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201 Interview Questions

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ....................................................................... .10 KEY QUESTIONS .............................................................. ... 13 Basic .......................................................................... ..................14 Intermediate .............................................. ................................... 16 Expert .................................. ....................................................... 2l CHAPTER 1: BW Administratio11 and Design ......................25 Basic Concepts ................................................................. ............ 2 6 BW Settings in SPRO ........................................... .......................... 44 Non Cumulative Key Figures ....................... ..................................... 47 A~~thorizations ....................... ....................................................... 5 0 BW Archival and retrieve ....................................................... ......... 55 .............................................................................. 5 7 Process Chai~is Open Hub ....................................................................... .............. 6 2 Tuning ...................................................... ................................... 6 4 RSRV ................................... ......................................................... 67 ODs ............... ............................................................................. 69 BW Statistics ................................................................. ...............72 Aggregates ................................................... ................................74

Table o f c o n t e n t s CHAPTER 2: BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting) ........79 Business Explorer .............................................................. ........... 80 Calculated key figures .......................................... ......................... 82 Boolean Operators ................................. ....................................... 84 Structures and cells ................ ...................................................... 85 Before and after aggre gation .......................................................... 86 Key figure properties ..................................................................... 88 Hierarchies in Reports ..................................................... .............. 90 92 User Exits for Bex Reporting .............................. ............................. 95 Variables ..................................... ................................................ Query properties .............. ............................................................ 100 Document utilit y .......................................................................... 'I0 3 Query Administration ......................................................... ........... 104 105 Conditions and Exceptions .................................. ................... Reporting Agent ............................................ .............................. 108 Web Application Designer .................... ........................................... 112 CHAPTER 3: Extraction ....................................................121 Basic Concepts ................................................................. ........... 122 Class System ................................................... ........................... 129 Generic Data source ............................ ......................................... 130

Table of contents LIS Extraction ................................................................. .............. 131 LO Extraction ............................................... ............................... 134 CO-PA Extraction ........................... ............................................... 137 CO-PA Retraction ........... .............................................................. 140 Enhancing dat a extraction ............................................................. 142 DB Connect ..................................................................... ............ 145 Currency Translation in BW ..................................................... ...... 147 CHAPTER 4: BW Fu~~ctional ............................................. 149 ASAP methodology ............................................................... ........ 150 Business Content and roles ........................................ .................... l5l

INTRODUCTION How to use this book: As a consultant / analyst: J J J Start by reading this book from cover to cover. Repeat that until you think you know all the details. Now practice what you have learnt in the system. If you are an employer looking to hirelcontract a BW professional: * , The first part of the book highlights key questions that you should be able to a sk a candidate and therefore gauge their competency based on their answers. By r andomly adding in a few questions from the rest of the book you can focus on a s pecific area and ensure that the candidate really knows the relevant information . Before interviewing a candidate, always make sure that you fully understand th e question and the answer. Although every effort has been made to make the quest ions and answers simple in their explanation, some questions may still not make sense to an untrained user. We suggest highlighting those questions that you wis h to ask, familiarizing yourself with the answers and then conducting the interv iew. J J J

Note that the chapter / topic that: the question covcrs is always listed on the top of each page. This is because it is always important to know in what context the question w;ls asked, to ensure that the candidate can respond to it as corr ectly as possible e.g. If you are asking a reporting question then explain to th e candidate that the following question pertains to reporting. Key : Each questi on has a rating which is illustrated by the tollowing symbols: 0 00 Basic Intermediate 000 Expert As an added benefit we've included several worksheets and bonus material on Geni epress.com, including candidate worksheets which have all the questions marked o ut for yoi~, provide space for the candidates name, the date of interview and th eir overall scores. There are also links to other BW data provided by the author , such as SAP'S standard cubes. Links to SAPGcnic's BW material are also availab le from this bonus arca. To access this information: go to http://www.rrenicr,re ss.com/ 201 bw and enter the username 201 bw and password lsd2lk Good luck and e njoy!

K e y [luestions Basic 1. What are the advantages of an Extended star schema of BW vs. 'The star schema? 9 9 9 9 9 Uses generated numeric keys and aggregates in its own tables for faster access. Uses an external hierarchy. Supports multiple languages. Contains master data co mmon to ;dl cubcs. Supports slowly changing dimensions. 2. How maliy tliniensio~isare there ill a cube? There are a total of 16 dimensions in a culx. Of these 16, 3 are predefined by S AP and thcsc arc timc, unit and request. This leaves the customer uri th 13 dime nsions. 3. What is the transaction for the Adrr~inistratorwork bench? Transaction RSA 1 4. Wliat is tlie "myself data mart"? A BW system feeding data to itself is called the myself data mart. It is created automatically and ilscs ALE for data transfer. 5. What is an aggregate? Aggregates are mini cubes. They arc uscd t o improvc performance when executing queries. l'ou can cquate them to indexes on a table. Aggregates klrc transparent to the user.

Basic 6 . Wliat is a calculated key figure? A calculated key figure is ilsed to do complicated calculations on key figures such as mathematical functions, percentage filnction s and total filnctions. For example, you can have a calculated key figure to cal ci~late sales tax based on your sale price. 7. What is the enlia~icementuser exit for BEx reportilig? 8. What is a characteristics variable? You can have dynamic input for characteristics using a characteristic variable. For example, if you are developing a sales rcport for a given product, you will define a variable for OMATERIAL. 9. What is a condition? If yo11 want to filter on key figures or do a ranked analysis then you use a con dition. For example, you can use a condition to report on the top 10 customers, or customers with more than a million dollars in annual salcs.

Kev Ouestions Intermediate '10. What are the data types s1.1pported by characteristics? 4 4 4 4 NUMC CHAR (up to 60) DATS TIMS Numeric IJp to 60 characters Date Time 11. What are the types of attributes? Display only - These attributes are only for display and no analysis can be done . Navigational attributes regular characteristics. These attributes behave like For example, assume that we have customer characteristics with country as a navi gational attribute, you will then be able to analyze the data using customer and country. In the BEx query you can create filters or variables for country and y ou can also use the drill down feature. 12. What is meant by compo~.lnding? Compounding defines the s~lperior Infoobject, which must be combined to define a n object. For example, when you define a cost center, the controlling area is th e compounding (superior) object.

Intermediate 13. What are tlie 10 decision poi~itsof data warehousi~ig? c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ Identify a fact table. Identify the dimension tables. Define the attributes of t he entities. Define the granularity of the fact table (how detailed do you want the data to be). Define pre-calculated key figures. Identify slowly changing dim ensions. Identify aggregates. How long will the data be kept. How often is the d ata extracted. From which system is the data to be extracted. c/ c/ c/ c , 14. What options are available in the transfer rule? c/ c/ c/ Assign an Infoobject - direct transfer, no transformation Assign a constant eg. If you are loading data from a specified country from a flat file, you can make the country (17s)as a constant and assign the value explicitly ABAP routine eg. If you want to do some complex string manipulation, assume that you are getting a flat file from legacy data and the cost center is in a field and you have to " massage" the data to get it in. In this case the use of an ABAP routine is most appropriate

K e y Cluestions J Formula - for simple calculations usc formula eg. If you want to convert all low er casc cl~uractcrs to upper case, use the TOUPPER formula. You can use formilla builder to help put your formulas together. 15. What is compression or collapse? This is the process by which we delete the recluest ID'S which leads to space sa vings. All the rcgular rcqucsts are stored in the F table. When you compress, th e request I D is deleted and data is moved from the F table to the E table. This saves space and improves performance but the disadvantage is that you cannot de lete the compressed requests individually. You can, however, still use selective deletion. If you are using noncumulative key figures in a cube, the cube should be compressed as often possible to improve performance. 16. What is an InfoSet? An InfoSet is an info provider giving data by joining data from different source s like O D s and master data. You can also do an outer join in an InfoSet. InfoS ets can also be used to combine transactional data with master data. For example , if you have cli~antity the in transaction data and you have price as an attrib ute of the material. Then you can have an InfoSet with transaction data and mate rial where yo11 will l)e able to do calculations based on material pricc in BEx.

Intermediate Another usage is, if you have O D s you can disable BEx reporting (in the settin g) and use the O D s in the InfoSet for reporting, which leads to improved perfo rmance 17. What are lion cu~iiulativekey figures? These are key figures that are not summarized (unlike sales, etc.). Examples are head count and inventory amount. They are always shown in relation to a point i n time. For example, we will ask how many employees we had as of last quarter. W e don't add up the head count. 18. What perfornialice improvemelit call we do for reporting? 4 4 4 4 Aggregates OLAP cache Pre-calculated web templates Use small amount or result da ta as starting point of any queries and do the drill down. Avoid reporting on O D s and use InfoSet containing O D s for reporting. If you use exclusion in repo rting ( < >), the indices are not used. So avoid using the exclusion but use inc lusion. Use the read mode "H" read when navigating and expanding hierarchies". U se compression on Infocubes since the E table is optimized for queries. Create a dditional indexes. 4 4 4 4 4

Key Ruestions Run DB statistics often. 9 Use secondary indexes on ODS active table. v Use RSRT transaction to look at the "Explain Plan" statement. 9 If you are running a que ry on an info provider with non cumulative key figure then suppress summary line items (totals). v 19. Wliat are tlie options when defining aggregates? * H F Groups according to characteris tics Values Hierarchy Fixed value; for example i f you have a OCOUNTRY characteristic and only US is reported on, then you can cr eate an aggregate only for the country IJS Blank None

Exoert Expert 20. What are the BEx options for characteristics like F4 help for query definiti on and execution? This defines how the data is displayed in the query definition screen or when th e query is executed. Options are from the data displayed, from master data table (all data) and from dimension data. For example let us assume that you have 100 products in total in your material master, 10 products available in a cube and in BEx you display a query for 2 products; the following options for the product will display different data: 4 4 4 Selective data only will display 2 products Dimension data will display 10 produ cts From master data will display all 100 products 21. What is tlie 1:lifference between am~u~it,lqua~itity alid number type key fi gures? Amount /quantity is always combined with units. For example, sales will be linke d to currency and inventory will be linked to quantity in units. In your design if you don't need units then you should use number or integer to improve perform ance. 22. Wlieli coding the ABAP transfer rule, what are the important variables yo11 make use of? 4 RESULT This gets the result of the ABAP code.

K e y Questions J RETURNCODE J ABORT You set this to 0 if everything is O K ; else this record is skippcd. Set this t o a value not 0, to abort thc cntirc package. 23. What is the use of This option is uscd to urce contains calendar plit for each calendar e factory calendar. time distribution option in the update rule? distribute data according to time. For examplc, if the so week and the target contains calendar day, tlie data is s day. Here you can select either the normal calendar or th

24. In update rules for key figures, what are tlie return table options for? lJsually thc ilpdatc rulc scnds one record to the data target; using this option you can send multiple records to the data target cg. If you gct 1 record from t hc communication structure using this option you can create multiple records int o thc data target. For example if we are getting total tclcphone expenses for th e cost center, you can use this to return tclcphone cxpcnses for cach employee ( by dividing the total cxpenses by the number of employccs in tlle cost center) a nd creating cost record for c;~ili cmployec using ABAP code.

Expert 25. How would you optimize dime~isions? IJse as many dimensions as possible for performance improvement eg. Assume that you have 100 products and 200 customers; Option 1) Make one dimension for both, the size of the dimension will be 20,000; ( 100 * 200). Make individual dimensio ns one for product (100 rows) and one for customers (200) rows. The total number of rows in both dimensions will be 300. Option 2) c/ Obviously Option 2 is better. Even if you have more than one characteristic per dimension, you should do the m ath considering the worst case scenario and decide which characteristics may be combined in which dimensions. 26. What is a line item (or degenerate) dimelision? If the size of a dimension of a cube is almost the same as the size of the fact table, you define that dimension as a line item dimension. For example, if you s tore the sales document number in one dimension in a sales cube, usually the dim ension size and the fact table size will be the same. When you add the overhead of look ups for DIMIDISIDs, the performance will be very slow. By flagging it as a line item dimension, the

Kev Ouestions system puts the SID in the fact table instead of DIMID for the sales document nu mber. This avoids one look up into dimension table (the dimension table is not c reated in this case). Only one characteristic is allowed per line item dimension and for F4 help, the complete master data is displayed (which takes more time t o display). 27. What is a "Marker" in Non Cumulative cubes? Noncumulatives are stored using a "Marker" for the current period. A marker is n othing b ~ l a pointer t referring to a time period. For example an inventory cu be marker may refer to the inventory levels as of yesterday. 28. What is the use of a colon ':' as an authorization value? J J It enables queries that do not contain an authorization relevant object that hav e been checked into the Infocube. It allows summary data to be displayeci if the user does not have access to detailed data. For example, if you create 2 author izations for one user: one with Sales Org * and customers : and second with sale s org 1000 and customers *, the user sees all customers for sales org 1000 and o nly summarized report for other sales org.

