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This chapter presents the introduction, statement of the problem, hypothesis of the study, significance of the study, and scope and limitation of the study.

Introduction It is a known fact that sleep is a natural, and vital, state in which the body rests and recovers from energy expenditure from daily activities. However, in todays busy lifestyle, sleeping habits can become erratic and unstable. This is especially true for young adults, who generally have an active lifestyle. In a lot of cases of erratic sleeping habits, one may find the need for naps. For the purpose of this research, nap shall be defined as the state of sleep on a time other than ones usual bedtime. With this into consideration, one can hypothesize that napping can have certain effects on ones well being. This research will reveal the adverse effects of long naps on ones body, and if there is sufficient awareness of this theorized adverse effects. This research paper aims to find out the level of awareness on the adverse effects of long naps, specifically among mothers in Sikatuna Bliss, Quezon City. In this paper, we will touch on the subject of sleep, its nature in relation to the human body, the significance of age in connection to sleep, and

the possible adverse effects of napping. For purposes of scope and limitation, the research will focus on residents of Sikatuna Bliss Exclusively. Background of the study According to the National Institute of Mental Health Power-Nap Study (2002-07-01), Power-napping is thought to maximize the benefits of sleep versus time. It is used to supplement normal sleep, especially when a sleeper has accumulated a sleep deficit. Various durations are recommended for power-naps, which are very short compared to regular sleep. The short duration of a power-nap is designed to prevent nappers from sleeping so long that they enter a normal sleep cycle without being able to complete it. Entering a normal sleep cycle, but failing to complete it, can result in a phenomenon known as sleep inertia, where one feels groggy, disorientated, and even more sleepy than before beginning the nap. In order to attain maximum post-nap performance, it is critical that a power-nap be limited to the beginning of a sleep cycle. Scientific experiments and anecdotal evidence suggest that an average power-nap duration of around 20-30 minutes is most effective. People who regularly take power-naps may develop a good idea of what duration works best for them, as well as what tools, environment, position, and associated factors help induce the best results. Some people take power-naps out of necessity, for example, someone who doesn't get enough sleep at night and is drowsy at work may sleep during his or her lunch break.

Others may prefer to take power-naps regularly even if their schedules allow a full night's sleep. Statement of the Problem The study aims to determine the level of awareness of the adverse effects of long naps among mothers in Sikatuna BLISS Quezon City. Specifically, it seeks answers to the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of the following aspects? 1.1 age 1.2 educational attainment 1.3 number of children
2. What is the respondents level of awareness on the adverse effects of long naps? 3. Is there a significant difference in the respondents level of awareness when they

are grouped according to their profile? Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the respondents level of awareness when they are grouped according to profile.

Significance of the Study

The research would be beneficial to: For the mothers Their understanding and awareness in this topic will limit their time of napping knowing that there are the adverse effects of long naps. For the professors This thesis may be used as a sample guidelines and reference that may help students to gain deeper understanding in this kind of health issues and for them to teach their students the adverse effects of long naps

For our fellow researchers The content of this study may be of assistance for it contains reliable facts and additional information on the adverse effects of long naps. They can use this study as a reference to guide them to have a better output.

For the readers This study may serve as a tool for information in order for them to enrich their knowledge and be aware of the adverse effects of long naps and so they could adjust their sleeping habits. Scope and Limitations This study aims to determine the level of awareness of the adverse effects of long naps among mothers. This study is confined to age 25-40 to limit the subjects for a more definitive analysis. The selected respondents included were

30 mothers of any field of profession. In order to assure manageability of the collected data, survey instruments used only multiple-choice items and did not include open-ended response items.


This chapter presents the related literature, theoretical framework, research paradigm, and the definition of the terms.

