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PII: SOO45-7949(97)00007-Z

Computers& StructuresVol. 64, No. S/6. pp. 931-938, 1991 0 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Printed in Great Britain 004s7949/97 s17.00 + 0.00

Bosheng Yin?, Wenliang Wang$ and Yuequan Jint
tHangzhou Automation Technology Academy, Hangzhou, Peoples Republic of China SFudan University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China

Abstract-This paper describes how a complex structure is divided into various kinds of substructures which are calculated independently using the ADINA program and, following this, the dynamic characteristics of the entire structure are recombined by the b&consistent dynamic substructure method which is a free-interface method improved by the authors. Because both the displacement consistent of substructure interfaces and the interface force equilibrium are satisfied by the present method, all interface degrees of freedom in the synthesis equations can be eliminated. Several examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. @ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.



The finite-element method has increased in popularity among the numerical techniques in engineering. This is firstly because the engineering designs of modern products necessitate an engineer to accurately predict their performances and produce the optimal object; this requires the integrated use of the finite-element analysis software in CAD. Secondly, the fast progress in hardware performance and the great decrease in the price of computers offer the possibility for using finiteelement analysis software. Of course, another important factor is that the analysis functions of the finite-elements program develop rapidly themselves with a user-friendly interface and CAD software transor [ 11. The fine-mesh partition of a model contradicts the computer time used and the disk storage required in finite-element analysis, particularly for the dynamic analysis of complex structures. At the same time, each component (or substructure) of a structure may be designed and processed in different departments or regions. The change of any component necessitates the reanalysis of the entire structure which causes problems and is too expensive for the dynamic analysis of large systems. Furthermore, for some complex structures such as a rotor shaft-oil film bearing-flexible foundation system, which has different constructions for each component and the complex coupling relationship, some data must be obtained by experimental techniques. Therefore, it is impossible to apply commercial programs when the dynamic analysis of the entire system is executed. However, modal condensation or modal reduction can solve such contradictions.

Component mode synthesis is a powerful modalreduction technique by which the dynamic behaviors of a component are expressed by its static modes and dynamic dominant modes [2-4]. After component condensation, synthesis of higher-level substructures is performed. Component modes and mass and stiffness matrices can be. computed using the ADINA program which has high solution efficiency and contains effective elements and various material models [5]. In this paper, BCDSP (biconsistent dynamic substructure program), provided by the authors, is combined with the ADINA program to raise the efficiency and function of dynamic analysis. Through the dynamic analysis of a covered blade group, hydro-turbine and multistory frame etc., it is shown that such a combination is very successful. 2. PRINCIPLE

The principle of the bi-consistent method and BCDSP will be explained step-by-step as follows. 2.1. Coordinate
transform of the substructure

To determine the configuration of structure system, two kinds of generalized coordinates are always used, i.e. the physical coordinate and the mode coordinate. In fact, the hi-consistent method is a kind of improved free-interface mode-synthesis method. Therefore, like all the mode synthesis methods, at first, the physical coordinate is transformed into the mode coordinate. Based on the law of frequency, high frequency modes are truncated to condense the number of degrees of freedom describing the substructure. If we do not take damping into

932 consideration, the motion structure can be written as mii+ku=f equation

Bosheng Yin et al of any subThe mode-acceleration concept enters by virtue of the fact that we will now choose to approximate the response of the coordinates P, by the pseudo-static response given by ignoring ii, in the second part of eqn (8), that is: AdPd =ZOTLTfB d From eqn (9), one obtains: P d = A- @LTf B cl d (10) (9)


where m and k are the mass and stiffness matrices of the substructure, respectively; u and ii are the physical displacement and acceleration column matrices of the substructure, respectively; and f is the column matrix of node forces. When the entire structure system shows free vibration, only the forces act on the interface, i.e. only the location corresponding to interface degrees of freedom in column matrix f has non-zero entries; hence. it can be written as: f = LfB (2)

u = mtPk + (&,A; @LTf, = mkPk + Jr,fs (11) where $, = @,A(; @,TLT is called residual modes. Essentially it is the residual flexibility of the interface forces, presenting the static contribution of the high rank truncated elastic modes. Thus, eqn (11) can rewritten as:

where fB is the column matrix of interface forces and L is a Boolean matrix. Letting @, be the complete free-interface normal modes, it may be separated into kept modes @k and deleted modes @,,,: @ =

