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EMMANUEL TETE DARKO ID#: 18963BMA26807

Global Supply Chain Management: (Supplier Development Process)

ATLANTIC INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY HONOLULU, HAWAII August, 2012

Table of Contents

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Chapter 1: Foreword....3-4 Chapter 2: Supplier Development Process .4-7 Chapter 3: Benefits of Development Supplier.....7 Chapter 4: Supplier Development Challenges...7- 9 Chapter 5: Solution To The Challenges9-11 Chapter 6: Details of Supplier Development ....................................11 6.1: Requirement of Supplier Development.....11-12 Chapter 8: Conclusion....12-13 Reference.13-14

CHAPTER 1: FOREWORD Firms are confronted with fierce market competition and invariably suffer from repeated decline profit. Obviously most firms are operating in exceedingly turbulent environment with pioneering and first mover advantage diminishing at an amazing velocity. Consumers are increasingly becoming impatient and are demanding soaring quality products. Coupled with this, there is less strategy to support supplier development in most firms. The evidence being that, there are no formal partnership in place for lots of firms and virtually all key items are dual sourced for supply security; and in most cases suppliers meetings only occur when there is a failure and technical staff of most firms have virtually no confidence for suppliers in opening up with technological thoughts, non existence policy and contract, The inevitable of this is significant high cost, not meeting customers priorities and becoming market follower. In view of this, a way has now been unlocked using outsourcing; collaboration among subcontractors could improve firms efficiency levels and inject competitiveness in commoditys prices. Nonetheless, to attain entrepreneurial collaboration effectively, dealers and subcontractors need to tackle definite concerns relative to their business segment, unique turf and operational performance. Differentiating amid supplier and subcontractor is imperative. With the earlier being the source of goods/services at marketplace to a widespread customers in huge amount, and the second a provider of customized goods /services usually not obtainable at marketplace to solitary client in miniature volumes. Regarding to the concept under discussions, the issues wrap suppliers as well as subcontractors; the two vocabularies are arbitrarily applied. The high point of this paper, will be to offer: a supplier development course for firms, effective supply chain management; identify how supplier development relationship could be improved and evaluated; to evaluate firms sourcing policy options; what supplier development involve; enhancing commerce arrangement with supplier and exchanging enterprise; pre-requisites to supplier development; supplier development challenges and solution proposals; all with the view to reaping quantifiable but tangible deliverables for firms. These among other issues will be critically analyzed in the below sections. Supplier development is a wide theory meant to strengthen efficiencies of subcontracting businesses with the view to acquiring dexterity and competence necessary to meet the preferences of clientele firms and further to improve their knowhow to beat expense. Competitive edge is gained via enhancement of suppliers performance and avoidance of traps associated with it. As firms contract out components and services and attend to core competencies, they progressively more anticipate suppliers to offer inventive and superior goods in a timely fashion at competitive rate. If a supplier is unable to meet the buyers needs, the later could be confronted with choices notably: outsourcing and producing in-house, adjusting to relative effective supplier, or supporting to upgrade current dealers capacity. These methods could do. The selection many a time is determined by price, volume and type of items. With not too important items, or less strategic goods, the expense of turning to a fresh supplier could be negligible and changing could be in order. But if nonperformance supplier offers a novel commodity or know-how (containing sustainably
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long-term edge to the purchaser), the purchaser could protect this probable edge and convey the job in-house via acquisition of the supplier. Indeed in the phase of these scenarios the prudent alternative could be supplier development. The focal point of this paper will be on: foreword, supply development process; benefits and challenges of supply development; combating the identified challenges and conclusion. This literature will also present interactive outcomes and examples from practitioners. Moreover there were review of websites and best practice papers and other studies. CHAPTER 2: SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT PROCESS According to Miroslav Kucera, (2011). Supplier development is a process when crossfunctional team from company and supplier works together intensively for a period on targeted improvement projects. It can include but not limited to teaching the suppliers employees lean principles, redesigning work stations, reorganizing process flow, establishing problem solving groups, reducing buffers through just in time systems, initiating steady flow of thoughts for improvement from all staff. Supplier development therefore could be described as actions that procuring