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IRPL RADIO PROPAGATION HANDBOOK


PART ,
ISSUED 15 NOVEMBERI 1943
JOINT COMMUNICATIONS BOARD
INTERSERVICE RADIO PROPAGATION LABORATORY
at National Bureau of Standards
Washington, D.C.
,
CRl'L
August 15. 1946
ERRATA:
IRPL ,RADIO HANDBOOK
p. 17: The equation of paragraph 3 should read
p. 52: In the example, third paragraph, the longitude g1'fen 1n line
5 ahould be "280W". In the sam .. para.graph, Une 7 should
read "1100 GMT, 11e at aaout 0730 and 0910 local time,
reapecthely".
p, 53: Second paragraph, laet eentence: The report referred to is IRPL-R1L
p. 90: Lin .. 2 should read: "only about 1/7", etc.
p. 97: lIquation, next to laat line, should read:
F Fa-flo Kd + P
Fig. 9: The Tsluel of the gyro-frequency giTen are roughly 0.06 Me
too low, and should accordingly be ral zed wh.m calcula-
tion. are
Fig. 105: Values of if So ehown as curTe pa.rametere should ae dhid.ed.
ay 10.
Figa. 121 through 125: Second. of legends should read:
"For OW reception, fIeld intensities required are 0.14
al great, i.to., decrease logarithm ay 0,85."
Figa. 126 through 128: Values gInn as 0.5. 5. 50, 500 kw on
auxiliary power-dlatance scale Ihould a .. 0.4, 4, 40,
400 kw, rupectiTely.
IRPLRADIO PROPAGATION HANDBOOK, 1
. Note .,. It h eJtpected. that thi.B Part 1 will be followed by
otherPartB later. Present tentative plans for th<lse are given in
the Appelldiz: on page 98. The suggestions of reader.B for there-
vision of Part 1 and thEl proplU'ation of future Parts are invited
by the lliterpervicaRadio Pr0p'-'i5ation Laboratory. I.t is expeoted
that the entire Handbook will isaued as a printed
book.
Sections I pnd II hereof give a general explanation of radiO
propllgation with principal emphasis on the sky wave,which lIl.akes
10 ng-dtstlI11"e. tran.8mission possible. .Whils 1.t is helpful to the
use" .to have this baokground, he can sklpthisand proceed directly
to pagel 47-;2,79-88, 9f-95. and 95-97. to learn how to calculate
mRXi1ltUll) usable frequencies. field intend ty prodl1ced by a trans-
mitte,.. requtr.eJifield: intensity. and 10w.e8 t ulleful high frequenoies
dll1tance raD:es,
The IBFL . valuable. assietance 1.n .the .preparation
of this book froU! Iflaterlnl r.eoeivedfrom the .Inter-'Services Iono-
epher!' Bureau. and National Physiclll Labo.re.tory.of lIlngland. tho
Au strall all fu>.dio Propagation Commit tee. the C.anadianNaval Service.
the Carnegielnsti tutionof Washington. and tile National. Bureau of
Stends.rds.
Contents
Page
I . Introductlon - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -. 3
Furpo SO o.f. th.e Hand.bo.ok .. - .. - - .. - .. - 3
2. Modes of radio propagation .. - .... - - - - - 3
3 Ground-wave _ ..... - ...;. - - -. .. 4
4 Low-frequency propagation _ .. - ...... - 4
5. Sky-wavo propagation at high frequencies - 6
5
6. The tranEmis&1on path .. - - .. - .. - - - - -
7. Angles of arrival.and departure .. - _ .. -.. 6
g. Required field intend t1es- - .. - - .. - - - .... . 7
9. TransmiSsion above. 40 Mc - - - - - - _ .... - .. - 7
10
0
Radlat.10n from antennas .. -... .. .. ... _ g
11. Services of the 1RPL .... - .. .. - ...... -_ g
120 Obta.ining information from the 1RPt .... -.. .... 10
II. Radio weve propage,ti.on .. .... - 11
1. General .. - ...... - - - - .. - - - 11
2. Modes of propagRtion - .. '- .. -- 12
3. The ground wave - - .. .. .. .. .. - .. 13
4. Propagation in the atmosphere .. - - .. 1;
5. Reflection from the ionosphere - .. - .. -.- - 19
6. transmission _ .. - - .. 19
III.