Foreign Literature According to National Sleep Foundation (Aug 13, 2008), More than 85% of mammalian species are polyphasic sleepers, meaning that they sleep for short periods throughout the day. Humans are part of the minority of monophasic sleepers, meaning that days are divided into two distinct periods, one for sleep and one for wakefulness. It is not clear that this is the natural sleep pattern of humans. Young children and elderly persons nap, for example, and napping are a very important aspect of many cultures. Naps can be typed in three different ways: 1.Planned napping (also called preparatory napping) involves taking a nap before you actually get sleepy. This technique may use when one knows that he will be up later than his normal bed time or as a mechanism to ward off getting tired earlier. 2. Emergency napping occurs when one is suddenly very tired and cannot continue with the activity he was originally engaged in. This type of nap can be used to combat drowsy driving or fatigue while using heavy and dangerous machinery. 3. Habitual napping is practiced when a person takes a nap at the same time each day. Young children may fall asleep at about the

same time each afternoon or an adult might take a short nap after lunch each day. The right length for a short nap is usually recommended (20-30 minutes) for short-term alertness. This type of nap provides significant benefit for improved alertness and performance without leaving a person feeling groggy or interfering with night time sleep. Naps can restore alertness, enhance performance, and reduce mistakes and accidents. A study at NASA on sleepy military pilots and astronauts found that a 40-minute nap improved performance by 34% and alertness 100%.Naps can increase alertness in the period directly following the nap and may extend alertness a few hours later in the day. Scheduled napping has also been prescribed for those who are affected by narcolepsy. Napping has psychological benefits. A nap can be a pleasant luxury, a mini-vacation. It can provide an easy way to get some relaxation and rejuvenation. While research has shown that napping is a beneficial way to relieve tiredness, it still has stigmas associated with it. Napping indicates laziness, a lack of ambition, and low standards. Napping is only for children, the sick and the elderly. Kacper M. Postawski (2004) said that one of the questions she gets asked all the time is "Are naps good for you? Or bad?", Shed like to settle this argument once and for all right here, and reveal on how one can properly manage his sleep to create an abundance of energy in his life, with less sleep. Yes, naps are very good but only IF one understand how the sleep system works, and know how to nap properly. In her "Powerful Sleep" course, she teaches people how to properly understand their sleep system, circadian rhythm, light exposure, and how it affects their inner sleep system. Most people don't realize that sleep is

actually quite a complex and fascinating inner system. When one is sleeping, hes not just dead zombies off in an unknown universe. His inner sleep system is a mechanism which follows specific time periods and stages to energize his body. The first two stages, Stage 1 and 2 are "Light Sleep." It's during these stages that one sleep "lightly", we are easily wakable, and if awaken circadian rhythm isn't altered enough to create a disturbance in the sleep system. The energizing effects of Stage 1 and 2 sleeps are very beneficial, just 10 minutes of sleeping in these stages can restore energy to the point where one feels as if you slept for 8 hours. However, why do most people do more HARM than GOOD to themselves by napping? It's simple, one doesnt know about "deep sleep." Deep sleep comprises of all the following sleep stages. It's during deep sleep that body undergoes a MASSIVE physiological change, body temperature, heart rate and respiration all change. Blood vessels dilate and all the blood that is usually

stored in main organs during the day is channelled to muscles to repair them. If one enter deep sleep during the day, his circadian rhythm and his "inner sleep clock" will be altered and out of wack, often resulting in an unbalanced, weak sleep system and lower energy levels all together. For an average person it takes about 45-90 minutes to enter "deep sleep", this is why for an effective nap one MUST keep his nap down to a MAXIMUM of 45 minutes. Even 45 minutes is sometimes too much. The most energizing naps are usually 10 to 20 minutes long. If one naps last too long one will enter to a deep sleep. Waking up from a deep sleep phase is more harmful to his sleep system and his energy levels than good! He will often feel lethargic, low on energy, and in that "zombie" state of

mind. If one use naps properly, he can boost his energy levels drastically, and lower his sleep time down drastically. According to Robert Fellowman (12/30/2008) a powernap is a short sleep or nap used to revitalize the body, enhance alertness and improve concentration. In order to be effective, a powernap should end before the mind enters the deep sleep stage of sleep. Deep sleep is the third stage of the normal sleep cycle, where brain waves slow down and is typically after around 45 minutes. Waking up from this stage of sleep will interrupt the sleep cycle and result in sleep inertia a phenomenon which gives that characteristic groggy feeling. So the key to a successful powernap is limiting the length of nap to less than 45 minutes. As stated in Go Ask Alice! (June 18, 2004), A health question and answer Internet resource produced by the Alice!, Health Promotion Program at Columbia University a division of Health Services at Columbia, sleep needs are unique, so it's entirely possible that proposed plan will help make it through the day. It's normal for some students to feel most alert late at night; however, do not mention in the question how a person feels throughout the day. Does he feel fatigued? Does he navigate through his activities feeling tired and drowsy? Because everyone is different when it comes to sleep, one of the best ways to determine if a person is getting enough sleep is to notice his level of drowsiness throughout the day. According to sleep experts, most people need between six and ten hours of sleep each day for optimum performance and health. Lots of important


