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Chapter 8 Quiz Level 1 route A level 1 route is a route with a subnet mask equal to or less than the classful

mask of the network address. Functions for level 1 route -Default route (0.0.0.0/0) -Supernet route (subnet mask less than classful mask) -network route (subnet mask equal to classful mask) The level 1 route 192.168.1.0/24 can be further defined as an ultimate route. An ultimate route is a route that includes: either a next-hop IP address (another path) and/or an exit interface Level 1 parent route [172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets] When the 172.16.3.0 subnet was added to the routing table, another route, 172.16 .0.0, was also added. The first entry, 172.16.0.0/24, does not contain any nexthop IP address or exit interface information. This route is known as a level 1 p arent route. A level 1 parent route is a network route that does not contain a next-hop IP ad dress or exit interface for any network. A level 1 parent route is the classful network address of the subnet route.

A level 2 route is a route that is a subnet of a classful network address. Understand below 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 172.16.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets is level 1 parent route. -172.16.0.0 - The classful network address for our subnet. -/24 - The subnet mask for all of the child routes. If the child routes have var iable length subnet masks (VLSM), the subnet mask will be excluded from the pare nt route and included with the individual child routes. -is subnetted, 1 subnet - This part of the route specifies that this is a parent route and in this case has one child route, that is, 1 subnet. C 172.16.3.0 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 is level 2 Child Route -C - The route code for directly connected network. - 172.16.3.0 - The specific route entry. - is directly connected - Along with the route code of C, this specifies that th is is a directly connected network with an administrative distance of 0. - FastEthernet0/0 - The exit interface for forwarding packets that match this sp ecific route entry. Level 2 child routes contain the route source and the network address of the rou te. Level 2 child routes are also considered ultimate routes because they will c ontain the next-hop IP address and/or exit interface. If there is only a single level 2 child route and that route is removed, the lev el 1 parent route will be automatically deleted. A level 1 parent route exists o nly when there is at least one level 2 child route.

Variably subnetted parent network Whenever there are two or more child routes with different subnet masks belongin g to the same classful network, the routing table presents a slightly different view, which states that this parent network is variably subnetted. Regardless of the addressing scheme used by the network (classless or classful), the routing table will use a classful scheme. -172.16.0.0 - The parent route, the classful network address associated with all child routes. -/16 - The classful subnet mask of the parent route. -variably subnetted - States that the child routes are variably subnetted and th at there are multiple masks for this classful network. -3 subnets, 2 masks - Indicates the number of subnets and the number of differen t subnet masks for the child routes under this parent route. The Route Lookup Process Case 1.Examines level 1 routes > If the best match is a level 1 ultimate route a classful network, supernet, or default route - this route is used to forward the packet. Case 2.Examines level 1 routes > If the best match is a level 1 parent route > T he router examines child routes (the subnet routes) of the parent route for a be st match.> If there is a match with a level 2 child route, that subnet will be u sed to forward the packet. Case 3.Examines level 1 routes > If the best match is a level 1 parent route > T he router examines child routes (the subnet routes) of the parent route for a be st match.> If there is not a match with any of the level 2 child routes > If cla ssful routing behavior is in effect, terminate the lookup process and drop the p acket. Case 4.Examines level 1 routes > If the best match is a level 1 parent route > T he router examines child routes (the subnet routes) of the parent route for a be st match.> If there is not a match with any of the level 2 child routes > If cl assless routing behavior is in effect, continue searching level 1 supernet route s in the routing table for a match, including the default route, if there is one . > If there is now a lesser match with a level 1 supernet or default routes, th e router uses that route to forward the packet. Case 4.Examines level 1 routes > If the best match is a level 1 parent route > T he router examines child routes (the subnet routes) of the parent route for a be st match.> If there is not a match with any of the level 2 child routes > If cl assless routing behavior is in effect, continue searching level 1 supernet route s in the routing table for a match, including the default route, if there is one . > If there is not a match with any route in the routing table, the router drop s the packet. A route referencing only a next-hop IP address and not an exit interface must be resolved to a route with an exit interface. A recursive lookup is performed on the next-hop IP address until the route is resolved to an exit interface.