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Chapter 6 Highlights Biogeography: Geographical distribution of organisms Current geographical distribution of organisms can be attributed to two major phenomena:

1. (Historical Perspective) The History of Earth; including major changes or shifts in landmass a. Generally refers to geological or abiotic properties 2. (Contemporary perspective) The present ecological characteristics or attributes of specified region a. Generally includes interactions between abiotic and biotic regions 3. Key Source of information: Phylogenetic Evidence Biogeography: Divided into two separate fields (that are not considered to be exclusive; but rather complement one another): 1. Historical Biogeography 2. Ecological Biogeography I. II. Biogeographic Evidence for Evolution a. Wallace and Darwin Major Patterns of Distribution a. Endemic (Animals that are restricted to a certain region or locality) i. Geographic distributions/ tolerance for all species are limited (in some way)All organisms are constrained) ii. Higher taxa, are likewise limited to a particular region b. Biogeographic Realms i. Designated by Wallace ii. Divides regions or realms according to the geographical fauna (& flora?) iii. 6 different Realms: 1. Palearctic (temperate and tropical Eurasia and northern Africa) 2. Nearctic (North America) 3. Neotropical (South and Central America) 4. Ethiopian (sub-Saharan Africa) 5. Oriental (India and Southeast Asia) 6. Australian (Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and nearby islands). iv. Realms reflect major historical events on earth rather than contemporary ecological processes 1. Key example: Wallace Line (between Oriental and Australian Realms) (Fig6.3) a. Despite their close proximity & shared environmental conditions among the islands, the biota/ fauna & flora differ tremendously from one another. b. Reason for this can be attributed to the different lithospheric plates that approached each other only recently c. Higher taxa are bound within each realms; and species/ organisms may be further bound within specific areas Historical Factors Affecting Geographic Distributions Testing Hypothesis in Historical Biogeography a. Examples of Historical Biogeographic Analysis i. Organisms in the Hawaiian Islands ii. Animals in Madagascar

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iii. Gondwanian Distributions b. The composition of regional Biotas V. Phylogeography: Description and analysis a. Pleistocene population shifts b. Modern human Origins: Phylogeography applied to our own distribution (Refer to Chapter 4): (Background info) Homo erectus: broadly distributed throughout Africa and Asia ~ 1Mya Evolved into archaic Homo sapiens ~ 300Kya (300,000 years ago) Fossil evidence indicates that they were around till about 29 Kya (lived for about 1000yrs Anatomically modern humans date ~195-170 Kya in Africa (found nowhere else for about 80,000 years) Major Question: How are these ancient populations related to the different human populations of today? (Currently being addressed using genetic evidence) Two major Hypotheses on the origins of modern humans i. Multiregional Hypothesis: posits a single wave of expansion by Homo erectus from Africa to parts of Asia and Europe, and continuity of descent to the present day. 1. Based on Morphologogy and fossil specimens, advocates of this hypothesis hold that archaic 2. According to this hypothesis, there should exist genetic differences among modern Africans, Europeans, and Asians that trace back to the genetic differences that developed among populations of erectus and archaic sapiens nearly a million years ago. ii. Replacement Hypothesis or Out-of-Africa Hypothesis: The replacement hypothesis proposes that populations of H. erectus, derived from African ancestors, gave rise to archaic sapiens, but that Asian and European populations of archaic sapiens became extinct when modern sapiens expanded out of Africa in a second wave of colonization. iii. Hypothesis holds that after archaic sapiens spread from Africa to Asia and Europe, modern sapiens evolved from archaic sapiens in Africa, spread throughout the world in a second expansion, and replaced the populations of archaic sapiens without interbreeding with them to any substantial extent (Figure 6.168). That is, the modern sapiens that evolved from archaic sapiens in Africa was reproductively isolated from Eurasian populations of archaic sapiens-it was a distinct biological species. According to this hypothesis, most of the world's populations of archaic sapiens became extinct due to competition, and most genes in contemporary populations are descended from those carried by the population that spread from Africa. NOTE: Regarding yesterdays lecture/ Question about crossbreeding between Neanderthals and Modern Humans (see article: have students take a looksee and ultimately offer an opinion about the information. Assignment = find article or references (peer reviewed articles that would either support or weaken the argument VI. Geographic Range limits and Ecology and Evolution Fundamental Niche (Evelyn Hutchinson 1957): set of biotic and abiotic conditions tin which a species can maintain a stable population size Realized Niche Actual space that the organisms can occupy Potential niche: space that is dictated buy the overlap between the