Substituting eqn (12) into eqn (I), and leftmultiplying [@#/IT on both sides of the equation obtained, gives



while the kept modes, aL, consist of rigid-body Q, and kept elastic modes @,, @, =



If using @, as the transform by: P,

matrix, the result is given where m, = $:rnti,. k, = t,b:kt,b, are mass and residual stiffness matrices, the residual respectively.

u = [%N%l

11 d

= @kPk @dPd +

Original -7.066 Z

Substituting eqn (2) and eqn (5) into the motion eqn (1) and left- multiplying @i on it, gives:

Sub. (Y

Due to the normal modes of the substructure being orthonormalized with respect to the mass matrix. the above equation can be written as:


Interface j

where I, and I., are k- and d-order identity matrices and Ax and Ad are k- and d-order diagonal eigenvalue matrices, respectively. Representing eqn (7) as partitioned form, one obtains:


Multistory frame structure.

Dynamic analysis of complex structures using ADINA In eqn (13) the interface force vector f, can be eliminated by means of bi-consistent conditions. 2.2. Computation of the substructure residual mode From eqn (1 I), the substructure residual modes are as follows: +, = (D,& %TLT.


If the substructure has no rigid-body modes, B = I so eqn (16) reduces to: (17) 2.3. System synthesis for undamped free vibration The coordinate set integrated substructure coordinates, by the uncoupling +, = (k - - (DkA, a;)~~


The elastic flexibility with respect to interface force fa can be shown as $< = BT(Ck, C)BL

1,2,3 ,

. , NS



where B = I - ma,@ is called the projection matrix and k,, = CTkC is the (n - R) order nonsingular stiffness matrix relative to R constraints. In the above formulas, C is also a Boolean matrix which is used to suppress the rigid motion of the free substructures. The residual modes, consequently, can be obtained without direct knowledge of @,, and Ad by combining eqn (15) and eqn (14) to give: $, = (BTCk, CTB- QLA; fbE)LT (16)

(where NS is the sum total of substructures) cannot be regarded as the independent-generalized coordinates of the entire structure. Now we will apply the bi-consistent conditions which are independently described by eqn (20) and eqn (2 1) to couple each pair of substructures whose motion is approximated by eqn (12). Consistent equations such as eqn (20) and eqn (21) can be written in terms of generalized coordinates P and combined to form a matrix transform, P = Tq (19)

where T is called the secondary transform matrix and q is the independent generalized coordinate.



Fig. 2. The finite-element model of the covered blade group connected by six blades.

934 Original 2.515 Z

Bosheng Yin ef al.

In order to decrease the number of unknown quantities of the interface forces, it is stipulated that when


For an entire structure with NB boundaries, the total interface force column matrix F, is:
FB=col&} i=l,2,3 ,.,., NB (22)

If the yth substructure has nb interfaces, its interface forces can also be written as: fB= SPF, (23)

Fig. 3. Substructure finite-element model.

