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The CCMI: a decade

of industrial change in Europe

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 2
From a pioneering partnership of coal and steel to a mature industrial policy: a 60-year journey

Chapter 2 6
Policies to anticipate global change

Jorge Pegado Liz – CCMI president 11
Patrizio Pesci – CCMI co-president 12
Göke Daniel Frerichs – EESC president when the CCMI was created 13
Enrico Gibellieri – first co-president of the CCMI 14
Jacques Glorieux – former CCMI co-president 15
Joost van Iersel – former CCMI president 16

Chapter 3 18
Weighing the benefits after a decade

CCMI opinions and reports 24

If you are responsible for dealing with The CCMI should have an important role
industrial problems, it is absolutely ne- to play in the EU 2020 strategy. You can
cessary to talk to the people on the plan everything, but it will not work
spot who are confronting reality. unless there is a frame of mind where
People speak better about the issues all the participants seek the best col-
they know. You may not always agree lective answers to the challenges
with them, but you need to have confronting them. Jean Monnet was
their input so as to judge the action right when he said you cannot have
needed to improve both the specific a collective policy if you do not have
and global situation. You cannot work a body where the debate can take
in a vacuum, or on the basis of studies place; but the debate can only be as
or assessments alone. You need the voice good as the people who participate want
of reality. it to be.

The Consultative Commission on Industrial Change In the future, the CCMI faces a big challenge.
(CCMI) has provided that voice. The best evidence of its It’s obvious that the crisis has created very significant socio-
achievement is that it is still here. The test of usefulness logical unrest. People feel they have to suffer because of a
is the capacity, over a period of time, to respond to what crisis they did not cause. There is a need to find common
your members are looking for. ground in a very complex situation where people are full
of uncertainty and dissatisfaction.

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

It was a very fundamental, and at the time quite revolu-
tionary concept, to bring together political authorities on The assessment of the situation is, unfortunately, straight-
one side, and consumers, business, trade unions and other forward. What we do about it is more important. The lack
operators on the other. This collective element went beyond of trust is something we have to react to. The only way
the traditional employer-employee relationship. Enabling human beings can restore trust is by working together and
these stakeholders to be involved in strategy and policy- ensuring all points of view are taken into account before
making in this way, through collective discussion, did not deciding on the way forward.
exist before.

The fact that this very far-reaching proposal worked showed

that all the parties felt it was in their interests to participate
in the debate. Extending the dialogue beyond coal and steel Viscount Etienne Davignon
to other areas was common sense. Former European Commissioner for Industrial Affairs

Chapter 1 Romano Prodi receives the ECSC flag

From a pioneering partnership

of coal and steel to a mature continue the work. The Euro-
pean Economic and Social
industrial policy: a 60-year Committee (EESC) had
journey already been in place
since 1958 as the body
In the beginning, there was the European representing civil society
Coal and Steel Community. Established – including employers
by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, it was the and trade unions – within
first concrete manifestation of the vision of the EU institutions. So, in
a peaceful and united Europe, which was May 2000, it was logical for
later to bring about the 1957 Rome Treaties the Commission to turn to the
and the creation of the European Community. EESC to help find a format to keep
The French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, in his the group in existence and maintain
famous declaration of 9 May 1950, first proposed that a structured dialogue in these crucial
Franco-German coal and steel production be governed by industrial sectors. The Council officially sup-
a common High Authority, thus placing the main resources ported efforts to preserve the committee’s expertise.
used to wage two world wars under joint control.

The High Authority was to be assisted by a Consulta- A new perspective

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

tive Committee, made up of producers, workers, and

‘users’ – including retailers and distributors – which met Full integration into the EESC was not possible, since
for the first time in Luxembourg in January 1953. But the the members were selected in different ways. Individ-
ECSC Treaty had a finite lifespan of 50 years. In the 1990s, uals on the Consultative Committee did not have the
a fierce debate began about the future of the Consultative same endorsement from national governments and the
Committee, with some people urging its early abolition. EU Council that EESC members required. Consequently,
In the end, it was confirmed that the Committee’s mandate in September 2000, the European Commission issued
would come to an end in 2002 – half a century after the a Communication proposing the creation of a new hybrid
Treaty entered into force. body. It drew attention to the ECSC’s unique “experi-
ence – notably in the fields of social consensus, industrial
As the date approached, the 108 members were deter- restructuring and research”, and called for “a firmly future-
mined that the experience and knowledge accumu- based perspective” for the new committee, which would
lated over five decades should not be lost. They appealed gradually expand to cover all aspects of industrial change
to the European Commission to create a new structure to in the European Union.
A joint working party was set up to examine the options. The final session of the ECSC Consultative Committee took
On 18 October 2001, the last president of the Consultative place in Luxembourg in June 2002. The following month,
Committee, Italian trade unionist Enrico Gibellieri, wrote for- on 23 July, the Treaty formally expired. At a hand-over cere-
mally to the then EESC president Göke Frerichs, informing mony in Brussels, the flag of the Coal and Steel Community,
him that his members had accepted the negotiators’ pro- with its white stars on dark and light blue backgrounds, was
posals, and hoping the plan would go ahead as rapidly as lowered and folded. Enrico Gibellieri placed it in the hands
possible, in order to secure funds for 2002. As a result, the of the president of the European Commission, Romano
Council and the European Parliament were able to agree a Prodi.
supplementary budget for the EESC, to enable it to main-
tain a structured dialogue on the basis of experience in the On 24 October 2002, the EESC’s Plenary Assembly formally
coal and steel sector, and take on the challenge of industrial approved the setting up of the Consultative Commission.
change as part of its permanent work.

And thus the Consultative Commission on Industrial Testing the experiment

Change came into being – known to this day by its French
acronym: CCMI (Commission consultative des mutations The CCMI represents a new kind of model for dialogue and
industrielles). debate between the different actors in European industry,
with the aim of drawing up expert ‘opinions’ which are sub-
sequently adopted by the full EESC. Today, it is made up of
“The first assembly which established the tradition 48 EESC members, and 48 ‘delegates’ coming directly from
of providing a direct voice for industry vis-à-vis different industrial sectors and related organisations. In 2002,
European policy-makers was the ECSC Consultative these were the former members of the Consultative Com-
Committee, which provided a forum for the coal and mittee, involved in the coal and steel industries. At that time,
steel industries. The CCMI builds on this experience, there were 24 EESC members and 30 delegates. But the CCMI
providing an important point of dialogue for industry has grown with each round of EU enlargement and, given
and policy-makers.
the importance of industrial development in the newer

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

“The prosperity of Europe and its people is
Member States, a high proportion of participants come from
essentially built on manufacturing industry and its these countries. Like the EESC members, the delegates are
unique value chains, of which the steel industry now divided into three groups: employers, employees and
is one of the backbones. The future of Europe various interests.
depends on the sound functioning of its industrial
value chains, as has been demonstrated by the The new CCMI took a while to settle into its role. At first,
financial and economic crisis. This is sometimes some of the former Consultative Committee members were
forgotten by policy-makers. The CCMI gives us expecting to go on performing the same task as before,
a unique opportunity to help make European policies
regulating the heavy coal and steel industries at the core
right by delivering advice on policies affecting the
development of industry.”
of the ECSC’s mission. But the legal basis for their work had
changed, and they no longer had the power of the High
Gordon Moffat, Director General, Authority behind them.
Eurofer  – The European Steel Association

