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Jaduguda,Bhatin,Turmadih(Turamdih),Banduhurang,BagjataandNarwapahar Jharkhand,India Maincommodities:UREE

TheJaduguda,Bhatin,Turmadih(Turamdih),Banduhurang,BagjataandNarwapahar(Naroapahar)uranium mines are distributed over an interval of ~100 km along the generally NWSEtrending curvilinear SinghbhumshearzoneinJharkhandstate,inthevicinityofthecityofJamshedpurinnortheasternIndia.The copperdepositsoftheMosaboniCopperBeltarelocatedwithinthissameinterval,withuraniumbeing recoveredfromthecoppertailingsfromsomeofthesemines. TheSinghbhumshearzone,whichisover160kmlongand1to10kmwide,markstheboundarybetween the Archaean Singhbhum cratonic nucleus to the south and the Proterozoic fold belt to the north. The SinghbhumcratonisanArchaeangranitegreenstoneterraincomprising:(i)extensive,compositegranite tonalitebatholithsknownasSinghbhumgranitecomplexand(ii)themetasedimentaryandmetavolcanic rocksoftheIronOreGroup(thatincludebandedironformationshostingmajorironoredeposits),and associatedmaficsillsanddykes. SeveralProterozoicvolcanosedimentarybasinsalsooverliethecratonicnucleus,includingtheDhanjori GroupimmediatelytothesouthwestoftheSinghbhumshearzoneinthevicinityofthecopperanduranium mineralisedsectionsofthestructure.TheProterozoicrocksoftheadjoiningNorthSinghbhumFoldBelt, immediately to the north of the shear zone, are predominantly composed of siliciclastic rocks of the Singhbhum Group and Proterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks of the generally eastwesttrending Dalma volcanicbelt. TheSinghbhumshearzonecutsacrosstherocksoftheArchaeanIronOreandSinghbhumGroup,andthe ProterozoicDhanjoriGroup.Themetamorphosed/shearedrockswithintheshearzonecomprisechlorite, biotite, sericite, kyanitequartzite or kyanitesericite schists, metaconglomerate, tourmalinite, and 'soda granite'orfeldspathicschist. AcharacteristicexampleoftheSinghbhumgroupofuraniumdeposits,Bagjata,islocated25kmSEof Jaduguda,withintheshearzone,closetotheboundarybetweentheSinghbhumGroupandthesoutheastern fringe of the Dhanjori Group. The host assemblage includes quartzites and metavolcanic rocks of the Dhanjori Group, feldspathic schist ('soda granite'), garnetiferous muscovite schist, and kyanitebearing quartzite or kyanitesericite schist and brecciated quartzalbitebiotite rock. The metavolcanics are represented by chlorite and amphibole schists with minor epidote and apatite, and albiteoligoclase porphyroblastsadjacenttocontactswithfeldspathicschist.Thefeldspathicschistcomprisesquartzandalbite withvaryingamountsofbiotite,chlorite,andmuscovite,withcommonaccessoryepidote,tourmalineand apatite. The muscovite schist is predominantly composed of quartz and muscovite with garnet porphyroblasts, while the kyanitequartzite and kyanitesericite/muscovite schist occurs as bands and/or pockets,generallyalongthenorthnortheasternboundaryoftheshearzone. UraniumandcopperbearingmineralsintheBagjatauraniumdepositaremostlyrestrictedtothechloriteand biotite schists, although lowgrade uranium mineralisation is also found in the garnetiferous muscovite sericiteschist.Uraniniteisthemainuraniumoremineral,alongwithsomeTiUcomplexes(brannerite)and unidentifiedUsilicates.TheREEbearingmineralsincludemonazite,epidoteallaniteandunidentifiedREE oxidesand/orcarbonates.Althoughallaniteoccursbothinbiotiteschistandchloriteschist,theformeristhe mainhosttoallanite. ThePbPbdatingofuraniniteandsulphideprovidesagesof~1.6to1.5and~1.77Garespectively,although multipleeventsofhydrothermalfluidfluxandmineralgrowthareevident,withtheearliestREEpossibly havingbeenintroducedat1.88Ga,withalateREErimmingonpreexistingepidoteallaniteat~1Ga.

