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TowardsaKapwaTheoryofArt:

MultiplicityinIntegrativeContemporaryPractices

MargaritaCertezaGarcia 21February2011 BahausUniversityWeimar MastersinPublicArtsandNewArtisticStrategies ReadingRoom:SpeakingSpace ProfessorLisaGlauer

Theproblemofcategorization: Situatingonespracticewithinatheoreticalframeworkcanbeachallengingprocessfor manyartists.Foranartistperceivedbydominantmodalitiesofrace,genderorcultureas somehowOtheritcanbeaparticularlydifficultandevenperilousattempt.Despite attemptstowardsinclusivity,theanswertothepertinentquestionsWhogetstomake art;whoevengetstoimaginethattheymightbecomeanartist?Andwhogetstohave theirstorytoldthroughart?ismoreoftenthannotsomeoneinarelativepositionof privilege.1 Whilenumerousexamplesofsuccessfulartistsofeverydenominationabound, particularlyinthepastthreedecadeswhichhaveseenatleastgloballipservicetothe virtuesofmulticulturalism,pluralismandintegration,thefactremainsthatthecategory ofArtist,whileuniversalintheory,hasbeenmoreoftenthannot,straight,whitemale andmiddleclass.2AlthoughtheboundariesofprivilegeandperceptionsoftheOther canshiftwiththetemporalandculturalcontextofthepractitioner,itsimportanttonote artistsseenastheOther,whoaremoreoftenthannoteither/or/and:Queer,visible minorities,femaleidentifiedand/orworkingclass,areoftenpresentedwithanalmost binarychoice,stiflinginitsrepetitivemonotony.EitheroneisseenastheOtherArtist anartistdefinedbytheirnationalorigin,race,gender,classorsexuality(whetherthis choiceisselfidentifiedorimposedfromwithout)oronecanstatethatitdoesntmatter andtrytodefineoneselfasapureartist,makingArtsolelyforartssake,orwithina previouslyestablishedartpracticeorgenre. SettingasideforthemomentKantianquestionsofpurityoruniversalityinart, whichhavebeenthoroughlyinterrogatedbypostmodernistmovements,3theFaustian

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choicetoidentifyasanartistofXorclaimneutralityundertheumbrellaofartisalmost ridiculousinitsreductiveimplications.Ontheonehand,attemptingtodefineauniversal aestheticorartpracticeandthuspositaneutralArtistisriddledwithpitfalls,including thedenialofthespecificityofculture,culturalcontextandexperienceoftheindividual.On theotherhand,thedesireforsimplificationandeasycategorizationcanrender recognitionofanartistsspecificitiesproblematicbyreducingthemtoambassadorsofan oftentokenizedcultureand/orexpectingthemtorepresenttheOther,intheirperson, theoryandpractice. Whatthen,isthelargepercentageofthepopulationoftheworldwhocouldbe categorizedasOther,todowhenattemptingtoenterthebastionsoftheartworld,other then,atleastforwomenwhomightbeperceivedasdesirable,takeofftheirclothes;asthe GuerillaGirlssardonicallysuggestedinaseriesofpostersplacedintheNewYorkCity artssceneinthe1980s?4Thatquestion,sansthemockingresponse,(whichisboth humorousandpainfulinitsstarkreality),formsthecruxofthispaper.Whatare additionalwaysforanartistfromthenondominantmodalitytopositionthemselvesand theirwork?Whatadditionalexamplesexistforcoherentpracticethatacknowledgethe multiplepossibilitiesandhybridandshiftingpositionsofcontemporarylife?WheredoI, asahybridFilipinoAmericanArtiststudyinginEuropestandinrelationtothisdebate? Thisessayneitherintendstoestablishadefinitiveanswertothesequestions,norto privilegeanyartistictheoryasaresponsetothem.Instead,itrepresentsanexamination oftheproblemitself,followedbyabriefexplorationofthepossibilityofmultiplicityusing alternativetheories.Ratherthanadefinitivesurveyofcontemporarytheory,itlooksfor signpostsormarkersinotherframeworksandpracticesthathelptodescribetheterritory thatIasanartistmightwishtoinhabit.