enterprise starts to advance suppliers efficiency and core competences in an attempt to satisfy buyers procurement need. Supplier development demands composite commitment of resource, information sharing, and performance appraisal yardstick. This lucidly presents an ordeal for the parties involved. There should be sufficient demonstration to induce both parties. For example is procuring entity swayed to believe that committing sparse resource in a supplier useful? Or are supplier representatives certain that embracing guidelines together with support from clientele serves their interest? Success will not be automatic even if supplier and buyer jointly concur that supplier development is invaluable. Though tedious supplier development could be crucial keystone in arranging properly integrated supply chain. The typical company in manufacturing is most likely to spend not less than fifty percent of its net returns on procured inputs. in the midst of firms increasing the level of outsourced job across businesses; this proportion could surge. Accordingly, suppliers will most likely possess superior impact on value, expenditure, know-how and delivering of buyers products. The effects of supplier exploits on purchasers base line underscore the essentials of optimizing supply-chain performance. As a result, one could contend that sustainable improvement of supplier performance could be attained with: pinpointing along the supply chain where wealth could be created; strategically situating the purchaser to conform to wealth creation; executing supplier chain management mix to optimize performance. Considering purchasing and supply as a source of competitive edge and re-align their purchasing and supply strategy to their core business strategy. Businesses with flourishing supplier-development curriculum propose concentrating on less diffificult-to-fix supplier hitches aid construct drive. This is undoubtedly. However, it is superlative to sight supplier development to be sustainable course that will be center
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for comprehensive delivering sequence. The primary stride, as a result, is to effectively execute supplier-development agenda. Interacting with executives of Diaby Ghana Limited, Aryton Drugs Ghana Limited and appraisal intellectual materials, it will be prudent to start by unfolding a process chart that most enterprises instinctively use. Findings reveal most businesses are able to identify suppliers needing improvement; reasonably a small number of firms entirely triumph in supplier-improvement attempts. Process Chart Recognition of Key Products Supplier development is not a must for all Firms. Those sourcing from superlative sources due to efficient supply arrangements and sourcing choices. Otherwise their procurement might constitute a percentage to expenditure and trade, that spending in suppliers might not be tactically or economically justified. Managers must therefore examine their condition and decide if supplier development is necessary, and, if so, which procured products necessitate the needed consideration. Contracting firms present job to subcontractors, and this helps to wrap up contracts where there is enduring contracts, to warranty convinced financial continuity. If such firms need suppliers to satisfy conditions to the utmost potential degree, then supporting them in their development will be a good call. Subcontractors needs need to be appraised and solutions proposed. Business level decision-making steering body must evaluate comparative planned significance of products bought by the firm to create a mix of critical deliverables critical for accomplishment in a targeted commerce segment. Such evaluation forms a segment of firms overall corporate-level strategy, including personnel from departments affected by sourcing solutions. Following categorization of products into non-essential supplies, problem supplies, leverage supplies, as well as critical supplies; the critical supplies group could be branded imperatively strategic. Recognizing Main Suppliers Evaluations of main suppliers performance to enable firms decide on which supplier possess the needed potential to support. During evaluation, deliverables in quality, delivery time expense, know-how, cycle-time among others are considered and suppliers whose performance is mediocre based on the variables listed above are selected for development. In a Censeo Consulting Groups study of leading supplier diversity programs, by Raj Sharma and Russ Witt (2008, Pg. 2), it was established, companies use a variety of strategies for identifying and qualifying diverse suppliers and this encompasses attending trade shows, sponsoring supplier diversity events, advertising and conducting project-specific searches. http://www.censeoconsulting.com/media/pnc/1/media.11.pdf . After selection, there should be a concerted effort on the part of the procurer and the supplier to jointly establish the need of the supplier as well as the need-gratifying efforts. Resources of both parties need to be harmonized for development. This is expected to
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enable the procurer to meet its deliverables with regards to quality, delivery time expense, know-how, cycle-time. The supplier development plan should be jointly executed and monitored and experiences shared by a joint team; this will stimulate the supplier since it can easily sight potential benefit to be derived from such business arrangement.