At Jaduguda, there are two prominent, parallel ore lenses within sheared Proterozoic sediments of the Singhbhumshearzone,theFootwallandHangingwallLodes.Theselodesbothdipat~40NE,extendto downdipfor>880m,andareseparatedbya100mwidebarrenzone.TheFootwalllode,whichisthebetter mineralised,extendsoveraNWSEorientedlengthof~600m,whiletheHangingwallLodehasastrike lengthof~250m. TheBhatinmineislocated~4kmNWofJaduguda,separatedbyamajornorthsouthstrikeslipfaultwhich offsetstheSinghbhumshearzone.Oreoccurswithina2to10mthicklensthatdipsat35inasimilar settingtothatatJaduguda. TheNarwapaharmineislocated12kmNWofJaduguda.Severalorelensesextendingoverastrikelengthof ~2.1 km are known, with uranium minerals occurring as discrete grains within chloritequartz schist associatedwithmagnetite.Theselensesarehavethicknessesof2.5to20manddipat30to40. TheTuramdihdepositis12kmNWofNarwapahar.Anumberoferraticallydistributedlensesoccurwithin feldspathicchloriteschistscontainingdiscreteuraninitegrains. The Banduhurang deposit represents the western extension of the Turamdih ore lenses and has been developed as a large open pit, unlike all of the others which are underground operations Estimated'reserves'withinthisgroupofdeposits(Paletal.,2011)amountsto~215Mtoforecontaining 66000tonnesofrecoverableU3O8.Thiswouldsuggestanaveragegradeof~0.3kg/tU3O8.Thehighest gradesof0.67kg/tU3O8arefromtheJadagudadeposit,with80%ofthereservebeingatgradesof0.15to 0.49kg/tU3O8.Approximately27%ofthelowgradereserve(0.15to0.2kg/tU3O8isrecoverablefromthe tailingsoftheMosaboni,Surda,RakhaandTamapaharcoppermines.

IndianRareEarthsLimited

TheDepartmentofAtomicEnergy's(DAE)publicsectorendeavor,IndianRareEarthLimited(IREL),is engagedintheminingandprocessingofmineralsandscontainingtitanium,zirconium,thorium,andother elements.IRELwasincorporatedin1950underthejointownershipofTravancoreandtheGovernmentof India.In1963,theentirecompanywasnationalizedundertheDAE.IREL'sthreemineralsandseparation plantsatManvalkurichi(TamilNadu),Chavara(Kerala),andOSCOMChhatrapur(Orissa)produce"industrial metals,namelyilmenite,rutile,monazite,zircon,sillimanite,andgarnet."Theseindustrialmetalsarefurther processedyieldingelements usedinthe nuclearfuelcycle.ZirconisprocessedintozirconiumforIndia's nuclearprogram,eventuallyusedasaneutronabsorberinnuclearreactors.Ilmeniteandrutilebothyield titanium,whilemonazitecontainsthoriumandcerium.IRELalsomanufacturesotherrareearthproductssuch asrareearthchlorideandthoriumhydroxide.AvalueadditionplantattheOSCOMsiteproducessynthetic rutile,andtheMicrozirPlantatChavaraproducesfinezirconpowderusedintheceramicindustry.AtIREL's Manavalakurichi Plant, "zircon is chemically treated to zircon frit which is supplied to the Nuclear Fuel ComplexatHyderabadforfurtherprocessing."