The rule in the present BCDSP is that every interface is joined together by two, and only two, substructures. Taking the multistory frame structure in Fig. 1 as an example, the entire structure is divided into NS substructures with NB interfaces. Supposing the ath and fith substructures join on the ith interface, the assembling equation of the bi-consistent method may be written as: (1) Displacement consistent on the location of joint:

where (S is a symbol matix. IF is a transform matix with nb x NB blocks; only one block in every row is a identitiy matrix, while the other blocks are all zero blocks and the column number of the identity block is equal to the number of interfaces the substructure has. After the interface joint force has been adjusted to the equivalent quantity and the contrary symbol, we will discuss the displacement consistent eqn (20) on the location of joint. At first, this is done using the generalized coordinate to express interface displacements of the ccth substructure:

where %I, and %I; represent displacement column matrices of the @th and ath substructure on the ith interface, repectively. (2) Joint force equilibrium:
BfB =

Similarly, we can write interface displacements of the fith substructure expressed by the generalized coordinate. Substituting the two equations above into eqn (20) may yield the displacement consistent equation of the ith inteface. Integrating displacement consistent equations of NB interfaces of the entire structure system obtains: B,F, = 0,P, where 0, blocks is a matrix composed (24) of NB x NB



where @t2 and (Wi represent joint force column matrices of the /Ith and ath substructure on the ith interface, respectively.
Table 1. The front five-order natural frequencies of the substructure computed by the ADINA program Mode number


2 7784.80

3 10569.78

4 18287.38

5 28939.739

Frequency (Hz)

Dynamic analysis of complex structures using ADINA


Table 2. Comparison of computed natural frequencies of the covered blade group between BCDSP and commercial FEP
Mode number Frequency (Hz) computed by BCDSP Frequency (Hz) computed by commercial FEP

5353.66 5353.61

2 1192.84 7792.83

3 8273.42 8273.39

4 9852.00 9851.77

5 12775.96 12774.45

In eqn (24), 0, is a matrix composed of NB x NS blocks, where a substructure occupies a column 6, = [((()S()F)TL~~)~(((2)S(2)F)T(2)L(2)~~)~, ..., ](((NsSN~F)TNSL~s)~~)]. (26) Because these interface displacement consistent equations are independent of each other, t&, is a positive definite matrix; meanwhile, we also can prove that it is a symmetric matrix. Therefore, eqn (24) can be rewritten as: F, = 8, f$P, = qPk (27)

Substituting the above equation eqn (19) obtains:

and eqn (27) into





is the transform matrix from the uncoupling generalized coordinate P to the independent generalized coordinate q of the coupling system. 2.4. Motion equation of the integrated coupling system This section will establish the structure motion equations from the uncoupling modes coordinates P to the independent coordinate q of the coupling system. For the system with NS substructures, according to eqn (13), it is integrated into:

The above equation indicates that, using the interface joint bi-consistent condition of the structure system, the interface force column matrix F, may be expressed by the kept mode coordinate of each substructure. Therefore, the independent coordinate of the coupling system is:
9 =


Original -





0: 1


Divide into



where MG and K, are the generalized mass and stiffness matrices of the entire integrated structure, respectively. Substituting eqn (28) into the above equation, and left-multiplying T obtains (I + $MGs)Pk + (A + qTK,is)Pk = c-e;

Fig. 4.

The finite-element model of the six-story frame.


+ q6;)FB


Sub. 6

Let MR = called the the entire right side

I + qTMGqand K, = A + qTK,~; these are generalized mass and stiffness matrices of structure synthesized, respectively. On the of eqn (30)

- e,r + ge:

= -e;

+ e;[ei


= 0


Bosheng Yin et al.

Table 3. Comparison of computed natural frequencies of the six-story frame between BCDSP and commercial FEP Mode number Frequency (Hz) computed by BCDSP Frequency (Hz) computed by commercial FEP 1 6.9468 6.9468 2 6.9468 6.9468 3 9.0919 9.0919 4 21.6807 21.6802 5 21.6807 21.6802

Hence, eqn (30) at last can be written M,& + KRPk = 0.

as: (31)

2.5. Solving the motion equation of the coupling system and recovering the modes under the physical coordinate Various methods can be adopted to solve the eigenproblem of the motion eqn (31) of the coupling system. The subspace iteration method is used in the BCDSP. Meanwhile, shifting iteration is also used in the program to accelerate and compute the rigid-body modes of the free-free structure [6, 71.

