Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Char-Lynn

No. 3-303 October, 1998

Steering Controls

Technical Info.

Description of Operation

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Manual Steering

Eaton Char-Lynn Steering Controls


The following information may be used to explain and understand the basic steering concepts. The first concept in steering is Manual Steering, or as some times referred to as arm strong type steering. The stronger the arm the stronger the steering. With this type of steering there usually is some form of a mechanical advantage such as the diameter of the steering wheel or additional mechanical reduction which is found in the steering sector. The advanage with this type of steering is a direct machanical linkage between the steering wheel and the steered wheels.
3

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Power Assist

The second concept in steering is power assist. Steering with power assist usually uses some form of hydraulics to assist in the steering function. When a steering command is made, a hydraulic valve is opened, allowing the hydraulics to assist in the steering fuction. Again, the advanage of this type of steering, like the manual type steering, is the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the steered wheels.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Hydrostatic Steering

The third concept in steering is Hydrostatic Steering. This is the type of steering that is manufactured at Eaton Corporation Hydraulics Division. Hydrostatic Steering is truely 100% Hydraulic and has no mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and steered wheels. Because there is no machanical linkage used with this type of steering, hydrostatic steering is very easy to apply and is used on many applications today. Hydrostatic Steering is usually used on off-road applications

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Pump Return
( Tank )
T

Left
L

Right
R P

Pump In Drive

Pin

Spool Centering Springs Sleeve Check Valve Gerotor Assembly

The following information may be used to explain and understand basic Eaton Char-Lynn steering control operation.

This illustration is used to show the internal porting and components that are found in a typical Eaton steering control unit. When rotated, the spool/sleeve assembly is like a rotary valve and is used to control fluid direction. The gerotor assembly is basically a metering section, and is used to control fluid flow.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Neutral
T L R P

Pump Pressure Metered Flow Exhaust Intake Intake or Exhaust Inactive or Trapped

This illustration is used to show a open center type steering control in the neutral position. In the neutral position, the fluid enters into the steering control through the (P) port and continues through the spool/sleeve assembly and back out the (T) port.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Left Turn
T L R P

Pump Pressure Metered Flow Exhaust Intake Intake or Exhaust Inactive or Trapped

This illustration is used to show the steering control in the left hand turn position. In this position, the fluid enters into the steering control through the (P) port and continues through the spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (L) port. The (R) port is open through the spool/sleeve assembly to the (T) port.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Right Turn
T L R P

Pump Pressure Metered Flow Exhaust Intake Intake or Exhaust Inactive or Trapped

This illustration is used to show the steering control in the right hand turn position. In this position, the fluid enters into the steering control through the (P) port and continues through the spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (R) port. The (L) port is open through the spool/sleeve assembly to the (T) port.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Manual
T L R P

Pump Pressure Metered Flow Exhaust Intake Intake or Exhaust Inactive or Trapped

This illustration is used to show the steering control in the manual right hand turn position. In this position, the fluid is recirculated from the (T) port through the check valve, spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (R) port. The (L) port is open through the spool/sleeve assembly to the (T) port. In this position, the metering assembly actually becomes a hand pump.

10

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Open Center
( Neutral Position )

The second section may be used to explain and understand steering circuits.

This illustration is used to show a open center type steering control in the neutral position. In the neutral position, the fluid enters into the steering control into the (P) port, through the spool/sleeve assembly and right back out the (T) port.

11

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Open Center
( Lefthand Turn Position )

This illustration is used to show the steering control in the left hand turn position. In this position, the fluid enters the steering control into the (P) port, through the spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (L) port to the steering cylinders. The fluid in the opposite end of the steering cylinders is ported back to the (R) port, which is now open back through the spool/sleeve assembly, allowing the fluid to exit out the (T) port.

12

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Closed Center
( Neutral Position )

This illustration is used to show a closed center steering control in the neutral position. In this position, the fluid enters into the steering control through the (P) port and is blocked at the spool/sleeve assembly.