AttheAlwayefacility,theRareEarthsplantproducesearthchlorides,whiletheRareEarthsDivision(RED)ofIREL processesmonazitefortheseparationofthoriumconcentrateamongothers.Followingthemonaziteseparationprocess, someofthethoriumconcentrateproducedbyREDissenttotheThoriumPlantofOSCOMforproductionofmantle grade thorium nitrate. Thorium Hydroxide, which can be used as fuel for a future generation of thorium nuclear reactors,isalsoproducedbyIRELThorium;itcanbeirradiatedtoformU233,afissilematerialalmostasgoodas plutonium.Almost100,000MtofthoriumispresentinthemonaziterichsandsofKeralastate,whichtheRareEarths PlantinAlwayeconvertsintothoriumcake.A"PRYNCEPlant"wasestablishedbyREDatAlwayefortheproduction of"verypureneodymiumoxideformakingindustrialmagnets." OnAugust18,1950,IndianRareEarthsLimited(IREL)wasincorporatedasaprivatelimitedcompanyjointly ownedbytheGovernment ofIndiaandGovernmentofTravancore,Cochinwiththeprimaryintentionof takingupcommercialscaleprocessingofmonazitesandatitsfirstunitnamelyRareEarthsDivision(RED), Aluva,Keralafortherecoveryofthorium. *AfterbecomingafullfledgedCentralGovernmentUndertakingin1963undertheadministrativecontrolof DepartmentofAtomicEnergy(DAE),IRELtookoveranumberofprivatecompaniesengagedinminingand separationofbeachsandmineralsinsouthernpartofthecountryandestablishedtwomoreDivisionsoneat Chavara,KeralaandtheotheratManavalakurichi(MK),TamilNadu. * After a gap of about 20 years, IREL commissioned its largest Division called Orissa Sand Complex(OSCOM) at Chatrapur, Orissa. Today IREL operates these four units with Corporate Office in Mumbaiandproduces/sellssixheavymineralsnamelyilmenite,rutile,zircon,monazite,sillimaniteandgarnet aswellasvariousvalueaddedproducts.IRELismakingprofitsince199798withitssalesturnoverreachinga peakexceedingRs.3600millionin200607,withexportcomponentofaboveRs.1000million.

UnitProfile CHAVARAMINERALDIVISION: ShriVGOPALAKRISHNAPRASAD,Head(Chavra) Tel.No:+91476268070105 Email:cgmch@irel.gov.in


Located10KmnorthofKollam,85KmfromThiruvananthapuramcapitalofKeralaand135KmbyroadfromKochiis

perhapsblessedwiththebestmineralsanddepositofthecountry.Theplantoperatesonaminingareacontainingas highas40%heavymineralsandextendingoveralengthof23KminthebeltofNeendakaraandKayamkulam.The depositisquiterichwithrespecttoilmenite,rutileandzirconandthemineralilmenitehappenstobeofweathered varietyanalyzing60%TiO2.ThepresentannualproductioncapacityofChavaraunitengagedindryaswellaswet (dredging/upgradation)miningandmineralseparationstandsat1,54,000tofilmenite,9,500tofrutile,14,000tof zirconand7,000tofsillimanite.Inadditiontheplanthasfacilitiesforannualproductionofgroundzirconcalledzirflor (45micron)andmicrozir(13micron)oftheorderof6,000tand500trespectively.

MANAVALAKURICHI(MK)MINERALDIVISION: AKMohapatra,Head&GeneralManager Tel.No:+91465123725557 Email:iremk@dataone.in,headmk@irel.gov.in


Plantissituated25KmsnorthofKanyakumari(CapeComorin),thesouthernmosttipoftheIndiansubcontinent.All weathermajorseaportTuticorinandthenearestairportatThiruvananthapuramareequidistant,about65kmsfromthe plantsite.Nagercoilatadistanceofabout18kmsfromtheplant,istheclosestmajorRailwaystation.MKplant annuallyproducesabout90,000tilmeniteof55%.TiO2grade,3500trutileand10,000tzirconinadditionto3000t monaziteand10,000tgarnetbasedprimarilyonbeachwashingsuppliedbyfishermenofsurroundingfivevillages. IRELhasalsominingleaseofmineralrichareaswhereinrawsandcanbemadeavailableinlargequantitiesthrough dredgingoperation.Inadditiontominingandmineralsseparation,theunithasachemicalplanttoaddvaluetozirconin theformofzirconfritandotherzirconiumbasedchemicalsinlimitedquantities.

