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Progressive Era – US History

Progressive Era • The Progressive Era is a time period of the United


Roosevelt as President States.
• It represented moving forward, change, reform,
Progressive Groups etc.

• Urban Middle Class


• College educated
• White collar workers, professional and good at
stuff.
o Got paid a salary, as opposed to Blue collar
hourly pay.
• They were anti-trust.

• Intellectuals
• Teachers, students, journalists, etc.
• Pragmatism, “what works is right” belief.
• Oliver W. Holmes JR – law based on human exp.
o Served for 30 years on the Supreme Court,
influenced it
o Wanted Common Sense in law, pragmatism
on free speech.

• Religious Leaders
• Protestants, believed in the “Social Gospel”, must
act, not simply do nothing.

• Women
• Wanted the right to vote, supported the suffrage
movement
• Already women could vote at some State levels,
but not Federal

• Muckrakers
1906 – New Agency • Name originated from “Pilgrims Progress” poem
(see p. 385)
• They swept up corruption to bring it to light.
• Somewhat like investigative journalists
Recap:
• An example would be Ida Tarbell writing in
Progressive Era marks a change McClure’s
for moving magazine
forward, reforming, at the start
on the sneaky of of
actions
Roosevelt’s presidency.
The Progressive Groups were Urban Middle Class, Intellectuals, Religious Leaders,
Women, and Muckrakers.
The Food and Drug Administration was formed in 1906 after The Jungle caused
• Political Reform
Progressive Goals
• Commission Government formed 1st in Galveston
TX in 1901
o 1900 The largest hurricane hit there, 1 of the
top 5.
o The levees were weak, and the city was
destroyed.
o The people wanted to rebuild this city.
1908 City Manager Formed • Hired a Commission, or group of trained
professionals running the Government.

• The City Manager Government system was formed


in Stanton Virginia in 1908.
Direct Primary 1900 • This has no major, but only a hired city manager.
• He is a professional who is hired to run the city.

• The Direct Primary was formed in Wisconsin


• Up until this, the bosses choose candidates, which
Wisconsin was not fair to the voters. Anyone should be able
to run.
• People would choose a representative for their
party.
Follette
• Wisconsin was the most progressive of all the
states
• The most Progressive Governor was Robert La
Follette
• He was governor from 1900 to 1906, the most
famous one.
• There are still Follettes in Government today.

Roosevelt • Originally from Cumberland, Wisconsin


• Went to the University of Wisconsin and met his
wife.
• Spent time in Congress before failing to become
Governor in 1900. In the Direct Primary, he was
able to be elected.
• He built the current capital after the 1903 fire.
• It was made of marble from Italy and Greece.
• Old Abe the eagle resides there.
o Bought from Indian in 1859, fought
Recap: Confederates, etc.

• He
The Progressives wanted Political savedthe
Reform, money by having
City Manager live animals
government and ‘mow’ the
the Direct
Primary were formed.
Wisconsin was the most Progressive State in the country.
Robert La Follette was the most famous Wisconsin Governor, who built the new capital in
Madison.
1904 Election • Roosevelt ran for election again.
• Democrat nominee was New York Court judge Alton
Parker
• He did good in the South, but Roosevelt took
everything else and won the election 336 – 140
Roosevelt’s Second Term
• He was open to being Progressive, created National
Parks, Broke up trusts, and stopped corruption.
• Cleaned up college football with the NCAA in 1906
• 1907 a panic swept the country, usually due to
paper money.
• A depression started, and many blamed Roosevelt
for spending
• In 1908, Roosevelt felt he would loose, so he was
going to retire
• Taft, the Secretary of War in 1906, was anointed to
be the successor, but really wanted to be a
2 New States Supreme Court Judge.
• Taft’s family pressured him to campaign, so he did.
• The 1908 Democratic nominee was William
Roosevelt Jennings Bryan
• He did better than Parker, but Taft won easily 321 –
162
Taft
• Utah was added in 1896
• Oklahoma added in 1907

• Went and shot 1,200 animals in Africa for a year


long trip.

• Attempted to take a bath, but got stuck in the


White House tub
th
The 16 Amendment • Bought the 1st car and pool sized bath tub for the
th
The 17 Amendment White House
• Payed for oversized furniture so he wouldn’t break
antiques.
• Taft threw the 1st pitch for the Senators game.
o Hated the seats there, so he stood up in the
7th inning.
o The “7th Inning Stretch” was created.
Recap: • Taft viewed himself as a Progressive
Roosevelt won in 1904, acted• as He
a Progressive andtrustbuster,
was the real the country suffered
breakinga Standard
panic. He Oil
retired after his term.
Taft won in 1908, and was the real trustbuster. Utah and Oklahoma were added as
states.
The 16th and 17th Amendments were passed, allowing Income tax and electing Senators
Joseph Cannon • Ran the House like a zone dictatorship
• Controlled the “hopper” basket where proposed
bills went.
o Usually 500 considered, 50 made laws
o This gave him great power in the country
• The Progressives in 1910 tried to take powers from
Cannon, they were led by George Norris, they
Insurgents succeeded.
January 1911
• Young progressive republican house guy
• Progressives broke from the Republicans
• Led by Robert La Follette to oppose the Taft.
• 1912 – He had a nervous breakdown, so they
needed a leader
• Hiram Johnson was predicted, but instead
Democrats Roosevelt came back
• The media remembered he said you shouldn’t be
President 3 times, but he replied saying it was 3
times in a row.
• They were called the Bull Moose Party, Roosevelt
was ready.

• This division offered a big opportunity in 1912


• Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey was
nominated
o Born 1856 in Staunton, Virginia
o His father was a minister, Woodrow was
sickly and needed glasses, like Roosevelt.
o Graduated from Princeton before teaching
there.
o Named President of Princeton in 1892
o Added the 1st elective system, Schools
Taft within, and 1st Quadrant System centered
around a square.
o But he was not into sports or Alumni
relations.
o 1910 – the Alumni booted him
Roosevelt o He ran for Governor of New Jersey in 1910
• Democrats said he was good, nominated in 1912
Recap: • Only got 42% of the vote, but he won with 435
votes
Joe Cannon was a powerful Speaker of the House who was removed of his power by the
• Taft was happy to leave, and entered the Supreme
Insurgents.
Roosevelt joined the Progressive Party and declared himself a Bull Moose.
The Democrats seized this split in the Republican Party and nominated Woodrow Wilson
for the win in 1912.
----------END OF SECTION. SEE THE African Americans After Reconstruction
NOTES!!! ------------