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TheUnwantedFramework:OrtheOther(Again?!): BecauseIlikebeatingthingsintothegroundandbecausethecurrentrecycled(and almostnauseatinglypredictable,yetterrifyinginitsHydralikerefusaltodie)public discourseisyetagainavoidingthedifficultquestionofhowtodealwiththeunbridled forcesofcapitalismandglobalizationbyresurrectingtheterrifyingspecteroframpaging hordesofunwashed,uneducatedimmigrantswhoareuninterestedineitherintegrating orworkingandwhoaregreedilyfeastingatthewelfaresmorgasbordandtaking advantageofspecialhandoutsattheexpenseofhardworkingordinarycitizens5itis unfortunatelynecessarytoreinterrogatethecategorizationoftheOther.As philosopher/artistAdrianPiperputsit:
Ifweareevergoingtomovetowardsaresolutionoftheproblemofracism internationally,wevegottoovercomethedivisiveillusionofotherness,theillusionthat eachofusisdefinednotjustbyourindividualuniquenessbutbyourracialuniqueness. Theideologyofothernessisapernicioussymptomoftheinabilitytogainselfworth exceptbydifferentiatingoneselffromothersimplicitlyviewedasinferior.Itsafalse ideology,basedoninvalidinductivegeneralizationswithalowprobabilityoftruth.6

Evenwhentheessentialistracialreductionofthesumofexperiencesofanother humanbeingtoraceisintendedasbenign,asarttheoristCynthiaFreelandnotesinher examinationofthesearchfortheprimitive,exotic,andtheauthentic,7suchattitudes areinseparablefromalonglineofcolonialstancesthatreduceencounterswiththe OthertotouristicsnapshotsforpostingonFacebookthecontemporaryequivalentofa biggamehunterstrophyroom.AsculturalcriticCocoFuscoeloquentlynotes:


IdentificationwiththegenericallyoppressedOtherhasbeenthefavoredproofafirst worldartists/intellectualspoliticalcorrectnessMoreoftenthannot,theavantgardehas balanceditsfascinationwithforeignOtherswithmiserlytokenismand/ordisavowalof theblackandthirdworldartistswithinproximity...Thefetishizationofrarityintheavant gardeartworlddetractsfromaninquiryintothereasonsfortherelativityofthatrarityin thefirstplace.8

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Asitsfairlyclearfromapurelystatisticalpointofview,thosewhocannotbe positionedastheOthermakeupafairlysmallproportionoftheworld.Thus,thefactthat labelssuchasexoticevenexistunderscoresinequalitiesinwhogetsexhibited,whogets fundedandwhogetstoevenconceivetheymaybecomeapartofthemainstreamart world.Particularlyintermsofproportion,sincecontrarytoassertionsbyneoconservative politicians/media,theessentialrealityisthatartistsidentifiedinanywaywithnon dominantmodalitieshaveamoredifficulttimebeingtakenseriously,ifinfacttheyare noticedatallbyartinstitutionsandmedia. Whentheyare,theyruntheriskofbeingaskedtorepresenttheentiretyoftheOther experiences.Inahistoricalexample,astudyoftheimpactofpublicityonAfrican AmericanliteraryartistsduringtheHarlemRenaissanceshowedthatsomefeltthat publicityaffectedthemnegatively.Forwhiteartistsworkingduringthesametimeperiod, publicityhelpedtheircareers,butfornonwhiteartists,thepressuretorepresenttheir racestifledcreativity.9Contemporaryartistsreportsimilarconflicts.CocoFuscocritiques theideathatBlackfilmmakersshouldrepresentBlackissues,situatingthispostulationin paternalisticassumptionsaboutresponsibility,thatrelegateblackcinematoaform ofadvocacyorsocialwork.10Suchexpectationscanalsobeenforcedfromwithin. SamanthaHollandexaminesthisphenomenoninregardstoconstructionsoffemininity, whichshenoticedwereoftenselfpolicedbywomen,evenwomenwhosawthemselvesas radical,particularlyastheyaged.Forexample,punkwomenexpressedthefearthat multicoloredhairorbodymodificationsmightbecomegrotesqueormonstrousasthey agedanddescribedwomenthattheyfoundtoomuchtherebydemonstratingastrategy torecuperatefemininity,tostayappropriatenottoogrotesquebypolicingothers.11 Evenmoredisturbingisthesensethatthediscussionofsubjectivity,objectivity,race,