Formation of Hybrid Departmental Team Development of in-house joint-functional team enjoins them to deal with the process and such consensus indicates a concerted front to the supplier. The in-house teams responsibility is to communicate consistently and clearly the needs of the procurer to the supplier. There should be in-house cleansing and dedication in order to elicit the needed response from supplier. Deciding on Suppliers to Develop Using clear, measurable, time-bounding specific and attainable deliverables to select prospective suppliers for development with the view to building their capacity to be more proficient in meeting the needs of the buyer. Suppliers whose relationship will profit the buyer should be selected and the process should be regarded as two-way process due to its coalition nature. Engaging Supplier Executives Procurers in-house hybrid departmental team advances the suppliers executives with the view to determining some essentials to supply-chain development. Notably: premeditated configuration, benchmark and specialization. Premeditated configuration necessitates purchasing and supply configuration as well as in-house know-how alignment that centers on both parties needs during the process. According to a guide on appraisal and performance monitoring of suppliers by CIPS, (2006, Pg. 3, 8) buyers and suppliers should, as appropriate, jointly measure combined performance towards joint goals, and that there are many contractual relationships with suppliers where it is important to agree joint goals and jointly measure performance against these goals; this requires sharing and transparency. http://www.pennwood.org.uk/Level%20Four/L403/Supplier%20Appraisal%20%28CIPS %29.pdf. Benchmarking demands expense consciousness, reliability and involvement of joint supply-chain development team from both parties. Engaging suppliers top executives with prudent commercial portfolio for development kick start a specialized character which strengthens the affiliation, promote communication, offer specialized capability, and build confidence. Recognize Potential Opportunities Supply-chain executives need to review all indentified potential business opportunies relative to practicality, resource, time frame, and potential net-worth of investment. Specify Development Pact
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Beneficiaries of the supply-chain development must fashion out an agreeable and unambiguous metrics for establishing accomplishment. Variables like degree of excellence attained, cycle-time, new know-how, expense saved among others could be considered based on needs of parties involved. There should be establishment of specific high points and time limit for improvements likewise responsibilities of all, timely and mode of scarce resources allocation. Once these are blatantly underlined the project can commerce. Appraise and Re-Strategize Constant review meeting to discuss supply-chain activities; where there have been shortfall with respect to targets, the bases for that should be understood and parties brainstorm for remedial measures. Where targets were met, there is still the need to identify the bases for that and strengthen it. Where there is the need to re shape deliverables set due to gains or otherwise parties should not hesitate. This period demands clear communication stretching from goals via resource to accomplishments CHAPTER 3: BENEFITS OF SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT According to Sherry R. Gordon, (2008, Pg. 3), when suppliers are viewed as an extension of the customers enterprise, ideally their importance to the business can be viewed less as cost centers and more as partners with the potential to add value to the business. Buyers will be able to reach exponential improved fulfillment in entire expense, excellence, deliverance performance, commodity novelty, as well as turn-over. Supplier development optimizes supplier efficiencies in core business activities; it serves as a catalyst in raising the image of supply-chain management in firms and should be employed by all. Supply-chain development could impact positively on quality, expense, expertise, and efficiencies. A solid supplier development will offer buyers sustainable competitive advantage and long term business strategy it is in view of this that Cheverton, Peter (2008, Pg. 171-172) surmised that buyers eager to see a faster flow of new products might help suppliers with the financial investment by providing people, giving guarantees of business, of offering themselves for pilot trials. In return they will expect some form of special arrangement, perhaps exclusivity, and the customer will let you very close to them, only provided you agree not to supply their competitors. On the part of suppliers, their proficiencies in new skills, enhance their performance levels and create expense savings that profit both themselves and their clientele. Intriguingly, it enables the supplier to developing its supply management System and above all the supplier is able to provide innovative: product, process, technology and durable benefit awaits buyers as well as maintaining flexibility in meeting changing market demands. According to Benton, W. C., McHenry, Linda F.(2010, Pg. 36) as competitive forces increase, project owners expect high-quality projects on time completion, increased service, and decreased cost. Supply chain management are the increased use of technology and the concept of continuous improvement.