“The ECSC was a very important body – it had the power the representatives of ‘various interests’ took a little longer
to impose levies on coal and steel producers, which paid to find their place. But in 2010, the CCMI elected its first
for restructuring of the sector, and an administration president from this group, Jorge Pegado Liz, and civil society
to manage it. All that disappeared,” recalls former CCMI presi- organisations were invited to nominate their own repre-
dent Joost van Iersel. sentatives directly. As a consequence, more of them are
now involved in proposing and drafting opinions, bringing
External circumstances were not easy, either. The CCMI was new perspectives to the CCMI’s work and taking it into
not known, even within the EESC, and acceptance was a areas it has not previously explored.
lengthy process. Many thought industrial policy was already
covered by the EESC’s Single Market, Production and Con-
sumption section (INT) and could not see the breathing
space for a new body.
“When I became a member of CCMI, one year ago, it
was for me a first contact with this Commission and
But the CCMI gradually found its place. Its third meeting in I was not aware of the vast scope of topics that it
2003 was in Dublin, where in 2001 the European Foundation has to cover. Although in the beginning, I wondered
for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions had what could be the added value of my perspective
set up its own Monitoring Centre on Change (EMCC). The – my field of expertise is consumer law and policy –
two bodies started to coordinate activities, although later, I was rapidly struck by the high relevance of many
the first CCMI president Josly Piette regretted difficulties in of the opinions prepared by the Commission for
maintaining and following up on these relations. consumer welfare.

“I quickly started to wish to contribute to the

content of the opinions. Having to face the
Enlargement over time sometimes complicated procedures within the
EESC, I could, however, count on the kind flexibility
In January 2005, following EU enlargement, the CCMI mem- of the members and the delegates, as well as on
bership was officially broadened to bring in delegates from the very efficient availability and support of the
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

the industries undergoing change. Of the 45 delegates, one- secretariat. I hope to be able to cooperate effect-
third came from the former ECSC Consultative Committee, ively in the future work of the CCMI, with a view of
one-third from the 10 new Member States, and the rest from raising awareness that any industrial development
policy needs to take account of the consumer
new sectors including textiles, services, shipbuilding and
perspective in order to be successful.”
automobiles. Delegates from the ECSC Consultative Com-
mittee ‘users’ group were slowly replaced by representatives Monique Goyens, Director General,
of ‘various interests’: a list of relevant organisations – like the BEUC – The European Consumer Organisation
European consumers’ body BEUC, for example – was drawn
up and they were invited to take part. This process con-
tinued in 2010.

Whereas the role of the ‘social partners’ – workers and man- Outside the European institutions, the CCMI was also an
agement – on the CCMI was self-evident from the outset, entirely new actor. But its ‘own initiative’ opinions on specific
and both sides had an existing commitment to dialogue, sectors began to arouse interest. The public hearings with
industry representatives, held regularly
while opinions were being drawn New CCMI sectors included shipbuilding
up, started to attract a wider audi-
ence. Little by little, the CCMI
won acceptance not because co-president Patrizio Pesci, Jacques
it was there, but because it Glorieux, Enrico Gibellieri, Joost
did good work. van Iersel, and Claude Rolin.

As it took in delegates The CCMI itself selects and

from a broader range examines important topics,
of sectors and other through study groups, typ-
interested bodies, the ically of six members and six
CCMI evolved. Coal and delegates, meeting twice to
steel became individual draft an opinion. The majority of
industries like the others, opinions now come from dele-
but the lessons learnt from gates’ initiatives. Although they
50 years of social dialogue are identified as co-rapporteurs,
were universally relevant. the rapporteurs rely on their expert-
ise, and it is this concrete knowledge
Despite its bumpy start, there is that is the CCMI’s unique selling point.
now an excellent relationship between
CCMI members and delegates, says Mr Van “Each time we ask for ideas we get at least 15 very
Iersel. “More and more EESC members want to be good ones, so we have to choose,” explains Mr Pegado Liz.
on the CCMI, because it’s very interesting and it’s dynamic, “We could do much more if we had more time.” The CCMI
while it focuses on economic progress.” also responds, through the EESC, to requests for advice from
the European Commission, Parliament and Council. He says

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

that the CCMI’s opinions are now “mature”, and well accepted
How it works both within the EU institutions and beyond.

The CCMI meets five times a year. Whereas EESC members Mr Glorieux believes the CCMI should be drawing up at least
are nominated and appointed by national governments and 10-12 opinions a year, to make the best use of its expertise.
the EU Council, delegates are more informally selected, so Furthermore, whereas only about 40-50 of the 108 members
their rights are different. The president and the rapporteurs of the ECSC Consultative Committee actively participated
of opinions must be EESC members, while the co-president in meetings, some 80 % of CCMI members and delegates
and co-rapporteurs come from the ranks of the delegates. are active. “That’s meaningful. It shows people feel very
Delegates do not take part in formal votes on opinions, but involved in what they are doing. We have a very proactive
hold an informal poll beforehand. way of working. That’s why I am confident for the future,”
he concludes.
Day-to-day decisions between meetings are taken by the
six-man bureau comprising president Jorge Pegado Liz,

Chapter 2
Policies to anticipate global The CCMI examined individual industries
The development of the Consulta- At the start of the 21st century,
tive Commission on Industrial as the CCMI began to develop
Change over the last 10 years is its expertise in individual indus-
a reflection of the evolution of trial sectors, it acquired a new
industry and services at both authority – able to assess the
European and global levels. desirability of regulation and
legislation on a case-by-case
The Treaty establishing the Euro- basis, linked to specific needs
pean Coal and Steel Community and conditions. Then in 2004,
was drafted in the early 1950s, but coinciding with Union enlarge-
by the end of the century reality had ment to 10 new countries, a Euro-
evolved. These two sectors had been pean Commission Communication
protected from the competitive envir- calling for a new-style industrial policy
onment, but when the Treaty expired they fostering structural change in an enlarged
had to open up to competition in another way. Europe vindicated the CCMI’s approach.
The policy of subsidising sectors that could not survive
on their own was abandoned. “A strong industrial base remains vitally important for
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

a successful European economy, to create jobs, boost

Whereas the ECSC represented a serious effort to put coal productivity and fuel innovation,” declared EU Enterprise
and steel production in common and to overcome nation- Commissioner Erkki Liikanen. “Only a few years ago such
alism, throughout the 20th century industrial policy in other a strong affirmation of industry’s role and of the role
sectors remained very nationalistic. In areas like automobiles of industrial policy would have been unthinkable. Indus-
and textiles, it was based on supporting national champions. trial policy was being written off as a thing of the past. We
Europe had to move towards a more open and modern therefore need to work with individual sectors to under-
industrial policy. stand how our policies affect them.”