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gender,classandpoliticsissomehowpassandtheartworldissomewhatrelievedtoget backtotherealbusinessofartmaking.12Thesecallsforareturntotheobjectand somaticformsofknowledge,canbeseenaspartofamoregeneralartworldbacklash againstthetwinspectersofmulticulturalismandtheory.13Theideathatartcanbepure andanartistunaffectedbythesumoftheirexperiencesisasdisturbingastheassumption thatapureartisbydefinitiononethathasnothingtodowithanythingexperiencedby anOther.Inoneparticularlycontentiousreviewofamulticultural/activistartshowat theWhitney,criticsaccusedthecuratorsofhavingsacrificedaestheticsinfavorof collectivepoliticalselfinterest,astatementthatwhencloselyexaminedshowstheuseof acenturyoldKantiantrumpcardofaestheticvalue,todeflectthediscussionfromthe discomfortraisedbytheshowitself.14Oftencallsforaestheticvalueareexpressed throughthemanufactureofahighlycodedcommentary,inturnswryandironic,15that servetoexcludealldiscoursethatisdirectandunderstandabletoanybutaselectgroup ofinsiders,whousuallyjusthappentobetheelite.Thisisaparticularlyinsidiousformof subtleracism,inwhichtheculture,moresandaesthetictastesofonegroupofpeoplesis identifiedasnormativequietlyrelegatingallelsetotheabnormalandimpure.AsDarrell Moorediscussesinhisanalysisofmulticulturalismspitfalls,thisallowswhitenessto functionatalevelofinvisibilitysuchthatitappearstopossesnospecificqualitiesatall. Identifiedasoneamongmany,poweranddominationareignored.16AsCornellWest putsit:Whatisdistinctiveabouttheroleoftheclassicalaestheticandculturalnormsat theadventofmodernityisthattheyprovidedanacceptableauthorityfortheideaofwhite supremacy.17ThisconceptissoembeddedthatculturalborrowingifdonebyWestern artists(suchasinthecaseofPicassoorGiacometti)ishailedasgenius(andtheentire originalcivilizationignored)butifdonebynonWesternartistsdenigratedasimitative andderivative.18