CHAPTER 1 BW Administration and Design

Chapter 1: B W Administration and Design Basic Concepts 29. What are the differences between OLAP and OLTP applicatiolis? O J J J OLAP Summarized data Read only Not Optimized Lot of historical data J OLTP Detailed Read write Optimized for data applications Less historical data 30. What is a star schema? O A fact table at the center and surrounded (linked) by dimension tables 31. What is a slowly changing dimension? O A dimension containing characteristics \\,hose value changes over a time period. For example, take an employee's job title, this changes over a pcriod of time a s the employee moves through an organization. This is called a slowly changing d imension. 32. What are the advalitages of an Extelided star schenia of BW vs. The star sch ema? O J J J Use of generated keys (numeric) for faster access External hierarchy Support for multiple languages

Basic Concepts J J J Master data is common to all cubes Supports slowly changing dimensions Aggregate s in its own tables which allows for tastcr access 33. What is the namespace for BW? 0 0 All SAP objects start with 0. The customer namespace is A - 2. All tables begin with /BIO for SAP and /BIC for customers; All generated objects start with 1-8 ( like export data source). The prefix 9A is used in APO. 34. What is an Infoobject? 0 Infoobjects are business objects eg. Customer, product. They are divided into ch aracteristics and key figures. Characteristics are evaluation objects such as cu stomer and key figures are measurable objects such as sales quantity. Characteri stics also include special objects like unit and time. 35. What are time dependent text / attribute of cliaracteristics? O If text (for example a name of a product or person) or if an attribute changes o ver time then these must be marked as time dependent. 36. Can you create your own time characteristics? O

C h a o t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i n n 37. Wliat is mealit by Alplia conversio~i?00 Alpha conversion is used to store data consistently. It does this by storing num eric values prefixed with 0s eg. If you have defined a material as length 6 (of type Numc) then material number 1 is stored as 000001 but displayed as 1; this r emoves inconslstenc~es between 0 1 vs. 001. 38. What is tlie alpha clieck executioli progra~ii?00 This is used to check consistency for BW 2.x before upgrading the system to 3.x. I t is RSMDCNVEXIT 39. What is the attributes only flag? 0 If this flag is set, no master data is stored. This is only used as an attribute for other characteristics, for example comments on an Accounts Receivable docum ent. 40. Wliat are tlie data types allowed for key figures? 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 Amount, Quantity Number Integer Date Time 41. What are the aggregation options for key figures? 00 If you are defining prices then you may want to set "no aggregation" or you can define max, min, sum. You

can also define exception aggregation like first, last etc. This is helpfill in getting a headcount eg. If you define a monthly inventory count key figure you w ant the count as of the last day of the previous month. 42. What is ,the niaximuni number of key figures you call Iiave in an Infocube? O 43. What is the maximum number of characteristics you can have per dimension? O 44. What is a SID table a ~ i d what are its advantages? 00 The SID table (Surrogate I D table) is the interface betwccn master data and the dimension tables. Advantages include: 4 Using 8 byte integer values as indexes for faster access 4 Master data is independent of Infocubes 4 Supports multiple languages 4 Supports slowly changing dimensions 45. Which tables are generated for master data? 00 P table Time independent master data attributes Time dependent master data attributes Q table

Chapter 1: BW Administration and Design S Table M view X table Y table for the SID Ids Com bines P and Q Interface between master data SIDs and time in dependent navip;ltional attributes SIDs ( P is linked to the X table) Interface between master data SIDs and time dependent navigational attributes SIDs ( Q is linked to the Y table) 46. What is the transfer routine of tlie I~ifoDbject?O It is like a start routine; this is independent of the data source and valid for all transfer routines; you can use this to define global data and global checks . 47. Wliat is the DIM ID? O These are Dimensional IDS. Dim ID'S link dimensions to the fact table. I t is an 8 byte integer like SID. 48. What is a table partition? 00 By partitioning we split the table into smaller tables which is transparent to t he application. This improves performance (when reading as well as deleting data ). SAP uses fact table partitioning to improve performance. Note that you can on ly partition on OCALMONTH or OFISCPER.

Basic Concepts Remember that the partition is created only in the E fact table; the F fact tabl e is partitioned by Request Number as a default. Advantages of a partition: 4 Ma kes use of parallel process 4 Allows a smaller set of data to be read 4 Allows f ast deletion 49. How many extra partitions are created and why? Can you partition a cube wi,t h data ? 00 IJsually 2 extra partitions are created to accommodate data before the beginning period and one after the end of partitioning period. No, you cannot partition a cube with data. A cube must be empty to partition it. One work around is to mak e a copy of the cube A to cube B and then to export data from A to B using expor t data source. Then empty cube A, create partition on A, re-import data from B a nd delete cube B. Note that this is going to change in Netweaver 2004s (Or BW 7) 50. What is a source system? O Any system that is sending data to BW like R/3, flat file, oracle database or a non-SAP systems.

C h a p t e r 1: B W A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Design 51. What is a data source and wha,t is an InfoSource? O Data source: The source that is sending data to a particular InfoSource on BW Fo r example, wc have a OCUSTOMER-ATTR data source to supply attributes to OCUSTOME R from R/3. InfoSource : Group of logically related objects. For example, the OC USTOMER InfoSourcc will contain data related to customer and attributes like cus tomer number, address, phone no, etc. 52. Wliat are tlie 4 types of InfoSources? O J J J J Transactional Attributes Text Hierarchy 53. Wliat is a commur~icationstructure? O Is an independent structure created from an InfoSource. It is independent of the sourcc system / data source. 54. What are transfer rules and what is global tralisfer rule? O Transfer rules: T h e transformation rules for data from the source system to th e InfoSource / communication structure. These are used to clean up thc data from source system.

Basic Concepts For example when you load customer data from flat file, you can convert the name to upper case using a transfer rule. Global Transfer Rule: This is a transfer r outine (ABAP) defined at the Infoobject level. This is common for all soilrce sy stems. 55. Name some important formulas available in BW? O c/ ./ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ Concatenate substring condense leftlright (n characters) 1-trim r-trim replace d ate routines: DATECONV date-week add-to-date date-diff logical functions like: i f and 56. What is tlie process of replication and what menu path would you use to perf orm it? O This copies data source structures from R/3 to BW For example, assume that you a dded a new data source in R/3. This will not be visible in the BW system until y ou replicate it.

C h a n t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Desinn You replicate using the transaction RSAl +Source System + k g h t click on the s ystem +Replicate. You can also replicate at an info area level. 57. Wliat is tlie update rule? O The update rule defines the transformation of data from the communication struct ure to the data targets. This is independent of the source systems / data source s. For example, you can use update rule to globally change data independent of t he source system. 58. What are the options in update r~.lles?O J J One to one move for Infoobject value Constant Lookup for master data attribute v alue Formula Routine (ABAP) Initial value J J J J 59. What are the special conversions for time in update rules? O Time dimensions are automatically converted. For example, if the cube contains c alendar month and your transfer structure contains date, the date to c;ilendar m onth is converted automatically.

Basic C o n c e p t s 60. What is the start routine? 00 The first step in the update process is to call start routine. Use this to fill global variables to be used in update routines. For example, you can define glob al values to be used by the update routines. It is also the first step in the Tr ansformation process before the Transfer rules. 81. What is the co~iversio~i routi~ie u ~ i i t s currencies in for and the upda te rule? 00 IJsing this option you can write ABAP code for unit / currency conversion. If yo u enable this flag then unit of measure of the key figure appears in the ABAP co de as an additional parameter. For example, you can use this to convert quantity in pounds to quantity in kilograms. 62. How do you add an entry in the monitor log from the update rules? 000 This is added in the internal table MONITOR; the following fields describe the M O N I T O R structure 4 4 4 4 4 4 MONITOR-MSGID gives an I D MONITOR-MSGTY message type MONITOR-MSGNO message numb er MONITOR-MSGV1 monitor message1 MONITOR-MSGV2 monitor message 2 Append it to t he M O N I T O R table, this will show up in the monitor

Chapter 1: BW Administration and Design Here is a sample code to do this. Assumc that you are checking for product 'XYZ' which should not bc loaded to the cube and you want to display a message in the monitor. The code in the update routine will be :Ifc o m m - s t r u c t u r e - p r o d u c t = LXYZ'. R e t u r n c o d e = 1. Monitor-msgid = ' X Y Z ' . Mo nitor-msgty = L E ' . Monitor-msgno = ' 1 2 3 ' . Monitor-msgvl = ' I n v Prod'. Monitor-msgv2 = comm-structure-product. Append m o n i t o r . Exit. End i f . 63. How do you create the "myself data mart"? O The BW system feeding data to itself is called the myself data mart. It is creat ed automatically and uses ALE for data transfer d J J d Right click and create the export data source for the ODSIcube or PSA. In the ta rget system replicate the data source Create transfer rules and update rules Cre ate info package to load 64. Can you make MultiProviders alid liiaster data as data marts? O Yes

Basic Concepts 65. Wliat are tlie benefits of data marts? 0 4 4 4 4 Simple to use H u b and spoke usage Distributed data In some cases they can prov ide performance improvements 66. What are events and how do you use them? 00 Events are background signals to tell the system that a certain status has been reached; you can use events in batch jobs. For example, after you load data to t he cube you can trigger an event which will start another job to run the reporti ng agent. Use SM62 to create and maintain events. 67. Wliat is all event chain and Iiow do you create one? 00 This is a group of events that are completed independently of one another. Used to execute processes based on success or failure of events. For example, you can trigger a chain event if all loads are successfill. AWB Tools Event collector 68. What is meant by PSA? 0 Persistent staging area - is based on the transfer structure and is source syste m dependent. The data in the PSA is in the same format as the data received from the source system.

C h a o t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i n n 69. What are different options available for update process to data target? O cl cl r/ cl PSA and data targets in parallel - improvcs performance PSA and data target in s equencc PSA only - you have to manually load clata to data targets Data targets only - N o PSA For performance reasons you should do PSA ;1nd Data targets in parallel. 70. Wliy, if one request fails, do all the subsequent requests turn to "red" in an Infoprovider? 00 This is to avoid inconsistency and ensures that only data from subsequent reques ts is not available for reporting which otherwise would lead to inconsistency be tween report and underlying data. 71. What are the two fact tables? O There are two fact tables for each I n f o C ~ ~ b c namely the E table and the F table. The E table is ol7timized for Read. 72. What is recons,tructitln? O This is the process by which you reload data from PSA (or O D s ) into the cube/ ODS.

Basic Concepts 73. What is a remote cube? 0 Remote cube is a logical cube where the data is extracted from an external sourc e. It is usually used to report on real time data from an r/3 system instead of drilling down from BW to R3. 74. What is a virtual I~ifoCubewith services? 00 In this case, a user defined function module is used as the data source. Using t his, for example, you can access a table from a logical cilbe. For example, the delivered cube OBWTC-C08 (BW Metadata) is an InfoCube with Services and it Llses a function module to get data. 75. What are the restrictio~is/recomme~idations usi~ig for remote cube? 00 These are used for reporting on small volumes of data with few users; no master data allowed. Performance is poor while using remote cube. 76. Give examples of data sources that support remote cubes. 00 OF1-AP-3 - vendor line items, OF1-AR-3 - customer line items 77. What is a MultiProvider? 0 lJsing MultiProvider you can access data from different data sources like cubes, ODS, Infosets, master data. MultiProvidcr does a Union at the database level.

C h a p t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i g n 78. What are the added features in 3.x for MultiProvider? 00 Prior to 3.x only multi cubes were available; J'OLL can not combine a O D s and cube, for example. 79. What is ,the difference between MultiProvider and InfoSet? O MultiProvider is a Union whereas InfoSct is a 'Join" (intersection). So from a M ultiProvider JJOLI may get as many rows as the number of underlying InfoProvider s. Example: InfoProviderl (with Sales Order and order q t y ) Sales Doc Ord qty S 10 1 10 InfoProvider2 (with Delivery doc no, salcs doc no, qty delivered) Del Doc No Sales Doc no Qty delivered Dl01 SlOl 8 If we use a MultiProvider to rcpor t, the f;)llowing data will be displayed :SalesDoc DelDoc Ord Qty 1)clQtv S 10 1 SlOl # Dl01 10 S If we use an InfoSct the following result ~ v i l lbe displayed (join on sales d oc no): SalesDoc DelDoc OrdOty SlOl D 10 1 10 DclQty S

Basic Conceots Please note: Thc InfoSet cannot be created on an Infocube but only on transparen t tables like O D s and Master data (BW version 7.0 this limitation is not appli cable). 80. What is a transactional Infocube? How will you report on this? O These cubes arc used for both read and write, standard cubes arc optimized for r eading. The transactional cubes are uscd in SEM. Since transactional cubes are n ot loaded by InfoPackagc thc reporting flag is not set until it rcachcs a certai n limit. To view the data from queries with latest data, you should use the syst em variable O -RQMRC (Most Current Data) as a filter for S Request ID in your BE x queries. BAPI's are needed to load data and also for reporting on Transactiona l InfoCubes. Plcasc note : You need BAPI to load data and also for reporting on Transactional Infocube. 81. Wliat is the Transaction code for monitori~ig Cache? O Transaction code RSRCACHE

C h a p t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Design 82. What is meant by Iiigli cardi~ialitydinielisio~i?00 If the dimension exceeds 10% of the size of the fact table then you can make it as a high cardinality dimension. Basically SAP converts from a bitmap index to a B tree index. 83. When do you recommend high cardi~ialityvs line item dimension? O 0 If your dimension is more than 10% but less than 20% of the size of h c t table then use high cardinality dimension; if it exceeds 20% then use line item dimens ion. 84. What are the profile parameters for cache? 00 J J rdsb/esm/buffersize-kb rsdb/esm/max-objects maximum size of cache maximum number of entries in cache 85. Can you disable the cache? 00 Yes, either globally or by using query d c l ~ l g tool using transaction code R SRT. 86. What is persistelice mode ill caclie? 00 Instead of swapping data from menlor): you can store the data in a cluster table or file. This option ;~llows you to store more data in cache than the avai1;~bl e size of main memory.