13

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Closed Center
( Lefthand Turn Position )

This illustration is used to show the steering control in the left hand turn position. In this position, the fluid enters the steering control into the (P) port, through the spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (L) port to the steering cylinders. The fluid in the opposite end of the steering cylinders is ported back to the (R) port, which is now open back through the spool/sleeve assembly, allowing the fluid to exit out the (T) port.

14

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing
( Neutral Position )

This illustration is used to show a load sensing type steering control in the neutral position. In this position, the fluid enters into the steering control through the (P) port and is blocked at the spool/sleeve assembly. In the neutral position, there will be no load sensing pressure. Load sensing steering controls are used to provide a signal to load sensing pumps and or priority valves.

15

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing
( Lefthand Turn Position )

This illustration is used to show a load sensing type steering control in the left hand turn position. In this position, the fluid enters the steering control into the (P) port, through the spool/sleeve assembly, metering section, spool/sleeve assembly and out the (L) port to the steering cylinders. The fluid in the opposite end of the steering cylinders is ported back to the (R) port, which is now open back through the spool/sleeve assembly, allowing the fluid to exit out the (T) port. In this position, the load sensing port is open to provide a signal to a load sensing pump and or a priority valve. This pressure signal will be just the pressure required to make the steering function.

16

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Non-Load Reaction
( Control In Neutral Position )

This illustration is used to show a non-load reaction steering control. When in a steering position, hydraulic pressure to the steering cylinders exceeds the mechanical external forces reacting against the steered wheels. This hydraulic pressure to the steering cylinders will cause them to either extend or retract. Non-load reaction steering controls, when returned to the neutral position, block both cylinder ports (L) and (R) at the spool/sleeve assembly. With these ports in the blocked position, the hydraulic fluid will be entrapped between the steering cylinders and the steering control causing the steered wheels to remain in the last steered position.

17

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing
( Lefthand Turn Position )

This illustration is used to show a load reaction steering control. Like the previous illustration, when in a steering position, the load reaction steering control will function just like non-load reaction steering control. Load reaction steering controls however, when returned to the neutral, will have both cylinder ports in a open position directly through the spool/sleeve assembly to the gerotor assembly or metering section. The external forces reacting against the steered wheels now cause the hydraulic pressure entrapped between the steering cylinders and the gerotor assembly to act as a motor. The gerotor assembly, now acting as a motor, will cause the steering control and steered wheels to return the centered position.
18

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Q-Amp Steering
Increases Steering Flow 1-1/2 to 2 Times Metering Displacement

This illustration is used to show the Q-Amp steering control. Q- Amp steering controls, when rotated more then 10 RPM, will bypass approximately 1-1/2 to 2 times the steering controls metering sections displacement. Q-Amp steering controls, when in the Q-Amp mode, will give you a faster steering rate with a smaller steering package. When ever the steering control is rotated slower then 10 RPM, the steering control will return to the steering rate dictated by the metering section.

19

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

VLC Priority Valve


( Options ) Inlet
Controlled Flow Relief Valve
Tank

Static or Dynamic Signal Spools

Load Sensing

Stand -by Control Pressure Spring


Excess Flow Controlled Flow

The Third section may be used to explain and understand Priority valve operation. This illustration is used to show priority valve options. Priority valves are some times used in steering systems to provide, on demand, a metered priority flow to a single function when a common pump supply is utilized for muli functions in the system. The VLC Series Priority Valves are 16 GPM flow rated. The control spools are available with either a static or dynamic signal. Optional standby control pressures for static spools are 50, 75 and 100 PSI. Dynamic spools are 75, 110 and 145 PSI. The controlled flow system pressure options are 1200 to 3475 PSI, usually set in 25 PSI increments. Eaton also has the VLE Series Priority Valves rated at 40 GPM and the VLH Series rated at 63 GPM.

20

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Spool shown in the stand-by position


Inlet

Orifice Tank

Load Sensing

Excess Flow

Controlled Flow

This illustration is used to show a VLC priority valve with a static control spool in the stand-by position. In the stand-by position there will be no load sensing pressure. The inlet pressure first passes through a small orifice, forcing the control spool to shift to the left, compressing the stand-by spring. With the control spool shifted to this position, the majority of pump flow will exit out the excess flow port. The standby spring pressure will keep the control spool shifted to the right, just enough to maintain standby pressure, to the controlled flow port. This standby pressure again is goveroned by the VLC proirity valves optional spring rate.