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Multiplepossibilitiesforpractice:FromMargintoCenter Havingrejectedbothessentialistidentityformulationsandpureaestheticpossibilitiesas similarlystifling,wheredoesthatleavemyunderstandingofmyownpositioninrelation tomyart;sinceitsalwayseasiertodefinewhatonedoesnotwishtodoorbeidentified withthanarticulatewhatonemaydesire.InthepreviousdiscussionIborrowedfrom manydifferentanalyticalframeworksandspecificanalysesofrace,class,genderand culture,inmanydifferentculturalcontextsnotbecauseImunawareofthespecificities andparticularitiesofeachinstanceandwishtodevalueandconflatethemintoasingle overarchingentitythatbarsopportunityexcepttoaselectfew(althoughitsoften temptingtodoso)butrathertounderlinethelimitationsofdoingsoandtheneedtofind possibilitiesforconnectionandcollaborationbeyondessentialistcategorizations.The persistenceofidentitybasedstructuresofpowerrenderedthepreviousanalysis necessarytoidentifythepatternsofcolonial,postcolonialandneocolonialstructure thatIwishtoavoid.Butwhatthen?AsmulticulturalprofessorLenyStrobelasks,What thenbecomesofuswhenweareemptiedofcolonialprojections?19Followingtheadvice ofradicalfeministbellhooks,Ivechosentomovethediscussionfromthemarginto centerfromtheoutsidetotheinsideandtakealookatindigenousFilipinoknowledge, asdefinedbyStrobel:
Iusethetermindigenoustorefertotheselfthathasfounditsplace,itshomeintheworld. Emptiedofprojectionsof"inferiority,'"thirdworld,""undeveloped,""uncivilized,""exotic andprimitive,"and"modernizing,"itistheselfcapableofconjuringone'splaceand growingrootsthroughtheworkofimagination,reframinghistory,andretellingthe Filipinostorythatcentersourhistoryofresistance,survival,andregeneration.20

Inmyownwork,Ihavealwaysbeenpulledtowardsquestioningessentialist categorizations(muchofmyearlyphotographywasontheintersectionsofidentityand p.7

questioningrace,genderandclassstereotypes)andmoreandmoretowardscollaborative andpractices,sometimesinterspersedwithreenacted/reimaginedrituals.Interestingly, anemergingdiscourseinFilipinoindigenousknowledgesystemsandpracticessupports thispracticeimplicitlyrecognizingandprioritizingconceptsofthecommunaloverthe individual.OneofthecoreconceptsisoneofKapwa,partiallyexpressedinEnglishas thesharedself,asenseoffellowbeingortheunityoftheselfwiththeother.This conceptisdivergentfromWesternconceptsofbothindividualityandunityasitexpresses ametarelationshipinwhichunityandasenseofsharedidentityarebuiltbyrespecting theindividualityofothers.Asartist/indigenouspsychologistKatrindeGuia,writesIt reflectsaviewpointthatbeholdstheessentialhumanityrecognizableineveryone, thereforelinking(including)peopleratherthanseparating(excluding)themfromeach other.21
UnliketheEnglishwordOther,Kapwaisnotusedinoppositiontotheselfanddoesnot recognizetheselfasaseparateidentity.Rather,Kapwaistheunityofselfandothers,and henceimpliesasharedidentityorinnerself.Fromthisarisesthesenseoffellowbeingthat underliesFilipinosocialinteraction.22

Itsatrickyconceptasittranscendswesternconceptsofindividualitybyrequiringits simultaneouslossandrespectKapwarespectstheOthernessoftheotherbyrecognizing asharedhumanityandanessentialinabilitytounderstandanothersconcrete experiences,exceptwithinthecontextoftheefforttodoso.Whilerecognizingindividual experiences,identityisseenassomethingthatcanbeshared,aconceptofrelational connectionsthatisappliedtosocialinteractions,ideasofself,natureandultimately divinity.


Itdoesnotmeanthattheselfhasfullygraspedoriscapableofgraspingtheexperienceof theother.Ifthatwereso,thiswouldjustbeperceivingtheotherinthelightoftheself. Whatisunderstoodistheuniversalexperiencethatallhumanbeingsshare.Whatcannot begraspedistheconcreteexpressionoftheuniversalexperiencethattheothergoes through.Becausetheotherisnottheselfandtheselfisnottheother,theconcrete expressionoftheuniversalexperienceoftheothercannotwhollybeunderstoodbythe self.23