Page
7. picture of radio transmissiea - - - M 22
8. Theionoaphere - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23
9. Measurement of ionosphere - - - - - - 25
10. Normal var,lation of ionosphere charaoteristics - ... - - 28
11. ,Abnormal variations in ionosphere charecter1ettcs - - 31
12. rading - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - .,; - - - - - - 36
13. Availability of ionosphere data - ... - - - - 38
Ml!J[il!lUlll usable frequencies - - - - - - - - - - - 39
1. General ... - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -, 39
2. Maximum usable frequency factors for transmission via
the reguler layers- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _
3. The calculation of ml!J[1lII1llII usable frequencies for
single-hop tranlllllillsion - - - ... - ... - - ...... ___ _
4. The calculation of maximum usable frequencies for
multi-hop transmission - - - - - - - - - _ - - - _
5. The prediotion of cr.! tical frequencieB Ilnd maxil!lUJ1 '
uBablefrequenoiee - - ... - - - - - ... _ - - ___ _
6. Deviations from the 'predicted values - - - - - - - - ..
7. Sporadic-Erefleotions - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
8. Sk:y-owave transmission by reflections ......
9. Ionosphere storm effects - - - - ... - ... - - -
... -
52
54
57
62
66
IV. Lowest useful high frequencies'" - - ... - ... - - - - 69
1. General - - - - - - - - - ... - - ... - - - - - - - - 69
2. Sky-wave radiation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -'- - 70
3. The unabsorbed field - - - - - - - - - - - - 72
4. Sky-weve absorption - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 72
5. The measurement of ionospheric absorption - - - - - - 74
6. Summary of absorption phenomena - - - ... - - - - - - -' 75
7. Abnormal ionospheric absorption' - - - - - - - - - - - 77
s. The calculation of sk:y-owave field intensities - - - - 79
9. The field-intensity factor A - - - - - - - - - - - - - 83
10. The calculation of A over a given path - - - - - - - - 84
11. Direct oalculation's of field intenst ties - - - - - - - 84
12. Paths pae.iog through the auroral zone - - - - - - - - 85
13. Distance ranges and lowest useful high frequenc1ea - - 89
14. rield intensities required for reception - - - - - -- 90
15. Atmospheric radio nOise - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 90
16. The calculation of lowest useful high frequencies - - 95
17., Note on units - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 97
Appendix A., Plan for future parte of Handbook - - - - - - -98
Index - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ 101
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SECTION I. INTRODUCTION
1. Purpose of the Handbook
Th6 purpose of this Handbook is to provide a radio operator or
a radio cemmunications officer \tith a working knowledge of the prin-
ciples underlying the prOp&getion of'radio waves from a transmitting
antenna. to a receiving antenna.. This Handbook expls.ins how the radio
waves travel from the transmitting. antenna to the receiving antenna,
and how they can be effectively utilized in spite of varying cond.i-
tions that in their travel. The purpose is also to give an
outline of method, for-calculs.ting the field intensity to be expected,
s.t any place in the wcrld, produced by s. transmi tter in allY other
part of the world, and for evalu8,ting the results in terms of whether
the received intensity is great enough to be useful.
In general, radio wave propagation varies with time of day"
season, phl'se of the sunspot cycle, and geographical
the transmitterl'nd receiver. On some frequencies, propag ... t1on is
lessve.riable than on othe rs, and data may be given which are valid,
within limits, for a long period of time. On other frequencies,
:however, propagation may vary widely with time, and so for these
frequencies only the general principles of calculation can be'
givEinhere, qUantitative data being included in monthly supplements
of predfctlonsof radio transmission conditions
. 'I. basic knowledge of the fundamentals of radio is assumed.
Thus it is presumed that the ree.der has some idee. of what a re.dio
wave is and how it ir generated. and that he is familiar with such
ternia as frequency, wavelength, power, 'field intensity, and polari-
zati on oftha wave. .