ORISSASANDSCOMPLEX(OSCOM): ShriDMohanty,HeadOSCOM Tel.No:+91681125789095 Email:headireo@sancharnet.in,headireo@irel.gov.in

OSCOMwascommissionedataplacecalledChatrapurabout150KmsfromtheCapitalofOrissaBhubaneswarand about320KmfromallweatherseaportVisakhapatanamtoexploitthehugeplacerdepositacrossaminingareaof 24.64sq.km.toproduce2,20,000tonilmenitehaving50%TiO2contentandassociatedmineralslikerutile,zircon, sillimanite,garnet,etc.ThefacilitywasquiteuniqueinthesensethatforthefirsttimeIRELventuredintodredgingand concentrationoperationatOSCOM.Itisquiteefficietlyengagedindredgingoftherawsand,it'supgradation,drying andfinallyseparationplant.Ilmeniteisprimarilyexportedtocustomersengagedinproductionofslagandsulphatable TiO2pigment.AThoriumplantisinoperationsince1992atOSCOMtoproduce240tonperannummantlegrade ThoriumNitrate.

RAREEARTHSDIVISION(RED)Aluva: ShriFRANCYVERGHESE,HeadRED Tel.No:+91484254506265 Email:irered@vsnl.com,headred@irel.gov.in

UnlikethethreeunitsofIRELasdescribedearlier,REDisanexclusivelyvalueaddingchemicalplantwhereinthe mineralmonaziteproducedbyMK,ischemicallytreatedtoseparatethoriumashydroxideupgradeandrareearthsinits compositechlorideform.ItislocatedonthebanksofriverPeriyaratadistanceof12KmbyroadfromKochi.This plantwasmadeoperationalwaybackin1952totakeonprocessingof1400tofmonaziteeveryyear.Howeveroverthe years,thecapacityoftheplantwasgraduallyaugmentedtotreatabout3600tofmonazite.Elaboratesolventextraction andionexchangefacilitieswerebuiltuptoproduceindividualR.E.oxides,likeoxidesofCe,Nd,PrandLainadequate purities.TodayREDhasbuiltuplargestockpileofimpurethoriumhydroxideupgradeassociatedwithrareearthsand unreactedmaterials.Henceforth,REDproposestotreatthishydroxideupgraderatherthanfreshmonazitetoconvert thoriumintopureoxalateandrareearthastwomajorfractionsnamelyCeoxideandCeoxidefreerareearthchloride.

IndianRareEarthResearchCentre(IRERC): ShriPPMohapatra,Head(CorporateResearchandSafety) Tel.No:+914742742739 4

Email:irerc@irel.gov.in,irerc@dataone.in
CorporateResearchCentreislocatedatKollam,Keralaandcarriesoutresearchinthefieldofvalueaddedproducts frombeachsandminerals,undertakesconsultancyprojectsonmineralseparationandflowsheetdevelopment,carrying outmineralanalysisandcaterstotheneedsofinternalandexternalcustomers.ItisengagedinvariousR&Dactivities suchasprocessingofMonazitebyalternateroute,processingofnanorareearthmaterialsandothervalueadditionon mineralswiththeultimateobjectiveofcommercialization.Researchcentrealsocoordinatestheresearchactivitiesof RED,AluvaandTechnicalServicesDivisionatOSCOM,Chatrapur,Orissa.ThisResearchCentrewasearlierknown asMineralResearchandDevelopmentCentresince1991andlaterrenamedasIndianRareEarthsResearchCentrefrom July2003.ThisCentreisalsocertifiedwithISO9001. WiththeobjectiveofpromotingIndustrialscaleR&Dthatwouldbebeneficialtoitsoverallprogramintermsofnuclear andrelatedmaterials,IndianRareEarthsLimitedTechnologyDevelopmentCouncil(IRELTDC)wasconstitutedin 2006bytheSecretary,DAEwithmembersfromBARC,IGCAR,CSIRandotherleadingInstitutions.TheChairperson ofthisCouncilistheScientificAdvisortoDirector,BARCandCoChairpersonistheCMDofIREL. TheHead, IRERCisitsMemberSecretary. The Research Centre is equipped with various equipments and instruments like magnetic, gravity, electrostatic separators,floatationcells,grindingmills,vacuumfilters,mixersettlers,ionexchangecolumns,particlesizeanalyzer, XRD/XRF,thermalanalyzer,ICPatomicabsorptionspectrometers,UVspectrometers,petrologicalmicroscopes,etc. forvariousanalyticalandresearchpurposes. Theannualsafetyauditofalltheoperatingunitsiscarriedouteveryyearwiththeobjectiveofimprovingtheoverall safety standards and increasing the safety awareness among the employees. The Audit Committee, consisting of Externalexperts,HeadsofsafetyfromalltheunitsandtheHeadoftheCorporateSafety,recommendsfortheCMDs Shieldinvariouscategories;Safety,Housekeeping,Environment&Energy

