramento enacted two landmark pieces of legislation with far-
reaching implications for energy policy. The most comprehensive is the California Global
Warming Solutions Act of 2006, often called "AB32," which sets an economy-wide cap on
California greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by no later than 2020. Addressing the
impacts ofthe transportation sector on climate change, Assembly Bill118, sets to increase
the use of alternative and renewable fuels and to unleash innovative technologies that will
transform California's fuel and vehicles. Also, in April 2011 Gov. Brown signed Senate Bill2X,
which set the nation's most aggressive clean energy standard. The state's expanded
renewable portfolio standard requires both private and municipal utilities to get one-third of
their electricity from renewable energy sources by 2020.
These policies and new law will cause the price of fossil-fuel based electrical power to rise
significantly. DeepWater Desai's agreement with PV2 solar will make the project partially
sheltered from the increased power price increases driven by the new regulations. This will
allow the project to reach a third of its power requirements from renewable energy. PV2 has
recently entered an agreement with Duke Energy that will assure the completion of the plant.
Additionally, our direct power purchase agreement will enable our project to have the
lowest power rates. Exhibit K.1 show the location of PV2's planned and permitted Central
Valley solar farm facility.
Exhibit K.l
DeepWater Desai has also entered a Letter of Intent with Ecomerit, who have received
funding to test wave power electrical generator in the ocean off Moss Landing. Although this
is a longer term energy source, it is intended to provide base load, non-intermittent power to
shore, for transmission from Moss Landing. It is feasible that during the projects lifetime it
may become powered by 100% renewable energy.
Exhibit K.2 shows the Ecomerit wave power generator system. Ecomerit, lead by the world
renown wind power developer who founded both General Electric Wind Power and Clipper
Wind, intends to locate wave generators in Monterey Bay to bring power to the 2 GW of
transmission originating from the Moss Landing Power Plant. DeepWater Desai's Joint
Venture with Ecomerit will bring power onshore at Moss Landing Power Plant.
Exhibit K.2
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3. What is the expected annual energy cost?
The annual energy costs assuming bulk power purchase rates from PG&E at $0.08/Kwh is
$6.1 million. With the proposed seawater warming loop and a direct Power Purchase
Agreement with Dynegy, the annual energy costs would drop to $3.9 million, although
further engineering specification will be required to validate this estimated affect on power
1. Provide critical path schedule indicating the start and completion dates of the critical
stages, including at least the following:

Obtain local support for project, including identification of a public agency interested in
becoming eventual owner of desalination facility.
Project facility plan
Certification of Joint EIR/EIS under CEQA and NEP A. .
Obtain permits from Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, California State Lands
Commission, Moss Landing Harbor District and the California Coastal Commission.
Fully educate and brief CPUC and other necessary agencies
Obtain other permits .
Complete detailed design and bidding .
Resubmit bid packages, issue contracts to subcontractors and suppliers .
Comply with required mitigations and conditions .
Indicate the date water can be delivered .
Exhibit L.l shows project schedule milestone chart
Major Permits
Develop Specs &
Site Prep
Brine Disposal
Start-up, Testing
& Commissioning
Water Production
BUILD OUT 25.000
AF/Yr completed
Exhibit L.l
DeepWater Desai SWRO PLANT
Major Milestone Schedule
1. Who is the lead agency?
CEQA: California State Lands Commission and Moss Landing Harbor District
NEPA: Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
2. Describe the specific type of CEQA procedure you will use, e.g. full EIR, Supplemental or
Subsequent EIR, etc.
We will be completing a full EIR/EIS. TENERA Environmental is currently preparing the
Proponent's Environmental Assessment (PEA).
3. Describe key issues that need resolution for success.
A. Obtaining permission from Moss Landing Harbor District, California State Parks and
California State Lands Commission to use pipeline in existing easement area for transport
of seawater instead of fuel oil.
B. Entry into definitive agreement with Dynegy for:
a. direct power purchase;
b. discharge of brine concentrate through existing outfall lines;
c. preheating seawater in Dynegy's power generation plant.
1. Describe the status of existing permits, if any.
DeepWater Desai, LLC has completed the necessary environmental studies as well further
year round studies necessary to support all major permits. TENERA Environmental has
conducted these studies with the use of data from MBARI's CeNCOOS NOAA funded subunit.
At this time DeepWater Desai is preparing with TEN ERA's assistance a Proponents
Environmental Assessment (PEA) for submission of the EIR/EIS package to our lead
2. Describe key permit issues that need resolution for success, including specifically
California Coastal Commission, and SWRCBjRWQCB. What are the principal permit
concerns related to your proposal and how do you intend to comply?
Approval of Coastal Development Permit by California Coastal Commission. Key issues will
be impact on living organisms in vicinity of open ocean intake; i.e., possible entrainment of
fish larvae, possible impingement of larger marine organisms and possible impact of intake
and outfall pipelines on benthic organisms. The studies TENERA have completed assessing
the environmental impact of the proposed seawater intake indicate that our intake, due to
it's source water volume and location, will mitigate impingement and entrainment of fish
larvae. We are confident that this will satisfy the Coastal Commission and the State and
Regional Water Quality Control Boards' concerns regarding these important issues.
3. Describe recent interactions with any regulatory body.
The following governmental agencies have been briefed and continue communications:
California Coastal Commission
California Regional Water Quality Control Board
California State Lands Commission
Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
Monterey County
Monterey Peninsula Water Management District
Monterey Regional Water Authority
Moss Landing Harbor District
Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency
Pajaro Sunny Mesa Water District
Presentations and periodic updates on progress and scientific studies have been shared with
the above listed agencies. In addition informal talks have been held with City of Santa Cruz
Public Works Director and Soquel Creek Water District General Manager.
Tom Luster of the California Coastal Commission has been briefed on our intake theory and
the plan to utilize the Dynegy oil pipeline easement for the screened passive water intake
facility and California Regional Water Quality Control Boards recommendation of utilizing
Dynegy's water discharge facility for discharge and dilution of the brine.
Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Superintendent Paul Michel has approved the
Sanctuary becoming the lead agency for Federal NEPA studies and is also working with the
National Marine Sanctuary Foundation, Washington D.C., to facilitate fiscal agent
responsibilities for payment of funds to independent contractors selected to perform NEPA
and CEQA studies.
California State Lands Commission is in discussion with DeepWater Desai at the request of
the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary to act as lead agency for State CEQA
studies. Discussions regarding CEQA studies and permits have also included Moss Landing
Harbor District as the District and California State Lands Commission share authority to
2000 feet off shore of Moss Landing. Permits will be required from both agencies.
Monterey County Planning Department assembled all County Department heads for a project
briefing and subsequent meetings have been held with Monterey County Public Works
Department and The Transportation Agency of Monterey County regarding pipeline routes
and encroachment permits required.
Monterey Peninsula Water Management District has conducted a series of meetings
beginning with Water Supply Sub Committee presentations and a full board presentation. In
addition several board members and the General Manager have been briefed at DeepWater
Desai's Moss Landing offices.
Full presentations have been made for the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency at a
board meeting. DeepWater Desai has also participated in workshop sessions involving the
Pajaro Water Management Basin management Plan.
A full presentation and subsequent briefings have been conducted for Pajaro Sunny Mesa
Water District.
4. Have any local, state or federal permits been applied forjapproved? Explain.
DeepWater Desai, and TENERA Environmental have independently completed the necessary
studies to prepare the proponents environmental assessment (PEA) and are conducting the
necessary ongoing studies for inclusion in other local and state permits. These studies were
conducted during 2010 and 2011 and are receiving expert panel review.
1. What makes your project unique?
The DeepWater Desai (DWD) project is pioneering an innovative alternative seawater intake
method by locating the seawater intake at a depth that is below the photic zone
. The photic
zone is the region in the ocean (or any water body) where sunlight penetrates to sustain
photosynthesis, which is essential to support the vast majority of marine life. By locating the
seawater intake below the photic zone, the potential impact to marine life resulting from
entrainment! or impingement
will be substantially reduced, if not fully mitigated to
insignificant levels.
DeepWater Desai has contracted with Tenera Environmental ( to
conduct the biological assays to confirm this theory.
Seawater desalination plants require an uninterruptable, reliable source of high quality
seawater for desalination. There are traditionally two primary methods of constructing
seawater intakes to supply the source water for desalination plants: (1) surface water
intakes; and (ii) subsurface intakes. A third method involves diverting seawater on-shore
from coastal power plant cooling water discharges. However, this method is only practicable
where the desalination plant is located on or immediately adjacent to a power plant. This
form of intake offers an advantage of using seawater that is warmer than normal seawater as
a result of picking up waste heat in the cooling loop. SWRO plants require less pumping
energy when operated on warmer feed water. A potential disadvantage of using power plant
cooling water discharge water as a feed source for SWRO is that the source water for power
plant cooling water is often of poor quality and high turbidity as a result of intakes being
located near shore or within harbors.
3 Photic Zone- The upper layer of a body of water delineated by the depth to which
enough sunlight can penetrate to permit photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is fundamental to support the food web on which the
marine ecosystem is ultimately dependent
4 Entrainment- The incorporation of small organisms, including the eggs and larvae of fish and shellfish, into an intake system.