2.' Modes of Radio Propegation
Section I of Part 1 is devoted to a general description of
radio wave propl'"tion. There are two principal ways in which the
waves travel fromtransmi tter to receiver: by means of the gronnd
'we.ve. whic.h travels directly from transmitter to receiver, and. by
mea.ns of the II sky wave", which travels up to' the "ionosphere" ,the
electric"lly conducting layers in the eEU'th IS up!ler atmosphere. and
is reflected. by them baCk to earth. Long-distance transmission on
frequencies gre8ter. tlum ""bout 300 kc takes place principally by
mean. of the sky wave; short-d.is tence transmission And. transmi ssion
on ultra-high frequencies takes I,lace mainly by mAe.ns of the ground
wave; transmission on frequencies below about 300 kc hilS somewhat
the nature of a. "guided wave" being propagated between two con-
dltctorn,. the earth and the ionosphere. ,-------_._-------------_. ----------
This section is an introdltction to calculptinns;
lind explRin,s in dete,ll whRt the ionc,sphere is, and how it affects
high-frequency radio trpnsmission.
3.
In Section I of Pa.rt 3 of this Hand.book is described the
mechanism of ground-wave propagation. There ere three general
classes into which ground-wave propagati.on falls.
(a) Transmission at medium and high frequencies, where the heights
of the antennas above ground are usually sm"ll in compe,rison to a
w9.velength. The "surfece wave" is the predomina,nt component of the
ground wave at these frequencies. The electrical properties of the
ground are the most importp',nt factors here.
(b) Transmission at very high, ultra-high, and super-high fre-
quencies, where the antennas are usually a number of "avelengths
above the earth. The "direct wave", "ground-reflected wave", and
"tropospheric w/'lve" are the predominant components of the ground
wave at these frequencies_ Local meteorological conditions
mOre important in these ranges than are the slectdcal properties
of the ground. ' "
(c) above a,bout 3 megacycles where one or both of
the 'F;ntennase,re elevated R grea,t number of wavfllengths above the
ground (as for plane-to-plane or communication).
The d1rect- and ground-reflected wave components are 9f principal
importance here, /lnd meteorological conditions play an important
role e,t the higher freq,uencies.
'In this section graphs. nomograms. and methode are given for
calculating grour,d-wave field intensities 'nnd dis.tR,nc'!'re,nges for
freq.uenc1es up to about 30 megacycles.
4. Lovl-Fre92.,ency
In Sec.tion II of Part 3 is described tt .. mecne,nIsm of l)'["or-ega-
tion of frequencies from 15 t<:> ebrut 300 kc bet"een the concentric
conducting surfaces of the ionosphere fUld the earth. The
involved at these frequencies B,re If).rge compared >lith distances
the ionosphere, and SO the ionosphere is rel.e,tively Smooth and
stable. transmission conditions' vary' only slowly
with Um,e. Rnd "phese-interference" patterns, consisting of regions
where the intensity 1s very small wlth inte'lsitie s a few
miles Rwey, a:re very pronounced e.t short dish,nces (1000 mUes or
.'
Graphs, and methods are p'iv(>n for calculatil1F, 10"-
fre}luenCy field intensities. and descriptions arc given of diurnd
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p.nd thE) effects of ionos'Ohere abnorme.lities,
such ionosnhere .. torrns e,nd sndden ionosphere disturbs.nces.
5. Sky-\1,,:ve Pro'Oa<;pt;J on at HI.gh FreQllen.c..!es
Sky-we.ve transmission over" fixed .distance is confined betwe,,'n
two limits of frequency, the "maximum usablE) frequency" (m.u.f.) and
the "lowest useful high frequency" (l.u.h.f.). Similarly. s.t /l. fixed
frequency, sky-wave transmission is confined between two limits of ,
the "skip distance" and the "distance range". The .limits
of freo,uency and distance within which transmission Is pos-
sible depend 'upon time of day, season, and suns!,ot cycle. as
as other factors.