CHAPTER 4: CHALLENGES IN SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT As said by Harvard Business Review, (2011, Pg. 3-4), a well intentioned individual action or demand aimed at making a business greener can create a long string of unanticipated consequences that collectively dwarf the benefits. The mounting pressure to conduct business in a sustainable fashion comes from various stakeholders and most corporations respond in a reactive, piecemeal way. Such actions can, when you factor in the unintended consequences, end up raising financial, social, or environmental costs and lead to supply chains that are not well sustainable. Fall out of interactions with some staff from the purchasing departments of Aryton Drugs Ghana limited and Diaby Ghana Limited assert to supply-chain development working effectively in some instances; despite the fact that this process functions effectively some times, the production manager of Aryton Drug Ghana Limited reports increased contentment in areas of total expense, excellence, deliverance performance, produce novelty, and turn over, whereas Diaby Ghana Limiteds Chief Executive reported that supplier development did not yield expected gratification irrespective of investment made in the process. This is because some challenges were encountered during the implementation of the blueprint. This according to the Chief Executive encompasses pinpointing core projects, clearly defining the specifics of the contract and weakness in monitoring mechanism and inability to the team to respond quickly to emerging rough edges. Low commitment level to implementation process and in some instances consented propositions might not be implemented per plan due to low commitment levels, low level of expertise to appreciate the issues better, from suppliers and buyers. A clear case in point is where Toyota staff reiterated in Challenges of Supplier Development in South Africa;why we do supplier development is not clearly understood. http://www.gibs.co.za/SiteResources/documents/Toyota%20presentation.pdf . In engaging suppliers top executives, a procurers team need undoubtedly define prospective incentives for the supplier if not; suppliers commitment level could be suspect to the success of the process, skeptical to advantages of the development. Imperatively, any missing link coupled with poor count back has the potential to disrupt all inherent dividends of supply-chain development. Captivatingly, a few suppliers lack the capability for supply-chain development. Aside this, one staunch point is that supplier- buyer Interface obstacle could emerge in inter managerial confidence, configuring business cultures, and unproductive communication of prospective advantage. Building communal confidence in supply-chain development is a difficult test, since some suppliers feel unenthusiastic in making strategic business information available for partners in the supply-chain process; the need to share insightful and classified information could complicate the indisposition. Vague or threatening legal concerns and