Impingement- The pinning and trapping of fish or other larger organisms against the screens of water intake structures
There are two primary considerations when locating intakes for SWRO plants:
A. Technical and Process Considerations- Best Quality Raw Water
Whenever possible, seawater intakes should be located to provide the highest possible water
quality with respect to: (i) the lowest turbidity, (ii) absent contamination from oily water
discharges, pesticides, fertilizers and other contaminants from shipping, storm water runoff
and municipal wastewater discharges; and (iii) isolated from large variations in water
quality due to storm surges, river discharges and red-tide events. Because RO membrane
elements have strict limitations on feed water quality, a pretreatment system must be
designed to effectively remove contaminants that would otherwise "foul" the RO membrane
The DWD Project is unique because high quality raw water permits the use of conventional
deep-bed dual media filters in lieu of multiple pretreatment steps typically associated with
surface intakes including dissolved air flotation (DAF) and membrane filtration
(microfiltration or ultrafiltration), thereby greatly reducing the cost, the process risk, and
substantially improving the reliably of the over-all desalination plant performance.
B. Engineering Considerations- Construction Methods and Reliability
The intake must be located, designed and constructed in a manner which minimizes adverse
environmental impacts during construction, i.e. disturbance of seabed, and that insures an
uninterruptable supply of raw seawater to the desalination plant. While this may seem
obvious, it is a critical consideration, as once the desalination plant is on-line, the plant
cannot be shut-down due to a lack of source water without causing significant disruption
and economic hardship to the users and consumers of the desalinated water. Therefore the
location and type of intake, i.e. surface or subsurface, must be reliable, easy to maintain and
assure a continuous, uninterrupted supply of high quality seawater to the desalination plant.
C. Environmental Impacts- Entrainment and Impingement
Desalination plant intakes should be located and constructed, to the maximum extent
possible, in a manner to substantially mitigate the adverse environmental impacts associated
with impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. Practically, this means:
1. For an open ocean intake- at a location where plankton and fish larvae populations are
minimal due to bottom topography, currents and/or depth and designed on the basis of a
wedge-wire screened intake with low intake velocities, e.g. <0.5 ftjsec; or
2. For a subsurface intake- must be located at a location where the geophysical properties of
the sand/sediment layers are sufficiently porous to provide for a sustainable inflow of
seawater to the slant well, radial well or infiltration gallery, without plugging over time; and
yet sufficiently stable to support the pipe work and structure without collapsing or shifting.
D. Open Ocean Shallow Water Intakes
Open ocean shallow water intakes are by far the most common intake method for seawater
RO systems and are a well-proven method to reliably supply source water for desalination.
They are constructed using a large diameter open pipe intake that is located under the
surface and above the seafloor. The pipe opening is typically screened using wedge-wire
screens with an opening of typically ranging in size from 2 mm to 10 mm. The diameter of
the pipe intake is sized to provide for very low velocities ( <0.5 ftjsec.) to insure that larger
organisms (organisms that are larger than the screen openings are not impinged on the
screen. Aside from potential environmental concerns regarding impingement and
entrainment, open ocean intakes are, without question, the most reliable and best proven
method to extract seawater for desalination around the globe.
E. Subsurface Intakes
Subsurface intakes have been developed for two primary reasons: (i) to achieve some pre-
filtration of the raw water when the water quality is extremely poor, i.e. when taken from a
harbor, estuary or other similar location; and (ii) based on the theory that subsurface intakes
will minimize issues with impingement and entrainment. To the best of knowledge, however,
definitive data confirming that impingement and entrainment are substantially mitigated by
the construction of subsurface intakes is not presently available.
There are three basic configurations of subsurface intakes:
1. Vertical Beach Wells- have been used to supply seawater for relatively small capacity
plants, typically less than 1 MGD in capacity.
Pump house
Source: WateReuse Foundation
2. Slant Wells- this is a relatively new (and so far unproven) method to extract source
water for SWRO desalination. Slant wells use vertical drilling technology to construct
inclined source water collectors under the ocean floor. To the best or our knowledge, there
is no SWRO plant of any significant capacity, i.e. 1 MGD, that is presently operating on slant
wells for its source water. There is, however, a pilot scale test of a slant well currently being
conducted by the Municipal Water District of Orange County at a pilot facility located in Dana
Point, California. This test has been ongoing for several years now at an estimated cost of
somewhere near or exceeding $1 million. While the final results have not yet been published,
we understand that the expected water quality was not achieved from the well and that the
water delivered by the well was contaminated with high levels of iron and manganese, which
if representative of the yet to be constructed full well field, will greatly complicate and add
significant cost to pretreatment system of the future plant, as well as increasing the process
risk as RO membrane elements cannot tolerate any precipitated iron and/or manganese in
the RO feedwater.
3. Horizontal Wells- are presently in use for extracting source water for large capacity SWRO plants.
Horizontal wells are constructed in two configurations: (i) radial Ranney-type collectors wells and with
directionally drilled collectors. These types of wells use tunneling technology and methods to reach
off-shore where the collectors are then constructed.
Source: WateReuse Foundation
Due to the high cost of construction and the associated uncertainty of water quality,
sustainable design flow rates and structural reliability, the only sound justification for
constructing any of the above subsurface intake methods is only where an open-ocean intake
is not viable due to associated environmental damage.
The Water Reuse Association (http: // published a white paper in June
of 2001, Overview of Desalination Plant Intake Alternatives, the following assessment is
quoted below.
"Existing experience with the use of beach wells for seawater desalination in
California to date, and at the largest beach-well seawater desalination plant on the
Pacific coast in Salina Cruz, Mexico indicate that some desalination plants using
subsurface intakes may face a costly challenge - high concentrations of manganese
and/or iron in the intake water. Unless removed ahead of the seawater reverse
osmosis (SWRO) membrane system, iron and manganese may quickly foul the 5
micron cartridge filters and reverse osmosis membranes, thereby rendering the
desalination plant inoperable. The treatment of beach well water which naturally
contains high concentrations of iron and/ or manganese requires chemical
conditioning and installation of conservatively designed "green sand" pretreatment
filters or UF membrane pretreatment system ahead of the SWRO membranes. This
costly pretreatment requirement may significantly reduce the potential cost benefits
of the use of beach wells as compared with an open seawater intake. Open seawater
intakes typically do not have iron and manganese source water quality related
At present, open intakes are by far the most widely used type of source water
collection facilities worldwide because they are suitable for all sizes of desalination
plants; they are more predictable and reliable in terms of productivity and
performance, they are easier and more cost-effective to operation and maintain; and
they usually offer better economy of scale for desalination systems of capacity greater
than 5 million gallons per day (MGD)
The feasibility of subsurface intakes is very site specific and highly dependent on the
project size; the coastal aquifer geology (aquifer soils, depth, transmissivity, water
quality, capacity, etc.); the intensity of the natural beach erosion in the vicinity of the
intake site; and on may other environmental and socio-economic factors discussed in
the pervious sections of this white paper.
Both open ocean intakes and wells may have advantages and pose environmental and
socio-economic challenges for the site-specific conditions of a given desalination
project. Therefore, the selection of most viable intake alternative should be based on
balanced live-cycle cost-benefit analysis and environmental assessment. "
It is therefore well accepted within the desalination industry and the engineering
community at large that properly designed and constructed open-ocean screened intakes are
the preferred method to extract seawater for source water supply for large capacity RO
plants; and should be selected unless the water quality or environmental impacts associated
with such an intake are deemed to be unacceptable.
The DeepWater Desai approach of an open ocean deepwater intake, below the photic zone,
enables our project to utilize cost effective, proven technology for source water extraction
while greatly mitigating, or perhaps completely eliminating, both poor water quality and
significant environmental impacts. This approach makes our project truly unique among the
competing projects.
2. What advantages do you have over competing projects?
The Deepwater Desai project offers several important advantages over competing projects,
which are summarized below and in Exhibit 0.1 at the end of this section.
A. Secured and Immediately Available Site
DeepWater Desai has secured a 34-year ground lease option to extend for two periods of 32
years each on 8.14 acres ofland located at 2250 Highway 1, in Moss Landing, presently
known as the Capurro Ranch. The site is ideal for the construction of a fast-track seawater
reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant with a capacity of up to 25,000 acre feet per year of high
quality drinking water.
The site is located immediately north of the Moss Landing harbor and approximately 1 mile
from the proposed seawater intake. The company has also secured an option for an
additional 8-acres immediately adjacent to the property should additional space be required
for long-term future expansion of the desalination plant and related facilities.
The Capurro Ranch site contains two improved buildings of 18,000 and 35,000 square feet,
which provide ample space to accommodate the reverse osmosis system, administrative
offices, tankage, chemical storage and related process equipment.
The Capurro Ranch site provides ample space to accommodate the SWRO system within the
existing buildings, thereby eliminating many months to the construction schedule and saves
millions of dollars in construction costs. The site is immediately available to accommodate
installation of the SWRO system equipment once appropriate permits have been issued.
B. Secured and environmentally sound deep-water intake using proven technology
Unlike competing projects, the DeepWater Desai project is founded on obtaining
high-quality source water of a known and predictable chemical composition, using a
conventional, proven and reliable open-ocean, screened, passive intake. Because the process
and equipment design (and associated cost estimates) are fundamentally based on the
source water composition and quality, these activities cannot be performed until the source
water is determined. The source water chemical composition and quality determines the
Design Basis for the SWRO plant. DeepWater Desai is the only project that can responsibly
claim to know the source water quality to enable the design and cost estimates to be
developed with a high degree of accuracy.
The CalAm Marina SWRO project is based on the as yet unproven assumption that it can
obtain sufficient, high quality source water by constructing slant wells. We believe that this
assumption must first be validated through the permitting, construction and operation of
test wells. As with any well, and certainly with slant wells, it is not possible to predict either
the volume or the chemical composition of the source water produced by the well until it is:
(i) constructed; and (ii) pumped for an extended period of time, e.g. not less than 6 to 9
months to stabilize the water quality produced by the well.