21

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Spool shown in the Priority Flow Mode


Inlet

Tank

Load Sensing

Excess Flow

Controlled Flow

This illustration is used to show a VLC priority valve, again with a static control spool, only this time in the priority flow mode. In the priority flow mode, the load sensing pressure is added to the standby spring pressure. With this added pressure, the control spool will shift further to the right to provide both pump flow and pressure out the controlled flow port. The balance of the pump flow is ported out the excess flow port. Whenever the controlled flow pressure exceeds the controlled flow pressure relief valve, the valve will open to reduce the load sensing pressure on the left side of the control spool. With this load sensing pressure reduced, the inlet or pump pressure will shift the control spool back to the left, reducing both pump flow and pressure to the controlled port. It will reduce it to the point of maintaining the preset pressure of the controlled flow relief valve.

22

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Open Center Steering System ( Neutral Position )

L T

R P

Main Relief Valve

Filter

Fixed Pump

Engine

Reservoir

The Forth section may be used to explain and understand steering systems. This illustration is used to show a typical open center steering system using a fixed displacement pump. This open center steering system incorporates a open center steering control, check valve, main relief valve, fixed displacement pump, engine, reservoir and return line filter. The check valve, located between the pump and the steering control, is used to prevent steering control kick- back. Kickback may occur when the steering pressure becomes higher then the pump pressure. The main relief valve is used as overload protection for the steering control. The return line filter is used to keep the steering system clean. In the neutral position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, out the (T) port, through the return line filter, back to reservoir.
23

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Open Center Steering System ( Left Turn Position )

L T

R P

Main Relief Valve

Filter

Fixed Pump

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show the same open center steering system in the left turn position. In the left turn position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, metering section and out the (L) port to the hydraulic cylinders for a left turn. The fluid located in the opposite end of the hydraulic cylinders is forced out and into the (R) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, out the (T) port, through the return line filter, back to reservoir. As long as the pressure required to turn, is less then the main relief valve setting, the main relief valve will remained closed. If this pressure exceeds the main relief valve setting, the valve will open to bypass the pump flow through the relief valve back to the reservoir.
24

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Closed Center Steering System ( Neutral Position )


L T R P

Filter

PC Pump

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show a typical closed center steering system using a pressure compensated pump. This closed center steering system incorporates a closed center steering control, pressure compensated pump, engine,reservoir and return line filter. With a pressure compensated pump, a main relief valve is no longer required as overload protection for the steering control. The pressure compensator located on the pressure compensated pump is now used for the steering controls overload protection. In the neutral position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same inlet fluid is now blocked at the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly. In the neutral position, the pressure compensated pump will create only the pressure equal to the pressure compensated valves setting, and only the pump flow required to maintain that pressure.

25

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Closed Center Steering System ( Left Turn Position )

L T

R P

Filter

PC Pump

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show the same closed center steering system in the left turn position. In the left turn position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, metering section and out the (L) port to the hydraulic cylinders for a left turn. The fluid located in the opposite end of the hydraulic cylinders is forced out and into the (R) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, out the (T) port, through the return line filter, back to reservoir. As long as the pressure required to turn, is less then the pressure compensators valve setting, the pump will remain at full stroke. Whenever the steering pressure exceeds the pressure compensators valve setting, or the steering control is returned to the neutral position, the pump will automatically destroke to maintain only the pressure setting of the pressure compensators valve setting.
26

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing Steering System ( Neutral Position )


LS

L T

R P
LS CF EF

Main Relief Valve

Filter

Fixed Pump

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show a typical closed center load sensing steering system using a priority valve and fixed displacement pump. When a fixed displacement pump is used with a priority valve, the EF port function of priority valve must be connected in a open circuit. The relief valve located in the priority valve is used for the steering controls overload protection and the main relief is used for protecting the EF port function. In the neutral position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the priority valve, check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same inlet fluid is now blocked at the steering controls spool/ sleeve assembly. With the pump flow blocked at the steering controls spool/ sleeve assembly, and no load sensing signal provided by the steering control, pump pressure will shift the priority control spool to the left to port the pump flow out the EF port.