The skip distance and the maximum usable frequency s.re nearly
independent of a.nd are limi.ted .by the reflecting
properticsof tile. ionnsphere, which decrease abruptly for frequen-
cles Il-bove the maxiDlUJl1 usable. The distp.nce range and the low6D.t
usefu.l high frequency, on .the other hand, depend on tter
po\<er, radiO noise level of the receiver, antenno, chara.cteristics,
.aI,d skill, M well as upon ionospheric properties.
Sections III and IV of Part 1 give the principles of calcula-
tion of m.u.f. of sky-wave field intenSities, toget.her with
some r;eneral rough informAtioI' on redio noise levels in different
parts of the world. GrAphs, and met:,ods are given for.
calculActing sky-wave propagation cP.lcul,tlons from basic data,
SMllplps of which are attRched . ECC8.USE' of the great variatiOn
of ba.sic data with time, it 1.s neceSSAry to use up-to-date pre-
dicted materiA.l. This mll-tHiftl is issued rltonthly' by the Inter-
service Radio PropsRtion LAboratory R.t the lTptional BureAu of
in the form of sUPJ"llements tothl s Uendbook.
Sky-wsve field intensities Are in generru. greater, the hi;;l-jer
the frt>nucncy. It is therefo!'e an edvantpc;e to use e." high afre-
quency as J"lossible, compAtible with the m.u.f. Them.u.f,. however,
i. not consto.nt at the Mrne hour from day to day, but varies wi thin
11mi ts of u" t.o 20 percent from the monthly ".verage. The .best Or
"optimum" fre'l'lency to use is thus somewhe.t below thA B.verage m.u.f.
Sine" a factor of safet:r is thus introduced, it is permissible to
make certain eimplificll.tions in the world->:ide picture fQl' "erte.in
applications. Such procedures are ontl ined in Part 2 of this
book, and short-cut methods of cBlcul?tion ere given for various
types of problem.- One such genp'!,p.l problem, for eXE.Llple, is th'at
of" frequency alloca.tion, discussen in Section III of ?A.rt 2.
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The Iflngth, direction, and geographic location of the tre.nsmisdon
path are of fundamental importeilce in re.dio propagati.(ln cl'.lculations.
This is especially true for long-distance sky-wave ce.lculationa. since
til .. cond1 tion of the ionosphere s.t any time varies wi del", over the
world. Although tre.nsmission is uSlls11y by we.y of the great-eircl",
path joining the tre.nsmitter pud receiver, it may on occasion taka
plMe by pllths which deviete somewha.t from the great circle.
The basic problem is that of determining the great-circle pl'!.th
between transmitter and receiver, and of locating the places along
the path where the ionosphere controls the transmission. For
transmission paths less than 2500 miles in length the m.u.f.is
determined by ionospheric condi tionA at the midpoint of the. path,
and so the latitude and local of this are the most
important infornlRtion. For transmiss ion pli.ths gres.ter thRn 2500
miles in le,."th the m.u,f. is determined by the condition of the
ionosphere at two "control points" 1250 miles from ea.ch end of
the transmis'ion path, and sO the location end local time of these
points of importAnce for such tre.usmis sion pt'ths, Metho<ts for
these . and other path calclllrcUons 9,re given in Sections I to IV
of Part 4.
7. Az;les of_A,t:ri val,. end ncpar;ure
. In designing equipment for specific commUnication purposes, it
in necessar.r to know how beRt to direct the waves emitted from the
transmi tting antenna so that they will be as intense as possible on
B.rrival at the receiving antenna. For sky-wave cOlllI:lUl1ication over
greR-t distances this involves Imowing the vertical 'angle or the
probp.ble range 'of vertical engles which will COVer the
transmission d1etp.nce, by reflection from regular ionosphere lRyers.
For ultra-high-frequency cOmm1.mication, it involves knowing how to
allow for tropospheric reflection Or refraction, and the proper
combination of direct- and. ground-reflected wave cOl!l]1onents.