Basic Concepts 87. What does tlie progralli RSMDCNVEXIT check? 000 All characteristics with conversion exit ALPHA, NUMC and GJAHR 88. When should you do the alpha conversion? 000 If you are upgrading you must do it before the PREPARE phase of upgrade 89. Can you make an Infoobject as an InfoProvider and why? O Yes, when you want to report on attribute values of characteristics (master data ), to make an Infoobject as InfoProvider, right click on the info area in the ad ministration workbench and make them as an InfoProvider. For example, you can ma ke OCUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and do BEx reporting on OCUSTOMER. Right click o n the info area and select "Insert characteristic as data target"

Chanter 1: BW Administration and Design BW Settings in SPRO 90. What are the control parameters for data transfer? O They define the maximum size of the p ~ ~ c k e t , the maximum number of record s per packet, the number of parallel processes, etc. 91. Which transaction code is used to set up tlie permitted characters? 000 Transaction code RSKC. 92. What is meant by aggregate realignment run maintenance? 00 This defines the level of percentage change where a realignment run will cause a reconstruction of aggregates. Remember that if you have exception key figures l ike Min or Max, then the aggregate will be rebuilt every time you run the change . 93. What is meant by update mode for master data? O It defines whether the master data (auto sid) is added you automatically, for no n existing master data, nll~en load the transaction data.

BW S e t t i n e s i n SPRO 94. What are the ODs object settings? O They are: c/ The number of parallel processors in activation, c/ Minimum number of data records c/ Wait time 95. What are the settings for flat files? They are: c/ The thousand separator c/ Decimal pointer c/ Field separator (defau lt is ;) c/ Field delimiter (default '7 O 96. What are the settings for data transfer? O They are: c/ Maximum number of data packages c/ Frecluency c/ Size of PSA partit ion 97. What are tlie nio~iitorset'ti~igs?O c/ Define the wait time before the status turns to red. Usually it is 7 hours, whic h means if the data is not transferred within 7 hours for the request, the statu s is set to red. Status colors. Here you can specify what status should be displ ayed in case of 0 records transferred or warnings. Schedule monitor assistant in the background to analyze requests. c/ c/

Chapter 1: BW Administration and Design 98. Which tra~isactit~n defines the background user in the code source system? 0 0 Transaction code RSCUSTV3 99. What are the settings for Reporti~ig?O 4 4 4 Defines what should be displayed for conditions like: divide by zero, no data, o verflow, mixed values and authorization errors Infoprovider properties for cache Activate personalization in BEx 100. What are the settings for web ? O 4 4 4 4 4 Define default web template and style sheet RRI Setting Drag and relate settings IGS settings Maintain web protocol of http or https

N o n Cumulative Key Figures Nan Cumulative Key Figures '101. What is standard and exception aggregation? 000 Standard aggregation -) specifies how values for a key figure arc aggregated usi ng all characteristics except time. Exception aggregation -) specifies how value s for a key figure are aggregated using time characteristics. 102. What is a time reference characteristic? 000 It is a time characteristic which determines all other time characteristic eg. O CALDAY, OCALMONTH, OCALWEEK, OFISCPER 103. Give example of data sources supporting non cumulative key fig1.1t-es. 00 4 4 2L1S-40-S278 2LIS-0 3-BF 2LIS-03-UM transfer BW stock Material Movements Revaluations 104. Can you create aggregate for a cube having cumulative key figure? 00 Yes, but you must include all time characteristics. 105. What is the opening balance? 000 When you start loading inventory data from R/3 you start with inventory quantity at a certain point in time, this is what is called the opening balance.

C h a o t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i a n 106. Wliat is "No Marker Update"? 000 If you choose this option when compressing a non cumulative cube, the reference point is not updated but the requests are moved to Request O (usu;ll compression ). You must do this for compressing historical data. 107. When you compress multiple requests, how would you know which request had " Marker llpdate" enabled or not? 000 Check the log file for each compression. If you see a message like N O REFPOINT UPDATE rhen rhc marker was not updated in this comprcssion. 108. What are the steps to load a non c~.lmulativecube? 000 r/ r/ Initialize the opening balance in R/3 6 2 7 8 ) Activate the extract structure M CO3BFO for data source 2LIS-03-BF Set up the historical material documenrs in R/ 3 Load the opening balance using data source 2LIS-40-S278 Load the historical mo vements and comprcss them without marker update. Set up the V3 update Load the d eltas using 2LIS-03-BF c/ c/ r/ r/ r/

N o n C u m u l a t i v e Key F i g u r e s 109. How is the result for a query based on an Infocube, having noncumulative ke y figure, calculated? 000 Non Quantity = Reference point in time quantity compressed delta quantities - De ltas for backward quantity Example :Ref p i n t in time : 12/30/2003 qty 100 Del ta for one day 1213 1/2003 qty 1 0 (not compressed) Total qty = 110. + 110. Wliat is a validity deterliiiliing characteristic? 000 This determines the validity period of a noncumulative cube eg. Plants opening a nd closing time periods. 111. Wliat are ,the dos and dolifts of no~icumulativekey figures? 000 9 9 9 1Jse few validity objects. Compress the cube as regularly as possible so that th e marker stays current. IJsc a smaller time period using variable when reporting .

C h a p t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i g n 112. Wliat is tlie tra~isactio~i for mai~itaini~ig code autlioriza'tion object a nd role maintenance? 00 Transaction code PFCG 113. What is a role? O The role defines the responsibility of a user wit11 proper menu and transaction authorizations. 114. Give some examples of the roles delivered with SAP BW. 0 All B W roles start with S-RS. For example: 4 S-RS-ROPAD- Production system admi nistrator 4 S-RS-RREPU - BEx user 115. What are the different authorization approaches available ill BW? O 0 4 4 4 InfoCube based approach - use this in conjunction with Info area to limit access Query name based approach - many customers use this to limit access eg. Z queri es are read only, Y queries are readlwrite and FI* query names arc for FI use. D ataset approach - limitation of characteristics and key figures. You can use rep orting authorization for this.

Authorizations 116. What are the two object classes of BW authorization? 00 4 4 BW Warehouse authorization - SAP standard BW Reporting (not delivered by SAP) user defined eg. Restricting data using an authorization variable 117. How niany fields can you assign to all autliorizatio~iobject and what are t he values for ACTVT? 00 10 The possible values for ACTVT are create, change and display. 118. Give some examples of stalidard authorization objects delivered for BW. 00 S-RS-IOMAD S-RS-ADMWB S-RS-ODSO S-RS-TOOLS S-RS-ICUBE S-RS-HIER S-RS-COME S-RS-C OMPl S-RS-FOLD S-RS-IOBJ S-RS-ISOUR S-RS-ISRCM S-GUI - GUI S-BDS-DS Master data AWB objects O D s objects BEx tools . InfoCube Hierarchy Reporting authorization Folders Info0 bject InfoSource (transaction data) Infosource (master data) Acti vities (workbooks) Document set (for workbooks)

Chapter 1: BW Administration and Design 4 S-USER-A G R S-USER-T C D c, Role check for saving workbook in a role Transaction in rolcs for skiving workbo ok in a rolc 119. What is a reporting object? 00 T h e authorization object, that is used I)!. OLAP processor in BW for checking reporting authorization. For example, use an authorization variable to control t he data as an Infoprovider. 120. Give a step hy step approach to create an authorization object. Assume that we are restricting the report by cost center. 00 4 4 4 4 c, 4 Make the Infoobject as Authorization relevant (flag) and activate it. In this ex ample OCOSTCENTER Create an authorization object ilsing Transaction code RSSM an d include OCOSTCENTER in this object. Assign the object to one or more InfoProvi ders. Create role(s) with different values for cost centers eg. You can create a role called "IT Manager" and assign it to all IT cost centers. Assign the role to users. Create a query. Create a variable Lvitliin the query for OCOSTCENTER o f type "Autlic>riz;ltion" and include it in the query. If the I T ni;ln;lger run s the query it shows only the cost centers assigned to himlher.

Authorizations 121. How to inipleme~itstructural autliorization in BW? 00 c , c , c , c , c , c , c , c , Create a profile using transaction OOSP Assign the user to the profile using tra nsaction OOSB IJpdate the T 7 7 U U table Run the progrnm RHBAUSOO Activate the data source and related components OHR-PA-2 in B W Load O D S from R/3 Activate the target InfoObjects as "Authorization relevant" Rim the filnction module RSSB to generate B W authorization. 122.What are the new BW 3.x authorizations? 0 0 c , S-RS-C O M P l S-RS-FOLD S-RS-ISET f S-G U I c , c , 4 checks for authorization depending on the owner info area view of BEx elements ( to si~ppress) or InfoSets new activity code 6 0 loaded for upload 123.What is the use of c o l ~ n as an au.thoriza'ti~11 ':' value? 00 c , c , It enables queries that d o not contain an authorization relevant object and hav e been checked in the InfoCube It allows summary data to be displayed if the use r does not have access to detailed data.

C h a n t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Desinn For example, if you create 2 authorizat~ons one for user, one with Sales Org * a nd customers : and a second with sales org 1000 and custon~ers*, the Llscr sees all customers for sales org 1000 and only summarized report for other sales org. 124. What is $ as an a~~thorization and what is value OTCTAU'TH H? O O You use $ followed by a variable name (thcsc variable values are populated in a BEx user exit). This avoids having too many roles OTCTAUTHH is used in hierarchy authorization. 125. How would you debug security issues? 00 By using transactions ST0 1 and RSSMTRACE. An 'X' mark in the log shows a fiiile d authorization check. 126. Which Transaction code shows templates for au,thorizatinns? O O Transaction code SU24.

B W Archival and retrieve BW Archival and retrieve 127. What are the adva~itagesof archiving a ~ i d what is tlie transaction code for archiving? 00 J J i J To minimize space Improve query performance Improve load performance Archive uses A D K (Archive Development Kit). Tnns&ct"on code S A m . 128. What are tlie size parameters for archiving? 00 J J Maximum file size in Megabyte Maximum number of data objects 129. What is the preca~llion should take wlie~i yuu archiving? 00 W h e n you archive an InfoCube or O D s , it is locked for any loads until the delete is finished. You should make sure that you archive and delete before you load any new data. i 130. Wliat is tlie difference between the restoring of Cube vs [IDS from archive files? 00 You can restore into O D s directly from the SARA transaction. For the cube you should schedule an info package.

C h a n t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i e n 131. Cali you archive Master data or PSA? 00 No, it is not currently supported (as of 3.1). 132. Give the step by step approach to archivi~iga Cube. 00 J J J J J J J J Double click on the cube (or right click and select change) Extras I) select arc hival Choose fields for selection eg. OCALDAY, OCUSTOMER Define the file structi lre (maximum file size and maximum number of data objects) Select the folder (lo gical file namc) Select the delete options (not scheduled, start automatically o r after event) Activate the cube The cube is ready for archiving

P r o c e s s Chains Process Chains 133. Wliat is a process cliai~iand what is the tra~isactio~i code for going to p rocess chain? 00 The process chain is a utility to schedule batch jobs on BW similar to SM37. It offers good monitoring features and error handling. Transaction code RSPC 134. Wliat are tlie general services supported in process chain? O0 c, Start process specifies a variant for the start time and date. It can be set to be recursive. you can use this to check for successful completion of two or more processes eg. You can load 2 ODSs in parallel and put an AND condition (if successful) to loa d a cube. you usually use this to determine if any of the predecessor processors failed. If you have multiple tasks in parallel you can use this to detect any p rocess failures. you use this to run an ABAP program with variants. c , AND c , c , OR EXOR (first) c, ABAP

C h a p t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Design J J J J OS Command as an example, it is usef~llto do an ftp copy before loading. Local p rocess chain call another process chain. ~Jsually there will be a master process chain calling different child process chains. For example, you can have a proce ss chain (master) called "Daily load of master data" and within that it may call 2 or more process chains to load attributes, texts, hierarchies and do a change run. Remote process chain Workflow 135. List some of tlie data target admi~iistrationtasks. 00 Delete index Generate index Construct database statistics Initial fill of new ag gregates Roll up of filled aggregates Compression of the InfoCube Activate O D s Complete deletion of data target

P r o c e s s Chains 136. List the reporting agent tasks. 00 4 4 4 4 Exception reporting Print in the background Pre calculation of web templates Pre calculation of value sets 137. List sollie of the BW process types for building process chain. 00 4 4 4 4 Attribute change run Adjustment of time dependent aggregates Deletion of request s from PSA Reorganize attributes and texts for master data. This is a useful too l to compress master data and text. 138. What are the scheduling options for start process? 00 4 4 4 Direct scheduling or Start from meta chain (parent chain) API Use the second option for your child process chains. 139. List some of the parallel processes that could have locking problems. 000 4 4 Hierarchy attribute change run Loading master data for the same Infoobject eg. A void loading master data from different source systems at the same time

Chapter 1: BW Administration and Design c, c, c, Rolling up for the same InfoCubc Selecting deletion of an InfoCube I ODS ~lnd pa rallel loading Activation or deletion of an ODS ohjcct when loading in parallel 140. What is tlie benefit of tlie optio~i"default chai~is"?000 When this option is enabled (by default) and when you insert a process, any corr esponding process types are inserted automatically. For example, if you drag and drop an info package load for ODS, then the process types (such as "Update from PSA", "Activate ODS", "Further processing") are automatically inserted. To disa ble this option use Transaction Code RSPC Settings default chains check mark "Do not suggest processes". + + + 14.1. By default, all newly created process chains are assigned to tlie "unassig ~ied"~iode. How would you reassign it to a proper component? 00 Process Chain + Attributes + Display components 142. What are the four views available for a process chain? 00 9 9 9 c, Planning view Checking view Log view Job overview

Process Chains 143. How would you send an email when a process ends in a process chain? 00 %ght click on the process you want to monitor (eg. Load info package) select cre ate message select when you want to send a message (success, fail or always) cre ate a variant for the mail. * * + 144. How would you convert an info package grol.lp into a process chain? 0 0 Double click on the info package group click on the "Process Chain Maint." butto n type in the name and description the individual info packages are inserted aut omatically. + * * 145. What is tlie differelice between EXOR and OR ill a process chain? 0 O The target for an O R process will be executed for each successfi~l occurrence. EXOR will be executed only once. Usilally you use EXOR to detect failed processe s.

