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Protection of embedded generators


will result in a spill that ows through the relay. To determine the maximum possible amplitude of the spill current assume one CT is fully saturated, i.e. its magnetising impedance is zero (Zeh = 0) and the other CT is non-saturated, i.e. its magnetising impedance is very large (Zeg = ). With reference to Figure 6.12b and the assumptions about the magnetising impedances, the voltage across the relay is V = Ish(Rlh + Rsh) and the current through the relay is IR = V/RR. If the relay resistance is high (i.e. RR >> Rlh + Rsh) then Ish Isg. The spill current can be reduced to a value below the operating threshold of the relay by a suitable choice of RR. The resistor that must be connected in series with the relay to increase the self-resistance of the relay to RR is known as the stabilising resistor. A suitable choice will ensure stability during all external faults, irrespective of the magnetic history of the CTs, and permit sensitive operation on all internal faults.

6.5.2 High-impedance differential

It is normal to provide phase and earth fault protection for the generator stator using the high-impedance differential system shown in Figure 6.13a [1]. Protection for earth faults only is achieved using the restricted earth fault differential system shown in Figure 6.13b. The latter is normally only used when the individual phase connections are not available at the neutral end of the generator. The voltage setting for a high-impedance relay is determined by calculating the maximum possible voltage drop across the lead resistance and CT wiring resistance that could occur during a close-up solid external fault. The minimum primary operating current is calculated by adding the sum of the secondary exciting currents of all the parallel connected current transformers, when operating at the relay setting voltage, to the relay minimum operating current and multiplying the result by the CT turns ratio. Once the minimum primary operating current has been calculated, the region of the winding that is protected for earth faults can be evaluated [1, 9]. Example: A generator is rated at 4MVA, 11kV and its subtransient reactance is j0.2 per unit based on the machine rating. All the current transformers are 200/5 class X with a knee point voltage of 100V, a magnetising current of 100mA at 29V and a winding resistance of 0.6. The loop resistance of the leads used to connect each CT to the relay is 0.5. Determine the value of the stabilising resistor necessary to ensure the relay does not operate during a through fault if the relay operating voltage is 25V at a current of 25mA [1, 9]. For an external fault at the generator terminals, I = kV / (3 Z), where Z = Zpu kVbase2 / MVAbase. Hence, I = 6350 / (0.2 112 / 4.0) = 1050A primary = 5.25 Inominal = 26.25A secondary. Voltage across relay