Research & Development Facility


In the context of changing technologies on the areas of mineral processing and product development and the neverending face for technological supremacy in the global scenario, the need for providing infrastructure support for research and development and maintain a high level of productivity without sacrificing on standards of safety and employee welfare is very relevant. R & D centres of IREL are located at Mineral Research and Development Centre(MRDC), Kollam, Technical Service Division(TSD), OSCOM, Chatrapur and Rare Earths Division (RED), Aluva. MRDC undertakes constancy projects on mineral separation i.e. sand beneficiation, etc., along with mineral separation investigation to improve yield and products. The facilities include various magnetic, gravity, hydraulic and electrostatic separators, floatation cells, grinding mills, vacuum filters, microscopes and analytical instruments i.e.ICP, UV spectrometer, etc. TSD, OSCOM is equipped with analytical instruments i.e. X-ray diffractrometer, thermal analyser, atomic absorption spectrometer, UV spectrometers, particle size analysers, etc. for study and development of processes for manufacturing synthetic rutile, stabilised and partially stabilised zirconia, gem grade zirconia, etc. RED, Aluva develops solvent extraction and ion exchange-based processes for presentation of pure rare earth chemicals.

Mining & Minerals


Mining of raw beach sand containing the six heavy minerals and separation of the later in adequate purities happen to be the common activity of all the three Mineral Division namely Chavara, MK and OSCOM. As per as mining practice is concerned, they do differ from one division to other. For example at MK, all the raw sand required to operate the plant at its full capacity is collected by the fisherman of surrounding villages from near by beaches and supplied to the unit at a cost. At Chavara also beach washing is available but not in adequate quantity to meet the full requirement of the plant. The unit therefore adopt wet mining operation involving use of Dredge and Wet Concentrator(DWC) to exploit the inland deposits away from the beaches. For example Chavara operate two DWC s of about 100 t/hr capacities to generate sand feed analyzing about 85% heavy mineral concentration. The mineral free sand coming out of the concentrator is pumped back to the pond for the operation of DWC. In the case of OSCOM, the entire mining operations involves dredging of the mineral deposits on much larger scale (500 t/hr) augmented by smaller sized (~100) supplementary.