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Yet,withinthisacceptanceofaninabilitytounderstandtheexactnatureand particularitiesofsomeonesexperienceremainstheideaofintimateconnection,theidea thatonecanattempttoparticipateempatheticallyindialogueandexchange.Ultimately thislinguisticallyuniqueconceptcarriesanethicalcharge,asitrequiresanattitudeof inclusivityandanobligationtotreatothersaspartofonesidentityandself,i.e.equally.24 WhenIapplymyexplorationofthisphilosophytomypreviouslyunexaminedlikes anddislikesinarttheory,ithelpsmetounderstandmypersonalpreferences,particularly inregardstopostmodern,aestheticpositioningandavantgardeart.WhileImnot immunetothepleasuresofagoodinsiderjokeandtheintellectualchargethatcomes fromgraspingacomplexmeanings(orthefeelingofjustbeinginsuchasthealmost adolescentflushofpleasurethatoccurredthefirsttimeIopenedtheNewYorkerand laughedspontaneouslyasifbeingabletounderstandthereferencesmadeoneurban andthereforeurbane)Idohaveareflexiveaversiontohighbrowartatleastwhenits presentedasartinthepublicrealm.Whiledirectness,participationdialogue,meaningand representationaresomewhatantitheticaltomanypostmodernisttheorists,decadesof postmodernandavantgardewittyprovocationsdontseemtohaveproducedthe liberationBarnettNewmanforesawwhenaskedwhathispaintingmeanttotheworld; Ifotherscouldreaditproperly,itwouldmeantheendofallstatecapitalismand totalitarianism.InConversationPieces,GrantKesternotesthat:
Newmansstatementisstrikingforitsstaggeringambition,combinedwithanequally staggeringeconomyinitsmeansofachievement.Here,indeed,istheanticipatorypowerof Kantsaestheticwritlarge.ThebathosofNewmansstatementliesinthedisjunction betweenthephysicalartifact(patternsofpigmentofstretchedcanvas)andtheprofound consequencesthatitpurportstocatalyze.IfonlywecouldreadNewmanspaintings properlyalltheevilintheworldwoulddrainaway.Orisitthatawouldpopulatedby peoplewhoknowhowtoreadNewmanscanvasesproperlywouldnevergenerate totalitarianorcapitalistsocietiesinthefirstplace?25

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WhileImcertainlyantitotalitarianandmorethanskepticalofcapitalism,Idoubtthatmy work,orevenartitself,nomatterhowprovocative,willproducesweepingglobalchange. HoweverIaminterestedthepossibilityofsuggestingalternativemodalitiesand connectionandevenperhapsinartthatseeksrelativetruthwhilerespecting particularities,culturesandcommunities.LorraineOGradydescribesapossibilityof multiplicitynotthecynicalmultiofmulticulturalismwheretheOthersare multiculturalandtheSameisstillthesamo.ratheramultiplicityofcenters.26Educated forthefirst16yearsofmylifeinJohnDeweysexperimentalLaboratorySchool,Imnot surprisedthatIfindresonanceinhisstatementthatoneoftherolesofartistohelp peopleperceive,manipulateorotherwisegrapplewithreality,andinthepragmatic viewthatArthasafunctioninnourishinglivesandshouldnotberemoteandesoteric. Artisnotjustsomethingtostoreonashelf,butsomethingpeopleusetoenrichtheir worldandtheirperceptions.27Habermasaddsanadditionalpossibilityforart, synchronouswiththeideaofKapwasuggestingthatartcouldbeusedtofindbeautiful waysofharmonizinginterestsratherthansublimewaysofdetachingoneselfforothers interests28 Thepossibilityofalignmentbetweenseeminglydisparateconceptsandinterestsis supportedbyresearchintotheexperienceofmanynonWesterncountries,inparticular thirdworldsocieties,whichlackaclearhistoricallineofprogressionfrompremodernto modernthenpostmodern.Often,asChinesetheoristGaoMingluwrites,theyhavebeen obligedtomergecharacteristicsofalltheseperiods,adoptingtheminhybridformsand oftenusingincompatibleelementsatthesametime.29ThisresonateswiththeideasIam exploringthatparticularityintime,spacesandtruthsmightsubvertdichotomous thoughtpatternssuchassubjectversusobjectandtimeversusspace,emphasizinginstead