Yet many of those who worked with both the ECSC and Thereafter, the CCMI began to develop good relations
the fledgling CCMI testify to reluctance among European with the Commission, especially in the areas of enterprise,
leaders at that time to tackle the issue. employment, internal market and research.
Human capital in first place The second axis is sectoral policies. Here, the CCMI found
that focusing on specific industries helped to draw in rele-
The CCMI’s role is to look to the future. Its mandate involves vant stakeholders, who wanted to have their say, and to
anticipating, pre-empting and analysing developments, create horizontal links between employers, trade unions and
so as to ensure positive, common approaches to the man- other groups organising around individual topics.
agement of industrial change from an economic, social,
territorial and environmental point of view. It promotes
coordination and coherence in European policy and action
throughout all 27 Member States, and aims to keep EU
industries competitive while at the same time ensuring
“I volunteered to become a member of CCMI because
developments are socially beneficial or at least acceptable. I wanted to contribute the point of view of the
It stresses the fundamental importance of human capital, European construction industry – Europe’s largest
and creating the conditions for industrial activities to flourish. industrial employer generating 10 % of GDP – to the
analysis of the past and the preparation of the future.
Mr Pegado Liz defines its three main functions as promoting FIEC, the recognised sectoral social partner on the
the principles of the EU’s founders through its opinions; employers’ side, is well equipped for this role. Via its
meeting the challenge of developments such as global- 33 national member federations in 27 countries, it
is fully representative of craftsmen, SMEs and large
isation, social networking and new working methods;
firms, active in all building and civil engineering
and anticipating and preparing for industrial change and
restructuring. He summarises this as: learning from the past,
proactive observation of the present, and anticipating the “The construction industry, with its qualified
future. workforce, is able to provide solutions for most of
the current and future global challenges related to
One strand of work is on cross-sectoral topics that affect energy saving, CO2 reduction, decent housing or
all sectors of industry, such as education and training. infrastructure for energy, drinking water, wastewater,
For example, the CCMI produced opinions on IT-supported and transport.

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

lifelong learning in 2006, and on matching skills to the needs
“In addition to providing a friendly atmosphere
of industry in 2010. Own initiative cross-cutting opinions
for lively discussions among colleagues, the CCMI
covered a wide range of issues including greenhouse gas has also been a good forum for introducing the
emissions in 2006, European environmental rules and global construction industry’s views, in particular to the
trade integration and outsourcing in 2007. reports on the ‘internationalisation of SMEs’ and
‘access of third country state-owned enterprises to
When the European Commission, Council, EU Presidency the EU procurement market’. For the future, I hope
or Parliament asks the EESC for advice on an industrial that the CCMI can spend 100 % of its efforts on the
policy issue, it is often the CCMI which draws up the draft, material issues ahead and 0 % on administrative and
structural issues.”
for approval by the full Committee. This was the case with
three opinions on the EU’s Globalisation Adjustment Fund,
Ulrich Paetzold, Director General,
in 2006, 2009 and 2011, for example, and on flexicurity and FIEC – The European Construction Industry Federation
restructuring, in 2009 (referred by the Swedish Presidency).

Furthermore, faced with the threat of cheap labour and Globalisation created the dynamic for companies to go
poor working conditions outside Europe undercutting and abroad or restructure. In 2006, the CCMI produced a key
destroying manufacturing jobs at home, managements and report assessing the sectoral impact of relocation. “To date,
workers began to identify a common ‘enemy’ in countries there has been no attempt by public or private institutions in
like China, and to understand the need to cooperate in con- Europe to undertake a comprehensive survey… dedicated
fronting the challenge of delocation. exclusively to the issue of relocation from a sectoral point of
view,” it found.

The new industrial battlefield “We were at the front of developments, and try to remain
so,” confirms rapporteur Mr Van Iersel. As technology and
The changes affecting European industry have been dra- research became increasingly important, the CCMI focused
matic. In Bilbao, in Spain, to take just one example, three- on ICT and services: sectors where Europe was lagging
quarters of jobs in steel and coal had disappeared by the end behind. “That’s the new battlefield, where we need to keep
of the 20th century, throwing thousands of people out of in front of China and India,” he adds. “We are more sophisti-
work: a process mirrored across the continent. cated than them. We say that economies must be sustained
by services, otherwise we will fall behind in five to 10 years.
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

The agricultural vehicle trade fair in Bologna

The strategy is well founded. We are working closely with the In an opinion on ‘Value and supply chain development’ in
European Commission and we are on the right track.” 2007, the CCMI warned of the emergence of “a host of eco-
nomic, industrial and social issues – including, for example,
Mr Glorieux agrees. Dealing with closure and delocation may outsourcing, employability, and re-skilling, product label-
seem negative, “but they exist”, he points out. “At the same ling and origin, [and] impact on the transport sector”, and
time, we want to keep the brains in Europe. We know that called for a new policy towards ‘IICs’ (initial and intermediate
China has its own limits, and they will still need us. There are companies).
a lot of new technologies based on coal, like carbon capture
and storage, for example, and Europe is active in these areas. In the EU, more than 85 % of firms are SMEs or micro-enter-
It’s not all about the past.” prises. There is a widespread belief that smaller companies
are the real technical and technological pioneers, and key to
job creation. “We are very strong advocates of SMEs, and that
Influencing the EU institutions is now very popular,” says Mr Van Iersel. “For example, in the
modern car, motors do not make the real difference. That is
In turn, the European Commission became more and seen in the electronics, design, and gadgets. The car industry
more attentive to the differences between sectors, and the is also a major client for textiles. Every vehicle has thousands
way workers needed to change their attitudes and skills. of parts, and they are not all mechanical.”
In the European Parliament, too, awareness of sectoral issues
expanded, as the impact of the economic crisis moved MEPs’
attention away from merely passing legislation.

Inevitably, extending the CCMI’s mandate led to a debate “In my opinion, a European industrial policy should
about what ‘industry’ covers, with the growing realisation involve:
that a long list of subjects affect industrial development,
including employment, social and structural policy, aid and • A major research effort focused on innovative
competition rules, research and technology, environmental sectors;

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

and sustainable development, energy policy and trade. • A policy of internal and public markets oriented
towards the emergence of European industrial
The CCMI also had to confront problems such as how to groups;
• A harmonised fiscal regime ensuring tax
approach overlapping sectors – concluding that some over-
equality between companies, whatever their
lapping was inevitable. “We talk more and more about value size;
chains, which are breaking through sectors and creating • The launch of large infrastructure and
a totally new picture,” explains Mr Van Iersel. “The interfaces development projects, especially in energy;
between sectors create new phenomena. In effect, you can’t • A fair and efficient education and training
speak any longer about simple sectors. Nowadays, living net- system in all Member States.”
works and production plants within large corporations are
closely connected with middle-sized and smaller companies Josly Piette, First President of the CCMI
in the supply chain. Value chains are strengthened by out-
sourcing and external suppliers.”

The second opinion, ‘The external dimension of European
Implementing the EU 2020 strategy industrial policy – is the EU’s trade policy really taking the
interests of European industry into account?’ called for
One of the CCMI’s current priorities is improving the eco- jointly agreed rules to enable companies to compete under
nomic, financial and social environment, battered by the fair conditions. Finally, the opinion on ‘Third country state-
economic crisis, within the framework of the EU 2020 owned enterprises in EU public procurement markets’ wel-
strategy. Because it has already focused for 10 years on comed the World Trade Organisation Agreement on Govern-
industrial policy, which is a more recent priority for the Euro- ment Procurement, but urged the EU to defend the interests
pean Commission, the CCMI has an especially important role of European companies in both internal and international
in its implementation. markets.