C h a p t e r 1: B W A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Design Open Hub 146. What is Ope11 Hub (OH) and what data targets does it rt support? Does it s ~ ~ p p odelta? 00 O H is a tool by which you can send data from BW to different targets. It is a c ontrolled distribution of consolidated and cleansed daca. Targets could be anoth er BW system, external systems, relational table, flat file and O D B O interfac e. Yes it supports Delta. 147. How do you get into Ope11 Hub and what are the supported data sources? 0 0 Use the following menu path: Transaction Code RSBO or AWB H u b Service * Tools * Open Datasources for an Open H u b are cube. ODs and Infoobject (attributes and texts ). 148. What are the desti~iatio~i target optiolis for Open Hub in BW? 0O J J CSV file Database table

Open H u b 149. What is the "delete table before extraction" option in Open Hub in BW? 00 If you choose this option, the table contents are deleted before any new record is written. Disable this if you want to keep historical data. 150. How do yo11change tlie default desti~iatio~i Ope11 Hub of files in BW? 00 Menu path for changing the default destination of Open H ~ t b as follows: is LJ se Transaction Code SE 11 3 choose table RSBFILE 3 modify entry for XIDEST. 151. What is the licensing requirement that you should be aware of for using Ope n Hub in BW? 00 Extracting data from SAP B W by any means requires additional licensing. 152. How do you transform Ope11Hub data? 00 IJsing a BAD1 you can transform Open H u b data according to the destination req uirement.

C h a p t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i g n Tuning 153. What s h o ~ ~yo11consider when tuning your Oracle ld database? 00 0 4 Apply OSS note 180605 to set tlic riglit oracle DB parameters. This does improve performance. 1Jse database statistics. Use database partitioning. Run statistic s on all tables as often ;IS c, 4 4 possible. 154. What should you consider when tuning your server? O 00 The right combination of server resources like CPU, memory and disk space. 4 4 Load balancing across several application servers. Check for unnecessary traces and 10sfiles. If you have process chains, make sure that you run cleanup jobs to clean the table TPRI-PAR. 155. What should you consider when tuning your web? 00 0 4 Use HTTP compression to reduce nctlvsrk traffic Refer to note 550669. Use client browser caching. Use the iemon.exc program's log file option to time the query. Use analyze-iemon.exe to extract a csl. filc that can be used for further analy sis. Use precalculated web templates fi)r newspaper like reporting together with a reporting agent. 4 4 c, 4

Tuning 156. List major tuning tasks you would undertake to improve the performance of t he data load. 000 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 If you are loading lot of transactional data try deleting the indexes before the load and recreating the indexes after the load. Watch for ABAP code in transfer and update rules. This [night slow performance. IJse load balancing across serv ers. Build indexes on source tables. ITse fixed length files if you load data fr om flat files. P u t the file on the application server. Use standard content (S AP delivered) extractor as much as possible. IJsc PSA and data target in paralle l option in the info package. Start several info packages parallel with differen t selection options. Buffer the SID number ranges if you load lot of data at onc e. Load master data before loading transaction data. Rim the attribute change jo b in parallel. 157. List stlme of tlie ge~ieraltuning guidelines. 000 4 4 4 4 Archive and delete old data. Use line item dimensions instead of a large dimensi on. Use MultiProviders. Parallel query is started on basic cubes. Use the B W St atistics cube to monitor performance.

C h a o t e r 1: BW A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Desinn J J J J J Reporting authorization checks impact tlie performance negatively. Reporting on browser is faster than reporting on Excel using BEx Analyzer. Use the aggregate hierarchies to minimize the roll up time. Use parallel upload and activation for ODS objects using transaction SPRO or RSCIJSTA?. If you are not going to use an O D s for reporting, disable the BEx Reporting flag. 158. Wliat are tlie syste~iitools you can use to nionitor performance? 000 The following are the Transaction codes that are used for system monitoring: J RSRT, RSRTRACE ST05 RSRV ST03 to debug and get explain plan statements on queries for SQL traces to repair obj ects to monitor current query performance J J J

RSRV RSRV 159. Explain the purpose of the tra~isactioncode RSRV . 000 RSRV is a powerful transaction code to test consistency of following BW objects and repair them if required. For example, if there are a ny inconsistencies between the Q and Y tables for a master data object you can f m using them this transaction. J J J J J J Master data Transaction data Hierarchies Database Aggregates PSA tables 160. What are the RSRV combined tests? 000 J 1/ J J J Master data Transaction data Hierarchies Database Aggregation 181. Cali you scliedule RSRV in the background? 000 Yes, but if you want to fix errors found in the background use the program RSDMD -CHECKPRG-ALL.

C h a n t e r 1: B W A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i e n 162.Typically, when do you use RSRV? 000 W h e n loading data sometimes you get SID error inconsistencies on some master data objects. You would then d o a combined test on the InfoOhject, fix the prob lem and reload the data. 163. How do you scliedule the RSRVjob ill tlie background? 000 The menu path for scheduling the RSRV job in the background is, use the Edit men u and select "Test Package" create a package for current selections schedule it. + + 164. How would you a~ialyzethe size of the fact table vs tlie dimension table, u sing RSRV? 000 Menu path for analyzing the size of the fact t;thle vs the dimension table is, u se the transaction code RSRV All Elementary tests database data1)ase information about the Infoprovider tables. This gives you the count as a percentage of the hict t;ll,le. + + +

'165. What is ODs alid what table structures are used? O Operational Data Source is used for detailed storage of data. You can overwrite existing data in the O D S (in a cube you can not), You can also drill down from a cube to the O D s . This is used for data harmonizing, cleansing and synchron izing. ODS adds a delta capability when used in the staging process before the c ube. The data is stored in a flat table (unlike the extended star schema of the cube). So using SE 11 / SE 16 you can query the ODS data directly. Table structu res : J Active data J New data J Change log table 166. What is ,the purpose of a clialige log in ODs a ~ i d do you how delete it? O A change log is used for delta updates to the data target after the ODS. It stor es all changes for a record in Active Table. The records in a Change log are sto red based on the generated request during each activation of requests in the new data table. To delete a change log use the following menu path: lJse Transactio n code RSAl right click on ODS Manage j Environment Delete change log +

Chapter I: BW Administration and Design 167. Wliat are the advantages of usi~ig ODs in an I~ifoSetfor all reporting? O 4 Access via OLAP engine. InfoSets can join flat BW objects such as master data at tributes. 168. What are additional features available for ODs from BW version 3.x? O 4 c/ J 4 You can load and activate O D s in parallel. M table is replaced with new data w hich is similar to PSA. It is possible to create secondary indexes for an O D s object. Selective deletion of data is now possihle. 169. What is a tra~isactio~ial object? ODs O An O D s object: 4 Has only the active table. 4 Is filled using APIs. c/ Is only reported on using an InfoSct. 4 Is usually used for applications like SEbl (Str ategic Enterprise Management).

170. What are the flags used for in ODs and specifically what is the unique data record flag used for? O If you enable the unique data record then an error is issued when a duplicate re cord, to that in the Active table is inserted. 1Jse this feature to load a cube filtering any duplicates (Cubes will simply add up duplicates) c/ BEx Reporting whether this O D s is enabled for reporting. c/ c/ c/ c/ Unique data records. Set quality status to O K automatically. Activate O D s aut omatically. IJpdate data targets automatically. Please note: The Unique data record is used to improve performance and it is to be used only when you are sure that the data source will note send a duplicate r ecord.

C h a p t e r 1: B W A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d Design BW Statistics 171. What is the purpose of BW statistics cubes? O The standard sets of cubes delivered by SAP are used to measure performance for queries, data lo,lds, etc. It also shows aggregate usage and the cost associated with them. It provides data on aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management. 172. How do you enable monitoring of an Infocube-cube using BW statistics? O Individual data targets and InfoProvidcrs call 1)c included for monitoring in B W statistics using the following menu path: AWB -) Tools I) BUf statistics 173. How do you install BW statistics? O You use tlle business content available In AW7B to install J Using the Business Content section of AWB select info area "BW Statistics" I) right click and ) sel ect insert objects for collections . select before and after data flow for group ing and install. J Similarly install the Technical Content SAP-B W-T C O N T rol e. # Install the info package groups for Master data / text and transaction data .

BW Statistics 174. Give some examples of queries delivered with BW statistics. O 4 4 4 4 Mean time per query R~lntime query T Jsing Infocubes I Jtilizing OLAP 175. Give some examples of usage of BW statistics reports. O 4 4 4 4 W h o is using the query, how often i t is used and when it was last used. How t he query was executed? How much time was spent on the Database. How many rows we re read from the database vs how many were displayed / processed. You can create custom exceptions to proactively tune queries eg. You can create exceptions if the clilery spends more than 50% accessing the database - in this case tuning is needed. 176. Give a reason why BW statistics can not provide inforniation ill real ti~ii eand name the transaction code used to monitor BW system statns in real time. O The BW statistics data is loaded periodically. If you want to display the data i n real time from the statistics tables (not cubes), use transaction ST03. Select Expert Mode and select BW System load.

Chaoter 1: BW Administration and Design 177. Cali you create aggregate 011all ODs or MultiProvider? 0 178. What is "filling" of aggregate and whicli table has tlie aggregate status? 00 T h e data from an InfoCube is summarized into the aggregates. RSDDAGGRDIR 179. What is the change run process and how do you start it? 00 Whenever there is a change in master d ; l t ; ~ like navigational attributes, h ierarchy, time dcpendenr attributes that are used in aggregates, you nced to exe cute the change run process to realign thc aggregates. To start the change run p rocess use a proccss chain or AWB I) Tools I) Apply Hierarchy attri1,ure change. 180. Which report can you use to monitor the change run process? 000 RSDDS-C H A N G E R U N-M O N I T O R 181. Wliich program is used t o maintail1 aggregates? 000 RSDDS-AGGREGATES-MAINTAIN

Aggregates 182. In terms of aggregates, what is "Roll Up"? 00 Roll up is the process by which new requests loaded into the InfoCube are "rolle d up" into the aggregates. The data loaded from a new request is available for r eporting only after a successfill roll ilp into the aggregates. 183. Wliat is the optimal size of the aggregates? 00 It should have around 10-20% of the size of the fact table. For example, if your fact table contains 1000,000 rows, the aggregate should have less than 200,000 rows. 184. Wliat is meant by "propose from statistics" for aggregates? 00 Based on B W statistical data (such as query run time), you can request the syst em to suggest the optimal characteristics for aggregation. 185. Can you define aggregates 011 tinie depelidelit liavigational attributes? 0 0 Yes, as of version 3.x. 186. What "proposal options" are available for aggregates? 00 J J Propose from B W statistics cube: history of B W statistics. Propose from B W st atistics (tables): based on database tables RSDDSTAT and RSDDSTATAGGRDEF

C h a n t e r 1: B W A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e s i e n J J Propose from the last navigation: suggcstion based on the last entry of the abov c mentioned tables for the current user. Propose from a query. 187. What is the naming convention for aggregates created from statistics? 0 0 STAT 1 through STAT n 188. What is the naming convention used for aggregates created from a query? 00 MIN 1 through MIN n and MAX 1 through MAX n. 189. List major usage indicators for aggregates. 00 J Number of records Summarization (compression) Last used date - remember if you d on't see any recent activity then this aggregate is not used Valuation - with si gns of + for good aggregate and --- for not so good aggregate. J J J + + 190. What is an aggregate hierarchy? 0 0 Aggregates hierarchies are where aggreg;ltcs arc built on top of other aggregate s. This hierarchy is done automatically. It is recommended that you create a fcw large base hierarchies and small aggregates can bc built from these.

Aggregates 191. How does change ruli affect the aggregate? 00 The change run (also called hierarchy attribute realignment run) adjusts the dat a in the aggregates and turns the modified version of the navigation attributes and hierarchies into an active version. 192.111 the real world when would you recommend aggregates? 00 By looking at the B W statistics and noticing if a query spends more than 50% of the time in the database accessing data and the ratio of records read to record s processed is more than 10, then you recommend aggregates.

CHAPTER 2 BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting)

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d Web R e p o r t i n g ) Business Explorer 193. What is the effect of using characteristics in free area vs filter area in Query designer? 0 Free Characteristics : The characteristics in this area are not displayed in the initial view of the query but you can drill down and filter once you execute th e query. Filter Area: T h e characteristics in this area are restricted and can not be filtered or drillcd down any further. 194. What is lROWCOUNT key figure? 0 0 For InfoProviders based on transparent tal)les like ODs / Master data, this syst em generated key figure is available. This can be used to count the num1)er of r ecords. 195. What i s a restricted key figure? Give an example. O These are key figures "restricted" by values of one or more characteristics. For example, nrhcn you want to compare the sales of product "A" betwccn different f iscal year periods, you will create a restricted key figure with "Sales qty" as a key figure and restricted by OMATEFUAL of value "A".

