Technical Manual 1
Design of Monopole Bases
By Daniel Horn, P.E.
Copyright 2004 CConcepts, Inc.
Contents
Introduction 
1 
Organization 
1 
Historical Perspective 
2 
AISC Method For Building Columns 
7 
Flexible Base Plate 
8 
Example 1.1 
9 
Stiff Plate Approach 
12 
Example 1.2 
14 
Example 1.3 
17 
Grouted Base Plates
19
Process Equipment Design Method 
19 
Example 2.1 
26 
Lutz Modification 
29 
Example 2.2 
31 
Complete Square Base Plate – Load On Diagonal 
33 
Modification for Clipped Corners 
36 
Example 2.3 
38 
Example 2.4 
43 
Complete Square Base Plate – Load Parallel 
47 
Example 2.4 
50 
Complete Circular Base Plate Method 
54 
Example 2.5 
58 
Ungrouted Base Plates
63
Determining Bolt Forces 
63 
Example 3.1 
64 
Example 3.2 
66 
Example 3.3 
68 
Determining Plate Stresses 
71 
Introduction 
71 
Effective Width Based Upon Plate Theory 
71 
Process Equipment Methods 
72 
Example 4.1 
74 
Base Plates With Gussets 
77 
Alternate Method 1 
79 
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Contents • iii
Alternate Method 2 
79 
Alternate Method 3 
79 
Method of Slices 
80 
Example 4.2 
83 
Alternate Method 1 – Square Base Plates 
87 
Alternate Method 2 – Circular Base Plates 
87 
Boulos Method (New York Dept. of Transportation) 
87 
Diagonal Loading Case 
90 
Parallel Loading Case 
91 
Owens Method (New York Dept. of Transportation) 
94 
ASCE Manual 72 (Proposed 2003 Revision) 
95 
Example 4.3 
96 
Anchor Bolts
99
Material Grades 
99 
Anchorage 
101 
Example 4.1 
103 
Recommendations
105
Determining Base Plate Forces 
105 
Grouted Base Plates 
105 
Ungrouted Base Plates 
105 
Determining Base Plate Stresses 
105 
Construction Details 
107 
Bibliography
References
108
108
Glossary of Terms 
111 
Index 
113 
iv • Contents
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction
Organization
The following chapters will cover the following topics:
1. An historical perspective including the AISC approach to base plate design for building columns.
2. Classical methods for determining bolt forces and concrete stresses for grouted base plates.
3. Classical methods for determining bolt forces for ungrouted base plates.
4. Evaluation of various methods currently being used to determine base plate bending stresses for plain and stiffened plates
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 1
Historical Perspective
Monopoles have become increasingly popular for use in the telecommunication industry. The advantages include architectural attractiveness and a minimal use of land. Poles are of two general types, tapered polygonal poles and stepped pipe poles.
The tapered polygonal pole shown in Fig. 11, is custom manufactured to exact diameters required for the design. Each section is joined using telescoping lap joints.
Fig. 1 1
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 2
Pipe poles are made from large diameter pipe sections and joined by external or internal flange connections as shown in Fig. 12.
Fig. 1 2
While some poles may be directly buried into the earth, the most common method of attaching the pole to the foundation is with a base plate.
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 3
Base plates can be square with clustered anchor bolts as shown in Fig. 13 when overturning moments are relatively light.
Fig. 1 3
The clear space below the leveling nut is not limited by the TIA222 Standard; however, the ASCE Manual (1) suggests limiting the distance to two bolt diameters. AASHTO (2) limits this distance to one bolt diameter. AASHTO also recommends that the minimum base plate thickness be equal to the bolt diameter.
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 4
Base plates can also be polygonal or circular to accommodate a larger number of bolts. The plate may need to have gusset plates (stiffeners) in order to transfer forces due to axial and bending moment to the pole. A typical example is shown in Fig. 14.
Fig. 1 4
Poles have been used in the power transmision field since the 1960’s. Prior to that, poles were used almost exclusively for flags (3,4) and for highway structures (2) . In recent years, poles have become popular for both electric transmission towers and for telecommunication structures.
There is currently no industry standard for the design of pole base plates. Some state highway departments (New York) have developed their own methods, but no national standard exists. As such, the designer is left to arrive at appropriate methods based upon classical structural mechanics. While some testing has been done on smaller pole base plates used in highway construction (usually poles between 10 and 20 inches in diameter), no testing has been done on larger diameter pole base plates such as used in the telecommunication industry (poles 36 to 72 inches in diameter). Therefore, such design techniques may or may not be appropriate. Recent finite element studies (5,6,7) have indicated that current design practices used by pole manufacturers may be underdesigned by 20 to 30%.