The above equation indicates that the motion equation of the structure system through the secondary coordinate transform synthesis is just converted into the generalized eigenvalue problem. Because at this time it is transformed to the independent coordinate system of the coupling to the dynamic system, so it is recovered characteristics of the original entire structure. Meanwhile, in this equation only the kept modes are left as unknown quantities. In other words, the order of motion equation is reduced to the sum total of all the substructure kept modes. This increases the synthesis efficiency and is particularly applicable to analysis of structures with large inner-joint degrees of freedom.

Because the size of eigenvalues is not associated with adopting the physical coordinate or the mode coordinate, eigenvalues obtained from eqn (31) are those of the original entire structure. However, the eigenvectors obtained must be converted and recovered from the mode coordinate to the physical coordinate. After getting the interface column matrix F, of the
structure from eqn (27), one obtains from eqn (12)




Inlerface Substructure


Dynamic analysis of complex structures using ADINA

Original __I 2.478 X

and mode

3.1. Computation of natural frequencies shapes of the covered blade group

Fig. 6. Substructure finite-element model.

eigenvectors of each substructure coordinate

under the physical





So far, we can obtain the eigenvalues [eqn (32)] and eigenvectors of the entire structure to be solved.

To verify the validity and efficiency of the bi-consistent method and BCDSP, we have computed several engineering examples. In these examples, the descriptive substructures include some substructures with no rigid-body modes, some free-free substructures, some adopting the global-coordinate system and also some adopting the local-coordinate system in order to verify the algorithm and program in all respects. All numerical examples show that substructure natural frequencies computed by BCDSP are coincident with those using the commercial finite-element programs for the entire structure and the mode shapes are the same, but the computing time and the disk storage required are greatly reduced.

In order to avoid the harmful resonance and to decrease the stress when vibrating, high pressure stage blades of the steam turbine are always connected into groups by shrouds. Figure 2 is a finite-element model of a covered blade group which is connected by six blades. To compare it with the laser experiment results, the blades are represented as rectangular bars of constant cross section with the same vibration characteristic parameters. The finite element model of the entire covered blade group is divided into six substructures and five interfaces. If analyzed by the fixed-interface mode synthesis method, its six substructures need to be divided into three types: a left end substructure whose right end interface is constrained; four substructures in the middle whose left and right end interfaces are constrained; and right end substructures whose left end interface is constrained. However, the BCDSP adopts the free-interface method and then all the substructures are the same, as shown in Fig. 3. It needs to compute only once; therefore, it is more convenient and more time saving. Using three-dimensional solid elements in the ADINA program, the front five-order modes of the substructure are computed as kept modes whose corresponding natural frequencies are shown as Table 1. Having obtained the substructure modes, we can use BCDSP to compute the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the entire covered blade group. Its computed results are very consistent with those computed by the commercial finite-element programs (Table 2) but the CPU time used is only 6.744% of the latter on the same computer. The computed results show that, because the rigidity of the substructures is always bigger than that of the entire structure, its natural frequencies are higher. Therefore, the number of the substructure kept modes is not more than the computed mode number of the entire structure; it can guarantee the computing accuracy. Undoubtedly, the lower modes of the entire structure more easily satisfy the above-mentioned condition; hence, the computed results are more accurate. At the same time, it also may be found from Table 2 that the results computed by BCDSP are always higher than those of the commercial FEP. This is the influence of dynamic over-shots truncated by the high-order modes.

Table 4. The front five-order natural frequencies of the substructure computed by

Mode number Frequency (Hz)

1 171.173

ADINA programs 2 3 292.049 384.494

4 667.360

5 806.646



Yin et al.