Business Exolorer 196. Wliat is a constant selection? 00 This feature allows you to mark a selection of specific value or all values of c haracteristics in the query designer as a "Constant". Navigation and filtering h as no effect on this selection during run time. For example, if you want to repo rt a product's sale in reference to a product group rather than all the products , you makc the product group as the constant selection; any drill down, navigati on, filtering will not have any change in the sales quantity for that. 197. How will yalr debug errors wi,thin SAP GUI (like all Active X error)? 0 0 Run BEx analyzer -) Business Explorer menu item -) Installation check. This show s an excel sheet with a start button -) click on it -) this verifies the G U I i nstallation -) if you find any errors either reinstall it or fix it. 198. How do you activate personalization for BEx? 00 IMG -) Activate personalization for BEx. 199.1 have a variable for characteristic val~resof Infoobject ZLOCATION. How wil l I use this variable to select values of ZLOCATION where 'ZA' are the alphabets in 2nd and 3rd place for the values? 0 0 In the BEx variable input window, type in '+ZA*' T h e ' + ' character is used a s a single character wild card.

C h a n t e r 2: BW R e o o r t i n e (BEx a n d Web R e n o r t i n e ) Calculated Key Figures 200.Wl1at differelit percentage calculatio~iscan we use in BEx? O Percentage variance : This is defined as parameter 1 % parameter2 eg. Actual exp enses exceeds thc % budgeted expenses. Percentage share: It is defined as parame ter 1 %A parameter2; gives the percentage share of parameter 1 of parameter2. Pe rcentage share of result: Defined as %CT parameterl; gives the result in percent age with respect to result. Percentage share of overall result: Defined as % G T parameterl; similar to previous but the percentage is a share of overall result s. Percentage share of result total: Defined as %RT. 201. Besides percentage functions, what other usefl~l fl~nctions are there in BE x? O J COUNT NDIVO SUMCT J J Count(parameter) returns value 1 if parameter is not zero else zero. ndivO(param eter) returns 0 if the parameter returns division by 0. sumct(parameter) result of parameter in all rows and columns.

C a l c u l a t e d Key F i g u r e s 9 SlJMGT SlJMRT c/ sumgt (parameter) result of the parameter for the overall result. sumrt (paramet er) result of the parameter for the report result. 202.List some of the mathematical f~nnctionsavailable in Query designer. O c/ c/ c/ c/ Max Min Absolute Smallest Division c/

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) Boolean Operators 203.What does a Boolean operator return? O 1 or 0 (True or False) 204.What are the Boolean expressions allowed? O J J J J J J J < <> > <= >= = less than not equal to greater than less than or equal to greater than or equal co equal logical N O T AND OR XOR J J exclusive O R 205.Give an example of boolean expression. O Assume you are calculating tax rate on a sal;u-y; if salary is < I 0 0 0 it is 1 0% and if more than 1000 then it is 1 5 % is defined as ((salary < 1000) :k sala ry * 0.10 )+ ((salary > 1000) * salary * 0.15).

Boolean O p e r a t o r s / S t r u c t u r e s a n d C e l l s Structures and Cells 206.What is a structure? O The structure helps in calculation between its elements. For example, a structil re containing 3 months with specific values eg. JAN, FEB and MAR and 4 t h eleme nt, could be FIRST QUARTER which is a formula representing sum of the earlier el ements. A globally defined structure can be reused in any of the query on the In foProvider. 207. What is a reusable structure and how do you create it from a local struct~. lre?O These are InfoProvider level structures which can be used in any queries on that InfoProvider. k g h t click on the local structure select save as enter technic al name and description. + + 208.What is a cell editor? O Gives the definition of a specific cell in a query (intersection of two structur es one characteristics structure and one key figure structure). Using this you c an override the default cell values. 209.What is an exceptiun cell? O I t is a cell specific definition that allows you to define explicit formulas to overriding those implicitly created cell vali~es.This allows you to design much more detailed queries. tJse the icon to create exception cells.

Chapter 2: BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting) Before and after aggregation 210. Illustrate, with example, effect of 'before and after aggregation' property of a key figure. 00 In many queries you may come across the following situation. Assume that you hav e a cube with product qty, ilnit price; you have a BEx report showing clty, unit price and value (unit price * qty); the report looks like this by default Q ~ J Result 10 20 30 Unit Price 2 3 5 \4lI uc 20 60 150 You can see that the value is calculatecl using a calculated key figure as "Afte r aggregation" by defidult; basically it multiplies 3 0 by 5 which is 150; but t he correct amount is 80; Now right click on the calculated key figure, select pr operties, enhanced and change to Before aggregation. Now the result is calculate d correctly :QJ ~ 10 Result 20 30 Unit Price 2 3 5 Value 20 60 80

Before and After Aggregation Note: If you use before aggregation, the cubes aggregates are not used; so this will have negative effect on performance. You set the before or after aggregatio n on a global calcillated key figure.

C h a p t e r 2: B W R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d Web R e p o r t i n g ) Key figure properties 211. List some of the properties of key figure. 9 O 9 Scaling factor: Valid range is 1 to 1 l)illion; if you set a scaling factor of 1 000, then the value 3000 is displayed as 3 Number of decimal places. For example , 2.48 or 2.5 or just 2 is displayed in the report. 212. What are tlie options for "calculate si~iglevalue as"? O For each item: Normalization 9 + data is displayed as: 9 a percentage of the result normalization of result normalization of overall resu lt normalization of query result Ranked list size of the characteristic value wit11 the largest being 1. Ranked l ist (Olympic) silllilar to the previous point except the next smallest v~llue, w hen a value appears more than once, is not given rank increased by value 1: 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 maximum minimum count all values count all values < > (not equal to) 0 average o f all values average of all values < > (note equal ro) 0 suppress single values

Key Figure Properties 213. Wliat is an exception aggregation? Give an example. O This defines how the key figure is aggregated in relation to exception character istics, usually a time characteristics. For example, when you report number of e mployees by cost center, you would create an exception aggregation on "Last Valu e".

Chanter 2: BW Renortine (BEx and Web Renortine) Hierarchies in Reports 214. Wliat is a reporting hierarchy. M e ~ i t i o a ifew properties of ~ a hier archy? O A hierarchy is a structure of characteristics values allowing you to view data in different ways. Nodes are like branches in trees wi th thc uppermost node referred to as the root node. A l~ierarchy can have multip le nodes. 4 Hierarchy levels: Node of a hierarchy are structurally placed in different levels eg. Parent - chi ld nodes. Intervals automatically g r o u p leaves together. W h e n a new value is added to a characteristic it is automatically added to the proper node. This node allows a s u b tree to be included in a hierarchy on more than one occasio n. 4 Intervals: 4 Link Node: 215. Wliat are tlie report-relevant setti~igsill hierarchy maintenance? O 4 Level maintenance this setting allows the naming of different levels of hierarch ies. K1u can navigate during execution of the query 1)). using a right click. +

Hierarchies in Reports 4 4 4 4 4 D o not display inner nodes in a query +does not display the leaves level of the hierarchy report. Changeable display for leaves of inner nodes specifies whethe r a user can change the display. Suppress unassigned node suppress nodes with no values appearing. Root / totals item indicates whether the totals are displayed at the beginning or end of the hierarchy. Start drill down level -) the default level of the query that is displayed when opening. + + +

Chanter 2: BW Renortine (BEx and Web Renortine) User Exits for BEx Reporting 216. Nanie the BEx reporting user exit e~iliancenie~it. 00 There are three user exits: RSROOOOl - For User Exit Variable RSR00002 - For Vir tual Key Figures RSR00003 - For Moving Characteristics M~lucs 217. Name the BEx reporting user exit component and its include program for vari able. 00 J J The component is EXIT-SAPLRRSO-00 1. T h e include program is ZXRSRUO 1. 218. Wliat variables would you typically use when ~iiaki~ig of use the user exit RSR00001 in BEx reporting? 00 J I-STEP is used in ABAP code as a conditional check. T h e following values are c heckcd: Before processing of the variable pop-ups and gets called for every cust omer var~ablc . 2 Is called after variable popup for variables not marked as "Re ady for input" and are set to required entry. Is called after all variables are processed (only once and not for each variable). I-VNAM: It is the variable cont aining the variable name within ABAP Typically you lvould do a 1 3 J

U s e r E x i t s f o r BEx R e p o r t i n g J CASE statement on this variable to get the variable working. E-T-RANGE: This is the internal table populated with variable values in a customer exit. L S RANGE: This is the structure to populate - -RANGE L O W low end value H I G H high end value SIGN 'I' to include, etc. O P T gives the options like 'BT' for between, 'EQ' for equal, ecc. E-f c/ I-VARTYP- variable type 1 2 3 4 c/ c/ c/ 5 I-IOBJNM: name of the Infoobject. I-PERIV: fiscal year variant. I-T -VAR-RANGE : table with all variables and their values. Characteristic Hierarchy node Text Formula Hierarchy 219. What is the call sequence for the user exit RSROOOl in BEx Reporting? OO J c/ c/ First call of the user exit. Popup and enter values (if ready for input is enabl ed). Second call for the user exit.

C h a p t e r 2: B W R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) BEx User Exit Example L-S-RANGE T Y P E RSR-S-RANGESID. E-BUPER L I K E TOOSB-POPER, E-GJAHR L I K E T O O S B - B D A T J . DATA: T A B I X L I K E S Y - T A B I X CASE I-VNAM. WHEN ' Z P E R Q U A R ' . C A L L F U N C T I O N LDATE-TO-PERIOD-CONVERT' EXPORTIN G I-DATE = SY-DATUM I-PERIV = 'FL' IMPORTING E-BLIPER = E-BUPER E-GJAHR = E-GJAH R. I F SY-SUBRC = 0 DATA: DATA: CLEAR L-S-RANGE. L-S-RANGE-SIGN = '1'. L-S-RANGE-OPT = 'BT'. L-S-RANGE-HIGH(4) = E-GJAHR. L-S-RANGE-HIGH+4(3) = E-BUPER. L-S-RANGE-LOW = L-S-RANGE-HIGH. CASE EBUPERWHEN ' O O L ' OR ' 0 0 2 ' L-S-RANGE-LOW+4(3) WHEN ' 0 0 4 ' OR ' 0 0 5 ' L-S-RANGE-LOW+4(3) WHEN ' 0 0 7 ' OR ' 0 0 B ' L-S-RANGE-LOW+4(3) WHEN ' O L O ' OR ' 0 1 1 ' L-S-RANGE-LOW+4(3) ENDCASE. APPEND L-S-RANGE ENDIF. ENDCASE OR ' 0 0 3 ' . = '001'. OR ' O O L ' . = '004'. OR ' 0 0 9 ' . = L007'OR ' 0 1 2 ' . = '009'. TO E-T-RANGE. -

Variables Variables Variables are very important i n BEx. You should pay particular attention t o t h i s section i f you are interested i n BEx report development. 220.Wha.t is a variable? List tlie objects that are supported by variables. O Variables are used to parameterize the query at the runtime and the following re porting objects are supported by variables: c/ c/ c/ c/ Characteristics Hierarchies Hierarchy nodes Texts Formula elements 221. What is the scope for a characteristics variable? O Variables are defined on Infoobjects and are thus globally available across Info Providers. 222.Give the 4 variable types for BEx queries. O c/ c/ c/ c/ Characteristics Hierarchy node Text Hierarchy variables

C h a p t e r 2: B W R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d Web R e p o r t i n g ) 223.W11at is a cllaracteristics variable? 0 Characteristic variables allow you to have dynamic input selection for values of characteristics eg. If you are developing a sales report for a given product, y ou will define a variable for OMATERIAL to report sales of specific products. 224.What are text variables? 0 Text variables are used to display texts dynamically for a given characteristic. For example, take the sales report for a given product for the last 3 nionths. The inputs prompted are product and fiscal year period, on the column level you have drilled down l>v fiscal year period; since the fiscal year period is dvnami c (depending on the user input), you want to display the correct title for the k ey figure so in this case create a text variable for the fiscal year period and use it in the text of properties. These are defined :LS &text-variable -name&. 225.What are formula variables? 0 0 Formula variables are variables used in calculations of the query. For example, take a customer disco~lnt report where each customer is given a different percen tage discount; yo11 create a formula variable for the discount percentage and us e it in the calculated key figure.

Variables 226.What are the options for hierarchy node variables? O J J Fixed hierarchy and variable hierarchy node where only the node is selected at r un time Variable hierarchy and variable node where both hierarchy and nodes are selected at run time. 227. What are the different processing types for variables? O J J J J J lJser entry Replacement path Authorization Customer exit SAP exit 228.What is a user entry processing type? O This is entered by the user at run time of the query. You can specifjl a default value for this, for example, in a product sales report you would enter a produc t at run time. 229.What is replacement path processi~igtype? O In this processing type for the variable, system replaces the value of a charact eristic in a calculation / expression at run time. For example, where the query displays dynamic heading for the fiscal year period; the variable type is text a nd processing type is replacement path.