less effective communication links have the potential to hinder the confidence formation needed for supplier-chain success. Weak Alignment of Organizational Cultures could also impair the development relationship. Sporadically, conditions could vary and a previous successful supplierdevelopment loom may be worthless. Adjustment in supply chains or factory setting, or hazy prospect that less considers shifting environment, may unconstructively impinge on supplier development. Suppliers occasionally disinclined to acknowledge aid like supplier improvement. Possibly out of arrogance or cannot sight the importance in enhancing excellence; or conceivably cannot identify there is a difficulty. According to Murillo Xavier (2010, Pg. 5). Lack of trust, an adversarial mindset, inefficient communication, and poor affinity are just some of the challenges that restrict them from unlocking all the potential of their business partnerships. As said by Supplement to the Annual Statistical Report on United Nations Procurement, (2010, Pg. 14). issues arose over the quality of some supplies procured locally, due to the time pressure and the high volumes being requested and local suppliers were often overly optimistic about delivery dates, causing frequent stock-outs on the packing lines and also supply lead times (time from the supplier receiving an order to the customer receiving the item) were underestimated on some occasions. https://www.ungm.org/Publications/Documents/ASR_2010_supplement.pdf. CHAPTER 5: SOLUTION PROPOSALTO THE CHALLENGES Communicating performance position-to avoid this, Production Manager of Aryton Drugs Ghana Limited proposes that suppliers performance should be communicated to them so that they can understand their performance position as against others. Performance on quality, delivery, technological improvement, flexibility in meeting changing market demands, and price competitiveness could be presented pictorially to include all buyers suppliers; the essence is to make share to all so that suppliers can strategize better. It is anticipated that when suppliers have the benefits of their competitors performance they will appreciate the prospective supplier development. But, in event that performance continues to be undesirable buyers tone down the orders they solicit from suppliers. Assign an Ombudsman-to deal with the human resource concerns that disassociate itself with expense, excellence, or delivery. Suppliers are likely to be honest to ombudsmen since they are passively indulged in contract talks. If a supplier engages an investigator with an issue created by weak communication otherwise disagreement between the two, the ombudsman will be better placed to articulate suppliers perspective on doubtful concerns to buyers representatives whereas uphold secrecy as much as probable. Eventually, suppliers confidence for

ombudsmen increases and become extremely keen to offer information in all areas irrespective of how strategic they might be. Churning out classified information could be rare with first time suppliers particularly in innovative know-how. Consequently, a considerable number of suppliers demand non disclosure agreements and even exceptional accord (that is the providing unique product exclusive to the buying firm), particularly when trading with scientifically superior commodities so as to give to the buyers competitive edge. Therefore buyers should consider confidentiality as part of its supplier-chain development and urge them segregate buyers manufactured goods from their other businesses to avoid buyers competing firms from considering the manufacturing of such parts. Buyers should first insist on a signed contract, since the only system to get suppliers confidence is during printed and ratified terms. Buyers should aggressively try to have purchasing beliefs, which highlights supportive rapport with important suppliers and fine distinct purchasing goals further than buying price. Buyers need to consider suppliers as strategic partners and build a fantastic rapport with them and in doing so; there should be explicit roles that enjoin all partners. Thus prominent use of purchase orders with the view to toning down official contract. There is the need for the supplier to clearly understand the needs of buyers since the intent is to collaborate for a long period of time. Buyer on the other hand could rigorously audit processes suppliers employ to attain results to indentify perceived errors for redress. If procurers for instance aim at above industry bench marks, then supply-chain development will be key. There should not be ambiguities whatsoever in communicating the needs of the procurer to the supplier. Determining metrics and deadlines which offer a reason for follow-ups surmounting barriers in a composite manner should be regarded as crucial if the deliverables are to be accomplished. Failure on the part of the buyer to lucidly communicate the inherent value of supplychain development to the supplier will limit the latters full commitment to the process. To persuade suppliers to commit in lean periods, it behooves on buyers to convince suppliers to build their offerings into procurers offerings and this will stimulate suppliers to be fully committed. A buyer could strongly contend that if a supplier matches its outlook, it will maintain to be a buyers supplier. There should be systematic procedure to establish and improve extraordinary relationship between suppliers and buyers, where supplier performance improvement could be facilitated; it would be a wonderful idea. It should be stressed that this is herculean task. The intent need to be transforming suppliers for them to continuously advance as connected segment of their competence. It is essential to assert that such achievement keeps long and is most likely to be attained when one has tolerant correlation executives who are sufficiently resolute to make follow-up calls to suppliers and recurrently impose robust plan of supplier assessment and performance response.
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It is against this backdrop that Handfield, Robert B. (2006, Pg. 269), assert that disputes can be systematically avoided by consistently practicing good relationship skills and that some disagreements can be nipped in the bud by holding frequent and frank discussions and by regular, open communications. CHAPTER 6: DETAILS OF SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT The United Nations (UN) has an interest in building supplier capacity to supply the UN. The success of the procurement function is highly dependent upon the ability and quality of the suppliers involved in the procurement process. https://www.ungm.org/info/SupplierDevelopment.aspx. There is no universally acceptable method to supplier development, supply-chain executives need to use their style that suits the process. Varied approaches are needed to varied business environment. Supply-chain improvement includes supplier skills and siding it with buying firms preferences; the reverse is equally imperative. Supplier development goal could stretch from mere fine-tuning human resource points toward assessing critical business offerings, reducing turnover time, ensuring excellence, ecological improvement. In supplier development, the buyer could improve the suppliers business proposition in the areas of facilitating appraisal and re-construction of business approach; this indeed has the capability of strategically forming a durable and closer rapport between the two. Conversely the buyer could as well re-align its business level strategy to the supplier, irrespective of the option chosen; it will entail lots of resource commitment. Parties involved in this process need to demonstrate their tenacity to accomplish the targets of the process. Executives with visionary leadership empowered to take decisions from parties, silky judgment, and dedication should be engaged, and sustainability plan- in event that when there is change in staffing the project does not suffer will all be crucial in an attempt to accomplish the goal of the development. Steps to shrink product expense could be employed via critical value evaluation and management without surrendering business value. In Industrial Marketing Management (2006) suppliers competence, and its ability to provide external point of view are of utmost importance; trust and reliability, openness and mutual support between the buying firm and the supplier and goal congruence are all seen as important for the working relationship. https://edit.ethz.ch/scm/publications/Academic_publications/Wagner_Hoegl_2006_Invol ving_suppliers_in_product_development.pdf .