Furj;hermore, transmission over long distances does not always
take place via the gree.t-circle path, but there may be a.ppreciable
and indeed great deviatIons .therefrom, especially over paths in ceI'-
t .. in parts of the world . Both for the design of directional antennas
for point-to-point communication, and in practicel opere.tional use
of direction finders. it is necessary to 'mow ilbout hori7.ontal
angles of arrive.l and departure of the waves.
In Part 7 of this HAndbook are given data and methods for
evalup.tion of vertiCAl and hori7.ontal angles of dAparture and aI'-
rival, B.nd diMuBsion of the and vari/ltions from the
normal, Applications to special problems, 11kE' distancA estimation
and off-path transmission at frequencies grAe.ter than the m.u.f.
along the greet-circle path, are mentioned,

8. Rnquired Field Intensities
In order to interpret calculated received field intensities in
terms of their usefulness for communication, it is necessary to know
the minimum value of field intensity required for reception. This
is a function primarily of the radio noiae level at the receiving
location. although the factors of antenna directivity and operator's
skill also enter in. The type of service desired. (phone. OW. direc-
tion findipg. etc.) also must be conGidered.
At frequencies generally used for sky-wave communic!,tion, and
in some parts of the world at still higher frequencies, the radio
noise level at '" good receiving location (one free from man-made
noise) is due primarily to e.tmoapheric electrical disturbances.
propagated from their sources (mostly thunderstorms) to the re-
ceiver just as radip waves are propag".ted . If the number, intensity.
and lOcation of thunderstorms everywhere in the world are known at
anygl ven time, then the radiO noise level anywhere in the world
should be Calculable. there is but a handful of prin-
cipal noise centers in the world. This simplifies the picture
somewhat.
Since the c.fl.lcull'tlon of radio noise levels, On this basis,
is itself a radio propegRtion problem, the methods outlined in the
rest of the Handbook for radio waves can be applied to the propaga.-
tion of the noise eman".ting from the ,U,turb",nce centers. In Seo-
tions V And VI of Part 4 exe given de.ta mId methods for performing
these celculations and for deriving therefrom', required field inten-
sities for various types of service.
A discussion is also given of radio set noise and man-m",ds
electrical interference. both of which play important roles in cer-
tain locations (big cities, etc.), and for certain types of service
(mobile communication on u.h.f etc.
9. Transmission above 40 M
Above 40 Mc. transmission is mostly by means of the ground
wave, except fOr irregular periods of sporedic-E and
for short of F
2
-leyer transmission in the middle of the day
at. sv.nspot maximum. Ground-wE\ve tranemission at thes" frequencies
is markedly different in characteristics from that at lower fre-
quencies because:
(a) The surface wave gives only a minor contribution to the re-
ceived field intensity.
(b) The antennas ere usually elevated at least several wavelengths
above the earth.
.. g..
(c) Reflection and refraction in the lower atmosphere (up to a
few thousand feet) 18 extremely important, becoming more so
az the frequency is raised.
(d) ld.ne-of-dght tranemills:!.on is o:t;ten, but not' always, the
moet reliable kind. '
The restrioted distance range of the ground wave makes these frequen-
cies useful where it is desired to cover a limited area and not be
,intercepted at great distaneeiil. Fl;'equenciss up to, 100 ).fcor so
must be used cautiously. howver, if it is desired to avoid inter-
ception, becllusethere is danger. great ,at times, of sporadic trans-
mis.ion over great distances.
In iart 5 graphs and nomograms are given for trans-
miasion, and for su:rl'Me-wave coverage, and atmospheric reflection
and refrMtion is discussed. Speoial consideration is,given to noise
levels at these high frequencies, and to transmission over seawater
and different types of ground.
10. Radiation from Antennaz
The field intensity produced by a transmitter over a given trans-
mission path at a given time b proportional to the square root' of
the radiated power (transmitter-output power times antenna'efficiency).
JUrthermore the field intensity over a given'path, for a given power
output and frequency. may vro:y enormouBly depending upon the direc-
tional properties of the tj'l!.ilemi ttlng I!.iltenna.. It is' therefore i_
portant to know the lIlIJ10unt lind direction of the poverradiatedfrom
antenna in order to calculate the field intensity at a d1etance.