When the Commission launched the strategy, it invited “EU 2020 is very important for our industrial future,” insists
the EESC’s opinion on one of the seven flagship initiatives, Mr Van Iersel, who chairs the EESC’s EU 2020 Steering
focused on “An industrial policy for the globalisation era Committee. “We have 27 different industrial plans in the EU,
to improve the business environment, notably for SMEs, and so how can we create a level playing field? We need EU 2020
to support the development of a strong and sustainable to point these policies in the same direction.”
industrial base able to compete globally”. In May 2011, the
EESC adopted three different opinions. ‘An industrial policy The CCMI is trying to apply this principle to concrete cases.
for the globalised era – putting competitiveness and sustain- Every European country has its own defence policy, for
ability at centre stage’ proposed the streamlining of EU and example, leading to fragmentation, duplication and over-
bilateral coordination, and for the Council and Commission production and lack of interoperability in the defence
to draw up a series of priorities and time frames. industry.

National governments need to realise

that they can make more progress
together – and that applies to all
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

industrial sectors. Now, at last, with the

support of the CCMI, more Member
States are developing a budding

Looking forwards: the birth of the CCMI

Jorge Pegado Liz “The composition of the CCMI is very special.
CCMI president Half the participants are delegates, who
make all the difference, because they
“On this 10th anniversary, we are not are the direct representatives of the
looking at the past, although we have the stakeholders. They come from
lessons, and we use them,” says the cur- industry and are directly involved
rent CCMI president, Jorge Pegado Liz, in workplaces. This is our inher-
a former member of both the European itance from the European Coal
and Portuguese parliaments. and Steel Community Consul-
tative Committee, and the real
He is also a lawyer and expert on con- added value of the CCMI.”
sumer protection, with experience in dif-
ferent sectors including insurance, media Mr Pegado Liz points out that he
and town planning. “We want this to be the is the first CCMI president to come
moment to reflect on what we should do in from a professional rather than an
the future.” industrial background, and to represent
consumers. This symbolises the expansion of
He pays tribute to his predecessors, who as presidents the body to cover a wider range of topics, including
and co-presidents over the last decade have watched SMEs, research and development, environmental protec-
over the CCMI’s “heritage” and established its reputation. tion, and more. Furthermore, it has brought in a larger pro-

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

“We tried to continue in the same spirit as the Schuman portion of women: for the first time, a recent CCMI opinion
Declaration: adopting a ‘step-by-step’ approach to building had a female rapporteur and co-rapporteur.
“We also enlarged our notion of industry, for example to
The CCMI’s aims, he adds, are to encourage enterprises banking, creative work and publishing, although we con-
to expand and modernise, improve working conditions, tinue to look at heavy industries, like shipyards, coal mines
promote the rational use of natural resources and develop and steel.
equitable international trade.
“Little by little, as president, I have come to understand the
“But we don’t do general themes. In each opinion we real value of the CCMI, which is not very well known by many
approach a very concrete case or sector and its problems. EESC members,” he concludes. “I am very much in favour
We leave the theories to academics. And we try to get of keeping the CCMI in the Committee and reinforcing its
as large a consensus as possible between different groups. powers. I think we should be proud of it.”

After 10 years, says Mr Pegado Liz, the CCMI is at a turning European Commission,” he recalls. “They realised it could
point. “That is why we have been asking EU institutions, stake- not compete with the challenge from Japanese and other
holders and Member States to share with us their experi- manufacturers, so they asked us to make a study to see if
ence and advise us on the best way of proceeding in the the industry could be saved.” Up to that time, the CCMI had
future. My objective, for the rest of my mandate, is to con- only focused on car manufacturing. “Two-wheelers were a
vince my colleagues that the CCMI is necessary and useful, vital sector, providing employment in many Member States
and should be supported in doing even better work.” including Italy, Poland and Romania,” points out Mr Pesci.
“But it had big problems.

”The outcome was a double success. The

Patrizio Pesci CCMI finally approved the opinion on
CCMI co-president ‘Industrial change and prospects
for the motorcycle industry in
“When I arrived at the CCMI for the first Europe’ in February 2010, putting
time I noticed they made very general forward concrete recommen-
opinions, which didn’t have a strong dations for reviving the sector
impact on the European Commission,” through training, restructuring
recalls Patrizio Pesci. and partnerships.

A former EESC member, he has been But in advance of that, in

a CCMI delegate since 2008, with more November 2009, a hearing took
than 25 years’ experience working with the place at the international trade fair
Italian employers’ association Confindustria in Milan – the most important motor-
in Brussels. “Through my contacts in industry, cycle trade event in Europe.
I started to promote initiatives in individual sectors
that needed support.” “All the actors were there: parts manufacturers, trade
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

unions, international and trade press… when you target

Mr Pesci believes he is the only CCMI delegate nomin- such an important event you get the real protagonists,”
ated and sponsored by three associations: the European explains Mr Pesci. “It was so successful that the following
Confederation of Woodworking Industries, Orgalime (Euro- year the organisers invited me to come back and explain the
pean Engineering Industries Association), and Acembike opinion in front of the same audience. It is very important
(European Motorbike Industry). to have follow-up. It’s no use adopting opinions and leaving
them in a drawer.”
His experience demonstrates the growing success of the
CCMI in addressing the problems facing specific industries As a consequence, the CCMI initiated similar action in other
in crisis, especially when timed to coincide with publication sectors, including agricultural and construction vehicles, and
of European Commission proposals or Communications. woodworking.

“I remember that at the beginning of the 1990s, Europe’s In April 2011, an opinion on ‘Agricultural machinery and
motorcycle sector was completely abandoned by the construction equipment’ followed a hearing at the tractor
trade fair in Bologna in November 2010. Even Chinese “Cooperation is vital at all levels: economic, social, industrial;
manufacturers were there, and it became clear that they between trade unions, employers, and consumers. They
were making copies of European models and selling them must work together – that is the only way Europe can sur-
in Europe. “We realised that import controls were not vive and grow.
­adequate,” explains Mr Pesci.
“The creation of the CCMI opened up new avenues: for
“I am very proud of these initiatives,” he concludes. “It is the first time, an EESC working group was responsible for
important to focus on specific areas – to meet the actors drawing up opinions as part of a direct structured dialogue
and investigate the problems. I come from a practical back- between EESC members and representatives of sectors and
ground, and I want the CCMI to be practical too.” interest groups affected by industrial change. This allowed
the problems to be examined in all their complexity – not
only the economic outcome but also the social and
environmental impact – and solutions to be
Göke Daniel Frerichs incorporated in the decision-making pro-
EESC president when the CCMI cess of the EU,” he explains.
was created
“The main point was not only to
“The core of the concept of this new concentrate on steel and coal, but
working body is to continue the great on the whole industrial landscape.
tradition of the economic and social Were we successful? Yes, abso-
partners’ involvement in the building lutely! That is reflected in the pres-
of Europe,” said the then EESC presi- ence of delegates from the paper
dent Göke Frerichs in 2002, at the industry, car manufacturing, fish-
launch of the CCMI. eries, food, ports and shipping…
a broad range of sectors.”
As the members of the Consultative Com-

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

mittee gathered to commemorate the end Mr Frerichs is convinced that the CCMI
of the Coal and Steel Community, Mr Frerichs has a strong and positive influence on EU
assured them that as delegates in the newly formed industrial policy formation, although there are
CCMI, they would continue to be involved in European pol- still problems to overcome.
icy-making. “It was a great moment for European unity,” he
remembers. One significant obstacle is persistent rivalry between
Member States, particularly as EU enlargement has brought
After 21 years as an EESC member, the former businessman in new national industries. He points to a number of sectors,
and German Bundestag parliamentarian has as much experi- including shipbuilding and port services, where interests
ence of that principle of European cooperation as anybody. conflict.
Just as the EU was founded in the wake of the Second World
War, he says, the CCMI is also a symbol of peace. “We must cooperate more, in order to face the challenge
from countries like China and the USA,” he insists. “A ­European
industrial policy is not yet in place.