fundamental and realized niche Phylogenetic Niche Conservation: Related species will often share similar ecological requirements, presumably derived from their common ancestor (example Peterson et al 2002: Predicts geographical distribution of various organisms by studying the characteristics of the niche/ habitats occupied among closely related species) a. Range limits: an Evolutionary problems (2 major constraint) i. Lack of Genetic variation in one or more characteristics necessary for adaptation ii. [Incursion of genes from populations in favorable environments at the range margin, since this process of gene glow counteracts natural selection for local adaptation] What does this mean? Elaborate further on conflicts between gene flow and natural selection 1. Several mathematical models support this hypothesis, but their needs to be more evidence that supports or at least indicate that this limits the range of organisms. VII. Evolution of Geographic Patterns of Diversity (Refer To Ecological approaches to Biogeography) Applies community ecological methods re: explaining species diversity, composition, and trophic structures of assemblages of coexisting species (often called communities). Partly biogeographical problems since the geo distribution of species determine whether or not they can overlap. Thus historical biogeography bears on community ecology a. Community Convergence: Adopts similar concept of convergent species to communities as a whole i. Examples in textbook: Anoles Effects of History on Contemporary Diversity Patterns a. Latitudinal Diversity Gradient b. Current models of accumulation of species that have been proposed to account for the differences in species richness between tropical and temperate regions (Refer to Mittelbach et al. 2007) i. Tropical locations can support a higher equilibrium number of species (carrying capacity, K) than temperate localities ii. The diversification rate (difference between the speciation rate () and the extinction rate () might be higher in the tropics. Species numbers have not necessarily reached an equilibrium carrying capacity iii. Lineages diversify at the same rate, but started to diversity more recently in the temperate zone (arrow) than in the tropics because they originated in the tropical environments but only recently adapted to the temperate zone Two major hypotheses (not mutually exclusive) account for longitudinal gradient 1. Diversification Rate Hypothesis: Rate of increase in diversity has been greater in the tropics for a long time because of the higher origination rate, lower extinction rate or both (re: Fig6.26B) 2. Time and Area Hypothesis: Most lineages have originated in tropical environments throughout the Cenozoic era and even before, simply because the earth was warmer than it was today: more of the earth had a tropical climate than now. For that reason, most linages are adapted to tropical climates, and the relatively few lineages that have evolved adaptations to the stressful temperatures and the seasonal fluctuations in food that are typical of the temperate zone are younger lineages that have not had time to become diverse (This Hypothesis is based on the phylogenetic niche conservatism (re: Fig6.26C)

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CH7 BIODIVERSITY General Overview I. What is Biodiversity? a. Biodiversity defined b. Ecological & Evolutionary historical perspectives c. Analyzing biodiversity i. Problems and solutions II. Taxonomic diversity through the Phanerozoic (eon) a. What is the Phanerozoic? Phanerozoic (eon) includes 3 key eras: oldest to youngest = Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic

Paleozoic* Cambrian explosion Most complete fossil records of marine organisms with hard surfaces nOffers clues about the trends in the rate of origination and extinction (?) (Trends may appear to conflict with one another: attempt to illustrate the concepts in terms of a single ant farm population b. Rates of Origination and Extinction c. Extinction rates have declined over time d. Trends that occur between extinction rates and clad age Problems & Solutions

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