Cl08e to any antenna there is an "induction field". superposed
on the "radiation field", so that any object (lIUcll az a parasitic
reflector), placed close to the antenna. responds to the induction
a8 well as to the radiation Also the effective vertical
directional pattern of an antenna is different for distances tn-
volved for tranBllliesion than it is near the antenna, be-
cause the IlUrfsce wave decreases mol's rapidly with distance
doe8 the space wave.
Part 7 gives the principles underlying 1'"diation from an-
tennas and gives methods for esti_ting the surface and .pace waves
at various distances from the antennas and 1fi various directions.
An elementary discussion of directional arrays is alBo given.
11. Services of the Iuterservice Radio PrOPagation Laboratory
, ,
The Interservice Radio Propagation Laboratory. at the National
:Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.O., has been set up for the spe-
c1fic purpose of radio wave propagation data and of
Q,isaemiIll\ting I)uch information to the armed forces. The facHl ties'
,of the 1RPL are available. upon direct request through
channels. for the solution of any type of rad:l.o wave propagation
problem, on either a. special Or regular basis. Examples of special
problems of this type would be:
(a) Self!ctioll of locations anQ, frequencies for new communications
services, or in specific areas.
(b) Recommendations of best frequencies for operations in llPecific
areas at specific times in the near tutura.
(c) Survey of frequencies allocated for specific services, with
recommendatiolls for improvements.
(d) Estlmatesof' Q,ietance ranges of communication equ1pmentin
specific parts of the world.
on various phases of radio wave propagation,
both theoretical and empirical.
(f) Assistance in setting "up schedules for broadcasts or communl-
. .
cation.. .. . . .
(g) Estlmat.es of the grade or quality of raMo transmiB'sion 011
specific days, including forecasts or warnings of radio disturbance
a day or more in advance.
(h) Recommendations of types of equipment (frequency range and
po.,.er) fOr c,ollllllunicatione needs.
(1) Any problem requiring knowledge of ionospheric data in various
parts of the world, e.g a distance-range e.stimation problem. or
one involving vertical angles of arrival.
Examples of regular services of a specific nature are:
(a) Monthly predictions of bast frequencies or best or assigned
frequencies for.polnt-to-polnt services. for each hour of the day.
(ll) . Regular predictions of m.u.f. for various dist.ances in
specific areas.
(c) Regular reports of ionospheric data to
lIerve as corrections to previous prediotions.
(d) Regular warnings or foreoasts of radio disturbances.
(e) Regular predictions of frequenclesto be mOll! tored for inter-
cept work (monthly average for each hour of the day).
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(f) Regular predictions of best frequencies for mobileuni t-bs.se
communication in any area (monthly averlle for each hour of the day).
(g) Regular predictions of frequencies for use 'on regular shipping
or air lanes communication with post or base.
(h) Any problem involving regular reports on best frequen.cies,
field intensities or distance ranges for specific services.
The predictions are available in graphical, te.bular, and nomogrsphic
form. It is euggested that those desiring regular reports for
specific paths or areas consult with the IRPL to determine the
best form for their individual use.
The IRPL issues regularly at present several series of pam-
phlets covering both general and specific problems.
(a) IRPL series A, "Tables of l'ecommended frequenoy bflnds for use by
ship. or aircraft for communication with bases in the
Atlantic and Fe,cific." Isfued every three months for
three months ahead.
(b) IRPL series :B, "Tables of recommended bands for use
by submarines for communication with be,ses in the Pacific."
Issued every three months for three months ahead.
(c) IRPL series H, "Frequency guide for operating personnel." Is-
8ued every six months for stx months ahead.
(d) IRPL series K, "Tables of best frequencies for uee by ground sta-
tions for communiCEO.tion with aircraft' or other ground sta-
tions in the Atlantic." Issued every three months for
three months ahead.
(e) "Radio proPlIati on oondl tions". Monthly supplement to this Handbook.