stuff happens inside our bodies when one sleep for example, hormones are produced, blood pressure is regulated, and kidney functions are altered. Additionally, information you've studied and learned during the day is processed and stored while getting some shut-eye. Having enough uninterrupted, regularly scheduled sleep is the best way to end up feeling rested and energized when the alarm clock rings. How much uninterrupted sleep varies from person to person some people feel fine on just a few hours a night, while others need more. Assuming that a person is fatigued during the day with classes, homework, friends, jobs, families, extra-curricular activities, and other

commitments, regular and continuous sleep can be hard to come by. Its right that naps can help him stay alert through a crazy schedule. Studies have shown that sleeping or napping for two to four hours is not particularly effective at improving alertness. If it's not possible for a person to get enough sleep in one nightly snoozing session, perhaps he could hit the sack a little earlier and plan on a 90minute nap during the day, or several 20-minute power naps whenever a person have some down-time. A 2002 study from Harvard University (ScienceDaily, July 2, 2002) emphasizes the importance of sleep and suggests that power napping can add to workers productivity. Power napping is the term for reinvigorating midday naps that last 30-90 minutes. The Harvard study shows that the bonus slowwave and REM sleep provided by a nap can boost motor skills as well as memory retention and the acquisition of perceptual task skills. A nap halts the


deterioration of worker performance, which naturally declines throughout the day. This is especially helpful for workers with irregular shifts, who are more likely to experience sleep difficulties. Another study (ScienceDaily, February 13, 2007) found that a regular afternoon nap can lead to a 37% decrease in the risk of cardiac death. For working men, the number was an astonishing 64% reduction. Theoretical/Conceptual framework This study employed the Theory of Balance by Fritz Heider. It is a

motivational theory of attitude change which conceptualizes the consistency motive as a drive toward psychological balance. Heider proposed that sentiment or liking relationships are balanced if the affect valence in a system multiplies out to a positive result. This means that everything must be in equilibrium to achieve an incontestable outcome. Millions of people all over the world take a nap during the day. People nap out of habit, because they are sleep-deprived as a result of a sleep disorder, or after a long work shift. Individuals of all age groups, from infants to the elderly, indulge in an afternoon nap. This review examines the benefits and drawbacks of daytime naps in healthy adults. A nap of less than 30 minute duration during the day promotes wakefulness and enhances performance and learning ability. In contrast, the habit of taking frequent and long. Naps of less than 30 minute duration confer several benefits, whereas longer naps are associated with a loss of productivity and sleep inertia. Recent


epidemiological studies indicate that frequent and longer naps may lead to adverse long-term health effects. Above statements mentioned that too much nap causes negative effects. In order to avoid these negative results, one needs not too much but sufficient nap.


Research Paradigm INPUT

Mothers Sikatuna Village Quezon City Educational attainment Age Number children Adverse effects long naps of of in

Distribute questionnaire Tally the

Level of

awareness of the adverse of naps

effects long among mothers Sikatuna Village

results of the questionnaire Classify the


respondents level awareness of

Quezon City


Definition of Terms Adverse effects - harmful or unfavourable effects; Apnea - is a period of time during which breathing stops or is markedly reduced. There are two types of apneas, the more common obstructive sleep apnea and the less common central sleep apnea. Arousal Awareness Groggy Insomnia - To awaken from or as if from sleep - Knowing the facts based on experience. - stunned or confused and slow to react. - The perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep

because of one or more of the following: difficulty falling asleep; waking up frequently during the night with difficulty returning to sleep; waking up too early in the morning; or unrefreshing sleep. Insomnia is not defined by the number of hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takes to fall asleep. Long Nap - Of relatively great duration: a long time. - A brief sleep, often during the day.

Polysomnography - Continuous recording of specific physiologic variables during sleep. Polysomnography typically records brain wave changes

(electroencephalogram), eye movements (electrooculogram), muscle tone (electromyogram), respiration, electrocardiogram (EKG), and leg movements. Rejuvenation - act of restoring to a more youthful condition



- the natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which the

powers of the body are restored Sleep hygiene - Sleep hygiene refers to the habits, environmental factors, and practices that may influence the length and quality of one's sleep. These include bedtime, night time rituals, and disruptions to one's sleep. These are typically represented by simple guidelines meant to effectively promote a good night's rest.