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g ( B E x a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) 230.What is an authorization processing type? O In this case the system looks for authorized values for the characteristics for the user and replaces the variables with these values. For example, let us look at a cost center reporting, each manager is 'lssigncd one or more cost centers a nd each are restricted from seeing the others' cost centers. In this case we wou ld create a characteristics variable for OCOSTCENTER with processing type author ization. O n the bdck end you should create reporting authorization objects and assign fixed cost centers to each manager. 231. What is a customer exit processing type? O In this case, you write an ABAP program on the back end and fill u p the variabl e values. For example, take the case of cost center reports mentioned above, ins tead of defining it as an authorization type assume that you get managerlcost ce nter data trom a Z table in Rl3. In this case you would write ABAP code to: 4 4 read the user who has run the query read the Z table to get the cost centers and fill up the variables. 232.Name the SAP enhancement used to manipulate the customer exit processing typ e variables. 00

Variables 233. What is the function module used to manipulate the cl~stomerexit processing type varial:~les?000 EXIT-SAPLRRSO-00 1 234. What is a SAP exit processing type? 00 The SAP Exit processing type is used for variables delivered by SAP eg. The SAP exit variable OCMONTH returns the current calendar month. 235.How do you replace a result from a ~iiasterquery to a child query (not a dri ll down)? 00 If you select characteristic value with Replacement path then it uses the result s from previous query. For example, let us assume that you have query Q 1 which displays the top 10 customers. We have query 4 2 which gets the top 10 customers for Infoobject OCUSTOMER as a variable with replacement path. This displays a d etailed report on the customers passed from Q 1. 236.Explaili variable offsets. 00 Variable offsets are a powerfill feature in BEx where a characteristics value is calculated with an offset. (You can have negative or positive offsets). For exa mple, let us assume that our query displays all sales data for the 3 months prio r to a user entered value for the month. You would create 3 restricted key figur es for sales quantity with OCALMONTH, first with offset value 0, then with -1 an d then with -2.

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g ( B E x a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) Query properties 237. List a ~ i d explain properties of a query. 00 J J J J Adjust format after reporting - you can use this option to disable the ability t o change the format of the reporting results. You would use this option if you u se your own templates and wish co enforce the use of these template. (By default chis property is enabled i.e. The user is allowed to adjust the format of the q uery results). Suppress repeated key values - the def;lult is enabled. If you wa nt repeated key values to be displayed (some users demand this) then disable thi s option. Display scaling factor (default is disal)lcd). Display document links - use this to display any available document links. Display drag and relate link s - this is usefill if you have portals and BW For example, yo11 can drag a sold -to-party and put it on an R/3 transc\. , ctlon to execute. Results position - b ottomiright (default) or topi left or bottomileft or toplright. ' J J J J Display of +/- signs. Display or suppression of zero rows and columns

lluery P r o p e r t i e s 238.What is the purpose of option "Pause Automatic Refresh"? O O W h e n you enable this option, you can stop the query from being refreshed auto matically after either selecting a filter value or changing a query or its' for properties. This is ilsef~ll big queries where you d o not want to wait for the system to refresh but just one time after you make all the changes. 239.Wliat is a query te~iiplate?O You can create excel templates to display the BEx queries. For example, you can create a corporate excel template containing your company logo and title. You ca n then use this as a standard in your BEx reports. 240.What are the options for using template BEx Analyzer? J O J J Empty (nothing). Select from list - this shows a list of workbooks and you selec t one. From a permanent template - use a permanent template. 24.1. Give an example of using VBA in a template. O You can use VBA to customize the report. For example, assume that you want to hi de / delete some header / filter are after each refresh of the query, use the SA PBEx on Refresh macro to do this. By default this macro is empty, add excel code to customize the f~lnctionality BEx queries in workbooks. of

C h a n t e r 2: BW R e o o r t i n ~(BEx a n d Web Reoortin!?) Remember that the macro f~~nctions ;n,;lil;tble only are on BEx and not when you do web reporting using the same query. 242.What are the read modes for a query? O H Query to be read when you navigate or expand hierarchy. This mode is recommended by SAP Query to Read Data during navigation. X OLAP processor requests data for each navigational status of the query. A Read all at once - read all data at once. This will take a long time if it is a large query. Use this if the InfoProvider does not support selection or a user e xit is active in a query. 243.How do you set tlie read mode for a query? O You can set the read mode for the query using the transaction code RSRT +Propert y.

Document Utilitv Document utility Many users have started using this new feature to create / attach documents for queries or results. 244.What are the objects that support docume~itatio~i Iiow and do you use the do cuments feature? O J J J J J Infoobject Infocube InfoSet ODs Query You ciin use the document feature either: J After executing the query (right cli ck and select documents for BEx, left click and select document from web reports ) or, J IJsing the admin work bench documents metadata path. + + 245.Give all exarnple of niaster data docume~itatio~i. O Assume that we want to add product images for each product. To do this create a master data document utility for the creation of a document for each OM ATERIAL value. 246.What is Infoprovider documentation? O This is used to create one or more documents for the transaction data of an Info provider. For example, you can define a document for the following combination o f key figures and characteristics - sales quantity, material and fiscal year per iod.

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d Web R e p o r t i n g ) Query Administration 247. What is the menu path for deleting multiple query objects (like Workbook) i n a single transaction? O Logon to your BW sap client, select Business explorer Delete objects. Query * 248.Can yo11copy queries between two InfoProviders? O Yes, you can copy queries between one InfoProvider to another as long as their k ey figures and characteristics match.

(luery A d m i n i s t r a t i o n / Conditions a n d Exceptions Conditions and Exceptions Conditions and exceptions a r e extensively used i n BEx reporting. 249.What is a condition? What options are available for usi~ig conditio~is?O If you want to filter on key figures or do ranked analysis then you would use a condition. For example, you can use a condition to report top 10 customers or cu stomers with more than a million dollars in sales yearly. Option available : You can either select a single characteristic, or a combination of characteristics, or all characteristics in the drill down. Note that a condition is only effecti ve when the report is drilled down for all characteristics defined in the condit ion. 250.What are the options for creating condition on a key figure? OO J J J J J J J = <> < > <= >= Between Not between

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) 9 9 9 9 9 9 Top N Bottom N Top % (eg. Top 20% of customers) Bottom % Top Sum Bottom Sum 251. Why do the totals someti~iiesnot ~iiatch, when we use conditions ? 0 O By default the report shows overall resulrs total and not the results total taki ng the filter into accounr. ?i> display the correct totals you should use "Si~rn rnation" in the key figure properties instead of "Norhing defined". 252.What are different status' for conditions, when you have multiple active con ditio~isin a query? 00 9 9 9 Conditions work (all valid). Status is displayed as "Variant" because the charac teristics combination is not included in the drill down. Status is displayed as "Not Used" because of colliding conditions where one condirion deactivates the o ther.

Conditions and Exceptions 253.Wliat is an exception? O An exception is not a filter (like condition) but is used to highlight reports i n different colors when key figures exceed predefined values. For example, you m ay want to show red for all accounts receivables that are older than 9 0 days an d yellow for older than 60 days. 254.What is cell restriction and what are its' options? 00 You can define restrictions on characteristics as to how the exception reporting will be done. For each characteristics in the report you can define the followi ng: J J Everything Totals only - exception on totals only (not individual rows) Everythi ng except totals Fixed value - where you can specify fixed values or select a va riable. For example, you may want to do an exception for sales where the custome r is in OCOlJNTRY = USA Level - exception is applicable only for a specific leve l of the hierarchy. J J J

Chapter 2: BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting) Reporting agent You can use ,the reporting agent t o schedule exception reporting and alert tlie users f o r any unusual data. For example, you can create an exception f o r ac tual sales quantity and an exception t o report any sales t h a t do 11ot nieet t h e target. You can then send periodic alerts t o interested parties based on these exceptions. 255.What types of reports can yo11use in the reporting agent? O O c , c , c , c , c , 4 Exceptions Print Web templates (precalculated) Value sets Bookmarks Crystal repo rts 256.How do you use reporting agent for exception ge~ierating alert? 00 Use the reporting agent for this from the Administrator Work Bench (AWB): *r 4 Click on the exceptions icon on the left, give it a technical name and text desc ription. Select the exception based on a specific query for generating alert usi ng drag and drop.

Reporting Agent 257. What are the follow-up actions available in the reporting agent? 000 c/ c/ c/ c/ Send mail - alerts user by email. For example, you can send an email alerting ma nagers that the sales quantity target was missed. Alert monitor entry - view res ults in the alert monitor. You can also give a URL to the alert monitor. Export - send the data to a work flow for followup action. RRI interface - if an except ion happens you can jump to another query for a more detailed data display using the G o To option. 258.What are the options available to check exception occurrence using tlie aler t monitor? 00 If an exception is handled by the alert monitor then you can use the following m enu path: AWB Reporting agent select Exception on the left window Alert icon. Al ternatively, in the BEx Analyzer you can select open exceptions. + + + + 259.How do you use print settings? 00 You use print settings to print report in the background using the reporting age nt. From the reporting agent, use the create icon, specifying: c/ c/ title zcros suppression

C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) 9 9 9 colors, position margins how the Infoobjects will be displayed in the report etc . 260.What are value sets? 00 Using the reporting agent you can fill values for a variable on a particular cha racteristic in the background eg. Assume that everyday poi1 gencrate a detailed report on the top 10 products. To gct the top 10 products you run another query with a condition. The parent query can then be defined as a value set returning values for OMATERIAL. 261. What is the menu path for creating value set? 00 Use the AWB -) Reporting agent and sclcct the value set icon on the left 262.What is the menu path to find correct 1lRL of the precalculated web template whether 'STORED' or 'STATIC' mode? 000 Even if you have pre-calculated templates, ilnlcss you have the right URL with v ariable \~alues, lvill show it an error. To find the correct URL ilse the follow ing mcuu path:9 Use the transaction code RSRAPS (Document Repository).

Reoortinn Anent 9 9 9 Navigate to the Reporting agent job. Open the 1ndex.hcm document by double click ing. Gght click on thc documcnc on the right and select Vicw Source. Search for string THIS IS A URL T O THE DOCIJMENT. Use this LTRL to get the stacic reportin g from docitn~cnc score

Chapter 2: BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting) Web Application Designer 263.Wl1at is a Web Item? 00 A web item gives the HTML output from the data provider. It has a logical name a nd comm,lnci processing capabilities. These are reprcscntcd by the OBJECT tag in the web template. Web items have attributes like HIDDEN, GENERATE-CAPTION, CAPT ION, ctc. Attributes that are specific to Web itcrms arc MODIFY-TABLE, S H O W-P AGING -AREA-T O P for tables; 264.List some of tlie standard delivered web items. 00 J J J J J J J J J J J J Chart Tdble Dropdown box Radio button group Check boxes Generic navigation block Hierarchical context menu Filter Label Text elements List of exceptions Alert m onitor

Web A o o l i c a t i o n D e s i e n e r J J J J J Menu Ticker Map Single document List of documents 265.What are the flags for general reporting? 00 J J J J Open dialog for web applications in new windows. 1Jse the read mode for data fla g to use precalculated or HTML pages. Flag for output optimization. Force variab les entry. 266.What is the web items library? 00 The web items library is a library of customized web items which can be used acr oss web applications. For example, you can customize the table web item (like se tting flags and display options) and save it in the library for other web templa tes to use. Note that the data provider assigned to the web item library object is not copied. 267. Give all overview of some of the web items. 00 J J Table - to display table data like product sales report. Chart - different chart s like pie chart and bar charts; remember that you should have the IGS setup pro perly to use charts.

C h a o t e r 2: BW R e o o r t i n n (BEx a n d W e b R e o o r t i n n ) 4 4 4 4 Drop down box - used for filtering the report. Radio button group - used for dat a filtering. Check box - filter values. Generic navigation block - used for filt er, drill down etc. Hierarchical context menu - to filter llicrarchy nodes. Filt er - filter values by navigation. Label - for cockpit design - creates navigatio nal blocks by using labels for charactcristics and structural components. Text e lement - query information. List of exceptions - list of cxccptions defined. Lis t of conditions. Alert monitor - to view alerts. Role menu - displays favorites and roles of the user. Ticket - similar display as a stock ticker. Map - image m ap. Single document - individual documents for master data. List of documents. A BC classification - to classify data. What if condition. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 268.Where do you store custom style sheets? 000 In the MIME repository and store it under SAP Public SAP BW Customer Style Sheet s. + + + +

Web Application Designer 269.Where do you store yol.lr custuln iniages (like logos)? 000 They are stored in the MIME repository. Use the following menu path for accessin g the MIME rcpository : SAP I) Public I) SAP I) BW I) Customcr I) Images. 270. What is the effect of various DATA-MODE options in the command line URL? 00 0 STORED use prc-calculated data exclusively. HYBRID uses pre calculated if availa ble else new data. STATIC uses pre calculated data. 271. Give all example for this llRL command. 000 # HYPERLINK " h t t p : / / m y a p p l i c a t i o n s e r v e r / S A P / BW/ ex?CMD=LDOC8TEMPLATE=yourtemplate8DATA~MODE=STORED1' m-TFnpI ollratlonserver/SAP/BW/ ATE=vour-ATA MODF=STORFQ 272.What is a pre-calculated web template? 00 This is like a precalculated value set. The report is generated as an HTML docum ent by the Report Agent but bear in mind that in this case no navigation / drill down is possible. 273. Wliat is a co~itrolquery? 000 A control query is used to filter query results for different precalculated web templates.

Chanter 2: BW Renortine (BEx and Web Renortine) For example, if you have scheduled different reports for the top 10 selling prod ucts with different characteristics using a pre-calculated web template, the top 10 products are available from this control query, which is used as a filter in the pre-calculated web template. 274. Wliat is the default web template used ill a report? 00 OQUERY-TEMPLATE. 275. How would you clia~igetlie default teniplate? 000 You should not change OQUERY-TEMPLATE; but you should make a copy using program RS-TEMPLATE-MAINTAIN and make the changes to the copy. Give this new template a name from the customer namespace eg. ZTEMPLATE. Then go to transaction SPRO to d efine the new Z template as the default web template. 276. How do you handle language dependent texts? 000 Use the tag SAP-BW -TEXT and specify the program name and key. 277. What does setting the VARIABLE-SCREEN llRL parameter to 'X'do? 000 An X will force the web report to display rlie variablcs entry screen.