“The CCMI’s main mission should be to foster cooperation, Cazier colliery fire in Marcinelle, Belgium, in 1956, and to all
but we have not yet done enough to get this problem under other workers who had lost their lives in Europe’s industries.
As well as supporting research, the ESCS Treaty contained
But Mr Frerichs remains optimistic. One of the CCMI’s main powerful social provisions offering protection and training
successes has been to foster partnership between workers for workers, and hundreds of thousands of new homes, he
and employers. “We need a social market economy that recalls. “The people who wrote the Treaty had a vision – it
takes full account of social aspects,” he explains. “Industrial was not just about creating a single market.”
policy is a question of destiny for Europe. We don’t want to
just buy. We need to produce, in order to create and keep The mandate of the new CCMI was to take this legacy
jobs.” and bring it up to date, and he believes it has succeeded
in making the transition while preserving half a century of
experience. “We have already produced over 100 opinions,
and they are all related to real issues. But it has
Enrico Gibellieri not been an easy task.
first co-president of the CCMI
“The new CCMI was not immedi-
With a 40-year career as a chemical engin- ately accepted. Its delegates did
eer and expert in steel manufacture at not have the same status as EESC
the Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), members and the CCMI still has
Italy’s main industrial materials research only five plenary sessions a year.
centre, coupled with a voluntary com- The most important innovation
mitment to the Italian, European and was that we introduced the sec-
international trade union movements, toral dimension, with delegates
Enrico Gibellieri has never lost his close from both trade unions and
links with the shop floor. “I had the chance employers.
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

to combine the technical and social aspects

of my work in a way that few people can do,” “Previously, within the main Euro-
he points out. pean industrial sectors, the EESC was
perceived as a body working on general
A member of the ECSC Consultative Committee since the and transversal issues and policies,” he continues.
1980s, and its last president in 2002, he worked with former “That is why our point of view was considered to be very
European Commission president Romano Prodi to close the different. In the beginning this was seen as a problem, not
coal and steel treaty and pave the way for a new evolution an opportunity.
in EU industrial policy-making. He remains a member of the
six-man CCMI bureau. But we made important progress and stabilised our struc-
ture. Now our role is widely appreciated, both inside and
At the final session of the ECSC Consultative Committee in outside the EESC, and the CCMI’s own work made this big
Luxembourg in June 2002, Mr Gibellieri paid tribute to the change possible.”
262 miners – 136 of them Italian – who died in the Bois du
Looking back at the European Coal and Steel Community, Jacques Glorieux
Mr Gibellieri recalls that Europe has enjoyed over 60 years of
former CCMI co-president
peace. “Why does that matter? The people who signed that
Treaty knew that there were only 20 years between the First
and Second World Wars; and that weapons and energy were
among the main reasons countries fought. Robert Schu-
man’s idea of putting these two vital sectors together was
simple but effective.”

He recalls speaking to Romano Prodi after the European

Commission issued its first Communication on industrial
competitiveness in December 2002. “The very day of the
presentation of the Communication in Brussels, he said
to me: ‘Are you satisfied that we are starting to talk about
industrial policy again?’ Now, with Europe 2020, it is at the
top of the EU agenda.”

Mr Gibellieri draws comparisons between the current eco-

nomic crisis, and the crisis in the coal and steel industry in
the 1970s and 80s. “That was managed in a very different
way. Decisions were taken at EU level to reduce the over-
production of steel. But now each Member State has its own Jacques Glorieux is one of the two remaining CCMI dele-
recovery plan, often in conflict with others. gates who also sat on the ECSC Consultative Committee. In
the 1990s, EU coal consumption overtook production, and
“We have pushed to give importance to manufacturing sec- the 15 Member States were increasing coal imports from
tors because it is good from both the economic and social countries like Poland.

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

point of view, although naturally we need research and sub-
stantial innovation to reduce their environmental impact. As a Belgian coal trader he found himself in the committee’s
But we cannot live only on financial transactions. importers and consumers (users) group, predecessor of the
CCMI’s various interests group.
“We should be proud to be connected to the very first Euro-
pean organisation, and at the same time have the capacity Mr Glorieux was CCMI co-president from 2004-06, and is
to act now with an eye to the future. Following the thinking coordinator of his group. Besides the heterogeneous nature
of Enrico Berlinguer, General Secretary of the PCI (Italian of the membership itself, ranging from SMEs to consumers
Communist Party) in the 1980s, we should be, at one and and NGOs, there is also a difference of approach between
the same time, both conservative and revolutionary. We are members and delegates.
the inheritors of this legacy, and after 10 years it is time for
renewed reflection on whether we are succeeding in ful- “Since delegates are only concerned with CCMI activities,
filling our mandate.” they are probably more dedicated to it, whereas members
are involved in the CCMI on top of their work for other

sections of the EESC. Some are so busy it’s hard to get them Mr Glorieux believes the CCMI does have influence. “We are
around the table.” Thus, one of his tasks is to bring people working on that, and we have had positive reactions. We are
together. more flexible than other EU bodies, and use less budget. We
have grown more efficient in the last five years, but that’s
The effort has been more than worth it, he believes. “Struc- because we had to fight to achieve recognition. Now that
tural dialogue is brilliant: it’s a constructive way to work we have it, it’s helping us to have closer contact with people.
together. We don’t agree on positions from time to time, but I am confident we will continue in that direction.”
debate takes place in a positive manner. The ECSC was the
beginning of Europe, and when it ended, everyone would
have been sad to lose this form of dialogue. Joost van Iersel
former CCMI president
“What I appreciate is the opportunity to talk to people
socially, outside the meeting rooms. Networking is very
important. People get to know each other better, and that
has created a very good spirit.” It took time, especially within
the various interests group, for people to find their feet.

“We had to develop our professionalism. But I think we have

gained good acceptance and recognition. We try to look
ahead and see what problems are coming up, and ensure
topics are relevant to the mandate of the CCMI,” explains Mr
Glorieux. It is more efficient to produce an opinion when a
decision is about to be taken, and the European Commis-
sion has come to recognise the CCMI as a valuable source
of knowledge.
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

He was part of a delegation that visited China in 2004. “We

had fantastic contact with these people and were very well
received,” he remembers. In return, a Chinese delegation
came to Europe, to study in particular the way regions are
regenerated after mine closures. “We had a difficult start. There was resistance towards the
CCMI within the EESC, because the groups saw it as a threat.”
“We have plenty still to achieve,” admits Mr Glorieux, including
further strengthening links with the European Commission Joost van Iersel was a Christian Democrat MP in the Dutch
and Parliament, and monitoring follow-up of opinions. But Parliament until 1994. “I was very interested in industrial
he sees the CCMI as “the human side” of the EU – “that may policy, and by coincidence my first EESC opinion was on this
be one of our strengths”. For example, it takes account of the topic, although I was not a member of the CCMI at the time,”
social aspects of closures and delocation. And as big enter- he says. He drew up the CCMI’s first real policy statement,
prises are dismantled, it is ever more important to generate on ‘Industrial change: current situation and prospects’, as a
jobs in SMEs.
‘visiting card’ for the new body, because “nobody knew what “In the new, very dynamic world, all layers of manage-
it was going to do”. ment and employees are dependent on each other.
They necessarily need to improve conditions for working
Taking his inspiration from the innovative Swedish former together. Our point of view is that change is the rule of the
CEO of Volvo, Pehr Gyllenhammar, Mr Van Iersel set out an day. Therefore, legislation should be focused on change.
agenda for dealing with industrial change. “Until 10 years
ago, the European Commission was not interested in indus- “It is paramount to keep a healthy future for industry, ser-
trial policy. The emphasis was on monetary union and vices and value chains. We try to sustain the Commission and
macroeconomic policies. At the time there was not much Council in taking the right direction, based on a continuous
interest in sectoral change or value chains. Originally, the cycle of change. That’s the only way for Europe to survive in
Commission was primarily a legislative body,” he explains. a world that’s very competitive on production, technology,
Rules were generally applied across sectors, regardless skills and quality.
of different conditions.
“The CCMI remains a little bit of a strange animal in Brussels,
But with the advent of the 21st century, change became a but strange in a very positive way.”
dominant issue anyway. “We started our work gradually. We
got very few official requests from the Commission. It was a
permanent, up-hill fight,” he recalls.