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 5
Although monopole failures are a relatively rare occurrence, a number of recent pole failures (see Fig. 15) have increased interest in manufacturer’s design and manufacturing techniques.
Fig. 1 5
The purpose of this report is to make available the various design techniques currently being used in the industry in the hope that more reliable methods of design may be developed in the future.
To begin, let us examine the traditional methods that have been developed for designing building columns subject to axial loads and moment.
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 6
AISC Method For Building Columns
Moment resisting base plates for building columns are covered in neither the AISC Specification nor the Manual of Steel Construction. Engineers must therefore refer to textbooks or technical papers for design methods although not all texts cover this topic.
Working stress methods for analyzing moment resistant base plate can be found in engineering texts (8,9,10,11,12) . DeWolf (13) and Thambiratnam (14) compared methods of designing building columns to test data.
The AISC method for designing axially loaded base plates defines the critical section as being at .95 times the depth of the structural members for shapes of rectangular crosssection such as wide flanges and tubes. The critical section for pipe is defined at a location equal to .80 times the diameter of the pipe.
Two different approaches have been taken to determine the distribution of forces on the base plate, a flexible plate approach and a stiff plate approach.
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 7
Flexible Base Plate
Relatively flexible base plates are incapable of maintaining a linear strain distribution and the assumption is made that the compression force is centered beneath the compression flange of the column.
Fig. 1 6 Flexible base plate force distribution
The following basic equations (B=plate width) define the static forces as shown in Fig 16.
T + P = C =
f c AB
2
T =
f
c
=
PD
M −
2
2
P
)
(
T
+
AB
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 8
Example 1.1
Design a base plate for an axial load of 60 kips and a moment of 480 inkips. Fy for the plate and anchor bolts is 36 ksi and f’c is 3 ksi. The structural member is an 8inch wide flange and the base plate is 14x14. The bolts are 1.5” from the edge.
Fig. 1 7
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 9
The thickness of the plate is determined by checking both the compression and tension sides. The critical section is at
= 6 0 9
.
in
kip
−
in
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 10
The critical width on the tension side is defined by AISC as shown in Fig 18.
Fig 18
Therefore the tension side controls.
ki ps
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 11
Stiff Plate Approach
Thicker, stiffer, base plates are capable of approaching a linear strain distribution and the base plate is assumed to behave in a manner similar to reinforced concrete columns (8) .
fc
Fig 1 9 Stiff base plate force distribution
The following basic equations define the static forces as shown in Fig 19.
where B=width of the base plate.
P + T = C = f AB 2
c
T = −
M
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 12
Defining
P
f
c
=
TA
A n
s
N
2
A
− +
f
T
+ =
2
TA B
2 A n
s
N
2
− A +
f
)
A
3
+ K A
1
2
+ K A + K
2
3
= 0
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 13
Example 1.2
Design the same plate of Example 1.1 using the stiff approach and assuming 1 ¼” diameter bolts.
Solving for A by trial,
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 14
The thickness of the plate is determined by checking both the compression and tension sides. The critical section is at
The critical width on the tension side is defined by AISC as shown in Fig 110.
Fig 110
14"
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 15
M pl
=
10 25
.
×
3 2
.
−
1 5
.
=
1 7
.
(
3 2
.
−
1 5
.
)
=
17 43
.
in
−
kips
>
. in side clearanace use
1 5
in
in
≤
1 2 5
.
in
Therefore the compression side controls.
1 5
.
in
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 16
Example 1.3
Redesign Example 1.2 for an 8” pipe column. A pipe would have the critical section defined as
Fig 111
14"
The analysis for bolt forces and concrete stress are identical to the wide flange base plate, however the distance to the critical section is now
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 17
Checking the tension side
M pl
=
.
10 25
×
(
3 . 8
−
1 . 5
)
=
23 . 58
in
−
kips
.
3 8
b eff
t pl
− 
1 . 5 = 
2 . 3 
> 
. in side clearance use . in 1 5 1 5 