W e b A p p l i c a t i o n Designer 278. If you are asked to change the way tables are displayed in web reporting, h ow would you do this? 000 IJsing the SAP delivered class CL-RSR-W W W-MODIFY-TABLE as a template, copy it to a Z class where you make your desired changes. In the object tag of the table in the template put <param name='MODIFY -CLASS' value= 'NEW Z -CLASS'>. The fol lowing methods are used in this class START called before any cell creation call ed after a new row is NEW-RO W completed after the table is rendered FINISHED CA PTION-CELL, STRUCTURE-CELL cell methods DATA-CELL, CHARACTERISTIC-CELL table bod y methods 279. How will you add buttc~nsto a template? 000 Create a button and add a URL that can call web reporting eg. Create a standard HTML button with label 'USA' to call URL with FILTER-IOBJNM=OD-COUNTRY FILTER-VA LUE = 'US'. 280.How wo1.11dyou debug Web reports? 000 Using the transaction code RSRT2.

Chapter 2: BW Reporting (BEx and Web Reporting) 281. What are processing commands? 000 Processing commands are used to bring a change in status (like hiding or drill d own) or to perform an action (for example, display the variablc screen) eg. You can define a html command to creatc ;L 1)ookmark < a href=" <SAP BW UFU cmd ='BO OKhiARK'> " > BookMark b his </a>. Sample commands are Expand (drill down), SETNAV -STATE and EXPORT You can also embed a command in Javascript; cxample is SAP BWOpenURL(SAP-BW -IJFU-GctO "&CMD= BOOKMARK"). + 282.What is the use of download scheduler? 00 This is the tool that enables the users to schedule the off-line downloading of reports from reporting agents. 283. What are the advantages of BW 3.x web server (WAS)? 0O c , c , c , c , c , 4 c , Enhanced scalability, use of IGS for charts, background processing Full SAP appl ication server with ABAP run time HTTP server and client functionality Native su pport for open protocols like HTTPS, SSL, SSO, etc. No proprietary products (no RFC) XMLIXSLT engine and integrated J2EE engine MIME objects are cached

W e b Aoolication Oesiener 284.What are the built in javascript functions available to customize web templa tes? 000 c/ c/ c/ c/ c , SAP-BW-Get -Language Gives the logon language. SAP-BW-URL Get Returns the SAPBWO penURL Executes URL in current window. SAPBWOpenWindow Opens URL in a new window . SAPBWGetItemProp(itemName) Returns properties of items in an array. uE. c , SAPBWGetDataProviderDimensions(provider name) Gives an array of characteristics and structures. SAPBWAddToMenu(labe1, ja vascript handler, parameter, cell-type, filter, visibility, position, dataqrovid er, item). lJsed to enhance context menu eg. You can add new entries to the cont ext menu. c/ 285.Give a broad step by step process to convert web objects from 2.x to 3.x. 00 0 Step 1: Do a consistency check of web objects using transaction RSRV. (This chec k is available from BW 2.0b SP 13). Step 2: Fix any errors. The following steps occur after you upgrade to 3.x. WAD Web Application Designer lJsing SE38.

120 C h a p t e r 2: BW R e p o r t i n g (BEx a n d W e b R e p o r t i n g ) Step 3: Execute program RSZW-WEBOBJECTS -30-UPGRADE. If there are any errors the n fur thcm and reconvert. Once the conversion is complete. Step 4: Delete the ol d templates using program RSZW-OLD-BDS-ENTRIES-DELETE . Step 5 : You can also us e program RSZW-REPLACE-TEMPLATE-STRINGS to replace strings. For example, you can use this program to replace links to logos on the old JGS server path to new MI ME repository path. Step 6: You can also use program RS-TEMPLATE-MAINTAIN to edi t templates on the server. 286.What are the parameters available for Web Reporting? 000 J Filter - Example to filter for a specific customer: FILTER-IOBJNM = 'OCUSTOMER' FILTER-VALIJE ='1234' v Use a variable as filter: FI LTER-IOBJNM = 'OCUSTOMER' FILTER VALUE-TYPE = 'VARIABLE-EXIT' FILTER-VALUE = 'ZC IJSTEX1T' J Sort data (customer ascending): CMD='SORT' IOBJNM ='OCI JSTOMER' SOR T-TYPE='T' SORT-DIRECTION='A' J Export data as excel file: CMD ='EXPORT' FORMAT = 'XLS'

CHAPTER 3 Extraction

Chapter 3 : Extraction Basic Concepts 287. What are different types of extractors? 000 c, J Application Specific extractors (BW Content extractors like FI, LO Cockpit and G eneric extractor for LIS, FI-SAL). Cross application Generic extractor (for Cust om extracts from database tablelviews ancl Sap Query). 288.Wllat is the transaction code for creating or changing the generic extractio n tool Data Sources? 00 Transaction code RS02 289.What is the initial transaction code for mallaging extraction tasks? 0 0 Transaction code SBIW 290.What are the broad steps followed to extract data from R/3? 00 c , J c , J c , Replicate the data sources. Assign them to an Infosource. Maintain the communica tion structure and transfer rules. Create an info package. Extract data.

Basic Concepts 291. Wliat are business content extractors? Give an example. O 0 Extractors supplied by SAP for a specific business module eg. OFI-AP-03. 292.What is direct update for an I~ifoObject? 00 An Infoobject is updated without the use of update rules. Only transfer rules ar e used. 293.What is flexible updating? 00 Flexible updating makes use of update rules, making it a possible to ~lpdate har monized master data from different source systems before updation to master data tables. 294.Give some examples of third party ETL tools that are supported by SAP. 0 0 c/ c/ c/ Ascential Informatica Mercator 295.Wliat is the transaction code for accessing monitor? 00 Transaction code RSMON 296.List broad steps followed to co~ifigureand use tlalirdparty (BAPI) tools. 00 J c/ Define the RFC connection using SM59 Define the third party source system

Chapter 3 : Extraction J J J Assign to InfoSources Map and define transformation rulcs Create info package an d load data 297. Wliich file formats are supported for ,third party E'TL tools? 00 J csv ASCII J 298.Define the record modes for delta (assume, for exa~iiple, the sales quantity changed from 2 0 to '10). 000 J J J J J Before Image: the record before it got changed, in this case it is 20. After ima ge: the record after it got clx~ngcd, in this example it is 10. Additive image: in this case only thc difference i.e.. 10. Reverse image: used for deletion, rcv crse with the quantity to zero out. Delete image: only the O D s keys are givcn for deletion, not supported for cubes. 299.Wliat update modes are available? 00 J J J Full Init of delta Delta

Basic C o n c e p t s 300.Explain what a repair request is. 000 Assurne that you have done "init of delta" and "deltas" for an ODS and you find that there is a problem with certain loaded data. If you wish to d o a full load without destroying the delta inits, you would perform ;I selective deletion of the data from ODS first and then schedule a fill1 load with this selection, maki ng it request). a repair request (Scheduler Repair f~lll 301. What setti~igsare available for delta option for loadirig data from flat fi le? (You set the delta mode in the transfer structure - Update niode 'field). 00 0 J J New status only: this sends records of changed records. This is only available f or ODS. A cube can not be used. Additive delta: just the change in key figures i s sent. This can be used in both the ODS and in a cube. 302.Wliat is a delta update? 00 Instead of updating the entire data, SAP uses a change log (for business content extractor and Time stamp (CO-PA)) to do delta update. 303.When you create a datasource some flags are attached to each field, what are they? 00 J Selection flag: if this flag is set for a field then we can select the field.val ue for extraction fro111 the InfoPackage.

Chaoter 3 : Extraction 4 4 For example, if you set the flag for OCI JSTOMER, then in the Infopackage you ca n select customer numbers in extraction. Hide flag: if this flag is set, then th e field is not populated in extraction. Cancellation fields: this is field is in verted when a transaction is cancelled. 304.Wliat tra~isactioncode is used to tlie clieck extractt~r?00 Transaction code RSA3 305.Which transaction code is used to check delta Q for a data source? 00 Transaction code RSA7 306.Wliat is tlie source tables for tlie FI AP ex,tractor from SAP R/3? 0 0 4 4 BSIK: Open invoices BSAK: Cleared invoices 307. Wliat is tlie source tables for ,the FI AR extractor froni SAP R/3? 0 0 4 4 BSID: Open invoices BSAD: Cleared invoices 308.Wliat optio~is generally availal~lewhen filling in the are values for select ion? 0 0 4 Manual input

Basic Conceots */ */ Fill up from OLAP variables - use variables created in BEx ABAP routine 309.What table is filled when you select ABAP routine for selectio~iill info pac k? 000 Similar to variable exits, the 1 t-range table is filled. 310. How do you send XML data to BW? 000 */ */ */ 9 Install the XML 3.0 parser Create an Infosource Assign P C file as the data sour ce Create a transfer and communication structure activate From the transfer stru cture screen select Extras create B W datasource with SOAP application After suc cessful generation, the data source is connected to the myself datamart. The nam e of the data source is 6A* Create an info package Load data from an xml file */ + + 9 */ 311. What delta modes are available? 000 "F" Flat file provides delta. "A" IJses ALE (Application Link Enabling). "D" App lication determines the delta queue eg. LO. "E" Extractor determines the delta e g. CO-PA, LIS.

Chapter 3 : Extraction 312. Name the table in SAP R/3 to get detailed information on data source and it 's delta capability. 00 IJse table ROOSOURCE. The delta column shows the delta method (A - ALE, E- Extra ctor, ctc.). The AIM value describes type of delta such as F 1 for function modu le, V - view, Q - InfoSet query. 313. Name the table ill SAP R/3 to get detailed information on delta methods. 0 0 0 From table RODELTAM. 314. How do you configure BW to load data from a data stage system? 000 c , c , c , J c , c , Create the RFC connection (SM59) and tcst the datastage system Define the job in the data stage systcn~ Create a source system (type third p;lrty) Load transfer structure from BW Map columns to BW structlire Define and load info package. it with 315. What is the benefit of 'early delta i~iitialization'trption? 000 This is the process in which you run thc initialization of delta and load the de lta queue in parallel. The LO extraction supports this method which allows for m inimum downtime on the SAP R/3 side.

Class Svstem Class System 316. What are tlie steps taken to create class? 000 c , c/ c , c , c , c , Define the properties. Create a class type. This controls the classes that can b e assigned to them. For example, class type can be material. Create a class and assign it to the class type. For example, class could be digital cameras. Assign objects to the class. Searches can now be done on the classes. For example, get all the cameras with 3.0 mega pixels. These values are transferred to BW as Oma terial attributes. 317. Which tralisactinn code do you use to do classifica~tio~i on SAP R/3 for BW ? 000 Transaction code SBIW and select maintain data source for classification data. 318. What are the steps within SBIW to create classes for BW? 000 c , c , J Select the data source for assigning classes eg. Select OMATERIAL-ATTR. Select t he class. Generate the data source, a prefix 1CL is added to the data sources ge nerated.

Chanter 3 : Extraction Generic Data source 319. What are the steps followed to create a generic data source? 000 c/ c/ c/ Execute transaction code R S 0 2 . Enter the data source name and description. S elect a table, view or a ABAP query 1 InfoSct for the source of the data. Flag t he fields that are required for sclection. Flag the fields that are required to be hidden. Activate the data source. Replicate, assign Infosource, define commun ication structure and transfer rulcs; create info package and load the data. c/ c/ c/ c/

G e n e r i c D a t a S o u r c e / LIS E x t r a c t i o n LIS Extraction 320.What does LIS stand for? 00 Logistics Information System. Used in R/3 for reporting for snapshot in time rep orting with drilldown and analysis capabilities. It allows for online reporting that does not affect the performance of your on-line transactions. 321. Wliat is the transactio~icode for setti~ig extractors up based on I-IS? 00 Transaction code RMCSBIWC 322.Explain the data flow for 4 1.1s updation in SAP R/3. 00 4 4 4 4 OLTP (On-line Transaction Processing) data is stored in application data tables. W h e n data is updated in LIS, it is stored as a comn~unication structure. The communication structure is then written to the corresponding information struct ures using update rules. This data is then stored in S tables (tables beginning with S) eg. S301. Customer defined info structures are tables from S500 onwards. Standard LIS tables are up to S499.