In 2006, Mr Van Iersel became president, and kept up the

momentum of reform. The CCMI became increasingly active
in launching its own initiatives. “We identified issues, and our
strategy was to fill the policy gaps. And the reputation of the
CCMI changed,” he notes.

“The members like the work because it is very concrete. It’s

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

not abstract. It speaks about developments on the shop
floor, in factories and laboratories and the world at large.”

The CCMI is more “businesslike” than its parent body, and

looks less political, claims Mr Van Iersel. “We work consensu-
ally. And at industrial-sector level, as in companies, getting
agreement between management and workers is the best
way. They both share an interest in issues like R&D and devel-
opment, earning capacity, and skills and training. I am far
from the rather outmoded views on the opposition between
workers and employers.

Chapter 3
Weighing the benefits after a decade Focusing on the ‘Metalworking industry’ in 2010, the CCMI
drew attention to the 400 000 SMEs that made up the sector.
The CCMI’s approach is “forward-looking, integrated and “Because of this structure, the European Commission was
dynamic”, aiming to bring different actors together to pro- not very attentive,” agrees Mr Van Iersel. “But we got it to
mote sustainable industrial change without damage to any set up a high-level group on the metal industry. It was very
part of society. much appreciated by ORGALIME (the European Engineering
Industries Association).” The Commission also launched an
Its philosophy is summed up in a 2005 opinion on ‘Restruc- action plan to promote metalworking and the metal articles
turing and employment’: “The Commission firmly believes industries.
that restructuring must not be synonymous with social
decline and a loss of economic substance. On the contrary,
restructuring can underpin economic and social progress
– but only if such measures are correctly anticipated…”
“The most important aspect of the CCMI’s development
Over the last decade, the CCMI has fulfilled a useful role: over the last 10 years is its growing recognition as
raising awareness of the need to preserve a sound industrial a serious partner in the development of industrial
base in Europe, and to anticipate change so that it is less policy. Its greatest success has been to reaffirm the
importance of a sectoral approach to industrial policy,
painful for individuals and communities. Indeed, some say
demonstrated by its work in the automobile sector,
the difference between restructuring and industrial change for instance – to name merely the most emblematic
is that whereas the first is an unstoppable train that ‘runs you example because of its importance.
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

over’, the second can be planned and managed, for example

through social dialogue. “In addition, enlargement in 2004 allowed for an
exchange of experience between the old and new
In particular, the CCMI has succeeded in highlighting import- Member States on industrial restructuring.
ant sectors that were being neglected by the European
Commission, says Mr Gibellieri, such as the metalworking “As president, I recall in particular the excellent relations
with the former members of the ECSC Consultative
industry, which was “not a priority” for the EU. “We helped
Committee during the negotiations to bring them into
it to emerge,” he says. In 2008, a CCMI opinion on ‘Competi- the EESC and when the CCMI completed its mission
tiveness of the metals industries’ pointed out that this sector of integrating them into the EESC’s overall industrial
played an important role in the value chain of much Euro- policy activities.”
pean manufacturing, and urged investment in innovation
while, at the same time, taking care of environmental and Josly Piette, First President of the CCMI
social impacts.
A new industrial era Kronospan in the Czech Republic

The changing industrial framework gen-

erated crisis in traditional industries
like shipbuilding, where the end of
national subsidies led to the clos-
ure of many companies. The era
of support for failing sectors was
over, and the CCMI was looking
to bring about a new era, more
open to the rest of the world.
In a 2010 opinion on the ‘Euro-
pean shipbuilding industry’ it
proposed the use of European
Investment Bank funds to pro-
mote green technologies and
clean transport in the sector. This
was supplemented in 2011 by an
additional opinion on ‘State aid to

The CCMI has turned its attention to a

wide range of other sectors, including ser-
vices, cement, household appliances, retail, and
glass and ceramics.

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

In 2010, it published an opinion on the printing industry, One industry that caught Patrizio Pesci’s attention was
followed up by the ‘Publishing on the Move’ conference the ‘European woodworking and furniture sector’. A 2011
in November 2011. The creative industries came under opinion was coupled with a hearing in Prague. Austrian
scrutiny at a public hearing in Valencia, Spain, followed by company Kronospan is the largest manufacturer of wood
an opinion. In December 2011, it was the turn of banking, panels in the world, employing 11 000 people, with several
with a public hearing, a study examining ‘What changes sites in Eastern Europe. The European Parliament’s ‘Club
for Europe’s banking sector with the new financial rules?’ du Bois’, made up of MEPs and industry representatives,
and an opinion in April 2012. The future of book publishing welcomed the opinion and promised to use it as a base
is the latest subject on the CCMI agenda. for action. Now, plans are in hand for a major event, also
involving European Industry Commissioner Antonio Tajani,
Aviation is another important and topical sector where the to be held at the EESC in October 2012, in preparation for
CCMI can have influence. A public hearing on air transport an EU Communication on the woodworking industry by the
took place in April 2012. end of the year.

“We are looking at new sectors: IT, electrical cars, chemical Having an impact
industries…” says Mr Glorieux. “There are some sectors that
people believe are just for fun, like motorcycles. But Europe An evaluation of the impact of 25 ‘own-initiative’ opinions
has a good position, and we need to keep these industries from 2008 to 2011 clearly demonstrated how the European
in Europe. We cannot retain all the heavy industry, but as Commission and other bodies pay attention to the CCMI’s
far as new technologies are concerned, they are of great recommendations in pursuing their own political policy-
importance.” making. For example, the 2007 opinion on the ‘Evolution of
the automotive sector’ was the basis for the Commission’s
In April, the CCMI completed a new opinion on coopera- document on dealing with change in the car industry, and
tives, and will hold a conference in Cyprus to coincide with preparations for the mid-term review of the CARS 21 pro-
the 2012 United Nations International Year of Cooperatives. gramme, aimed at saving Europe’s crucial motor industry,
Mr Pegado Liz points out that cooperatives have been hit in 2009.
less hard by the crisis, and the social economy may offer
worthwhile solutions for the future. It is also an example of In 2008, an opinion on ‘Developments in the retail industry
how the CCMI is trying to broaden the traditional relation- and the impact on suppliers and consumers’ had a wide
ship between workers and employers in a positive way. impact, taken up by many EU departments and sectoral
stakeholders, including Euratex, the European Apparel and
Textile Organisation.
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

