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Unit 2: Parts of the Sentence

Simple Subjects and Simple Predicates

Every sentence has a subject and a predicate. A simple subject is the main noun or pronoun that tells what the sentence is about. A simple predicate is the verb or verb phrase that tells something about the subject. Clocks tick. (Clocks is the simple subject; tick is the simple predicate.)

Complete Subjects and Complete Predicates

A complete subject includes the simple subject and any words that modify it. The driver of our bus waits patiently for the smallest children. A complete predicate includes the simple predicate and any words that modify it. The works of Monet are on display at the museum.

Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates

A compound subject has two or more simple subjects that are joined by a conjunction. The subjects share the same verb. A compound predicate has two or more verbs or verb phrases that are joined by a conjunction and share the same subject. Pennies, nickels, and dimes filled the jar. (compound subject) He peeled and ate a banana at lunch. (compound predicate)

Order of Subject and Predicate

In most sentences, the subject comes before the predicate. In a sentence written in inverted order, the predicate comes before the subject. Some sentences are written in inverted order for variety or special emphasis. PREDICATE SUBJECT Around her neck was a beautiful necklace. The subject also follows the predicate in a sentence that begins with there or here. PREDICATE SUBJECT There are more members in the Chess Club than in the Pep Club. When the subject you is understood, the predicate appears without a subject. UNDERSTOOD SUBJECT PREDICATE (You) Ask her for help.

Complements: Direct and Indirect Objects

A complement is a word or phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. A direct object is one type of complement. It answers the question what? or whom? after an action verb. Marie Curie won two Nobel Prizes. (Nobel Prizes answers the question what?) An indirect object is also a complement. It answers the question to whom? for whom? to what? or for what? after an action verb. Harrison gave Randy a gift for his birthday. (Randy answers the question to whom?) Object Complements and Subject Complements

An object complement is a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective that completes the meaning of a direct object by identifying or describing it. Akira finds me a good friend. (noun) Paul calls the car his. (pronoun) He considered it irrelevant. (adjective) A subject complement follows a subject and a linking verb. It identifies or describes a subject. The two kinds of subject complements are predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives. A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and gives more information about the subject. Montana is a state. A predicate adjective is an adjective that follows a linking verb and gives more information about the subject. He seemed happy with the results.