= 
1 . 5 + 
2 . 3 
= 
3 . 8 
in 

= 
6
×
2 3 5 8
.
3 . 8
×
.
75 × 36

= 
1 . 1 7 
in 
≤ 
1 . 4 6 in 
Therefore the compression side controls.
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Introduction • 18
Grouted Base Plates
Process Equipment Design Method
Procedures for designing circular base plates with large openings (approaching the inner diameter of the shell) have been used for over 75 years. The most common use has been for chimneys and stacks used in the process equipment field. The method most often used was based upon the work
of Taylor, Thompson, and Smulski
Brownell and Young (16) , Troitsky (17) , Megyesy (18) , and Bednard (19) . The method was developed for circular base plates; however the method can be conservatively used for polygonal plates and square base plates by using the diameter across the flats of the plate. The method is based upon reinforced concrete column theory using the Working Stress Design Method (WSD). Note that all of the grouted base plate techniques that follow assume that the eccentricity is sufficiently large enough to produce tension on a portion of the base plate.
The following description of the method is taken from
Fig. 2 1
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 19
Defining the modular ratio as
n =
E
^{s}
E
c
Fig. 21 is a sketch representing the loading condition for the anchor bolts of the monopole base plate. The method assumes that the bolt circle is in the center of the bearing plate, which is typically the case when the shell of the pole runs through the base plate. The wind load and the dead weight load of the pole result in a tensile load on the upwind anchor bolts and a compressive load on the downwind anchor bolts. Denoting f _{c} as the compressive stress in the concrete, the induced compressive stress in the steel bolts is given by
f
s
= n f
c
Considering the stress to be directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, a straight line may be drawn from f _{s} to nf _{c} as shown in Fig. 21. The neutral axis is located at a distance kd from the downwind side of the bearing plate and at a distance (d – kd) from the upwind side. This assumption is valid only if the base plate can be considered rigid.
By similar triangles
therefore
k =
f s 
nf c 

( d − kd ) 
= kd 

nf c 
= 
1 

nf 
c + 
f s 
1 + 
)
The area of bolts can be expressed in terms of an equivalent ring of steel of thickness t having the same total crosssectional area of steel as shown in Fig. 22. This assumption would only be valid if there are a sufficient number of bolts uniformly spaced around the bolt circle. Polygonal plates can be assumed to be a circular ring equal to the flat diameter of the polygon.
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 20
Fig. 2 2
The location of the neutral axis from Fig. 22 can be defined in terms of the angle α.
And
cos 
α = 
α = 
2
k
A differential element of the steel ring is measured by dθ. The area of this element is
dA
s
= t rdθ
s
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 21
where
r = d 2
The distance from the neutral axis to this differential element is
r(cosα + cos θ)
Denoting the maximum steel stress as f _{s} , the stress in the element is
The force in the element is therefore
dF
t
=
′ =
f
s
f
s
(
r cos
α +
cos
θ
)
r
(
1 +
cos
α
)
dA f
s
s
′ =
f t r
s
s
(
cos
α +
cos
θ
)
(
1 +
cos
α
)
The total tensile force is therefore
F
t
=
=
2
∫ π
α
dF
t
=
2
f t r
s
s
∫ π
α
(
cos
α +
cos
θ
)
d θ
(
1 +
cos
α
)
f t r
s
s
2
(
1 +
cos
α
)
((
π−α
)
cos
α +
sin
α
)
= f t rC
s
s
t
where
C
=
t
2
(
1 +
cos
α
)
((
π−α
)
cos
α +
sin
α
)
The c.g. of the tensile force, l _{1} , can be located by first determining the moment on the tension side and then dividing by F _{t} . The moment of the differential element is
Integrating
dM
= f
s
=
f s
t
=
t r
s
t r
s
(
dF r cos
t
α +
cos
θ
)
(
cos
α
+
cos
θ
)
1 +
cos
α
(
r cos
( cos
α +
cos
θ
)
2
(
1 +
cos
α
)
d
θ
α +
cos
θ
)
d
θ
M
t
= 2
f t
s
s
r
2
∫ π
α
(
cos
α +
cos
θ
)
2
(
1 +
cos
α
)
d
θ
= 2 f t r
s
s
2
(
π−α
)
cos
2
α +
3
2
(
sin
cos
α cos α + π−α α
2
)
1
(
)
1 +
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 22
Dividing
l
1
=
M
t
F
t
=
r
( 
π−α 
) 
cos 2 
α + 
3 2 
( sin α cos α + π−α 2 ) 1 ( 
) 


