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# 15.13.

Newton-Raphson Procedure

## 15.13.6. Arc-Length Method

(15157)

where is normally within the range -1.0 l 1.0. Writing the proportional loading factor in an incremental form yields at substep n and iteration i (see Figure 15.16: "Arc-Length Approach with Full Newton-Raphson Method"):

(15158)

where:
= incremental load factor (as shown in Figure 15.16: "Arc-Length Approach with Full Newton-Raphson Method")

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## 15.13. Newton-Raphson Procedure

The incremental displacement {ui} can be written into two parts following (Equation 15158):

(15159)

where:
= displacement due to a unit load factor = displacement increment from the conventional Newton-Raphson method

## These are defined by:

(15160)

(15161)

In each arc-length iteration, it is necessary to use (Equation 15160) and (Equation 15161) to solve for and . The incremental load factor in (Equation 15159) is determined by the arc-length equation which can be written as, for instance, at iteration i (see Figure 15.16: "Arc-Length Approach with Full Newton-Raphson Method"):

(15162)

where:
= scaling factor (with units of displacement) used to ensure the correct scale in the equations un = sum of all the displacement increments ui of this iteration

The arc-length radius i is forced, during the iterations, to be identical to the radius iteration 1 at the first iteration, i.e.
(15163)

While the arc-length radius 1 at iteration 1 of a substep is determined by using the initial arc-length radius (defined by the NSUBST command), the limit range (defined by the ARCLEN command) and some logic of the automatic time (load) step method (Automatic Time Stepping). (Equation 15159) together with (Equation 15162) uniquely determines the solution vector (ui, )T. However, there are many ways to solve for approximately. The explicit spherical iteration method is used to ensure orthogonality (Forde and Stiemer(174)). In this method, the required residual ri (a scalar) for explicit iteration on a sphere is first calculated. Then the arc-length load increment factor is
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## 15.13. Newton-Raphson Procedure

for explicit iteration on a sphere is first calculated. Then the arc-length load increment factor is determined by formula:

(15164)

The method works well even in the situation where the vicinity of the critical point has sharp solution changes. Finally, the solution vectors are updated according to (see Figure 15.16: "Arc-Length Approach with Full Newton-Raphson Method"):
(15165)

and
(15166)

where:
n = current substep number

Values of n and are available in POST26 (SOLU command) corresponding to labels ALLF and ALDLF, respectively. The normalized arc-length radius label ARCL (SOLU) corresponds to value where is the initial arc-length radius defined (by the NSUBST command) through (Equation 15162) (an arc-length radius at the first iteration of the first substep). In the case where the applied loads are greater or smaller than the maximum or minimum critical loads, arc-length will continue the iterations in cycles because || does not approach unity. It is recommended to terminate the arc-length iterations (using the ARCTRM or NCNV commands). ,

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