Given the time constraints dictated by the cease and desist order, it is our view that this is an
extremely high-risk strategy because:
1. The process and equipment designs cannot be finalized until the "design feedwater" has
been determined. Note: this also means that cost estimates must also be highly
2. The timeline to obtain the necessary permits, construct the test well and conduct the
pumping studies will likely exceed 1-year minimum, assuming that CalAm can obtain the
land rights to the proposed well field; and
3. There is no guarantee that the pilot slant well results will be successful; and if the results
are not successful, then the entire Marina project is not viable.
The Deepwater Desai source water intake strategy avoids all of these risks and is clearly the
fastest to permit and construct, assuming that the deepwater theory is validated by the
currently initiated and ongoing studies with respect to minimal impingement and
entrainment impacts associated with the deep water intake.
Deepwater Desai has obtained the rights to construct its seawater intake pipeline using an
existing pipeline easement extending into the deepwater off of Moss Landing harbor and
terminating on-shore at the Dynegy Power Plant.
It is our understanding that CalAm does not yet have the land rights to the proposed Marina
well field site location, and has taken legal action against CEMEX. While we understand that
CalAm can, if necessary, exercise certain rights of eminent domain to secure the land, this
process may lead to considerable additional delay and cost if challenged by the landowner.
With respect to the Peoples Project, it proposes to obtain its source water from the Moss
Landing harbor using an antiquated pump station that has been abandoned and not in full
use for more than 25-years. Harbor water is of extremely poor quality and will require very
expensive membrane filtration pretreatment to have any reasonable chance of reliably
producing high quality feedwater to the RO membranes. This has been previously validated
by extensive pilot testing on harbor water feed stock that demonstrated that even with
membrane filtration pretreatment, RO membrane cleaning frequency was unacceptable for
full scale plant operation.
3. Experienced, Proven Team -Ability to Self Execute
Our project management and senior technical staff bring more than 55-years of combined
experience in the design, construction, installation, start-up and commissioning of large
capacity RO desalination plants.
Project Manager Scott Jackson has held senior executive roles among membrane
manufactures, system designers and builders and has project managed more than 40
industry benchmark and large capacity RO desalination projects around the world over the
past 25-years including the first seawater RO systems built in California. His project
management experience ranges from total"turn-key" projects, to RO system only projects to
membrane supply projects. He has deep experience in risk management, commercial
structuring and supply contract negotiations for large capacity desalination projects.
Reference Exhibit A
Project Engineer Jon Dietrich is a registered professional chemical engineer with more than
20-years experience in the design, specification, procurement, start-up and commissioning
of both brackish and seawater RO plants. He has provided a variety of professional
engineering services for some 35 desalination projects around the world. Reference Exhibit
B. Jon has deep practical experience in all facets required for the successful design and
construction of large scale reverse osmosis desalination plants including seawater
desalination plants.
Corporate Counsel James Hesinger acting as counsel for Sand City, has successfully navigated
the regulatory approval and permitting process to enable construction of the only SWRO
desalination constructed in California over the past decade.
Whereas, other competing projects must rely on outside engineering consultants to perform
much of work associated with development of the overall process design, supplier and
subcontractor qualification, equipment and performance specification development, etc.,
DeepWater Desai has assembled a highly experienced team that has the proven ability to self
execute much of the work, thereby significantly reducing engineering and outside consulting
costs and maintaining strict control over the project performance schedule.
4. Brine concentrate discharge method
DeepWater Desai has secured the rights to discharge the RO concentrate in the Dynegy
Power Plant cooling water outfall, which will provide for a dilution rate of from 20
(minimum) to 1 to 60 to 1, depending on power generation operations, with full mixing over
a mixing zone of approximately 1 mile. This will insure that the water quality at the outfall
discharge into the ocean will have minimal increased salinity concentrations, most likely not
measurable given the volume of the dilution ratio.
DeepWater Desai has been advised by the California State Water Resources Control Board
staff that the preferred method of disposing of RO concentrate is by blending with the very
large flows of power plant cooling water that is returned to the ocean. This disposal method
has also recently been approved for the proposed Carlsbad SWRO plant. Given prior
precedents at Diablo Canyon and Carlsbad, we do not anticipate any significant difficulties in
obtaining permits for this method of RO concentrate disposal.
The method of brine concentrate disposal for the competing projects has, to the best of our
knowledge, not been made public in any detail; although we must assume that discharge will
involve direct discharge back to the ocean with engineered dilution and mixing features.
Given the lack of recent precedent for this method of concentrate disposal in California, it is
not immediately clear whether this method will receive regulatory approval without long-
term studies to assess its impact on marine life. Should such studies be required they will
significantly add to the cost and project timeline, with again no guarantee of success.
6. Speed to permit approval and construction
DeepWater Desai is confident that the key components of its project: deep-water
conventional intake for source water; concentrate discharge via dilution in the Moss Landing
Power Plant cooling water discharge; secured site, secured seawater intake pipeline
easement; and ability to utilize much of the environmental impact studies previously
performed and certified will result in a much faster track to securing the necessary permits
and approvals within a timeframe that will enable our project to meet the CDO deadline
imposed on Carmel River water pumping.
Proposal to build a test slant well
somewhere in North Marina Area.
Requires permits and land and water
rights. Unproven technology for
SWRO plants. Land and water
rights issues. Slant well adds
significant cost to project and in the
most expensive and unreliable type
of seawater intake.
Intend to secure rights to Monterey
Regional Water Pollution Control
Agency's wastewater discharge.
Flow adequacy issues.

Unknown. Slant well in Dana Pt.
California has been under testing,
pumping low volumes for several
years, but water quality has not yet
stabilized. Currently drawing anoxic
water unsuitable for RO. Sand City
wells took years to test, and produce
::;:;:;::c:<.'' variable feedwater quality. Project
shows extensive pretreatment
,,,, ,,,.,,,,,.,,1 systems, resulting in highest
CAPEX and OPEX cost, although
feedwater is actually unknown.
Intends to file a Supplemental EIR
to the old Regional Project EIR,
CPUC as CEQA lead Agency. No
current plans for NEP A compliance;
likely to cause significant delay.
Needs a Coastal Development
Permit for a preliminary test well to
see project is feasible. Hopes to
apply by the August Coastal
Commission in Santa Cruz.
Permit Required due to Slant Well
extending into Marine Sanctuary
controlled NOAA.
Exhibit 0.1
Refractoriness intakes in Moss Landing
Harbor despite Coastal Commission
concerns for large volume intake.
Harbor water quality unsuitable for RO
feedwater even with pre-filtration as
shown by CalAm pilot testing in 2006.
Unsuitable feedwater quality from
Harbor further confirmed by Peoples
own consultant.
Intends to locate new discharge line
where old National Refractory's
Discharge once existed. Unstable
substrate issues would make
reconstruction extremely expensive, if
feasible. Existing broken pipeline in
use Moss Marine Labs.
Moss Landing Harbor Water has
turbidity values over 200 NTU, varying
higher due to tides and river runoff,
making the feedwater unsuitable for
RO, even with extensive investment in
advanced filtration technologies.
Harbor intake not viable. Alternative of
using old discharge easement for new
intake and/or discharge is not viable
because of unstable substrate
demonstrated by Moss Landing Marine
Labs use of discharge line for research
water intake at 300 gpm intake rate and
outfall threaded inside old pipe
segments with frequent obstruction at
intake terminus sand waves.
New EIR, City of Pacific Grove as
CEQA Lead Agency. No current plans
for NEP A compliance; likely to cause
significant delay.
Highly unlikely to obtain Coastal
Development Permit for drawing large
volumes of seawater from Moss
Landing Harbor water.
Permit Required due to Discharge
extending into Marine Sanctuary
Existing intake line and easement from
Moss Landing Power Plant to
deepwater location 1.1 miles offshore.
Proven technology will reliably
provide high quality RO feedwater.
Due to existing easement and
infrastructure, this present the least
costly and most reliable intake
Will discharge concentrate in cooling
water discharge from Moss Landing
Power Plant. Should power plant cease
once through cooling project will take
over the power plant's discharge lines
for concentrate diffusion disposal per
Ocean Plan.
Intake water from depth and location
in easement is below 1 NTU. The
consistent, low turbidity feedwater
make the capital expenditure, and
operating cost of the project the lowest
New EIR, similar to original Coastal
Water Project EIR, California State
Lands Commission as CEQA Lead
Agency. Monterey Bay National
Marine Sanctuary as NEP A Lead
Public Works Project filed directly
with Coastal Commission.
Permit Required due to Intake
extending into Marine Sanctuary
Needs State Lands approval for test
Monterey Regional Water Pollution
Control Agency's wastewater
NPDES discharge permit.
Significant amendment necessary.
Purchase from the PG&E at retail
Q4 2016
Needs State Lands approval for
reconstruction of discharge line
NPDES Discharge Permit, Calera
/Moss Landing Cement Co. NPDES
discharge permit not applicable, as
noted by proponent's independent
Purchase from the PG&E at retail rate
Old National Refractory's Site
Q4 2015
State Lands approval of use of
easement for seawater intake
Modification of current power plant
NPDES discharge permit. If power
plant stops water cooling, the project
will still use the existing power plant
outfall with diffusers seawater dilution
under the same
Direct power purchase from Dynegy
Moss landing Power Plant at
Capurro Ranch/Moss Landing Power
Independently validated by qualified
independent consultant+/- 15%.
Independently validated by qualified
consultant+/- 15%.