Table 5. The natural frequencies of the hydro-turbine

computed by BCDSP 3 486.6139 4 629.7418 5 629.7418

Mode number Frequency (Hz) computed by BCDSP


2 486.6139

3.2. Computation

of natural





of the six-story frame

The multistory frame is composed of storys which often have the same geometric features, material data and boundary conditions. Therefore, it is convenient to adopt the substructure method to analyze its dynamic characteristics. Taking the six-story frame shown in Fig. 4 as an example, we divided it into six substructures in which SUB1 and SUB2 to SUB5

In this paper, the BCDSP-using ADINA program is presented to evaluate mode characteristics of large complex structures. Numerical analyses are performed on several examples and good analysis accuracy and high-synthesis efficiencies were found. The key steps of the BCDSP-using ADINA program are as follows:

are free-free substructures and SUB6 is fixed on bottom nodes. Each substructure consists of three-dimensional beam elements. After its mode parameters are obtained by the ADINA program, in the next step we can obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the six-story frame synthesized by BCDSP. The substructures SUB1 and SUB6 each have an interface and substructures SUB2 to SUB5 each have two interfaces. A comparison of natural frequencies computed by BCDSP can be seen in Table 3. 3.3. Computation
of natural frequencies and

1. Decomposing an entire structure into easily identifiable components (substructures), making the size of every component not exceed the capacity of the computer and letting the free-free substructures be as few as possible. 2. Analyzing each component separately and obtaining a dynamic condensation model of each by means of a modal-reduction technique. The relevant characters for each component can be evaluated by the ADINA program or by test. 3. Applying BCDSP to synthesize the dynamic behavior of the entire structure from the characteristics of its components. Obviously, with the aid of the ADINA program, the synthesis efficiency of BCDSP is raised considerably. This study represents an initial step for the use of such methods using the ADINA program and it is expected that such methods using the program can also be applied to sensitivity synthesis [8].


shapes of the hydro-turbine

Although the hydro-turbine has an axissymmetrical body, it is very complex when vibrating and has various mode shapes with nodal diameters or nodal circles, or even an umbrella shape. Therefore, it is no longer handled as a plane problem. If the dynamic analysis of the entire hydro-turbine is computed by commercial FEP, large degrees of freedom and bandwidth will be involved and required storage and number of numerical operations will increase rapidly. If utilizing the dynamic substructure method, such a problem will be more conveniently solved. Figure 5 shows that the hydro-turbine is fixed in the interior hole and its front five-order modes need to be obtained. First, the hydro-turbine is divided equally into 17 parts; each part is a substructure. Because each substructure is identical after it revolves a certain angle, it is more convenient for the substructure to adopt the local-coordinate system. The substructure consists of three-dimensional solid elements and each has two interfaces as shown in Fig. 6. The substructure mode parameters need to be computed only once using the ADINA program and its front five-order modes are drawn as kept modes which are shown in Table 4. The front five-order natural frequencies synthesized by BCDSP are shown in Table 5.

1. Bathe, K. J., Walczak, J. and Zhang, H., Some recent advances for practical finite element analysis. In: Proceedings of the 9th ADINA Conference, June 1993, pp. 51 l-521. 2. Craig, R. R., Structural Dynamics, An Introduction to Computer Methoak. Wiley, New York, 1981, pp. 467-496. 3. Jen, C. W., Johnson, D. A. and Dubois, F., Numerical modal analysis of structures based on a revised substructure synthesis approach. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1995, 180, 185-203. 4. Wang, W. L., Zhang, J. and Chen, X. J., Natural mode analysis of blade-disk coupled systems-modal synthesis of symmetric structure with Cn group. Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, 1988, 1, 61-72. 5. ADINA Research and Development Inc., ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide Report. Report ARD 92-8, ADINA R. and D. Inc., Watertown, MA, 1992. 6. Bathe, K. J. and Wilson, E. L., Numerical Methods In Finite Element Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1976. 7. Bathe, K. J., Finite Element Procedures. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1996. 8. Segura, M. M. and Celigueta, J. T., A new dynamic reanalysis technique based on modal synthesis.
Computers and Structures, 1995, 56, 523-528.