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AS/NZS 60479.

4:2010
IEC/TR 60479-4, Ed. 1.0 (2004)

AS/NZS 60479.4:2010
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Australian/New Zealand Standard


Effects of current on human beings and livestock Part 4: Effects of lightning strokes on human beings and livestock

AS/NZS 60479.4:2010 This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee EL-001, Wiring Rules. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 14 April 2010 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 23 April 2010. This Standard was published on 11 May 2010.

The following are represented on Committee EL-001: Association of Consulting Engineers Australia Australian Building Codes Board Australian Industry Group Communications, Electrical and Plumbing Union Consumers' Federation of Australia Electrical and Communications Association (Queensland) Electrical Contractors Association of New Zealand Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council Electrical Safety Organisation (New Zealand) ElectroComms and Energy Utilities Industries Skills Council Energy Networks Australia Engineers Australia Institute of Electrical Inspectors Ministry of Economic Development (New Zealand) National Electrical and Communications Association New Zealand Council of Elders New Zealand Electrical Institute New Zealand Manufacturers and Exporters Association Telstra Corporation Limited

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Keeping Standards up-to-date


Standards are living documents which reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which may have been published since the Standard was purchased. Detailed information about joint Australian/New Zealand Standards can be found by visiting the Standards Web Shop at www.saiglobal.com.au or Standards New Zealand web site at www.standards.co.nz and looking up the relevant Standard in the on-line catalogue. For more frequent listings or notification of revisions, amendments and withdrawals, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand offer a number of update options. For information about these services, users should contact their respective national Standards organization. We also welcome suggestions for improvement in our Standards, and especially encourage readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Please address your comments to the Chief Executive of either Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back cover.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR AS/NZS 60479.4.

AS/NZS 60479.4:2010

Australian/New Zealand Standard


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Effects of current on human beings and livestock Part 4: Effects of lightning strokes on human beings and livestock

First published as AS/NZS 60479.4:2010.

COPYRIGHT Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6140

ISBN 978 0 7337 9488 9

ii

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee EL-001, Wiring Rules. The objective of this Standard is to summarize the basic parameters for lightning and its variability insofar as they apply to human beings and livestock. The possible direct and indirect interactions of strikes with bodies of living beings are indicated. The resulting effects caused by lightning currents for the organism are described. The intention is to show the differences of effects on human beings and livestock due to lightning strokes versus those effects of electric shocks derived from electrical systems.
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This Standard is identical with, and has been reproduced from IEC/TR 60479-4, Ed. 1.0 (2004), Effects of current on human beings and livestock Part 4: Effects of lightning strokes on human beings and livestock. As this Standard is reproduced from an International Standard, the following applies: (a) (b) (c) Its number does not appear on each page of text and its identity is shown only on the cover and title page. In the source text this technical report should read this Australian/New Zealand Standard. A full point should be substituted for a comma when referring to a decimal marker.

The terms normative and informative are used to define the application of the annex to which it applies. A normative annex is an integral part of a Standard, whereas an informative annex is only for information and guidance.

iii

CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... iv 1 2 3 Scope and object ............................................................................................................. 1 Normative references ....................................................................................................... 1 Terms and definitions....................................................................................................... 1 3.1 Definitions of technical terms .................................................................................. 1 3.2 Definitions of interactions........................................................................................ 3 3.3 Definitions of effects on organisms ......................................................................... 3 Physics of lightning .......................................................................................................... 3 Interaction of strokes with human beings and livestock .................................................... 4 5.1 Description of direct strike ...................................................................................... 4 5.2 Description of contact voltage ................................................................................. 5 5.3 Description of side flash.......................................................................................... 5 5.4 Description of step-voltage...................................................................................... 5 5.5 Description of flashover .......................................................................................... 5 Effects of lightning strokes on the body of human beings and livestock ............................ 5 Physiological effects ............................................................................................... 5 Pathophysiological effects....................................................................................... 6 Thermal effects ....................................................................................................... 6 Comparison between effects of electric shock and effects of lightning strokes ........ 6 (informative) Figures ............................................................................................... 7

4
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6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Annex A

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 14

iv

INTRODUCTION
IEC 60479 parts 1 to 3, deals with the effect of electric shock derived from electrical systems on the bodies of human beings and livestock. This part, which is a technical report, describes the influence and effect of natural electricity in the form of lightning strokes during thunderstorms. Lightning current can consist of several uni-polar and/or bi-polar impulses with different peak values and durations; Chapter 6 of IEC 60479-2 does not cover these effects. The interaction of a lightning stroke with the victims body is quite different from the usual experience with electric shock derived from electrical systems. The pathway often includes the head in lightning accidents. This implies a probable inclusion of the brain stem, which includes the respiratory centre, in contrast with pathways of shock current arising from electrical systems. In particular it must be pointed out that differences exist between accidents caused by a direct flash compared with those interactions which are caused by step voltages. Even very short single impulses of lightning can cause cardio-pulmonary arrest 1 [5] , [6], [12] and [13]. The intense electric interactions with living organisms are very dangerous but, surprisingly in many cases, not always lethal. It is accepted that 70 % or more lightning accidents involving humans are not fatal (see [1] and [9]. Corresponding reliable data for livestock are not known. There is a large variation in outcome due to different environments, different activities of people and knowledge of first aid and quality of medical care [1] and [5]. It has been necessary, therefore, to create a separate document concerning the special effects of lightning strokes. The physical behaviour of lightning is shown as a basis. The interaction with a living body is then described, followed by the consequences for the life of the victim.

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Figures in square brackets refer to the bibilography.

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND Australian/New Zealand Standard Effects of current on human beings and livestock Part 4: Effects of lightning strokes on human beings and livestock

Scope and object

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This technical report summarizes the basic parameters for lightning and their variability insofar as they apply to human beings and livestock. The possible direct and indirect interactions of strikes with bodies of living beings are indicated. The resulting effects caused by lightning currents for the organism are described. The intention is to show the differences of effects on human beings and livestock due to lightning strokes versus those effects of electric shocks derived from electrical systems.

Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. IEC 60479-1:1994, Effects of current on human beings and livestock Part 1: General aspects IEC 61024-1:1997, Protection of structures against lightning

Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the definitions given in IEC 60479-1 in addition to the following definitions, apply. 3.1 Definitions of technical terms

3.1.1 lightning flash atmospheric discharge consisting of one or more strokes 3.1.2 lightning stroke single electrical discharge in a lightning flash 3.1.3 lightning channel conducting path of the lightning current 3.1.4 stepped and connecting leader pre-discharge with low current and with low light emission, which opens the lightning channel as it grows

COPYRIGHT

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AS/NZS 60479.4:2010, Effects of current on human beings and livestock Effects of lightning strokes on human beings and livestock

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