This chapter presents the research design, locale and population of the study, description of the respondents, instrumentation and sampling technique, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design The descriptive method was used in this study. This is the most appropriate method on inquiry about the present states of condition of a particular phenomenon, concepts and procedures of general description, analysis and classifications are discussed in considerable detail. The descriptive method describes a current situation and determines the nature of prevailing condition of practices and seeks accurate description of awareness. This method describes the level of awareness among mothers in the adverse effects of long naps.

Locale and Population of the Study Sikatuna BLISS is a government settlement housing project implemented in the 1980s to provide homes for public officials and the less fortunate. The housing project is situated within the property of the University of the Philippines, Diliman.It is located along Mapagkumbaba Extension, Sikatuna, Barangay U.P. Campus, Quezon City. Bordering the BLISS compound is a U.P. Low-Cost


Housing Project known as Pook Amorsolo on the northeast, Barangay Cruz na Ligas on the northwest side, and Mapagkumbaba Extension on the south and southeast. The Sikatuna compound, composed of Sikatuna Phase I and Sikatuna Phase II have a total land area of approximately 5.63 hectares, 17% of which are residential areas and the rest are parking spaces, playgrounds and common areas. The housing compound is composed of eleven (11) four-story buildings with thirty (32) units per building.

Description of Respondents The members of the respondents were chosen for their understanding and awareness base on this topic, base on how they cope in the adverse effects of long nap. The respondents involved were thirty (30) mothers with age bracket of 25-40 in Sikatuna BLISS Quezon City.

Sampling Techniques The researcher used purposive sampling techniques of the non probable sampling procedure. This is also called judgmental sampling. A deliberate selection of individuals by the researcher based on predefined criteria. This technique is resorted to when a study is focused on specific characteristics of the sampling units. The researcher gets the sample of 30 mothers from a total population of the study.


Instrumentation and Data Gathering Procedure For data gathering purposes, the researcher used of the set of questionnaire that elicited the needed data and information on matters that pertained to the topic under study. The questionnaire is believed to be the major instrument in data gathering in descriptive survey studies. It consists of questionnaire which is intended to elicit information from the respondents pertinent to a particular problem for research. Part I contains the respondents profile, age, educational attainment and number of children. Part II the lists of the effects of long naps to their level of awareness.

The data gathered will be tallied, analyzed and interpreted based on the results of the respondents level of awareness about the adverse effects of long naps and this will be interpreted in tabular and textual form from which the conclusion and recommendation will be derive.

Statistical Treatment Used The research is designed to find out the level of awareness of the adverse effects of long naps among mothers in Sikatuna Bliss Quezon City For in depth analysis and interpretations of data, the following techniques were used:


Frequency and percentage distribution was used in analyzing the responses to each of the questions in the questionnaire. Levin (1998) obtained the percentage by dividing the proportion of an item by 100. a. Percentage P = f x 100% --n Where: P=percentage f=frequency n=total number of respondents

Weighted mean. This tool was used to analyze and to compute the respondents level of awareness on the adverse effects of long naps. It was computed using the formula. b. Weighted Mean xwm = f --n where: x = weighted mean f = frequency


Weighted Mean 1.00 1.49 1.50 2.49 2.50 3.00

Interpretation Not aware Moderately aware Highly aware

Chi- square formula will be used to define the hypothesis if there is significant difference in the respondents level of awareness when they are grouped according to profile. c. Chi-Square X = (o e) / e Where: o = observed data e = expected data



This chapter presents the presentation, analysis, and interpretations of data gathered from the respondents. It includes tabular and textual presentation that gives meaningful explanation of the data. The manner of presentation was based and sequenced according to the statement of the problems stated in chapter 1.