( π−α 
) 
cos α + 
sin 
α 

The values of α, C _{t} and l _{1} are constants for a given value of k.
Values for the compression area follow a similar formulation. The width of the compression ring is
defined as
t
c
= b
pl
−t _{s}
. The differential element for a compression ring of thickness t _{c} is
dA
c
= t rdθ
c
The distance from the neutral axis to this element is
r _{(} cosθ−cosα
)
The maximum distance from the neutral axis is
r _{(}_{1} −cosα _{)}
The element stress is directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis
′ =
f
c
f
c
(
r cos
θ− α
cos
)
r
(
1 −
cos
α
)
The compressive stress in the steel is
′ =
f
sc
nf
c
(
cos
θ− α
cos
)
(
1 −
cos
α
)
The force is determined by multiplying by the element areas
The total is therefore
Integrating
Conversely
cos
θ− cos α
dF
c
= f ′ dA
c
c
=
f t r
c
c
d θ
d θ
1 −
cos
cos
α
θ− cos α
1 −
cos
α
dF sc 
′ nf dA sc 
= nf t r c s 

= 
s 
dF
ctot
F
c
F
c
=
=
(
(
=
t
t
c
c
(
t
c
+
nt
s
)
rf
c
cos
θ− cos α
1 −
cos
α
d
θ
)
∫ α
cos
θ− α
cos
d
1 −
α−α cos α
+
+
nt
nt
rf 2
s
)
c
rf
2
0
(
sin
cos
α
)
F
c
s
(
= t
c
c
+ nt
s
1 −
rf
)
c
cos
^{C} c
α
θ
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 23
Where
C
c
f
c
=
F
c
(
t
c
+
nt
s
)
rC
c
= 2 sin
α−α cos α
1 −
cos
α
The c.g. of the compressive force, l _{2} , can be located by first determining the moment on the compression side and then dividing by F _{c} . The moment of the differential element is
Integrating 

M 
c 

= 
( 
t 

Dividing 
dM
c
=
(
dF r cos
c
θ− α
cos
)
= 
( t + nt c s 
) 2 r f 
( cos 
θ− α cos ) 2 
d θ 

c 
( 1 − 
cos α ) 

( 
t 
+ nt ) f r 2 
2 ∫ α 
( cos 
θ− α cos 
) 
2 
d 
θ 

= 
c nt ) s f r c 2 0 α− 
3 2 
1 ( 
− sin cos α α cos 
α + α 2 ) 1 

c + 
s c 
1 − cos α 
l
2
=
M
c
F
c
=
r
α
cos
2
α−
3
(
α α−α cos α
2
sin
cos
α + α
2
)
1
sin
The total distance between the forces F _{t} and F _{c} is equal to l _{1} +l _{2} . Defining the dimensionless ratio j as
+
1
2
1 2 α− 
3 
sin 
α cos α + α 
cos 
2 


2 
α 



sin 
α−α cos α 

The distance from the neutral axis to the centerline of the pole is
and the distance zd is equal to
The quantity, z is therefore
z
= 1 2
cos α +
^{d} cosα 

2 

zd = l 
2 
+ d 2 
cosα 


2 1 α− 
3 2 
sin 
α cos α + α 
cos 
2 
α 



sin 
α−α cos α 

Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 24
The values of C _{c} , l _{2} , j and z are constants for a given value of k. The two equilibrium conditions that must be met are
Substituting
M
−
wind
Pzd
−
F jd
t
= 0
F 
M wind 
− Pzd 