Aviation is an important sector

In all, the review showed that the European
Commission used three opinions to The CCMI likes to ‘go local’
prepare its own policy documents,
four contributed to national or
local programmes or pilot pro- It concluded that there was no
jects, 18 were accompanied agreed definition of relocation
by hearings, conferences or and no comparable data,
seminars, and six generated making it impossible to pre-
media attention. sent a true picture across
Although the EESC’s Single
Market, Production and So the CCMI commis-
Consumption section (INT) sioned experts to carry
also prepares opinions on out statistical research,
industrial policy, the CCMI which did much to alert
presents its findings in a more the European Commission to
dynamic and proactive way, the gravity of the situation. It
focusing always on the drive for attracted widespread attention.
change. As one observer puts it:
“INT deals more with rules, whereas In 2008, the CCMI held three public
the CCMI deals with dynamics.” hearings in Ljubljana, Budapest and Sofia,
to examine economic development in the
10 new Member States, resulting in the publication
The way to do it of a ‘Comparison of industrial transformation models’. In
the same year, it published findings on ‘The future of the
The variety of ways in which the CCMI works is one of its textile, clothing and footwear sectors in Europe’, following

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

strengths. On some occasions it makes use of studies car- on from an opinion on the textile and clothing industry
ried out by outside experts, with a short paper drawing in 2004. This important sector had suffered a damaging
conclusions. decline in Europe due partly to the import of cheap clothing
from the Far East and elsewhere. The report offered real pro-
“That puts us in a strong position, because we are basing our spects for change and renewal.
opinions on research. This is a very good method, and helps
the EESC to reinforce its position in the EU institutions,” says Almost all opinions are preceded by hearings or seminars
Mr Van Iersel. where stakeholders are invited to give their views. Numerous
meetings have taken place in Brussels and in towns and
In 2005, for example, the CCMI published an information cities around the EU. Study group meetings on specific sec-
report on the EU’s new chemicals legislation known by its tors also take place in Member States. The CCMI dedicates
acronym REACH. In September 2006, an important report much of its time to following up opinions, through round
focused on relocation which was, at that time, as Mr Piette tables and other events, often in partnership with the
pointed out, “a highly charged, often emotive issue”. EU Presidency country.

CCMI materials are translated into all EU languages and dis- “As regards industrial restructuring,” recalls Mr Piette, “the
tributed through sectoral organisations, where they not only CCMI, early in its existence, established relations with China
demonstrate the benefits of discussion and compromise, which paved the way for a large delegation to undertake an
but also have an educational role. intensive and fruitful study visit focusing on steel making, fol-
lowed the next year by the arrival of a Chinese delegation in
Exchange of ideas
Indeed, bilateral cooperation got under way in July 2002,
Because the EESC and CCMI are less formal bodies, they can and the visit took place in September-October 2004, travel-
do things the European Commission cannot. People feel ling to Beijing, Liaoning Province and Shanghai. The 12-man
more at ease and are more ready to discuss their ideas and CCMI delegation, led by Mr Piette, studied how China’s cen-
exchange views freely and spontaneously. tralised economic planning responded to the challenges of

For example, within the framework of its ‘Going local’ follow-

up to the EU 2020 strategy, the CCMI took part in two
fact-finding missions: to Warsaw, Poland in June 2011 and
Madrid, Spain in October 2011. In Warsaw, activities centred
on a one-and-a-half day round table, to gather the views of
local industrial policy stakeholders.

The resulting report examined in detail the main features of

the Polish economy and industry, covering issues like social
dialogue, regional growth, foreign investment, R&D and
innovation, energy policy, labour productivity and SMEs,
with succinct conclusions. “The EU 2020 strategy is some-
times seen as an alien paper coming from ‘Brussels’ and not
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

enough as a joint endeavour of the EU,” it warned.

In Spain, the CCMI found a country “particularly hard hit by

the fallout from the economic crisis”. A questionnaire was
sent out in advance of a second round table to assess the
reform process. The debate covered recent developments
in economic and industrial policy, plus foreign investment,
access to markets, SMEs, infrastructure and human capital.
“All stakeholders … especially businesses, have proved their
full support for European values and interests and their com-
mitment to the goals of competitiveness and growth for
Spanish industry, in line with the objectives of the EU 2020
strategy,” reported the CCMI delegation. The CCMI studied restructuring in China
industrial restructuring and modernisation, environmental of the Belgian trade union federation the CSC and a member
protection and social welfare. It concluded that both sides of the CCMI bureau. “Tomorrow’s industries will be greener
were committed to implementing change in a socially and more low-carbon. It is more essential than ever to pre-
acceptable way. pare for this change. The CCMI must be able to contribute
through identifying the paths to take towards a better future
– a future that will enable generations to come to feel fully
Delivering a better future and collectively European.”

The CCMI was also quick to appreciate the environmental Mr Pegado Liz, re-emphasising the crucial role of the
impact of industry, and this aspect is covered in many of its CCMI, adds that some operational improvements could be
opinions. “The history of the CCMI coincides with that of the made, to enable it to respond even better to the expect-
European project,” points out Claude Rolin, Secretary-General ations of both EU institutions and stakeholders and part-
ners throughout industry. “But we intend to do that in a very
participative way, starting from very concrete examples and
a very pragmatic, not theoretical approach.”

A decade ago, industry seemed to be a thing of the past.

But throughout the economic crisis, countries with a more
solid industrial base, like Germany, have suffered less, while
those with service-based economies have struggled. The
lesson suggests that the EU should not neglect the indus-
try’s importance in sustaining well-being in society. Now, as
it applies that lesson, the CCMI is more important than ever
in helping to transform Europe into a dynamic, modern and
high-skilled industrial society.

The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

Photo credits

Page 1
Viscount Davignon

Pages 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22-23

European Economic and Social Committee

Pages 11, 13, 14, 16

Kate Holman

CCMI/001 – Annual statistics on steel 2003-2009 – 26/03/2003 CCMI/024 – T he effects of international agreements to reduce greenhouse
CCMI/002 – Industrial change: current situation and prospects – 24/09/2003 gas emissions on the industrial change processes in Europe
CCMI/005 – E uropean defence – Industrial and market issues – 24/09/2003 – 20/04/2006
CCMI/006 – E conomic diversification in the acceding countries – the role CCMI/025 – T he role of technology parks in the industrial transformation
of SMEs and social economy enterprises – 31/03/2004 of the new EU Member States – 14/12/2005
CCMI/007 – T he repercussions of trade policy on industrial change, with CCMI/027 – R
 estructuring and employment – 14/12/2005
special reference to the steel sector – 28/04/2004 CCMI/028 – R
 isks and problems associated with the supply of raw materials
CCMI/008 – O
 n the road to sustainable production – Progress in to European industry – 05/07/2006
implementing integrated pollution prevention and control CCMI/029 – S ustainable development and industrial change – 14/09/2006
– 10/12/2003 CCMI/030 – A
 sectoral survey of relocation – 14/09/2006
CCMI/009 – T he future of the textiles and clothing sector in the enlarged CCMI/031 – T erritorial governance of industrial change – 13/09/2006
EU – 30/06/2004 CCMI/032 – M
 odern industrial policy – a sectoral approach 13/12/2006
CCMI/010 – T he implications of proposed chemicals legislation (REACH) CCMI/034 – T he contribution of IT-supported lifelong learning to European
– 10/02/2005 competitiveness, industrial change and social capital
CCMI/011 – L eaderSHIP 2015 – Defining the Future of the European development – 13/09/2006
Shipbuilding and Repair Industry – 30/06/2004 CCMI/035 – S ervices and European manufacturing industries – 13/09/2006
CCMI/012 – Industrial change and state aid in the iron and steel sector CCMI/036 – E stablishing the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund
– 27/10/2004 – 13/09/2006
CCMI/013 – Industrial change and economic, social and territorial cohesion CCMI/037 – V
 alue and supply chain trends in a European and global
– 30/06/2004 context – 25/04/2007
CCMI/014 – S cope and effects of company relocations – 14/07/2005 CCMI/038 – Innovation: Impact on industrial change and the role of EIB
CCMI/015 – S cience and technology, the key to Europe’s future – 11/07/2007
– 15/12/2004 CCMI/039 – T he development of the European chemical industry
The CCMI: a decade of industrial change in Europe