1. Description of the Respondents The following tables show the description of the respondents according to: a.) Age Table 1 Description of the Respondents in terms if age n = 30 Age bracket 25 27 28 30 31 33 34 36 37 39 40 42 Frequency 4 13 4 4 3 2 Percentage 13.33 % 43.33 % 13.33 % 13.33 % 10.00 % 6.67 %

Table 1 presents the percentage distribution of the respondents as they are described according to their age. The data shows that 4 or 13.33 percent of the respondents belong to 25 27 age bracket, 13 or 43.33 percent belong to age bracket 28 30, 4 or 13.33 percent of the respondents belong to 31 33, 4 or 13.33 percent of the respondents belong to 34 36, 3 or 10 percent of the


respondents belong to 37 39, 2 or 6.67 percent of the respondents belong to 40 of age. It shows that most of the respondents of this study are 28 30 years old.


educational attainment Table 2 Description of the Respondents in terms of Educational Attainment Educational attainment High school graduate Undergraduate College graduate Respondents description in terms of educational attainment was shown in Frequency 5 5 20 Percentage 16.67 % 16.67 % 66.67 %

table 2. Five or 16.67 percent are high school graduate, 5 or 16.67 are undergraduate and 20 or 66.67 percent are college graduate. It is believed that the educational attainment greatly affects the awareness level. c.) Number of children Table 3 Description of the Respondents in terms of number of children Number of children 12 Frequency 20 percentage 66.67 %


3-4 56

7 3

23.33 % 10.00 %

Respondents description in terms of number of children was shown in table 3. Twenty or 66.67 percent has 1-2 children, 7 or 23.33 percent has 3-4children and 3 or 10.00 percent has 5-6 children.

Table 4 Table number 4 presents the computed weighted mean of each of the adverse effects of long naps. It shows that mothers in sikatuna BLISS is highly aware with hot tempered as an adverse effect of long nap and they are just moderately aware with the rest of the said adverse effects. Adverse Effects 1. Grogginess 2. Disoriented 3. Laziness 4.Drowsiness Highly aware 3 2 9 7 Moderately aware 16 19 17 14 Not aware 11 9 7 9 Weighted Mean 1.73 1.77 2.27 1.93 moderately moderately moderately moderately Interpretation


5. Headache 6. Tiredness 7. Heaviness 8. Hot tempered 9. Sleepiness 10. Inactive

14 16 18 9 17 11

10 6 10 7 9 13

6 8 2 14 4 6

2.27 2.27 2.53 1.83 2.43 2.17

moderately moderately highly moderately moderately moderately

Figure 2

Figure 3


Figure 4


This chapter aims to synthesize the information of the study by summarizing its findings, formulating conclusions and offering recommendations based on the findings.

Summary of the findings The percentage distribution of the respondents as they are grouped according to their age shows that 4 or 13.33 percent of the respondents belong to 25-27 age bracket, 13 or 43.33 percent were 28-30 years of age, 4 or 13.33 percent were


31-33 years old, 4 or 13.33 percent were 34-36 years old, 3 or 10.00 percent were 37-39 years old and 2 or 6.67 percent were 40 years old. Five or 16.67 percent of the respondents are mothers, who just graduated in high school, 5 or 16.67 percent are mothers who are under graduated and 20 or 66.67 percent who are college graduate. In terms of number of children, 20 or 66.67 percent are mothers with 1-2 children, 7 or 23.33 percent has 3-4 children and 3 or 10 percent has 5-6 children. The weighted mean of each of the adverse effects of long naps are as follows: grogginess 1.73, disoriented 1.77, laziness 2.27, drowsiness 1.93, headache 2.27, tiredness 2.27, heaviness 2.53, hot tempered 1.83, sleepiness 2.43 and inactive 2.17 The computed value to test the significant difference according to profile is: age 8.13, number of children 7.46, educational attainment 48.002.

Conclusion Based on the summary of findings the following conclusions were drawn: 1. Most of the respondents belong in the age bracket of 28-30. 20 or 66.67 percent are college graduates have 1-2 children. 2. Mothers in Sikatuna, BLISS are moderately aware with the adverse effects of long nap. 3. There is no significant difference in the respondents level of awareness when


they are grouped according to age and number of children. 4. There is significant difference of the level of awareness of the respondents according to their educational attainment. Recommendations Based on the summary of findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are formulated. To the Mothers Time management is highly recommended for full time mothers. Duties plotted in a time table to be followed during the day. Mothers should train their children on to proper sleeping habits. Mothers are advised not to take long naps if they suffer same discomforts. To the Professors Psychology professors may provide additional knowledge, particularly on their students about the adverse effects of long nap. To the Researchers Researchers may verify the findings in this study if similar research will be conducted in the future. For the future researchers, they may conduct a follow-up research study on the same problem, but different variables to consider.