t 
= 
jd 

F t F c f 
+ = P − F = 0 c F t + P M wind 
− Pz d 

s 
= 2 ^{π} 
C jdA t 
s 

= 
F t 

t rC s t 

kdf 
s 

f 
= 

c n 
( 
d 
− 
kd 
) 
The peak bearing stress, at the outer edge of the base plate is
f
cmax
=
f
c
2 kd
+ b
pl
2 kd
Where b _{p}_{l} is the width of the bearing plate.
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 25
Example 2.1
Analyze a grouted base plate for a 55” diameter pole that runs through the base plate. The bolt circle is 64” with (20) 21/4” bolts. The vertical load is 46 kips and the moment is 3565 kipft (42780 inkips). The thickness of the base plate is 21/4”. The outer diameter of the base plate is 73”. The concrete has a strength of 3000 psi.
Assuming a trial value of k of 0.30…
α =
cos
−
1
(
1
−
2
k
)
=
cos
−
1
(. )
4
=
1 1593
.
rad
C
c
=
2
(
sin
(
1 . 1593
)
−
1 . 1593
cos
(
1 . 1593
))
1
− cos
(
1 . 1593
)
=
1 . 5093
z =
1
2
cos
C
t
=
2
1
+ cos
(
1 1593
.
)
(
π−
1 1593
.
)
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
+
sin
(
1 1593
.
)
=
2 442
.
(
1 1593 +
.
)
1
2
1 1593
.
−
3
2
sin
(
1 1593
.
)
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
+
1 1593
.
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
2
sin
(
1 1593
.
)
−
1 1593
.
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
j =
1
2
1
2
(
π−
1 1 1593
1 1593
.
)
cos
2
(
1 1593
.
)
+ π−
2
.
1
(
1 1593
)
+
3
2
sin
(
1 1593
.
)
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
.
−
3
2
sin
(
(
π−
1 1593
.
)
1 1593
.
)
cos
cos
(
1 1593
.
(
)
1 1593
.
)
+
+
1 1593
.
sin
(
cos
2
1 1593
.
)
(
1 1593
.
)
= . 781
2 sin
(
1 1593
.
)
−
1 1593
.
cos
(
1 1593
.
)
F
t
=
42780 46
×
.
− . 781 64
×
4376 64
×
= 830
k ips
=
+
.
4376
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 26
f
c
Calculate a new value for k,
The next loop
F
c
= 830 + 46 = 876 kips
f
s
=
830
.
323
×
32 2 442
×
.
= 32 88 ksi
.
876
=
(
8 677
.
+
9 2 9
.
×
.
)
×
.
323 32 1 5093
= 1 5 5 ksi
.
k
calc
=
1
1 +
32 88
.
×
9 29 1 55
.
.
=
. 305
k
=
.
3
+
.
305
2
=
. 3025
k
α = 1 165
.
C
C
c
t
z
j
F
F
t
c
f
s
f
c
calc
= 1 516
= 2 4366
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
. 303
.
.
.
.
437
781
829 . 8
875 . 8
32 . 92
1 . 546
Which is sufficiently accurate to proceed to final calculations
f
cmax
=
P
bolt
= f A
s
bolt
=
32 . 92 × 3 .2 5 = 107 kips
1 . 546 × 2 × 
3025 × 64 
+ 73 − 55 


. 

2 


2 
× 
. 3025 × 6 4 
=
1 . 7 8
ksi
≤
.
7
3 1 3 3
× ×
.
=
2 . 8
ksi o.k.
The maximum bending moment in the plate is actually due to a trapezoidal stress distribution, however most process equipment designers use the average stress at the bolt circle for ease of computation. The stress on the compression side is
Technical Manual 1 Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 27
M
max
f
max
=
f l c 
2 1 . 546 9 × 
2 
= 62 . 6 
in − kip 

= 
2 
= 
2 
in 

6 
M 
6 62 . 6 × 

= 
= 
74 . 2 ksi 
≥ 
75 
× 
36 1 33 × . 

. 

bt 2 
1 × 2 . 25 
2 
The stress on the tension side is
=
M
max
f
max
=
−
64 55
×
=
Pa
=
107
=
481 . 5
75
in
−
kip
=
.
.
2
2 

= 
66 
ksi 
≥ 
. 
6
×
481 5
55 π
2 25
×
36 1 33
×
.
20
36
36
ksi n.g.
ksi n.g.
Technical Manual 1 – Design of Monopole Bases
Grouted Base Plates • 28
Lutz Modification
One of the major assumptions in the Process Equipment Method is that the center of pressure is coincident with the steel bolt ring. Should the compression ring extend inside the pole and the bolt circle is not centered on the outstanding leg of the base plate or, based upon the relative stiffness of the base plate, it is deemed that the center of compression will be at or near the pole diameter, then the results will be in error.
Lutz (20) extended the theory to account for the fact that the compression ring may have a different diameter than the steel tension ring.
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