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anetworkofforeverchangingrelationsamonghumansubjectivity,livingspaceand experience.30GuosobservationsofChinesecontemporaryartalsoofferspotentialinsight intohowgendercouldalsooperateinacooperativecontextsuggestingthatthe particularitiesofexistenceinathirdworldcontextmayhavepushedforgenderunity ratherthandivisionasneithermennorwomenhavefullindependencesothe developmentoffemaleconsciousnessoverlappedorsharedwiththecontemporary consciousnessofmenwithinthesamecontext.31WhilelivinginthePhilippinesforthree years,Iwasoftensurprisedbyarelativelackofgenderbarriers,comparedtomy experiencesgrowingupintheUnitedStatesandevenmoresoonceImovedtoGermany, whereIwasquitesurprisedbythepersistenceofsevereinequalityforwomen.Guos theorymayprovideinsighttomysubjectiveexperienceoftheFilipinocontext,a hypothesisseeminglysupportedbytheUnitedNationsgendergapstatisticalanalysis.As of2010,thePhilippinesranked9thoveralland1stforwomeninhealthandeducation, abovebothGermanyandtheUSandfarabovetherestofAsia.32WhileIcannotestablisha causallinktoKapwatheory,asocialideologythatrespectsindividualexperiences (includinggender)butfocusesonpointsofoverlapandsharingisunlikelytoaddto inequality.Eitherway,itishearteningtonotethatthedichotomiesthatcharacterize oppositionaltheorycanbetranscended,inanyfashionasoneofthecommoncriticisms ofanytheorythatproposestoformconnectionsisthattheforcesthatpullpeopleapartin thecontemporary,alienatingworldaretoostrongtobeovercome. Havingestablishedtheintentionofmyinvestigationintoalternativeconstructs

andunderstandingsofart,Idliketobrieflyconcludemyessaybymentioningmynext step,whichistoinvestigatealternativemodelsofpractice.Ihadoriginallyplannedtodo sointhecontextofthispaper,howeverduetotime/spaceconstraints,Illhavetoreserve

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thisexplorationforafollowupessay,althoughIwilllistmystartingpointshere.Chosen foraffinitywithrelationalpracticesratherthanthroughacomprehensivesurveyof contemporarywork,thesemodelsserveasstartingpointsandsignpostsformy understandingofpotentialdirectionsformyownwork,yettheydeservemore considerationthanspacewillallowwithinthispaper.Sofar,Iveexploreddifferent culturalmodelswithincontemporarypracticeasdocumentedinAntinomies:Modernity, Postmodernity,Contemporaneity;Activistpractices,particularlythoseofAdrianPiper,Suzi Gablikstheoryoftheneedtoreenchantartthroughafeminist/ecologicalstandpoint, GrantKestersexplorationofthepossibilitieswithindialogicalart,MikaHannulas discussionofthepowerofsmallgestures,TedPurvesexaminationofthetransgressive possibilitiesofgiftgivinganddetournmentandalongtraditionof collaborative/communitypractices,particularlythosedocumentedinTakingtheMatter intoCommonHands.Whilealloftheseattemptsutilizedifferentapproachesandutilizea widerangeoftacticswhatcurrentlyinterestsmeinallofthemistheirattempttocreate alternativeswithinartpracticesinawaythatrespectsparticularitiesyetseeksthe possibilityofconnection. Thesereadingsfunctionassignposts,alongwithfurtherexplorationofthe possibilitiesinherentinKapwatheoryandpracticethatmayprovidemewiththe beginningsofaroadmaptoanswermyoriginalquestions.Iintendtousethemasmarkers tohelpmeconceiveofmyownartterritorybeyondtheboundaries,perhapsevena connectivepracticecapableofhealingthepsychicsplitbetweenbody,mindandsoul.33