6.1 REQUIREMENT OF SUPPLIER DEVELOPMENT The buying firm has the responsibility to review its business objectives to properly contextualize its needs. The buyer requires explicit appreciation of the suppliers business standings and its ramifications on development. It should be surmised that this process demands important practical buying skills, contract dexterity, development management skills, fantastic people skills; these skills are in accomplishing supplier development process.
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A considerable number of suppliers operate in a perfect market, thus may serve multiple buyers; in view of this other clients might feel rejected due to their competitors frantic attempts to develop the supplier. This could be a fertile ground for some suppliers to reject being developed as a result of their strategic position in the market space. This necessitates buyer firm possessing executives with clout, not only that but also carefully crafted inducement could be used to bait suppliers to commit to the process as well as communicating shared-benefits in an unambiguous manner. What some suppliers might not recognize is that supplier development could in many cases benefit all suppliers clients including those competing in one way or the other with the main buyer involved in the development process; and more significantly is improving business contacts with all other client this should be motivating enough to commit the supplier to the development process. According to Water, C. D. J (2007, Pg. 110), supply chain management demands a business revolution in which executives endeavor to lessen ambiguities and utilize prospect via the creative use of suppliers and clients by assessing who best supplies value and then leverage that knowledge or potential during the entire supplier development. CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION The assumption of this write-up is that all parties in supplier development are induced and that will conditioned the results of supplier development. Also, it is to provide some guidelines for enterprises wanting to develop their suppliers. The write-up admits variation in businesses resources, marketplace and business environment-including legal and cultural elements in different part of the globe. Consequently the model could not work effectively in all environments and there is the need for firms to adapt the method that will suit their case. This paper does not assert resolving supply-chain development predicament of ventures. It will be objectionable to abide with the propositions contended above, thinking that all snag in supply-chain development have been dealt with. Rationale for developing supply-chain comprise: suppliers offering novel products and processes; providing pioneering know-how; a long; and for the buying firm stretched benefit; uphold elasticity turbulent business environment. The strategic significance of supplier improvement is, after a supplier is unable to meet the buyers requirements, the buyer possibly will: manufacture it in-house; source from a further competent supplier; or aid developing present suppliers competence. Analyzing, and understanding fully ones business goals and preferences is fundamental to supplier development, sight should also not be lost on when executives would end supplier-development especially when all clearly defined deliverables have been met. Irrespective of the supplier development methodology one employs, procurement and supply executive need to guarantee proven and quantifiable outcome that could only results in trade profit. This process, for that reason, becomes momentous occasion to increase the profile of supply-procurement executive of firms. Supplier development is
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arguably among the most powerful approaches, but in an attempt to become excellent global supplier Manager; and improving supply-chain development should be the focal point towards independent. Supplier development involves permanent, committed resources and it organizes the path in support of novel tactical partnership prospects. Potential benefits in supply-chain development, more often than not is disregarded, this key business development should not in any moment be a whole sale matter since it defies commercial logic to improve suppliers with less potential business prospect with non-strategic products. The barriers of supplier development include pitiable response loop, complacency, over ambitious development goals, client integrity, delusion concerning procurement ability, ambiguity and disloyalty, absence of united front, skewed supplies and performance measurement tools, cover up issues, scheme tiredness, infinite resource, blame games, secrecy matters, Legal concerns, unevenness authority-relation. One significant issue which will impact on supplier development is the role of information technology on supplier development, this is owing to the manner information technology is swiftly revolutionizing business methodology between suppliers and buyers. According to David Jacoby, (2009, Pg. 9, 236) the dynamics of making supply meet demand changed dramatically in recent years. Thanks to technology- specifically the ability of retailers to capture point-of-sale data-customers began to dictate which product should move through the chain and when it should start its journey; the internet and low-cost computing have spawned many creative variations on auctions. Finally, it has become critical to comprehend customers and suppliers as blood of our business, and we cannot produce a single piece of product without suppliers delivering appropriately. For firms to stay highly competitive there is the need to improve their processes and cooperate with suppliers. We must as managers, bear in mind when suppliers are developed it has a long lasting impact not only our business but rather all businesses down chain are equally developed for the communal benefit.