Fields of Special Competence
Advanced Water Treatment
Membrane Technology
Related Experience
Appendix A.6
lan C. Watson, PE
Mr. Watson, with 40 years of membrane water treatment experience, is an internationally recognized
expert in the field of desalination and membrane application technology. Prior to starting RosTEK
AssociATES, INC., Mr. Watson was Technical Director, Membrane Processes for Boyle Engineering
Corporation. Prior to joining Boyle, he was the founder and president of RosTek Services Inc, located in
Fort Myers, Florida. RosTEK AssoCIATES, Inc. offers expertise in membrane WTP and pilot plant design
and specifications; equipment selection; bid evaluation; trouble-shooting for startups and existing plants;
refurbishing and upgrading existing plants; operation and maintenance consultation; and construction
Mr. Watson has been and continues to be involved in many significant projects including:
Dare County, North Carolina
RosTek Associates has been retained by Dare County to perform the "Northern Beaches Capacity Study".
This study is designed to:
. Project future water demands for the Northern Beaches planning area, which includes Roanoke
Island, to the year 2030
Based on the demand location, evaluate the requirements for expansion at the North RO plant, the
Skyco Water Treatment plant, or both.
Examine the feasibility and cost of expansion at NRO using both 8" and 16" membranes.
Examine the feasibility of converting the existing Skyco ion exchange plant to nanofiltration
Project the feasibility and probable cost of supplementing the shallow groundwater at Skyco with
water from the deeper brackish aquifer, using RO.
At the conclusion of the study, recommendations for future capital improvements, phasing, and costs will
be provided to the client.
Sarasota County, Florida, T. Mabry Carlton EDR WTP Modernization.
RosTek Associates is providing process consulting services to the County's consultant for the
modernization of the county's EDR water treatment plant. RosTek will provide review of the GE-Ionics
proposals for modernization which include replacement of the original rectifiers with variable frequency
drives; upgrade to the current Mark 1 V stacks with redesigned spacers; feasibility of upgrading the
existing control modules to the new 2020 modules; replacement of all electric valves with pneumatic
valves; and modifications to the control system. RosTek will also provide input to the evaluation of the
existing pretreatment system, and participate in a system wide evaluation of all water treatment plant
City of Clearwater, Florida, Reverse Osmosis WTP #2.
RosTek Associates is providing process consulting services to the design team for this grass roots 6.0
MGD RO facility. Responsibilities include review of possible layout configurations; input to the process
design of the RO facility; assistance in the preparation of plans and specifications; and start-up and
acceptance testing oversight
Coquina Coast Seawater Desalination Alternative Water Supply Project, Florida.
RosTek Associates, Inc. has been retained by the Project's consulting engineer to provide process
consulting during the development of the Phase I Feasibility Study, and the development of the Pilot Plant
protocol, seawater source studies, and development of environmental baseline data in Phase 11. Phase 1
involves the development ofwater quality data; evaluation of potential sites for a land based SWRO
project of up to 70 MGD; review of applicable technologies for feed water acquisition, pre-treatment,
two-pass SWRO process, post-treatment, and concentrate disposal; review of an evaluation of ship based
alternatives; and input to the conceptual opinion of probable cost.
City of Hialeah, Florida.
RosTek Associates, Inc. is the RO process consultant to the team selected by the city of Hialeah to
provide Floridan Aquifer brackish water piloting, 30% design services, construction phase document
review, and startup and acceptance test services for a 17 MGD brackish water RO WTP. This project is
being procured as a Design-Build project, and the project builder, Inima, will also provide contractual
operating and maintenance services. Initially 10 MGD ofRO capacity is being installed.
Working with the consulting team, RosTek provided input and expert review services for the development
of pilot plant protocol; oversight of pilot operation and data; and participated in the preparation ofthe
pilot plant test program results and report. After review by the client's program manager, the pilot plant
results formed the basis of the performance specification for the RO units. RosTek also participated fully
with process design input for the development ofRO project scoping services including physical plant
arrangement, including train size, dedicated pumping, interstage energy recovery and pressure boost, and
pre- and post-treatment advice. Based on prior experience with the Floridan Aquifer atJupiter and Hobe
Sound, RosTek suggested carbon dioxide/lime slurry post treatment for stabilization, and this was
included in the final specifications.
RosTek reviewed all process aspects of the bids, including the bidders' proposals for dealing with
worsening raw water quality while maintaining the performance and economics of the project. RosTek
worked with the team to develop clarification questions and evaluated the responses. Subsequent to the
award to Inima, RosTek has been engaged in construction document submittal reviews and clarification.
As construction progresses, RosTek will be making site visits to monitor the installation of the RO
process equipment, and will provide onsite observation of the commissioning, start-up and acceptance
testing of the process. This is expected to occur in January of2013.
Schlumberger Water Services.
RosTek Associates, Inc. was retained to provide seawater RO project scoping services for a 37,000
/day (9.75 MGD) seawater RO project to be located on the Chilean coast. The plant is to be expandable
to 74,000 m
/day (19.5 MGD). The water is to be used to provide process water for a large copper mining
operation, with a small side stream to be blended with local groundwater to be used for domestic water for
the mining personnel facilities. Because of the nutrient rich South Pacific water, the plant was conceived
with a robust pretreatment system consisting of DAF, followed by membrane filtration. Recovery was
suggested at 50%.
Namibia Water Corporation, Ltd. Republic of Namibia.
RosTek Associates, Inc. was selected in international tender to be the process consultant for the
procurement and construction of an 80,000 m
/day (21.0 MOD) seawater RO project to be located on the
Central coast of the Republic of Namibia. Rostek' s responsibilities as part of a 4 year contract include the
following activities:
Review pre proposals from interested contractors, and assist in the selection of a short list
for final tender.
Assist Namwater in scoping the tender document, and provide design/build specifications
for the process portions of the tender document, including pretreatment, seawater RO, post
treatment, and residuals handling.
Assist Namwater in evaluation and ranking of the contractor tenders and proposals.
Provide process design review services at 30% and 60% design.
Provide construction oversight through shop drawing review, and scheduled on site
presence during construction. Provide on-site factory test witnessing.
Provide on site commissioning and start-up observation, and monitor final acceptance test.
After two years of operation, provide plant audit and report prior to Namwater take-over of
the operation and maintenance.
Collier County, Florida. High TDS RO Addition.
As process consultant to the engineer of record, RosTek Associates, Inc. provided preliminary and final
process design services for the procurement and installation of a 2.0 MOD reverse osmosis addition to an
existing brackish water RO/shallow groundwater NF water treatment plant. Rostek had responsibility for
process selection, including the evaluation of the potential for using NF concentrate as "dilution" for the
high TDS (13,000-25,000 mg/1) well water, to maintain a constant feed water quality to the high TDS RO
system. Using the NF concentrate as dilution water, a design that maintained a constant feed water TDS
was devised, resulting in a hybrid RO design using large format (16") seawater and brackish water
membranes Interstage boost pumping, and isobaric energy recovery.
Dare County, North Carolina.
RosTek Associates was retained by the County to prepare a pilot test protocol, monitor the pilot testing at
two locations on Hatteras Island, evaluate the test data, and prepare a test report, including the preliminary
design for additional treatment facilities based on the pilot plant results. One of the pilot tests utilized
selective rejection nanofiltration membranes to remove natural organic material from the blend stream of
low TDS brackish water RO plant. By reducing the THM and HAA formation potential, a significant
increase in the blend ratio can be achieved. Together with the addition of vessels and membranes of
greater active area, it is anticipated that the plant capacity can be increased by 50% using the existing
The second pilot utilized standard nanofiltration membranes to treat shallow, highly colored and hard
groundwater as blend water for the permeate from an existing high TDS (10,000-15,000 mg/1) reverse
osmosis plant. This process if applicable will be added in parallel to the existing blend water system. The
existing system uses anion exchange for NOM removal, followed by oxidation and dual media filtration
to remove iron. The NF system will be ~ 600gpm, and will increase the total plant output from the current
1.4 MOD to ~ 2.5 MOD.
City of Tarpon Springs, Florida.
RosTek Associates was retained by the City to prepare an independent opinion of probable constructed
cost for a 5.0 MGD brackish water RO WTP, in preparation for a voter referendum in 2006. Two water
quality examples were examined, sketches prepared for building and site layout, well field layout, and
process flow diagrams, and RO equipment sizing calculations prepared. A detailed cost opinion was
prepared for each case, and the results summarized in a letter report. This work was completed in three
weeks, starting from scratch. RosTek also prepared a conceptual layout and opinion of probable cost for a
600gpm shallow freshwater treatment system, consisting ofUF and chemical post-treatment for pH
adjustment, corrosion control, fluoride addition, and disinfection with chloramines.
Waynesboro Township, Pennsylvania.
Process consultant to the engineer of record for the design construction and startup of a 0.4 MGD
wellhead nanofiltration plant. This project is designed to supplement the Township's existing surface
water supply by utilizing an existing well that has very hard very cold water. The NF plant has been
designed for un-attended operation, and will deliver soft low TDS water into the utility's transmission
Tucson Water, Tucson, Arizona.
RosTek Associates, Inc. has been retained by Tucson Water's consulting engineering firm to participate in
a long range water resources master planning effort. Mr. Ian Watson, PE, is one member of a six-person
Technical Expert Panel assembled to provide the consultant and Tucson Water with independent
oversight and advice on the various phases of the planning effort as it progresses. This is being
accomplished through review of materials as developed by the consultant, together with two workshops to
hear presentations, and to engage in discussion. Each expert then prepares a brief written summary of
their thoughts, concerns, and suggestions. RosTek's representative on this panel is specifically charged
with the review of that portion of the work that deals with mineral water quality, and the approaches that
are being evaluated to deal with the issues in public water supply caused by excessive mineral content.