The heavy mineral rich sand feed either in the form of beach washings or dredge concentrate is subjected to final concentration in a facility provided with a host of spirals to enrich the feed with 97-98% heavy minerals. Such upgraded material is next dried in a fluid bed drier to take on the separation of individual minerals/ores by taking advantage of the difference in their electrical, magnetic properties as well as specific gravity. Strategic Value Addition Recovery from thorium value Chemical processing of monazite to separate the contained thorium value (~8% ThO2) in the form of thorium hydroxide concentrate happen to be the most fundamental value addition activity of the company carried out for last 50 years or so. In the recent time thorium is separated as its pure oxalate form. A part of it is taken to OSCOM for its further processing by solvent extraction to produce about 150-200 TPA of its thorium nitrate for its mantle application. A small part of the purified thorium nitrate is covered to nuclear grade thorium oxide powder to meet the requirement of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) for developing thorium based fuel for our nuclear reactors. Recovery of Uranium value. Recovery of Uranium value. In recent time IREL has got engaged through its Rare Earths Division, in activity involving recovery of uranium value present in Indian monazite in the form of Nuclear grade ammonium diuranate (ADU) to supplement the indigenous supply scenario for uranium as required in the Indian Nuclear Power programme. In addition to monazite, RED has developed facilities for recovering uranium value from other secondary resource as well. Non Strategic Value Addition The first non-strategic value addition activities of IREL in tonnage quantities was concerned with production of composite rare earth chloride, oxide and fluoride to start and later separation of 99.9% pure oxide of individual rare earths like Ce, La, Nd and Pr by multi-stage solvent extraction and fractional precipitation techniques. Oxides of these metal in higher purities are also prepared by RED in kilo gramme quantities using ion exchange technology. Besides chemical processing of monazite both zircon and ilmenite were found worth value addition from commercial angle. A dry grindin mill working on the principal of self attrition was commissioned by Chavara in the year 1970 to grind the as separation zircon sand to about 4.5m size(called zirflour) for its application in the ceramic industries. Much later a wet mill with silica as grinding media was commissioned at Chavara to introduced yet another value added material called micro-zir having mesh size in the range of 1 to 3 mm finding specialized application as opacifier. In addition to such physical value addition, the MK unit had set up a small chemical plant to produce zircon frit, zirconium chloride etc. The plant, however, is limited in size and meant primarily for making supply of zircon firt to Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hydrabad. In yet another effort on value addition to zircon, a pilot plant(capacity-3.5 TPA) was set up OSCOM to produce a whole range of zirconia stabilized with CaO, MgO and rare earths. The most talked about value addition activity of IREL is setting up of a Chemical plant at OSCOM consisting of a Synthetic Rutile Production unit an Acid Regeneration Unit. The SR ficility is equipped with two roasters, two calciners, sixteen digestors for carrying out reduction of ilmenite, leaching of reduced ilmenite with concentrated hydrocloric acid. The leached liquor is treated in the AR unit to regenerate 20% grade HCl for its recycle and reject iron as fine iron oxide powder. The SR unit was stopped in 1997 as it was not financially viable. The company now intends to use the roasters and calciners for the production of partially value added materials like reduced and metallized ilmenite. BROWN ILMENITE(LEUCOXENE) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS (TYPICAL) TiO2 SiO2 ZrO2 % 79.3 % 2.2 % 0.25 %

FeO Fe2O3 ILMENITE 'MK' GRADE GUARANTEED : TiO2 TYPICAL : TiO2 Fe2O3 FeO Al2O3 Cr2O3 V2O5 MgO P2O5 SiO2 Rare Earths U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 40 50 70 100 140 200 SPECIFIC : 4.45 -4.54 GRAVITY BULK : 2,600 - 2,850 DENSITY Kg/m3 HARDNES : 5..5 - 6.0 S (MOH's)

1.3 % 12.10 %

55.00% (Min) 55.50% 20.30% 19.45% 1.00% 0.07% 0.10% 0.90% 0.09% 1.50% 0.12% 12 ppm 190 ppm

SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 420 300 212 150 105 75

CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED 0.0 - 2.0 3.0 - 7.0 20.0 - 50.0 62.0 - 82.0 96.0 - 99.0 98.0 - 100.0

ILMENITE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS : GUARANTEED : TiO2 Th U

50.25%(Min) 75 ppm (Max) 10 ppm (Max)

TYPICAL : TiO2 FeO Fe2O3 Al2O3 SiO2 Cr2O3 MnO P2O5 V2O5 CaO MgO Th U SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200

50.50% 34.04% 12.43% 0.45% 0.71% 0.048% 0.51% 0.022% 0.23% 0.04% 0.64% 43 ppm < 6 ppm

SIEVE OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT MICRONS RETAINED 425 Nil 300 1.7 212 19.7 150 34.3 106 34.5 90 5.4 75 3.7 -75 0.7

SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY HARDNESS (MOH's) ILMENITE 'Q' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS : GUARANTEED : TiO2 58.00% (Min) TYPICAL : TiO2 Fe2O3 FeO Al2O3 MnO Cr2O3