27

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing Steering System ( Left Turn Position )


LS

L T

R P
LS CF EF

Main Relief Valve

Filter

Fixed Pump

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show the same closed center load sensing steering system using a priority valve and fixed displacement pump in the left turn position. In the left turn position, and with a load sensing signal provided, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the priority valve, check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same fluid passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, metering section and out the (L) port to the hydraulic cyclinders for a left turn. The load sensing signal provided by the steering control will shift the priority control spool to the right to provide both the pump flow and pressure for the steering function. The balance of the pump flow is ported out the EF port. The fluid located in the opposite end of the hydraulic cylinders is forced out and into the (R) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, out the (T) port, through the return line filter, back to reservoir. Again the relief valve located in the priority valve is used for the steering controls overload protection and the main relief is used for protecting the EF port function.
28

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing Steering System ( Neutral Position )


LS

L T

R P
LS CF EF

PFC Pump Filter

Engine

Reservoir

This illustration is used to show a typical closed center load sensing steering system using a priority valve and pressure/pressure flow compensated pump. Like the previous system, the relief valve located in the priority valve is used for the steering controls overload protection. When a pressure, pressure /flow compensated pump is used in a steering system, the pressure compensator may be used as the main relief for protecting the EF port function. For this to happen, the load sensing signal provided by the steering control, must be provided to both the priority valve and the pressure compensated pump control. In the neutral position, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the priority valve, check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same inlet fluid is now blocked at the steering controls spool/ sleeve assembly. With the pump flow is blocked at the steering controls spool/ sleeve assembly, and no load sensing signal provided by the steering control, pump pressure will shift the priority control spool to the left to port the pump flow out the EF port.

29

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Load Sensing Steering System ( Left Turn Position )


LS

L T

R P
LS CF EF

PFC Pump Filter

Engine

Reservoir

30

This illustration is used to show the same closed center load sensing steering system using a priority valve and pressure, pressure /flow compensated pump in the left turn position. In the left turn position, and with a load sensing signal provided to both the priority valve and pump control, the fluid provided by the pump passes through the priority valve, check valve and enters into the (P) port located in the steering control. This same fluid passes through the steering controls spool/ sleeve assembly, metering section and out the (L) port to the hydraulic cylinders for a left turn. The load sensing signal provided by the steering control will shift the priority control spool to the right to provide both the pump flow and pressure for the steering function. The balance of the pump flow is ported out the EF port. The fluid located in the opposite end of the hydraulic cylinders is forced out and into the (R) port located in the steering control. This same fluid then passes through the steering controls spool/sleeve assembly, out the (T) port, through the return line filter, back to reservoir. Again the relief valve located in the priority valve is used for the steering controls overload protection and the pressure compensated control is used for protecting the EF port function.

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

Notes:

31

Char-Lynn Steering Controls

ACCREDITED BY THE DUTCH COUNCIL FOR CERTIFICATION Reg. No. 24

Eaton Corporation Hydraulics Division 15151 Hwy. 5 Eden Prairie, MN 55344

Eaton Ltd. Hydraulics Division Glenrothes, Fife Scotland, KY7 4NW Telephone: +44 (0)1592-771-771 Fax: +44 (0)1592-773-184

ISO-9001 CERTIFICATED FIRM Eaton GmbH Hydraulics Products Quality System Certified Am Schimmersfeld 7 Products in this catalog are manufactured in an ISO-9001-certified site. 40880 Ratingen, Germany Telephone: +49 (0)2102-406-830 Fax: +49 (0)2102-406-800
DET NORSKE VERITAS INDUSTRY BV THE NETHERLANDS ,

http://www.eaton.com
Form No. 3-303 Copyright Eaton Corporation 1998 All Rights Reserved Printed in USA