Charlotte County Utilities, Florida.
RosTek Associates was retained by the Count's consulting engineer to assist in a project to upgrade and
expand an existing brackish water RO WTP in the Burnt Store area of the County. RosTek's role includes
assisting in the review and evaluation of historic operating data; providing oversight in the design,
execution, and evaluation of a pilot plant program; and to provide process design input during the
preparation ofthe final design drawings and specifications.
San Diego County Water Authority, California.
RosTek Associates was retained by the Authority's consultant as part of a Technical Review Committee
assisting the Authority's selection committee in the review of initial submittals and final proposals for a
design-build-operate project. The project is a 100 MGD surface water treatment plant of conventional or
low-pressure membrane technology, to treat water from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern
California. The water is a blend of varying proportions of Colorado River Water and State Project water.
The assignment is to evaluate and report on the technical soundness of low-pressure membrane schemes
proposed by the three competing teams. As a result of the proposal evaluation, the membrane option with
advanced oxidation and BAC contactors was recommended to the Owner, and a contract was awarded in
late 2005.
City of Cape May, New Jersey
RosTek Associates was retained by the City to evaluate the potential for increasing the existing 2 MGD
BWRO plant capacity without significant expenditures for capital improvements. The study involves an
evaluation of the capacity limits for the existing well fields, a hydraulic evaluation of the existing piping
system, comparative analysis of the performance characteristics of alternative membrane arrangements,
and an opinion of cost to maximize the output of the existing facilities.
Town of Jupiter, Florida.
RosTek Associates, in co-operation with Harrissmith Services Inc, has been retained by the Town of
Jupiter to provide consulting advisory services to the Utilities Department during the upgrading and
retrofit of the existing 12.0 MGD BWRO plant, and during the planning and design of a 17.0 MGD NF
plant on the same site. Services include review of proposed add-on RO train, review of retrofit proposals
for the 8 existing trains, advice on membrane array and selection for new BWRO membranes, and review
and assistance in layout, configuration, and process design of proposed NF plant.
Texas Water Development Board, Austin Texas.
Process consultant for the Brownsville team competing for the design, construction and operation of
Texas' first seawater desalter. RosTek's participation included review of membrane performance
projections, water quality data, plant layout, comments on sections of the feasibility study, and review of
opinions of probable CapEx and OpEx. The project has been selected as one ofthe finalists, and was pilot
tested during 2006/2007.
Dare County Water System, North Carolina.
RosTek Associates was the engineer of record for an addition to the existing BWRO plant in Kill Devil
Hills for the removal of arsenic from the RO permeate. The scope of the work included a critical review
of the existing technologies available for arsenic treatment, particularly from the perspective of
integration into the existing water treatment plant environment. In addition, alternative technologies were
evaluated, including a second pass membrane system, and the utilization of high TDS brackish surface
water from Albemarle Sound as an alternative raw water source. The second pass membrane option, three
iron oxide adsorption technologies, and manganese greensand treatment were evaluated in pilot testing.
The final design was based on the adsorption technologies, with manganese greensand as treatment for
reducing the arsenic in the raw well water used for post-RO blending. USFilter's GFH technology was the
successful bidder. Manganese greensand was not included, because two newly constructed wells that have
non-detectable arsenic were piped so that the blend water comes only from one or both of these wells.
Provisions were made for future installation of manganese greensand treatment in the design ofthe
facilities. The project was completed forty five days ahead of schedule, and at a cost that was below the
original contract price.
City of Boynton Beach, Florida
RosTek Associates, Inc. provided process design services to the City's consulting engineer for the
preparation ofthe preliminary engineering design, and the preparation of plans and specifications for a 10
MGD (ultimate 20 MGD) BWRO plant which will replace the existing lime softening plant. The
completed project will include interstage energy recovery and pressure boost, recarbonation and lime
addition for re-hardening, anion exchange for the removal ofTHMFP from the shallow well blend water,
and aquifer storage and recovery.
Cal-American Water Services SWRO project, Moss Landing, California.
RosTek Associates, Inc. was process advisor to the Owner's engineer for the design and construction of a
SWRO pilot plant in Monterey County, co-located at the Moss Landing power plant site. The plant was
contracted for by the Owner with all supporting infrastructure designed by the consultant, who also
provided overview services to the Owner during the pilot plant operating phase, and in the plant layout
and equipment selection phase. A fifteen month pilot test program evaluated pretreatment options,
including conventional coagulation and filtration with ferric chloride, and two types of submerged
membrane filtration systems.
US Agency for International Development, Jordan.
RosTek was retained by USAID through a contractor to participate in a Seminar entitled "Desalination
Options for Water Supply in Jordan." in August of2003,
The contents of the seminar included two segments by RosTek:
RO Process Design Application in Jordan
Operation and Maintenance Needs
Also selected as the break-out group leader for the "Technical Priorities", and as panelist for an open
forum discussion.
Middle East Desalination Research Center, Muscat, Oman. Preparation of Reverse Osmosis
Operator Training Program, including two Training Sessions.
RosTek Associates, Inc. prepared an operator training manual, and classroom instructional materials for
use in the Middle East and North Africa region. The course work is closely patterned after the highly
successful SEDA MOC school curriculum. The initial courses were held in January 2005, in Muscat,
Oman, and Dubai, UAE.
Middle East Desalination Research Center, Muscat, Oman. Preparation of Reverse Osmosis Design
Guidelines Manual.
RosTek prepared the subject manual for use by government and non-government water agencies in the
Middle East and North Africa region in the preparation of their tender documents for brackish and
seawater reverse osmosis facilities. The contents of the document include sections on ground and surface
water wells and intakes; raw water and finished water quality guidance; process design guidance;
membrane and ancillary equipment specification; instrumentation and control; and operator needs and
Ministry of Irrigation and Water, Amman, Jordan.
Providing consulting services to the Authority to assist in the development of extensive brackish water
resources available for treatment and use as public water supply. Initial assignment involves site visits to
several existing treatment plants; review of current design specifications; examination operating and
maintenance data; and the preparation of a report discussing the findings. A report including
recommendations for improvements to the design specifications, and operation and maintenance practices
is included in the scope. A review of feasible options for concentrate disposal is also included.
Marina Coast Water District, California.
Participated in a feasibility study to develop process design and costs for increasing the seawater desalting
capacity of an existing plant from 0.4 mgd to 2.7 mgd. Responsibilities included sizing the membrane
assemblies, developing power, chemical, and maintenance costs, and assisting the Owner's consultant in
developing the input needed for the preliminary environmental assessment.
Tropical Farms, Martin County, Florida.
Process consultant for the design and construction of an 8.0 mgd brackish water expansion to an existing
NF plant. The work included the process design for the RO trains, equipped with ERTs for interstage
boost; with a variable concentrate backpressure caused by disposal well injection pressure changes. As
part of this work, RosTek prepared a conceptual study on the use ofUF to remove iron and turbidity from
a shallow well system to be used as blend water for the RO, and existing NF plant.
Villalba, Puerto Rico.
Advisor to the design team for a 7.5 mgd (expandable to 15.0 mgd) submerged ultrafiltration plant to treat
water from an existing reservoir. Responsibility includes review of process parameters; review of process
and instrumentation diagrams; advice on water chemistry issues; and overall review of project design
features, equipment layout, and operating procedures.
City of Clearwater, Florida.
Advisor to the design team for a 2.0 mgd (expandable to 4.0 mgd) brackish water RO plant to treat water
from an existing well field. Although the feedwater has a relatively low TDS, BWRO was selected to
maximize the blending potential due to the low TDS of the RO permeate. Responsibility included review
of process parameters; review ofP&IDs; advice on water chemistry issues; and overall review of project
design features, equipment specifications and layout, and advisory services during startup and testing.
James City Service Authority, Williamsburg, Virginia.
Process consultant to the design team for a 5.0 mgd brackish water reverse osmosis plant. The plant was
designed to maximize the well yield by treating water from the Lower Potomac Aquifer with high
rejection membranes, and blending water from the Middle Potomac Aquifer with the RO permeate.
Piping and control systems are designed to permit the use of a blended feedwater in the future. The plant
was commissioned in early 2005.
Dare County, North Carolina.
Engineer of record for the design and construction of a 2.0 mgd expansion to an existing brackish water
RO plant at Kill Devil Hills. The work included the addition oftwo l.Omgd trains, equipped with energy
recovery turbines (ERTs) for interstage boost; the retrofit of the existing three trains with ERTs; upgrades
to the existing electrical and control systems; and capacity increase for the finished water transmission
pumping system, with revised controls to prevent low flow cavitation. The work was completed in early
Dare County, North Carolina.
Process consultant for a 0.06 mgd brackish water RO plant to provide treated water for potable use for an
un-incorporated area of the County known as Stumpy Point. Project included preparation of plans and
specifications for the owner-furnished RO system to be incorporated into the balance of the work; shop
drawing review; preparation of plans to convert the RO system from single stage to two stage
configuration; process and operational advice to the Owner. The plant went into operation in late 2003
City of Scottsdale, Arizona.
Process consultant to the design team for a 4.5 mgd low energy brackish water RO plant to treat water
from the wetwell of an existing VOC air-stripping system. The purpose of the project is stabilize the
quality of the water in the city's distribution system for surrounding area, to mitigate problems connected
with alternate scaling and descaling conditions. Arsenic reduction is also a major goal. The project
included pilot testing of the RO system, and parallel corrosion studies, and preparation of a preliminary
design report. Construction is as yet unscheduled.