: 4.54 : 2,600 - 2,850 Kg/m3 : 5..5 - 6.0

60.10% 26.30% 10.50% 0.70% 0.40% 0.13%

V2O5 MgO P2O5 ZrO2 SiO2 Rare Earths U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(TYLER SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150 200 -200

0.15% 0.40% 0.14% 0.20% 0.75% Trace 10 ppm 160 ppm

SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 75 -75

CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED Nil 0.80 - 2.00 3.50 - 6.50 50.00 - 65.00 90.00 - 96.50 98.50 - 99.50 0.50 - 1.00

SPECIFIC 4.45 GRAVITY 4.54 : 2,600 BULK 2,630 DENSITY: Kg/m


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GARNET 'MK' GRADE (NORMAL) TYPICAL MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS: Ilmenite 1.0% - 2.5% Garnet 97.3 % - 98.9 % Mineral purity 97.0 % (Min) of garnet Quartz 0.1 - 0.3 % Non-magnetic other than0.4% - 0.7 % quartz TYPICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: SiO2 40.0% Al2O3 21.0 % FeO Fe2O3 TiO2 26.0 % 2.9 % 1.0 %

MnO CaO MgO P2O5 SIEVE ANALYSIS: MESH(ASTM SCR.) 35 48 65 100 150

0.5 % 0.9 % 6.8 % 0.03 %

SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106

OPENING CUM. % RETAINED 0.0 - 5.0 10.0 - 30.0 74.0 - 90.0 94.0 - 99.0 99.5 - 100

WEIGHT

SPECIFI C : 4.1 BULK DENSITY GRAVIT Y GARNET 'OR' GRADE GUARANTEED: Garnet TYPICAL MINERALOGICAL ANALYSIS: Garnet Ilmenite Monazite Rutile Zircon Sillimanite Quartz Others TYPICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: Al2O3 FeO Fe2O3 SiO2 TiO2 CaO MgO Cr2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: SIEVE OPENING

: 2,200 - 2,300 Kg/m3

93.5 % Min.

94.0% 2.3 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.4 % 0.2% 2.4 %

19.8 % 27.9 % 3.5 % 36.3 % 1.3 % 2.8 % 6.8 % 0.02%

MICRONS +300

CUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 2.8

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-300 -212 -150 -106 -90

+212 +150 +106 +90 +75 -75 4.11 gm/cc 2,255 Kg/M3 6.5 to 7.5

17.1 40.5 32.7 2.2 4.0 0.7

SPECIFIC GRAVITY : BULK DENSITY : HARDNESS (MOH's) :

MONAZITE 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: REO TYPICAL (%): Total Oxide (REO+ThO2) ThO2 P2O5 Acid insoluble TYPICAL RARE (INGREDIENTS): CeO2/REO La2O3/REO Nd2O3/REO Pr6O11/REO Sm2O3/REO Gd2O3 /REO Others/REO SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 SIEVE MICRONS 300 212 OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 0.0 - 1.0 8.0 -18.0 % EARTHS

55.0% (Min)

66.2 % 9.2 % 29.2% 4.0% COMPOSITION 48.5 % 22.5% 18.5 % 5.6 % 2.7 % 1.2 % 1.0 %

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100 150 200 SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY : 5.22 : 3,200 - 3,300 Kg/m3

150 106 75

35.0 -57.0 93.0 -95.0 94.0 -100

RUTILE 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: TiO2 TYPICAL (%): TiO2 Fe2O3 P2O5 ZrO2 SiO2 U Th SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 100 150 200 SPECIFIC GRAVITY BULK DENSITY HARDNESS (Moh's) RUTILE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: TiO2 TYPICAL (%): TiO2 SiO2 ZrO2 : 4.18 - 4.25 : 2,500 - 2,800 Kg/m3 : 6.0 - 6.5 SIEVE MICRONS 300 212 150 106 75 OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED 0.0 - 1.5 14.0 -29.0 50.0 -66.0 95.5 -98.5 99.0 -100.0 %