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1MargaretSpillane.QuotedbyDarrellMooreinWhiteMenCantProgram:The

ContradictionsofMulticulturalisminGrantH.Kester,ed.Art,Activism&Oppositionality: EssaysfromAfterimage(DurhamandLondon:DukeUniversityPress,1998),p.52. 2Kester,GrantH.IntroductiontoArt,Activism&Oppositionality.p.4. 3HowardRisatti.ArtandAesthetics:LateModernismandtheFormalistDebateinHoward Risatti,ed.PostmodernPerspectives:IssuesinContemporaryArt(EnglewoodCliffs: PrenticeHall,1990),pp.111. 4ElizabethHess.GuerillaGirlPower:WhytheArtWorldNeedsaConscienceinNina Felshin,ed.ButisitArt?TheSpiritofArtasActivism(Seattle:BayPress,1995)p.320.Both humorousandpainfulinitsstarkrealitythesuggestionthatwomenmuststriptogetinto amajormuseumisreminiscentoftheBuddhistjoke:MayawomanbecomeaBuddha? Sure,shejustfirstmustberebornasaman.Inrecentwork,onecouldsarcasticallyread mylastpublicartsproposalasagiantphallus(itwasa15meterantenna)archingover thecityofChemnitzanditsaninterestingquestiontoaskifitwouldhavehadbetter receptionhadIhadawhitemalepresentitasIreceivedthefollowingverbatimfeedback (whichwaslaterretractedasamisstatement)Yourpresentationwastooprofessional, myfriendonthejurysaidhewassodisgustedbyit,thathedidntevenconsiderthe contentyetwassicklyfascinatedbyyourpresenceandwantedtoknowifyouhad consideredgoingintoperformanceart.Inthecontextofthispaper,itsverytelling feedback,sinceonewondershowprofessionalismandfluencycanbeconsidered disgusting,particularlywhenthecontentisnotconsideredisittheunexpectednessof thesourcethatcreatesthediscomfort,fluencyappearingasmimicryandthereforeonly palatableasaperformance?Itbegsthequestionhowmuchofpeoplesperceptionof whocanmakeartgoesintowhatartisallowedintothepublicrealm? 5TeunA.vanDijk.DenyingRacism:EliteDiscourseandRacisminPhilomenaEssedand DavidTheoGoldberg,eds.RaceCriticalTheories.(Oxford:BlackwellPublishers,2001),pp 318319generallydiscussesracistconstructswithinnationalimmigrationdebates.For examplesofunvarnishedantiimmigrantrhetoriccontemporaneoustotheauthoringof thispaper,seerecentstatementsbyMerkel,AngelaGermanyscurrentprimeministeron theDeathofthemulticulturalexperiment,orthedebateoverXXbook(himselfthesonof immigrants)thatsuggeststhatimmigrantsinGermanyareresponsibleformakingthe countryasawholestupiderandtakingadvantageofoverlygenerouswelfareprograms. Or,foraU.S.viewpoint,simplywatchGlenBeckonFoxNewsorseecurrentimmigration debatesinArizona. 6MauriceBerger.InterviewwithAdrianPiperinArt,Activism&Oppositionality.p.217. 7CynthiaFreeland.ButisitArt?AnIntroductiontoArtTheory.Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press,2001p.66. 8Fusco,Coco.FantasiesofOppositionality.inArt,Activism&Oppositionality.pp6970. 9TerrellScottHerring.TheNegroArtistandtheRacialManor:InfantsoftheSpringand theConundrumofPublicityPublishedintheAfricanAmericanReview.Vol.35,No.4(St. LouisUniversity:Winter,2001),p.584. 10Fusco,Coco.P.70. 11SamanthaHolland.AlternativeFeminities:BodyAgeandIdentity(NewYork:BergPress, 2004.)p.p.122123.Onsecondthought,thedisturbingfeedbackIdiscussinendnote#4is moreakintopolicingasIveobservedithappeningtoothers,frommanybackgrounds fromthesamesourcewhentheyarepotentiallyoutoftheirplace.