City ofNew York, New York.
Process consultant to the design team for pilot testing and feasibility study for an approximately 9.5 mgd
nanofiltration or low energy brackish water RO plant to treat VOC contaminated water from the
Brooklyn-Queens Aquifer. The purpose of the project is to utilize this contaminated aquifer as a
supplemental source of drinking water for New York, in doing so relieving local problems associated with
high groundwater levels. VOC reduction is the major goal, together with reduction in iron and manganese,
hardness and chloride. The project scope includes advanced oxidation prior to iron and manganese
removal by ultrafiltration, air stripping for VOC removal, and either nanofiltration or low energy RO for
demineralization. Both types of membrane have been pilot tested. An opinion of probable cost for the full
scale plant was included in the project report.
Mount Pleasant Waterworks, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina.
Process consultant to the design team for a 1.4 mgd brackish water RO plant to treat groundwater. The
project includes construction of a new building, design and specification for the RO system, which
included one new train, and a suitably modified temporary train which was already in use at the site. Low
operating pressure and high recovery led to the selection of interstage boost pumps to improve the
performance of the second stage. Startup was mid 2003.
Tampa Bay Desalter, Florida.
At the request of the EPC contractor, and with the approval of the project developer, provided process
advisory services to the EPC contractor for the design of the Tampa Bay 25mgd seawater RO plant, at
that time the largest in the western hemisphere. RosTek's involvement was primarily with the feedwater
pumping system, flushing system, and post-treatment system, and advice on materials of construction.
Tampa Bay Desalter, Tampa, Florida.
Technical advisor for RO process issues to the project developer of this BOOT project. The plant is a
25mgd seawater reverse osmosis water treatment plant which when in operation will supplement the
available water resources of the Tampa Bay region. One of several consultants to the project developer to
assist in the implementation of this project, co-located with an existing power plant on Tampa Bay.
RosTek's involvement was primarily with aspects of membrane performance, effects oftemperature on
operating pressure, and assistance during the selection of an EPC contractor when the original contractor
South Martin Regional Utility, Jupiter Island, Florida.
Process consultant to the design team for a 2.0 mgd (expandable to 8.0 mgd) brackish water RO plant.
ERTs are used for interstage boost (the feedwater TDS is >5,000mg/l) to improve the performance of the
second stage membranes. This project was performed as a design/build project. Scope of work included
preparation ofD/B documents for bidding; development of a bidder pre-qualification questionnaire; shop
drawing review; construction phase services; and startup and acceptance testing presence. Startup was late
Irvine Ranch Water District, Irvine, California.
Technical Advisor for the development of a design/build specification for an 8mgd nanofiltration
membrane water treatment plant for the removal of color from an otherwise good quality deep well water.
This project utilized a relatively new membrane type, which has very low salt rejection capability (1 %-
15% ), but excellent organic rejection.
Dare County, North Carolina.
Program Manager for modifications to an existing 5mgd Cation Exchange softening WTP. The
modifications will include the addition of a 5mgd Anion Exchange process for organics removal, and the
conversion of the chlorination system from gas to hypochloriteCity of Alamogordo, New Mexico.
Project Advisor for the study, piloting, and possible final design and construction of one or more brackish
water desalting plants for this southwestern city. The technologies evaluated were RO/NF, Ion Exchange,
EDR, and possible hybrid systems.
Town of Jupiter, Florida.
Process consultant for a 6.0 mgd brackish water RO plant with bypass blending. The feedwater for this
plant is approximately 5,000 mg/1 TDS. An interesting feature of this design is the ability for acid feed to
the entire plant, or to individual trains, as required for carbonate scale cleaning. Project responsibility
included assistance in definition of process design, assistance in preparation ofP&IDs, layout drawings
and some aspects of the specifications. Assisted in start-up and acceptance test, and prepared a test report
for submittal to the client.
Also assisted in the expansion of the plant to 12.0 mgd, with the use oflow pressure membranes, and
interstage energy recovery/second stage feed pressure boost. Scope similar to the original project.
Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Process consultant to the design team for a 20mgd microfiltration/ultrafiltration plant to polish treated
water for potable use as it leaves an open treated water reservoir. Scope included development of a pilot
testing protocol, and assistance during procurement of the membrane system.
Olivenhain Municipal Water District, San Diego, California.
Process consultant to the design engineer for a 25mgd microfiltration/ultrafiltration water treatment plant
treating CA Aqueduct/Colorado river water blend for potable water supply. Program included extensive
pilot testing, and pre purchase of the membrane filtration equipment.
WaterbedrijfEuropoort, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Provided technical and economic studies for a project to produce 1 000m3/hr of boiler feed water from a
surface water source in the Europoort. Potential processes included screening, membrane filtration, RO
and ion exchange.
San Patricio Municipal Water District, Texas.
Consultant to the design engineer for a surface water treatment project including membrane filtration,
nanofiltration, and RO for potable and process water supplies. Only the UF portion was constructed.
South Island Public Service District, South Carolina.
Process consultant for a 2.0 mgd brackish water RO plant with bypass blending. The feedwater for this
plant is at 117F. Project responsibility included a pilot plant program designed to evaluate the impact of
increasing temperature on membrane performance. Data from this pilot was used to establish the design
temperature for the full scale production facility, while maximising water recovery and membrane life,
and minimising energy.
Dare County, North Carolina.
Design consultant for 2.4 mgd high TDS brackish water RO plant, with energy recovery. A parallel
0.6mgd treatment train of anion exchange for THM precursor removal, followed by iron oxidation and
filtration provides a low TDS, hard alkaline water from an existing shallow well system for blending with
the RO permeate. Scope included pilot plant testing, plant layout and equipment specification, shop
drawing review, construction and startup services, and validation of performance. Project was
commissioned in early 2000.
Laguna Madre Water District, S. Padre Island, Texas
Seawater RO pilot plant test and feasibility study for 2 mgd plant. Testing included enhanced media
filtration for pretreatment, and a parallel test of ultrafiltration.
Public Utilities Board, Brownsville, Texas
Project manager for a brackish water RO pilot plant test, and feasibility study for 10 mgd plant. Water
source was an unconfined brackish water aquifer, with variable quality dependent upon location of wells.
Product was to be blended with effluent from an existing surface water treatment plant, with a finished
quality meeting Texas primary and secondary standards.
City of San Diego, California. Water Repurification Project Involved as membrane specialist in the
pilot testing review process, involving monthly briefings on the progress of the pilot plant and verification
testing taking place at the City's "AQUA 2000" test facility. As a result of the test and verification
program, treatment processes taken to the preliminary design stage included microfiltration, followed by
an 18.5mgd high rejection, brackish water RO system, full flow IX for nitrate polishing, and ozonation for
final TOC destruction.
Dare County, North Carolina Ion Exchange pilot plant for color removal.
Dare County, North Carolina Reverse Osmosis pilot plant.
Cambria Community Services District, California 800gpm seawater RO Plant, final design.
Project included pretreatment pilot testing, including DE filtration, disc filtration and evaluation of
North Coast Co. WD, Pacifica, California. Intake, discharge and treatment plant feasibility study
for a 0.5mgd/1.5mgd seawater desalination plant, using Pacific Ocean water as the feed source. Both
multi-effect distillation and seawater reverse osmosis were evaluated for cost and suitability for the
location. The study included a preliminary evaluation of regulatory constraints that could be anticipated
with respect to construction on the coast of both intake and concentrate discharge structures.
Uzbekistan World Bank project to inspect and evaluate a number of small Russian ED brackish water
plants serving collective farms near the Aral Sea. The survey report included strategies and costs for
replacing the original Russian plant components with alternatives, and included the conceptual design of a
small diesel/natural gas powered RO system to replace the ED systems on the collective farms.
Contran Resorts International, US Virgin Islands. Provided advisory services to the owner of a
golf course for the final design, construction and commissioning for a pre-purchased turnkey fixed price
project to produce 0.27 mgd of irrigation water from sea water. Responsibilities included
recommendations of location and material for the concentrate discharge piping back in to the Caribbean.
City of Ventura Desai Program Management Team. Participated in the planning and public awareness
program for a 7 mgd sea water desalination project to serve the City of Ventura. Included in the planning
activities were the options for acquiring the seawater feed source, including infiltration galleries and
Ranney-type collectors. The team held public meetings to brief interested parties on the progress ofthe
project and published a monthly newsletter. The project was discontinued when fresh surface water
options became available.
Sweetwater Authority, Chula Vista, California. 4 mgd brackish water RO plant designed to treat two
groundwater sources separately or combined.
City of Seward, Nebraska 4 mgd brackish water RO plant for softening and nitrate reduction.
San Diego Gas & Electric, Carlsbad, California Feasibility study, feedwater investigation, and
conceptual design for 0.4mgd seawater RO plant to produce feedwater for boiler feed make up
Marin Municipal Water District pilot test, feasibility study and preliminary design for proposed 5
mgd (10 mgd ultimate) desalination plant using water from San Francisco Bay.
El Paso Public Utilities Board, El Paso, Texas Desalination Feasibility Study, brackish groundwater.
.,.. ..
Monterey Peninsula Water Management District Site feasibility study for a proposed 3 to 8 mgd
seawater desalination plant.
Boynton Beach, Florida 8 mgd nanofiltration plant, construction phase and startup services.
Robinson, Texas. 2 mgd brackish surface water RO treatment plant, using off-stream storage and pre-
treatment with a "Microfloc" alum coagulation and filtration system. Design and construction phase
services, and post start-up performance monitoring.
