Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

How to Use a

Brenda Hoddinott
J06 INTERMEDIATE: SKILLS & SECRETS
OK! So your drawing subject is lightly sketched. You now want to add shading. But, how do you know where to add each of those light, medium, and dark values? A little tool called a value map is used by many accomplished artists to figure out the correct placement of values in drawings (or paintings)! This article is divided into the following five sections: INTRODUCTION: A shading map (often called a value map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put different values in a drawing. STEP 1: SKETCHING OUTLINES: The first step is to lightly outline the subject proportionately correct. STEP 2: SEEING VALUES AS SHAPES: Close examination of a subject reveals where to find the highlights, and light and dark values. This step is extremely important in any drawing needing shading. STEP 3: OUTLINING THE SHAPES OF VALUES: The shapes of each value are sketched very faintly. STEP 4: ADDING SHADING: The shading map shows where to draw each value.

5 PAGES - 8 ILLUSTRATIONS
This article is recommended for artists of all levels, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.

Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada 2008

-2-

FIGURE 301

INTRODUCTION
A shading map (often called a value map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put different values in a drawing. Different aspects of light and shadows assume various shapes. For example, a highlight can be a circle and a shadow can be a crescent shape. The illustrations used in this discussion are based on a photo of a section of a young ladys face (Figure 301). An integral aspect of working with a value map is being able to find the shapes of the different values on your subject. If you have difficulty seeing different values, try squinting your eyes a little.

FIGURE 302

Figure 302 (a digitally enhanced version of Figure 301) provides a little insight into what I see when I squint while looking at this photo. Curl up in a comfortable chair, relax, and follow along with me as I take you through the basic process of mapping values. The fourstep process includes: 1. Creating a detailed line drawing based on my photo. 2. Visually identifying the locations and shapes of the various values. 3. Lightly sketching their shapes on my line drawing and marking each with letters.

FIGURE 303

4. Add shading with crosshatching graduations.

STEP 1: SKETCHING OUTLINES


As in most drawings, the first step is to lightly outline the subject proportionately correct. The sketch in Figure 303 appears much darker than the actual sketch; in fact, my sketch is so faint that you can barely see the lines. Hence, Ive darkened it in Photoshop so you can see the outlines of the various parts of her face.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

-3-

FIGURE 304

STEP 2: SEEING VALUES AS SHAPES


Even if you decide to not use a shading map on a regular basis, this step is extremely important for shading any drawing. In this drawing, the light source is from the upper right. Examine your subject and identify the following: Highlights tend to be easy to find because they are the lightest and brightest sections (outlined blue in Figure 304). Light values are the sections closest to the light source, often adjacent to or in the sections surrounding the highlights (outlined pink in Figure 305). Dark values are in the shadow sections of the subject and/or in various cast shadows (outlined green in Figure 306).

FIGURE 305

FIGURE 306

Medium values tend to fall in between the light and dark values. I dont bother looking for medium values at this stage, because their shapes and locations automatically become obvious when all others are identified.

STEP 3: OUTLINING THE SHAPES OF VALUES


Outline the shapes of each value very faintly on your sketch, beginning with the highlights. As you work, mark each of the various shapes with a letter (or number). I use H for highlights, L for light values and D for the dark. You dont really need to mark the medium values; they simply graduate from one marked value to another and fill in the spaces between the lights and darks. Figure 307 shows my shading map. The jumble of outlines and letters isnt very pretty, but you do get to erase them before you add each section of shading.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

-4-

Experiment with different approaches to shading, especially if mapping values doesn't appeal to you. Eventually you'll discover the perfect method for your unique needs. Eventually, you may not feel a need to mark letters on your map. (I rarely do.) With practice, drawing graduations based on the various shapes becomes second nature.

FIGURE 307

STEP 4: ADDING SHADING


Follow the shading map to draw values. Before you begin, make sure you lighten your mapping lines and erase the letters. I prefer to work from light to dark. If you also enjoy this approach you need to do the following: 1. Use a 4H or 2H to add shading around the highlights (H) with very light values. The center section of a highlight is left white. With your lightest pencil, add shading lines very lightly and far apart, around the edges of the highlight. 2. With various H pencils and an HB, add light shading to the sections marked L. Follow the outlines of their shapes on your map. 3. Graduate the light values (L) toward the darks (D) to fill in the medium values. HB and 2B pencils work well for graduating the middle values in between the lights and darks. 4. Use darker pencils to graduate the middle values into the D sections. 5. Shade in the D sections with dark values. Dark values are best rendered with 2B to 6B pencils. For a step-by-step lesson on using a value map, refer to J06 Intermediate: Crosshatching with a Value Map (published December 2008).
Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

FIGURE 308

-5-

BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY


As a selfeducated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, cont crayon, and oil paints.

My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.
>Brenda Hoddinott<

Born in St. Johns, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted Learn to Draw books. During Brendas twentyfive year career as a selfeducated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brendas skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from Forensic Artists International. Her homebased art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her communitys recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several childrens art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteenyear career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple stepbystep instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.

LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT


Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the AlphaPenguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha Pearson Education Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.

Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com