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12Kester,p.7.WhileKesterwasdiscussingactivistartspecifically,thefeelingpersistsas

wellfordiscussionsthatcallintoquestionthehomogeneityofmuchoftheartworld.
13Kester,p.14 14CharlesA.WrightJr.IdentityPoliticsandtheWhitneyinArt,Activism& 15Kester,p.9

Oppositionality.p.80. Art,Activism&Oppositionality.p.54.

16DarellMoore.WhiteMenCantProgram:Thecontradictionsofmulticulturalismin 17CornellWestAGenealogyofModernRacismreprintedinPhilomenaEssedandDavid 18SylvesterOkwunoduOgbechieThePerilsofUnilateralPowerinTerrySmith,Okwui

TheoGoldberg,editors.RaceCriticalTheories.Oxford:BlackwellPublishers,2001.P.98.

EnwezorandNancyCondeeEds.Antinomies:Modernity,Postmodernity,and Contemporaneity.(DurhamandLondon:DukeUniversityPress,2008.)p.166,183. 19http://www.babaylan.net/biolstrobel.html 20LenyStrobel.ABookofHerOwn:WordsandImagestoHonortheBabaylan(TiboliPress, 2005)p.182. 21KatrinDeGuia.Kapwa:theSelfintheOther:WorldviewsandLifestylesofFilipino Culturebearers(PasigCity:AnvilPublishers,2005)p.8Kapwatheoryoriginatedinthe ideasofDr.VirgilioEnriquezwhoestablishedatheoryofFilipinopsychologyas differentiatedfromwesternmodelsinthe1970s.Overtime,theideaexpandedtocovera fieldknownasIKSPIndigenousKnowledgeSystemsandPractices,withadditionsby manyauthors,whichIhaveonlybeguntoexplore.LenyStrobelandKatrindeGuiaswork isparticularlyhelpfultomyunderstandingasitisbothofrecentpublicationandprovides acomprehensivelookintothesubjectarea. 22Ho,D.Y.F.,Peng,S.q.,ChengLai,A.andChan,S.f.F.(2001),IndigenizationandBeyond: MethodologicalRelationalismintheStudyofPersonalityAcrossCulturalTraditions. JournalofPersonality,69:925953.doi:10.1111/14676494.696170 23JaimeP.GueveraPakikipagkapwa:Sharing/MergingOneselfwithOthersinRolando M.Gripaldoed.FilipinoCulturalTraits:ClaroR.CenizaLectures.(Washington:Councilfor ResearchinValuesandPhilosophy,2005)p.18. 24DeGuia,p.9 25GrantH.Kester.ConversationPieces:CommunityandCommunicationinModernArt (Berkley:UniversityPress,2004)p.38 26LorraineOGradyOlympiasMaid:ReclaimingBlackFemaleSubjectivityinArtand Identity.p.282. 27CynthiaFreeland,ButisitArt?AnIntroductiontoArtTheory(Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press,2001)p.166 28SuziGablik.TheReenchantmentofArt(London:ThamesandHudson,Ltd.,1993)p.67. 29GaoMingluParticularTime,SpecificSpace,MyTruthinTerrySmith,OkwuiEnwezor andNancyCondeeeds.Antinomies:Modernity,Postmodernity,Contemporaneity.(Durham andLondon:DukeUniversityPress,2008.)p.136. 30Minglu,p.37. 31Minglu,p.160. 32http://www.csmonitor.com/World/GlobalIssues/2010/1012/Top10countriesfor womenGlobalGenderGapIndex2010/ThePhilippines 33LenyMendozaStrobel.Introduction,LenyStrobel,Ed,Babaylan:FilipinosandtheCall oftheIndigenous,(Manila:AteneodeDavao,2010)p.10.

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