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Amartya Sen- Published Poverty and Famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation in 1981, demonstrated that famine started

not just from crop failure but from unequal distribution of food. Borlaug hypothesis- A hypothesis coined by agricultural economists saying that increasing productivity on the best farmland can help control deforestation, using high yield farming. Demographic transition model- A model that represents the transition of a population from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as due to economic development. Includes 4 stages, pre- industrial, transitional (highest increase is population), industrial, post industrial Emergent disease- infectious diseases that were not previously found in humans, jump from animal host to humans, (AIDS). Environmental resistance- the combined effect of unfavorable conditions on population growth within a given environment; prevents indefinite reproduction. GOBI-FFF- Growth monitoring, oral rehydrating therapy (drinking a solution of salts, sugar, and water), breast feeding, immunization, female education, family spacing (interval between children), food supplementation (extra food for pregnant women). A strategy to lower infant mortality by UNICEF. Golden rice- Has genes from bacteria and daffodils, contains beta carotene which is turned into vitamin A by the consumer, a simple and cheaper alternative to vitamin supplements in places that are lacking vitamin a, which can result in blindness or death. HYV- Stands for High Yield Varieties, genetically modified grains that help increase production dramatically, for example IR8 rice that had 10 times the production of a normal type r-strategist- a species that is small in body size, has short life span, no parental care, and long term survival is low, usually has an unstable environment and is associated with exponential growth. Total fertility rate- the average number of live-born children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime. Worldwide the TFR is 2.6 Under-5 mortality- a type of indicator of human health that shows how many children under the age of 5 are to die by or at that age of 5 in LDCs. 1 out of 8 children in sub Saharan Africa will die before 5 World grain stock- provides measure of global food security. As of 2007, the world population can survive for 51 days. The grain stock is in decline because much of US grain consumption is used for fuel production and feeding livestock. Terminator technology- Officially named Technology Protection System (TPS) was designed to kill seeds; it can lie dormant until the plant is placed in a special chemical which turns on the gene to kill. This technology prevents farmers from replanting their seeds. It is used in genetically modified seeds to produce sterile plants so new seeds have to be shipped in each year.