94.00% (Min)

94.40% 1.90% 0.05% 1.80% 1.80% 66 ppm 94 ppm

94.25% (Min)

94.50% 0.90% 0.90%

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Fe2O3 P2O5 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200 SILLIMANITE 'OR' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: Al2O3 TYPICAL (%): Al2O3 SiO2 ZrO2 TiO2 Fe2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 35 48 65 100 150 170 200 -200 ZIRCON SAND 'MK' GRADE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS: GUARANTEED: ZrO2(+HfO2) 65.00 % (Min) TYPICAL (%): ZrO2(+HfO2) 65.80 % SiO2 32.50 %

1.10% 0.08%

SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 90 75 -75

OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED Nil 1.2 16.7 47.8 30.7 1.5 2.0 0.1

56.50%(Min)

56.60% 38.00% 2.20% 0.25% 0.40%

SIEVE MICRONS 425 300 212 150 106 90 75 -75

OPENINGCUM.WEIGHT RETAINED Nil 0.7 11.3 55.8 29.6 0.9 1.5 0.2

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TiO2 Fe2O3 Al2O3 SIEVE ANALYSIS: Mesh(Tyler Scr.) 48 65 100 150 200

0.25 % 0.10 % 1.20 %

SIEVE OPENING MICRONS 300 212 150 106 75

CUM.WEIGHT % RETAINED 1.0 - 5.0 7.0 -34.0 33.0 -63.0 90.0 -97.5 97.0 -100.0

SPECIFIC : 4.6 GRAVITY 4.7 : 2,80 0 BULK 3,000 DENSITY Kg/m


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HARDNES : 7.5 S (Moh's) CERIUM HYDRATE (DRY) Rare Earths Oxide(TREO) CeO2 CeO2/TREO Cr Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Pb Fe CERIUM OXIDE (CeO2) Molecular weight Colour and appearance Melting Point Solubility : 172.13 : Light yellow powder : About 2600oC : Insoluble in water. Soluble in HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4 > 80% > 68% > 85% < 25 ppm <50 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <25 ppm <50 ppm <0.1 %

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PRODUCT ILMENITE RUTILE ZIRCON SAND ZIRCON FLOUR MICROZIR(1.2 micron) SILLIMANITE GARNET MONAZITE COMPOSITE RE CHLORIDE COMPOSIT RE FLOUORIDE LANTHANUM OXIDE LANTHANUM METAL CERIUM OXIDE Pr OXIDE Nd OXIDE Nd METAL Sm METAL Eu Oxide Gd OXIDE Tb METAL Dy METAL YTTRIUM OXIDE THORIUM NITRATE THORIUM OXIDE TRI-SODIUM PHOSPHATE

USES Manufacturing of TiO2 pigment, synthetic rutile and titanium slag. Fluxes for welding electrode. Ceramics, refractories and foundries. (-325 Tyler Mesh) Ceramics and foundries. Opacifier in ceramics. Refractories. Abrasive for sand blasting, water jet cutting and glass polishing. Raw material for production of Rare Earth compounds. Catalyst, Paint Driers, Basic raw material for Misch metal which used as lighter frint & additives to iron steel. Cinema are carbon, Flux for welding rods Speciality lens in camera, Heating element (as LaCrO3), Semi conductors, Phophors NiMh batteries Auto exhaust catalyst, Optical glasses, TV polishing powder, Glass decolouriser, Paint driers, High temperature paints/insulations Cerium pigment, Glass colouring Special glass making, Laser Nd-Fe-B Permanent magnet Sm-Co Permanent magnet Phosphors, Medical diagnostics system Thermal Stabilizer of glass, Burnable poison in nuclear reactor Magntostrictive material, Photomagnetic Disc Permanent magnet, Magnetic Refrigeration. Basic material for phosphor, Stabilizer for artificial diamond, High temperature nozzles, Oxygen sensor Gas mantles Starters of fluorescent tubes. Detergents and as general purpose cleaning agent.

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