Chanter 3 : Extraction 323. How many structures are generated when LIS extractor is created? 00 Even though 2 tables are crated for LIS cxtracrion only one structure is created in the form SxxxBIWS where xxx is the LIS table name eg. S30 1BIWS. 324. How does the data flow from the LIS tables to BW? 00 For example, if we are extracting S30 1 then 2 tables are created internally, S 3 0 1 B I W 1 and S301BIW2. T h e information is written to each table alternati vely (depending on the last delta). 325.How do we know which table has the current data (BIW1 or BIWZ)? 00 It is in table T M C B I W 326.What is the naming convention of the 1.s data source? 00 1 2-LIS-01-Sxxx where xxx is the LIS table name cg. Z LIS 01 S301. 327. What happens when you do an initialization of delta for an LIS data source? 00 T h e entire data from the S table exaniplc S30 1 is extracted to B W

LIS E x t r a c t i o n 328.What steps are followed to set up extraction from LIS in SAP R/3? 00 c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ Run transaction code RMCSBIWC. Set up initialization of delta. Generate the data source select the fields for selection -) mark necessary fields as hidden or ca ncellation fields. Generate the update program for Delta. Replicate the data sou rce assign Infosource maintain communication structure and transfer rules create info package. D o the initialization of delta. Activate the delta. Start loadin g the delta. + + + + 329.Where is the data extracted from rlurilig i~iitializatio~i of delta a updates? 00 During initialization of delta, the data is extracted directly from the . The delta update programs once activated, start collecting delta data late one of the SBIW tables (1 or 2). During delta update on B W either hese tables is read for extraction. and delt S tables and popu one of t

Chapter 3 : Extraction LO Extraction 330.What are the advantages of the new LO Extraction ? 00 4 4 Improved performance and reduced volume. N o LIS functionality meaning you don't need to setup LIS on RJ3. Single solution for all logistics applications. No 2 table use like in LIS. Detailed extraction. Only data that was changed from a BW perspective is added in the delta queue. Updated with a batch process (V3 updat e). 4 4 4 4 4 331. Which transaclio~icode on R/3 shows the tra~isactions with pending processe s for update? 00 Transaction code SM 13 332. What are vl, v2 and v3 updates? 00 vl v2 + postings are carried out synchronously; directly tied to document posting. the p rocessing is treated as a secondary step to the document saving. + postings are carried out asynchrononsly; v3 + postings are left in Initial status. It waits until a unique trigger is issued. Data is passed to a centralized delta n1;Lnagement.

LO Extraction 333. What is the naming convention used for LO data so~.~rces? 0 0 2LIS-nn-xxxxx where nn is the number that represents an application and xxxx is the source of data eg. 2LIS- 11-VAHDR for sales document header, where 1 1 is fo r application sales. 334. What transaction codes are useful in LO extractions? 00 J I, J LBWE LBWF LBWG OLI*BW Customizing cockpit B W log Delete setup tables Initialization / Setup J 335. Which R/3 version supports LO extraction? 00 From R/3 4.0b with SP 4 0 with P12002.1. 336.How do you convert from LIS to LO Extraction? 00 J I, I , J I, J Make sure no R/3 data is updated for the data sources in question. Switch off LI S extraction, switch on update for L O extraction. Load the last delta queue for the old LIS extraction. D o not refresh statistics for new data sources. Simula te an initialization of delta with new L O data source. This does not write any data but sets the pointer. Now you can start a delta.

Chapter 3 : Extraction 337. What is the differelice betweer~LIS and LO in ini.tialization of delta and delta? 00 v 9 For initialization of delta LO i~scs setup tables vs. LIS use of the S tables. F or delta update LO uses the comn~unication structure with V3 update vs. LIS usin g BIX'1 or BI\.'2 tables. 338. What are the liew update methods since PI 2002? 000 Direct delta: data is transferred t o the BW delta queue for each document posti ng. This is ilsefiil for low volume extraction. v Queued delta: extraction data is collcct-ed for the affected application instead of being collected in an extr action queue which ensures serialization. This is useful for large volume extrac tion. v v Non serialized V3 update: data in the update run is read without regard to seque nce in the update tables. 339.How do you improve tlie perforniance w h e ~ creating a i setup table in LO extraction? 000 You create multiple batch jobs with different- selection criteria. For example, when you d o a setup table for SD, use different document number ranges and do t he setup in parallel.

CO-PA E x t r a c t i o n CO-PA Extraction Controlli~iga ~ i dProfitability Analysis 340.What is meant by characteristics derivation? 00 This is where characteristics are derived from another given characteristic. For example, if we have product we can derive product group. 341. Why is CO-PA a generic extraction and not a business coritent extraction? 0 0 CO-PA is highly customizable where value fields and characteristics are defined differently between customers. SAP has released CO-PA as a generic extraction wh ich can be customized. 342.What is a characteristic in CO-PA? 00 Characteristics are defined at levels where information is maintained eg. Custom er groups and divisions. 343. What are "predefined characteristics"? 00 Some characteristics like company code, material and customer are set LIPwith pr edefined set values. 344.How many customer defined characteristics are you allowed to create? 00

Chapter 3 : Extraction 345.Define the database structure in CO-PA. 00 4 4 4 4 There are 4 tables C E N X X X X (n is 1 - ' and I X X X X is the operating conc ern) CE1 is the Actual Line items table containing data at the line item level. CE2 is the Plan line item similar to CE 1 CE3 - Segment level table - contains t he value fields (key figures), contains values of the period for each profitabil ity segment nun~ber. CE4 - Segment Table - this defines thc link between profita bility segments and the linc items using segment number. Each record in this tab lc defines the profitability segment n u m l ~ c r a for given combination of ch aracteristics' values. You can exclude some characteris tics (li kc order number s) to reduce the volume (similar tc) linc item dimensions in the Infocube). 4 346.How would you k~iow a segment/segment level entry has if been summarized? 00 Using the time stamp of the last summarization run. 347. What is the safety delta for CO-PA? 000 BW only updates records that arc at least 30 minutes old.

CO-PA Extraction 348. How would you compare the CO-PA to an Infocube? 00 CO-PA Operating Concern CE 1/CE2 Line item details CE4 - Segment table Excl~ldin gcharacteristics in Segment tablc CE4 CE3 - Segmcnt level table S~lmmarization L evel BW Infocube ODs Dimension table Line item dimension Fact table Aggregate I/ 4 4 4 4 4 349.What is the standard naming convention of the CO-PA data source? 00 1-CO- PA- <SYS>-<CLIENT> -< O P C O N > where sys - system ID, client - client n umber and olxon - operating concern name 350.Define the steps necessary to set up CO-PA for BW. 00 4 4 I / I / CO-PA datasource must be defined at Operating Concern / Clicnt Level. Define dat a source for f~111 updates (summarization level, segment level and line item). S elect SBIW transaction to get into CO-PA setup. Select the characteristics. Sele ct the value fields. Generate the data source. 4 4

Chapter 3 : Extraction CO-PA Retraction 351. What is CO-PA retraction? 0 0 0 This is the process by which BW data is loaded into N3. 352. How is the query from BW used for CO-PA retraction? 000 The query on BW is the source for the retraction. Data is retracted after drilli ng down using all free characteristics. This drill down is performed internally. 353. What are thegeneral restrictions of CO-PA retraction? a00 J J J J Allowed only for cost based CO-PA. N o delta functionality although runs can be cancelled. Retractor uses RSCRM-BAPI to run the query. Actual data is always upd ated ilsing rccord type H where planning data, record type and version can be sp ecified. 354.Give a step by step approach for doing CO-PA retraction. 0 0 0 J J J Define the query. Enable for OLE DB. create the RFC connection in R/3 if not alr eady there.

CO - PA R e t r a c t i o n */ Define field assignments (between InfoObjects and CO-PA fields): 1. You can find this under SPRO controlling controlling profitability analysis. Search for "dat a transfer from SAP BW". + + 2. There are two options: assignment at system level or query level. If both are defined then the query level takes precedence. 3. Key figures can ONLY be assigned at the query level. 4. Currencies and units are assigned automatically. 5 . Choose the query. 6. Assign the InfoObjects; you can also assign fixed values. Execute the extract ion. IJse SPRO and search for "Execute data transfer". You may d o retraction in the background and use variant. */ */ */ Please note : If you want to cancel the retraction run you can perform a reverse by displaying all runs (log), selecting a run and clicking on "Cancel Run".

Chapter 3 : Extraction Enhancing data extraction You enhance the extraction of data sources when you find that you have to add Z fields to the SAP delivered data sources (text, master and transaction). 355. What are the typical steps taken to enhance data source? O 0 c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ c/ Append the standard data structure. Add the custom fields. Edit the right user e xit to populatc the custom fields. Activate the user exit. Create InfoObjects co rresponding t o thc new custom fields. Replicate the datasources. Map the new fi elds to the InfoObjects Activate the communication structure and transfer rules. Create info package and load the data. 356.What restriction is placed on the naming of custom fields in appended struct ures? 000 All new fields in the appended structure should start with ZZ 357. What is the SAP enliancenient for data sources? 000 RSAPOOOO 1

Enhancine Data Extraction 358.What are the user exits within the SAP enhancement for data sources? 000 EXIT-SAPLRSAP-001 EXIT-SAPLRSAP-002 EXIT-SAPLRSAP-003 EXIT-SAPLRSAP-004 + transaction data + master data + text + hierarchy 359.1s the user exit for data st~urcescommtln for all data sources? 000 Yes, which is why you should use a case statement checking the data source name in your code. 360.How do you debug a background user exit? 000 J J J J J J J Create an infinite loop on a value eg. x = 3. do while x > 1. Start the extracti on on BW The process on R/3 now goes into an infinite loop. Look for the applica ble process in SM5O. Debug the process. Within debugger change value of x to 1, thus exiting the while loop. Now you can see and debug your code. 361. Can you add data records in the user exit for data sources? 000 No. The user exit is only used to append data to the record.

Chapter 3 : Extraction 362.What parameters are available in the user exit, for data sources, for enhanc ing master data? 000 I-T-FIELDS I-T-DATA list of transfer structure fields. internal table containing data for the master attri1)utes. Remember that this contains all data. update mode. basic character istics name of the InfoSourcc. I-U P D M O D E I-CHABASNM I-SOURCE 363.What are the hierarchy relevant parameters? 000 C-T-HIENODE C-T -HIETEXT C-T -FOLDERT C-T -HIEINTV table which contains hierarch y. internal table containing text of hierarchies. contains descriptions of nodes . containing hierarchy leaves with intervals. 364.What enhancements are available for LIS? 000 MCS10001 MCS5 000 1 LEINSOO 1 Sales documents Deliveries Purchase orders 365.What enhancements are available to enhance HR data? 00 HRPTDWO1 for H R time related data

OB Connect DB Connect 366.What is DB connect? 00 D B connect is a utility to load data directly from external databases such as O racle. 367. What are the restrictions of DB connect? 00 4 4 N o synonyms are allowed . If you are using Oracle, the date format is different in SAP Oracle has both date and time in the date column; so to map date only to SAC use the to-char(date-column, 'YYYYMMDD') function. You can create a view wi th this fi~nction and use d b connect with the view. 368.What are 'the pre-requisites for DB con~iect? 00 4 4 4 4 DBSL must be installed on the SAP server. The database specific D B Client must be installed. Tdbk and field names must be in capital letters. Table name is lim ited to number of characters. A view is used to circumvent this limitation. 369.What are the steps to create DB connect? 00 4 4 First verify that the D B connection works from the server. AWB Source systems c reate + +

C h a p t e r 3: Extraction Select Database source system. c, Enter the database user name, pass\vord and co nnect string. c/ Using transaction RSDBC generate the data source. c Assign data source to info source. , c, Maintain and activate the communication structure and transfer rules. c Create i nfo package and load data. , c ,

Currency Translation i n BW Currency Translation in BW 369.What are the options available in BW for currency conversion? 00 It can be done in either the update rule or in Bex. If you do it in the update r ule then you lose the information on the original currency. 370. What is the translation key? 00 Defines how the exchange rate is calculated. For example, the target currency ca n be fixed or can be determined at the time of translation. 371. Which table contains the exchange rate? 00 372. What i s the function module to convert currency? 00 RSW -CURRENCY-TRANSLATION 373. How do you load exclialige iliformatioli ,from R/3 to BW? 00 AWB Source systems right click on the SAP R/ 3 source system select transfer exc hange rates + + + 374. How do you do Euro coliversioli at tlie database level? 00 1Jse the program RSEURO

Chapter 3: Extraction 375. How do you upload currency exchange from a flat file? 00 c/ T h e file must have the same structure as TCIJRR table including exchange range type, from currency, to currency, valid from date, exchange rate, Ratio Once th e file is ready g o to AWB flat file right click source system, select the file system and select Transfer exchange rate. c/ + +

CHAPTER 4 BW Functional

C h a p t e r 4: B W F u n c t i o n a l ASAP methodology 376. What does ASAP stand for? 00 Accelerated SAP implementation nietlioclology. 377. What are the project phases within ASAP? 00 4 J 4 4 4 Project preparation: perform a concel,tual review following this phase. Business blue print: filnctional spccs arc written in this phase. Perform a design revie w following this. Realization: configure and develop. Pcrform a configuration re view following this p1i;lsc. Final preparation: QA, go-live plan. Final work pri or to moving to production. Conduct a performance review following this phasc. G o live and support: move to production and provide support. 378. What is a typical set up of a BW team? 00 J J J J J Project manager One or more functional consultants 1 cxpcrts One or more develop ers One or more QA testers Basis team support 379. Wliat is tlie 90 day rule? 00 It is a thumb rule that SAP-B\V can bc ~mplenienced in 90 days because most of t he generic reclilirenients are already delivered in its business contcnc.

A S A P M e t h o d o l o g y / B u s i n e s s C o n t e n t and Roles Business content and roles 380.What is business content? 00 T h e pre configured objects delivered by SAP are called 1)usiness content. It i ncludes roles, queries, info providers, info sources, data sources, info objects , info packages, ctc. For cxamplc, OMATERIAL is a busincss content delivered by sap. 381. What are the groi~ping options available when installing busi~iess co~itent ?00 9 9 9 9 Only necessary objects - This will collect only the csscntial objects. Data flow before - If you are installing a cube with this option it will install all the required objects like info objects, update rules, etc with the cube. Data flow a ftcr. - If you install a cube with this option it will also install anything aft er the cube such as qucries, work books, roles etc. Data flow before and after. - This will install all thc objects beforc and aftcr almost from infoobjccts to Role. 382. What are the versioris ill objects? 00 9 9 9 Modificd version A Active vcrsion D M SAP delivered