Fort Myers, Florida 12 mgd (20 mgd ultimate) membrane water treatment plant, using nanofiltration
for softening and THM precursor removal.
Collier County, Florida 12 mgd (20 mgd ultimate) membrane water treatment, using nanofiltration for
softening and THM precursor removal. Plant was master-planned for 8mgd expansion to be brackish
water RO, and for the original 90% recovery NF to be converted to 75% recovery RO in the future.
Sarasota County, Florida 12 mgd electrodialysis reversal brackish water treatment plant. This is the
world's largest EDR plant in operation.
Vero Beach, Florida 3.5 mgd (10 mgd ultimate) brackish groundwater membrane treatment plant.
Orange County Water District, Fountain Valley, California. WF-21 Wastewater Reclamation Plant
using reverse osmosis. Preliminary and final design for expansion from 5 mgd to 25 mgd, incorporating
membrane filtration as pre-treatment to RO.
Harlingen Water Works System, Texas. Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Facility, 4.0 mgd
reverse osmosis.
Channel Islands Beach, CA. Future water supply study, including seawater RO.
California Urban Water Association, Sacramento, CA. Contributing author for a compendium on
Seawater Desalination for Urban Water Supply.
Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, brackish groundwater study.
Mission Hills Community Services District, Lompoc, CA. Investigation into the feasibility of treating
oil field wastewater for use as basin recharge water.
Capistrano Beach County Water District, Capistrano Beach, CA., Desalination Feasibility Study, 1.4mgd
brackish groundwater with pre-softening by Ion Exchange.
City of Beverly Hills, CA, Desalination Feasibility Study, 0.8mgd brackish groundwater, and extended
pilot plant work for hydrogen sulphide destruction and odor control.
B.G.O. Systems, C.A. Caracas, Venezuela Boiler feedwater plant evaluation and retrofit study. Two
0.8mgd seawater reverse osmosis systems.
Project Resources & Development, Inc. Equipment and design-build specifications for a 0.4mgd seawater
reverse osmosis system for a Royal Palace, Thowal, Saudi Arabia.
Cogentrix, Inc., Charlotte, N.C. Preliminary studies for a cogeneration plant for reverse osmosis and
EDR treatment of seawater and brackish water.
Inter Pacific Group, San Francisco, CA. Technical advisory services for two 40,000 USGPD seawater
reverse osmosis systems.
APEC Consultants, Miami, FL. Drinking water system in the French West Indies, 30,000 GPD
seawater plant, reverse osmosis or VVC.
APEC Consultants, Miami, FL. Planning, design and specification, St. Maarten seawater R.O. and
energy recovery 30,000 GPD expandable to 125,000 GPD.
APEC Consultants, Miami, FL. Design and specification, new plant, Cayman Islands, two 40,000
GPD seawater reverse osmosis.
Cat Cay Club, Cat Cay Bahamas. General consultant, Operations and Maintenance, two 15,000 GPD
seawater reverse osmosis plantsEducation
Neath College of Technology, South Wales, Great Britain
1962/Higher National Certificate/Chemical Engineering
1963/Edorsements of Higher National Certificate
1963/Successfully completed the Institute of Chemical Engineers requirements for Chartered Engineer
Berkhamsted School, Berkhamsted, Great Britain
1957/General Certificate of Education/Ordinary Level/9 subjects
1959/General Certificate ofEducation/Advanced Level/3 subjects
Professional Chemical Engineer/CA, FL, NC, TX, VA
Years of Experience
Boyle Engineering Corporation,
Technical Director, Membrane Systems
RosTek Services, Inc., President
Hydranautics Water Systems, International Sales Manager
Island Water Association, General Manager
With Others
Professional Affiliations
American Membrane Technology Association (formerly ADA)
Board ofDirectors 1974-1986, 1990-2000
President 1993-97
Director Emeritus, 2001-2008
Executive Director, 2008-present
South East Desalting Association (SEDA)
South Central Membrane Association (SCMA)
International Desalination Association
Board of Directors 1993-2003
Secretary and Parliamentarian, 1997-01
Florida Engineering Society
National Society ofProfessional Engineers
American Water Works Association
Chairman, Desalting Committee, 1993-1995
Innovative Developments
1997 to present
1993 to 1997
1983 to 1993
1981 to 1983
1977 to 1981
1963 to 1977
In 1979, for the first time in an RO plant, used a programmable logic controller(TI PM-550) as the
primary control device, Sanibel, Florida.
In 1979, the Sanibel plant exceeded 75% (80% design) recovery in two standard length stages. This
plant was also the first to incorporate a feed water bypass system, for feedwater stabilization prior to
Cape Coral, Florida 1984. 7-element pressure vessels. 85% recovery in two stages. Largest low
pressure RO plant in the world at 8.0 mgd.
Dare County, North Carolina, 1986. First application ofvariable frequency drives for RO feed pump
discharge pressure control. Also used feed water acidification as a means of generating C0
for post-
treatment purposes.
Plantation, Florida, 1988. 7-112 element pressure vessels used for the first time. Also proposed
"hybrid" membrane system consisting of first pass CA, second pass TFC-LP.
Town of Jupiter Florida, 2005-2006. Designed and monitored 8" pilot plant for nanofiltration,
utilizing 6-element center port vessels, arranged in two stage, for 85% recovery. Design resulted in
35-40% energy savings over conventional design, verified by full scale operation.
Other Relevant Experience
Manager of International Sales for a Reverse Osmosis membrane manufacturer and equipment
Manager of a water utility with two treatment plants; 2.1 mgd electrodialysis and 3.6 mgd reverse
Consultant to several engineering firms involved in water treatment plant design and construction with
emphasis on the application of membrane technology.
During the past thirty years, Mr. Watson has been involved in more than 100 membrane
water treatment projects, involving study, evaluation, design and construction and/or
operation. He has published and/or presented more than 40 papers at professional and
technical society meetings and conferences.
American Membrane Technology Association Hall of Fame. Elected 2004
Engineering Excellence Award, For the design of a 3.0mgd Brackish Water RO plant, Kill Devil
Hills, North Carolina. AMTA, 1998.
Suffolk, Virginia, 1990. Was awarded ACEC Honor Award for Excellence in Engineering for 3.8
mgd EDR plant, in association with Malcolm Pimie, Inc.
Member, Research Advisory Council, Middle East Desalination Research Center, 1997 to present
Member, National Water Research Institute Research Advisory Board. 1993-1997
Listed in Who's Who in Engineering
Member, Utilities Working Group, US-USSR Technology Exchange Program, 1976-1977
Invited Lecturer at Seminars dealing with membrane desalination.
Member, Expert Panel, The European Commission, Desalination in the Mediterranean, 1996.
"Water Man of the Year", National Water Supply Improvement Association (now American
Membrane Technology Association), for contributing to the advancement of desalination technology
for potable water production, 1990
Selected Publications and Presentations
"Feasibility oflon Exchange for Desalting Brackish Water", OSW R&D Report 616, 1970.
"The Cost of Desalting for Small Inland Communities", presented to the American Association of Cost
Engineers, San Francisco, 1970.
"Analysis and Summary of the Freeport Texas, Vertical Tube Evaporator", OSW R&D Report 759, 1971,
with Dr. G. Shroff and R.D. Cross.
"Feasibility ofDesalting in the State ofMontana", OSW R&D Report 783, 1972, with F. Heider.
"Cost Calculating Manual for Small Conventional Water Treatment Plants", OSW and Montana Water
Resources Board, unpublished, 1 9 7 2 ~
"Feasibility of Chlorinating Unfiltered Potomac River Water"; for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore
District, 1973.
"Analysis of the Siesta Key Electrodialysis Plant", for OSW, unpublished, 1973.
"Cost-Effectiveness of Water Treatment Methods", for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with F. Heider
and S. Spano, 1974.
"Analysis of Electrodialysis Plant Operations, and Future Options", for Island Water Association, Inc., Sanibel,
Florida, with F. Heider, 1977.
"5 Years ofE.D. Experience on a Barrier Island", with R. Derowitsch, presented at Seventh Annual Conference
of the National Water Supply Improvement Association, New Orleans Louisiana, 1979.
"Some Thoughts on R.O. Plant Design", presented to S.W. Engineering Symposium, Tampa, Florida, August
"Reverse Osmosis in Florida- Where Are We Going?"- Floconews Volume 11, 1985- Pfizer Chemical
Division, Pfizer Corporation.
"Theory of Reverse Osmosis, Part 1 ", presented at NWSIA Reverse Osmosis Seminar, Englewood, Florida,
"Some Considerations in the Design of Brackish Water Desalination Plants", presented at Water Conservation
Workshop, Wichita Falls, Texas, for the Texas Water Development Board, October 1986.
"Real World Considerations in the Design of Desalination Plants", presented at NWSIA Reverse Osmosis
Seminar, Virginia Beach, Virginia, January 1987.
"Membrane System Applications and Economics", presented at A WWA Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida,
June 1988.
"Softening Membrane Testing Shows a Strong Municipal Application for THM Control", with Eddie D.
Edwards and Donald C. McKenna, presented at NWSIA Conference, San Diego, California, August 1988.
"Comparing R.O. and EDR for Desalting Groundwater in Suffolk, Virginia", with Millard P. Robinson,
Donald M. Thompson, Mark A. Thompson, presented at NWSIA Conference, San Diego, California, August 1988.
"Membrane Plant Concentrate Characterization", presented at the Seminar "Concentrate Disposal", West Palm
Beach, Florida, December 1988.