CCMI/017 – F ostering structural change: an industrial policy for an enlarged – 26/09/2007

Europe – 15/12/2004 CCMI/040 – D
 evelopments in the European cement industry – 13/12/2007
CCMI/018 – T he Perspectives of European Coal and Steel Research CCMI/041 – T he development of the European textile and footwear
– 13/07/2005 industry – 13/02/2008
CCMI/019 – S ocial dialogue and employee participation – 29/09/2005 CCMI/042 – S implification of the regulatory framework applicable to the
CCMI/020 – Industrial change in the mechanical engineering sector industry sub-sector of machines – 26/09/2007
– 11/05/2005 CCMI/043 – G
 lobal trade integration and outsourcing – 26/09/2007
CCMI/021 – Industrial change in the EU and China – lessons learnt from the CCMI/044 – Impact of the territoriality of tax law on industrial change
cooperation between the EESC and its Chinese counterpart – 13/12/2007
– 09/02/2005 CCMI/045 – Impact of European environmental rules on industrial change
CCMI/023 – T he management of industrial change in cross-border regions – 12/12/2007
following EU enlargement – 21/04/2006 CCMI/046 – A
 Competitive Automotive Regulatory Framework for the
21st Century – 13/12/2007

CCMI/047 – T he European aeronautics industry – 03/12/2008

CCMI/048 – E uropean space policy – 13/02/2008 CCMI/074 – U
 nlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries
CCMI/049 – Impact of private equity, hedge and sovereign wealth-funds – 21/10/2010
on industrial change – 05/11/2009 CCMI/075 – C
 hanges and prospects for the metalworking industries
CCMI/050 – D
 evelopments in the retail industry – 03/12/2008 – 21/10/2010
CCMI/051 – P
 erspectives of European Coal and Steel Research – 13/02/2008 CCMI/076 – C
 hanges and prospects for the textile services sub-sector
CCMI/052 – Impact of the ongoing development of energy markets in Europe – 14/07/2010
on industrial value chains in Europe – 18/09/2008 CCMI/077 – T he employment impact of industrial change caused by
CCMI/053 – S tructural and conceptual change as a prerequisite for ecological, energy and climate-related challenges – 15/07/2010
a globally competitive knowledge and research-based CCMI/078 – A
 ccess to secondary raw materials – 16/02/2011
European industrial construct – 22/10/2008 CCMI/079 – E U crisis exit strategies and industrial change – 13/07/2011
CCMI/054 – T he restructuring and evolution of the household appliance CCMI/080 – A
 gricultural machinery, construction and handling equipment
industry – 22/10/2008 – 04/05/2011
CCMI/055 – Industrial change, territorial development and corporate CCMI/081 – T he external dimension of European industrial policy
responsibility – 03/12/2008 – 04/05/2011
CCMI/056 – N
 on-energy mining industry in Europe – 09/07/2008 CCMI/082 – T hird country state-owned enterprises in EU public
CCMI/057 – C
 ompetitiveness of the metals industries – 03/12/2008 procurement markets – 04/05/2011
CCMI/058 – Innovative and sustainable forest-based industries – 03/12/2008 CCMI/083 – A
 n industrial policy for the globalised era – 04/05/2011
CCMI/059 – T he components and downstream markets of the automotive CCMI/084 – C
 ouncil Regulation on State aid to facilitate the closure
sector – 16/07/2009 of uncompetitive coal mines – 08/12/2010
CCMI/060 – T he raw materials initiative – 13/05/2009 CCMI/085 – S tate aid to shipbuilding – 13/07/2011
CCMI/062 – Impact of the climate and energy package on selected CCMI/086 – T he effect of the financial and economic crisis on the
European Union industries – 16/07/2009 distribution of labour force among the productive sectors,
CCMI/063 – E uropean Globalisation Adjustment Fund – 24/03/2009 with a special regard to SMEs – 04/05/2011
CCMI/064 – H
 ow to support SMEs in adapting to global market changes CCMI/087 – T he processing and exploitation, for economic and
– 16/12/2009 environmental purposes, of the industrial and mining waste
CCMI/065 – T he impact of the global crisis on the main European deposits from EU – 26/10/2011
manufacturing and services sectors – 30/09/2009 CCMI/088 – O
 pportunities and challenges for a more competitive European
CCMI/066 – H
 ow flexicurity could be used in the restructuring connected woodworking and furniture sector – 26/10/2011
to global development – 01/10/2009 CCMI/089 – T he perspectives for sustainable employment in rail, rolling
CCMI/067 – R
 esponding to the crisis in the European automotive industry stock and infra producers – 27/10/2011
– 13/05/2009 CCMI/090 – Industrial change to build sustainable Energy Intensive
CCMI/068 – M
 atching skills to the needs of industry and evolving services Industries – 08/12/2011
– 17/02/2010 CCMI/091 – T ackling the challenges in commodity markets and
CCMI/069 – E uropean shipbuilding industry – 29/04/2010 on raw materials – 14/07/2011
CCMI/070 – Industrial change and prospects for the motorcycle industry CCMI/092 – P
 ublishing ‘on the move’ – 25/04/2012
in Europe – 18/03/2010 CCMI/093 – C
 ooperatives and restructuring – 25/04/2012
CCMI/071 – E uropean aviation relief programme – 17/12/2009 CCMI/096 – E uropean Globalisation Adjustment Fund – 21/09/2011
CCMI/072 – E uropean technology, industrial and science parks – 14/07/2010 CCMI/097 – E uropean Globalisation Adjustment Fund (2014-2020)
CCMI/073 – T owards an EU policy to rationalise the web offset and – 22/02/2012
rotogravure printing industry in Europe – 14/07/2010 CCMI/098 – C
 reative Europe Programme – 28/03/2012
This brochure, published by the Consultative Commission on Industrial Change (CCMI) of the European Economic and Social
Committee (EESC), on the occasion of the CCMI’s 10th anniversary, is a contribution to the reflection on current developments
and future trends in European industry. It also helps to improve working methods aimed at anticipating changes in European
industry, and to respond to the social, economic and environmental challenges it faces.

The EESC is on-line:
Anna Maria Darmanin
President’s Comment

For more information: Rue Belliard/Belliardstraat 99 Published by: 1040 Bruxelles/Brussel “Visits and Publications” Unit
Tel. +32 25469389 BELGIQUE/BELGIË EESC-2012-26-EN
Fax +32 25469938
© European Union, 2012
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

ISBN 978-92-830-1877-3

REG.NO. BE - BXL - 27