REFERENCE 1. Benton, W. C., McHenry, Linda F. (2010) Construction Purchasing & Supply Chain Management. McGraw-Hill. 2. Cheverton, Peter (2008). Key Account Management: Tools and Techniques for Achieving Profitable Key Supplier Status.4th Edition. Kogan Page 3. CIPS, (2006). Guide on Appraisal And Performance Monitoring of Suppliers David Jacoby, (2009) Guide to Supply Chain Management: How Getting it Right Boosts Corporate Performance. 1st Edition. Bloomberg Press. 4. Handfield, Robert B. (2006). Supply Market Intelligence: A Managerial Handbook for Building Sourcing Strategies. Auerbach Publications
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5. Harvard Business Review, (2011). Harvard Business Review on Managing


Supply Chains. 1st Edition Harvard Business Review Press. 6. Miroslav Kucera, (2011). Supplier Development: A Way to Lean Suppliers. Kindle Edition. Amazon Digital Services, Inc. 7. Murillo Xavier (2010). Strategic Sourcing - Suppliers Are From Mars, Customers Are From Venus. 2nd Edition. lulu.com 8. Raj Sharma, Russ Witt, (2008) Contract Management: Driving Value Through Supplier Diversity. National Contract Management Association. 9. Sherry R. Gordon, (2008). Supplier Evaluation And Performance Excellence: A Guide to Meaningful Metrics And Successful Results. J. Ross Publishing 10. The Annual Statistical Report on United Nations Procurement, (2010) 11. Water, C. D. J., (2007). Global Logistics: New Directions in Supply Chain Management. 5th Edition. Kogan Page Ltd. 12. http://www.censeoconsulting.com/media/pnc/1/media.11.pdf 13. http://www.gibs.co.za/SiteResources/documents/Toyota%20presentation.pdf 14. http://www.pennwood.org.uk/Level%20Four/L403/Supplier%20Appraisal%20%28 CIPS%29.pdf 15. https://edit.ethz.ch/scm/publications/Academic_publications/Wagner_Hoegl_200 6_Involving_suppliers_in_product_development.pdf 16. https://www.ungm.org/info/SupplierDevelopment.aspx 17. https://www.ungm.org/Publications/Documents/ASR_2010_supplement.pdf

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