"Florida R.O. Plants - Past, Present & Future", presented at the FES Seminar on Desalination, Tampa, Florida,
"Dare County, North Carolina- Planning for the Future", presented at the NWSIA Conference, Orlando,
Florida, 1990, with R. Oreskovich.
"A Decade of R.O. Plant Experience in Florida", presented at the NWSIA Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1990,
with M. Wilf.
"Florida Water Resources Journal, Vol. 43, No.3"- Florida Thirsts for Membrane Technology, 1991, with
David Bouck.
"The Past and Future of Membrane Water Treatment in Florida", presented at the Caribbean Desalting
Conference, Aruba, N.A., 1991.
Association ofBay Area Governments- "Non-continuous Operation of Desalination Plant: Options and
Impacts," presented at the symposium "Desalination: Putting the Technology into Practice", San Francisco,
California, 1991
"Membrane Plant Concentrate Disposal," presented at the NWSIA Technology Transfer Seminar, "Water Reuse
and Membrane Technology," Phoenix, Arizona, 1992.
"Critical Elements of Process Design," presented at the A WW A Seminar, "Engineering Consideration for
Design of Membrane Filtration Facilities for Drinking Water Supplies", Vancouver, British Columbia, 1992.
"Using Membranes for Drinking Water Treatment and Wastewater Reuse", presented at "Clear Water
Solutions", Duke Power Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina, 1993.
"Process Design for RO/NF Facilities and Computer Applications", presented at the Advanced Membrane
Technology Seminar, AWWA Membrane Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, 1993.
"Water Factory 21- the Logical Sequence", with W.F. Mills, Jr., presented at "Desalination and Water Reuse",
Yokohama, Japan, 1993.
"Water Reclamation Fuels Economic Growth in Harlingen, Texas", with G. Filteau and C. Whitley, presented
at Biennial Conference and Exposition, American Desalting Association, Palm Beach, Florida, 1994.
"Desalting in Cape Coral, Florida- An Operating Update", with S. Kopko, M. Seamans, J. Nemeth, PE,
presented at Biennial Conference and Exposition, American Desalting Association, Palm Beach, Florida, 1994.
"Instrumentation and Control for Membrane Softening and Brackish Water Desalination, Part 1", with F.K.
Dent. The International Desalination and Reuse Quarterly, Volume 5.1, May/June, 1995.
"Instrumentation and Control for Membrane Softening and Brackish Water Desalination, Part II", with F.K.
Dent. The International Desalination and Reuse Quarterly, Volume 5.2, August/September, 1995.
"Pretreatment", presented at the "Back to Basics" Seminar, A WWA Membrane Conference, Reno, Nevada,
August, 1995.
"Desalting. What is it, and how does it work?", presented at the Gulf Water Desalination Symposium,
Southwest Florida Water Management District, St Petersburg, Florida, October, 1995.
"Theory and Practice of Membrane Desalination for Potable Water Production", presented to the Water
Resources Technical Group, Colorado Section, ASCE, January, 1996
"Coping with a Variable TDS Brackish Water During the Retrofit Expansion of a Desalting Facility", with
Dr. S. Duranceau, et al. Presented at the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the American Desalting
Association, Monterey, California, August, 1996.
"Energy Management by Innovative Plant Operation", with Robert W. Oreskovich, presented at A WWA
Membrane Technology Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, February, 1997.
"An Introduction to Membrane Plant Design", presented at ADA's Mid Atlantic Workshop, Nag's Head, N.
Carolina, July, 1997.
"Is Brackish Groundwater a Resource for Brownsville", with M. Hurley, et al. Presented at A WWA Water
Resources Conference, Seattle Washington, August, 1997.
"Accommodating Significant Changes in Source Water Quality During the Design of a new Membrane
Water Treatment Plant", with Ben Movahed, PE. Presented at the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the
American Desalting Association, Williamsburg, Virginia, August, 1998.
"A Novel Approach to Accommodating Feedwater Quality Changes in an existing RO Plant", with Robert W.
Oreskovich. Presented at the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the American Desalting Association,
Williamsburg, Virginia, August, 1998.
"Groundwater Reclamation by Innovative Desalting in Orange County, California," with William R. Everest,
PE and Dennis MacLain, presented at the International Membrane Conference, Aquatech '98, Amsterdam, The
Nether lands, 21-24 September, 1998.
"A Pictorial History of the Development of Membrane Technology", a Keynote Address presented at the
Membrane Conference ofthe American Water Works Association, Long Beach, California, February, 1999.
"Operations and Maintenance-Top Performance from your Membrane Plant", presented at the Spring
Workshop, South East Desalting Association, Sanibel, Florida, June 15th, 1999.
"The Value of Desalted Water to Dare County, N. Carolina,", with Robert W. Oreskovich, and David Clawson.
Presented at the World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse of the International Desalination Association,
San Diego, California, August, 1999.
"What Your Government Should Do For You,", Presented at the "The Role of Desalination in Averting a Global
Water Crisis", a symposium sponsored by Senator Paul Simon at the Public Policy Institute, Southern Illinois
University. Carbondale, Illinois, September, 1999.
"An Introduction to Membrane Technology," a 9 hour course presented to the Western Canada Section, A WWA.
Winnipeg, Manitoba, November, 1999.
"RO Plant Costs, and Cost Saving Opportunities", with Robert W. Oreskovich, Utilities Director, Dare County,
NC. Presented at ADA Technology Transfer Workshop, Nag's Head, NC, May 8-9,2000.
"An Overview of Membrane Technology," a 2 hour course presented to the Georgia Geologic Survey, in
Savannah, Georgia, January 19th, 2001.
"Introduction to Membrane Technology", presented at Application of Membrane Technology for Treating
Surface Waters, Western Canada Water & Wastewater Association, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, January 25-26, 2001.
"An Overview of Membrane Water Treatment in Florida" presented at the 17th Annual Environmental Short
Course, Orlando, Florida, 23rd February, 2001.
"System Design and Component Function in an RO/NF Plant", presented at the "Back to Basics" workshop,
American Water Works Association, Membrane Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, March 3rd, 2001.
"Desalting a High TDS Brackish Water for Hatteras Island, North Carolina", with Robert W. Oreskovich,
Utilities Director, Dare County, NC. Presented at "The Future of Purer Water", A WWA Membrane Conference,
San Antonio, Texas, March 7th, 2001.
"Piloting, Designing, and Building an Unusual RO Water Treatment Plant," with Forest Suggs PE and Julia
Nemeth, PE, presented at the 2001 Annual Symposium, American Membrane Technology Association, Wild Dunes,
Isle of Palms, SC, August 6-7, 2001
"What, Me Worry? What Could Possibly Go Wrong?", presented at AMTA/SEDA Membrane Plant
Management School, Palm Coast, FL, December 5th, 2001.
"RO Plant Costs, and Cost Saving Opportunities", presented at "Membranes in the Millennium", South East
Desalting Association, Captiva, FL, May 2-5, 2002.
"Membrane Technology", presented at a workshop ~ o n s o r e d by the Global Transpark Development Commission,
North Carolina Eastern Region, Kinston, NC, May 14 , 2002.
"The 60's, 70's, and 80's: Brackish and Seawater Desalting," presented to the A WWA Water Quality
Conference, Seattle, Washington, November11th, 2002
"An Operational Audit of Membrane Processes in Jordan," with Dr. Koussai Quteishat, Center Director,
MEDRC, and Dr. Mousa Abu-Araby, Project Manager, MEDRC, December, 2002.
"RO and Anion Exchange Product Blending to Produce a Stable Drinking Water", with Robert W.
Oreskovich, Utilities Director, Dare County, NC. Presented at AMTA Technology Transfer Workshop, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, May 1 "\ 2003
"Membranes on the Move", presented at the 2003 Annual Symposium, South East Desalting Association, Jupiter,
Florida, June 8-11, 2003.
"Dealing with Arsenic (111) in RO Permeate", with Robert W. Oreskovich, Utilities Director, Dare County, NC.
Presented at "Desalination: The Source of Sustainable Water Supplies", World Congress on Desalination and Water
Reuse, International Desalination Association, Nassau, Bahamas, September 28th-October 3rd, 2003.
"Pretreatment 2004- A Perspective" presented at the Biennial Conference, American Membrane Technology
Association, San Antonio, Texas, August 2004
"Sea Change", with Brent Alspach, PE. Published in Civil Engineering, February, 2004.
"From Rotonda to Tampa Bay- Desalination's Role in Florida's Water Supply", presented at "Alternative
Water Supply Issues", Florida Engineering Society, Orlando, FL, February 17th, 2004
"Membrane System Components and Design Considerations", presented at "Design and Operation of
Membrane Treatment Facilities" A WWA DSS Conference and Exposition, Tampa, Florida, September 18th, 2005.
"Successful Membrane Plant Operation", presented at Desalination Symposium, American Water Works
Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2006.
"Basics of Desalting Seawater by Reverse Osmosis", presented at the American Membrane Technology
Association Biennial Conference, Anaheim, California, August 2006.
"Pilot Testing the Center Port Vessel Design at the Town of Jupiter", presented at the American Membrane
Technology Association Annual Conference, Las Vegas\, Nevada, July 2007
"Design Considerations for RO Desalination Facilities", presented at the American Membrane Technology
Association Technology Transfer Workshop, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 2007.
"RO/NF Basics", presented at the American Membrane Technology Association Technology Transfer Workshop,
Portland, Oregon, November, 2010
"Take It With a Grain of Salt: What You Need to Know About SWRO Costs", with Brent Alspach, PE,
presented at Membrane Technology Conference, American Water Works Association, Long Beach, California,
March 2011.
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