(
"
f) Radio proplIation forecast". each week.
are:
12. Obtaining Inf'orme,tion from the IRPL
The,authorized channels for submission of problems 'to the IRPL
(a) For the Army:
Office of the Chief Signal Officer,
Communications Liaison ]ranch,
ROom 3D243,Pentegon ]ldg.,
Washington, D.C.
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(b) lor the Navy:
Chief, Radio Section,
Eureau of AAronautics.
Navy DPpertment,
D.C.
(c) lor all others:
Ohairman, Wave. PropegationCommi ttee
Combined Oommunications BORrd,
Washington, D.O.,
or
Chief. Intereervice Radio Propags.tion Laboratory.'
National Eursau of $tandards.
Washington, D.,C.
SECTION II. RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION
1. General
The radio waves which ere emitted from a tranill/11tUng antenna
are both electric and magnetic nature. and are therefore' celied
elec1;romagnetic waves. The alternating electric field produce, a
similarly alternating magnetic field, andthi8 alternating magnetic
field givee rise to an alternating electric f1eld, end the whole
structure propagates iteelf through apace at the speed of light.
(Light, in fact. condst. of waves of extremely
high frequencies). In this Handbook the eleotric field alone w111
usually be dealt w1 th, 10 that when field intensity i,e mentioned,
for exemple, the electric 'field inten.1ty 111 me!tnt. It mu.t be
remembered, however, that both electric and magnetic fields exist
together and that neither the electric nor the magnetic field of
e. radio wave can exist alone.
Practical limitationeon the 8iBe of a radio antenna result in
very 'little power being radiated at treq,u,encies lese than 15,000
cycllJe per aecond, 80 only freq,u.encies greater then that are ueed
in radio communication" The used in radiO communication
are classified e.B fo llows'
"
FrequenCl Range
Below 30 kc
30-300 kc
300-3000 kc
3000-30 000 kc
30-300 Hc
300-3000 Me
3000-30.000 He
Nature of Range
Very low frequencies
Low frequencies
Medium frequencies
High frequenoies
Very high frequencies
tILtra high frequencies.
Super high frequencies
Abbreviation
VLF
LF
MF
HF
VHF
UHF
SIll'
This 18 the official classific'ation of radio waves, as approved by
the Combined Communications Board.
2. Modes of Propagation
There are two principal ways in which radio waves travel from
transmitter to receiver; by means of the "ground wave". which travels
direotly from transmitter to receiver, and by means of the Hsky
wave
n
which travels up .to the electrically conducting layer!! in .
the earth's upper atmosphere, call.ed the "ionosphere". and ill!
reflected by them back to earth. LOXlg-d1ste,nce radio transmission
takes place mainly by means of the sky waves; short-distance trans-
miulon and ultr .... high frequency transmission take place mainly
by mean8 of the ground wave. The propagation of the ground wave
1. determined principally by the electric characteristics of the
.. outa (so11 or eea);it is different in different ple.cee, but re-
maine practically constel1t with time. Sky-wave propage.tion, on
the other hand, iB very variable, since the state of the upper
atmoBPhere'iB always cha!llng. Transmission by means of sky
wa'l'ee varle.& with time. place, and direction .of transmission.
The electric intensity of a received radio wave varies as the
equare root of the power radiated. The intensity of a direct W8ye
in free ,epace variee inveraely as the distance from the source.
~ e grou.nd-we.ve lntanai ty is less, the greater the distence. the
poorer the conductivity of the ground, and the higher the frequency.
Except very nee.r the transmitting antenna, it is much less than the
intend ty which would be due to the direct wave in free spe.ce at the
lame dhtance from the same trallsmi tUng antenna. The sky wave !tes
to travel .all the way up to the 10nolphere and down agein, and so
11 reduced in intensity at leaet a8 much as a direct wave would be
which traveled an equivalent distance. There is frequently, how-
ever, relatively little energy absorption in the ionosphere, 110
s k ~ w a v e intensities ere commonly strong enough for communication
at great distances.
-13-
Most re.dio waves are long eno1lh to be propagated around small
obstacles and gentle curves, such as that of the earth's surface.
with little obstruction. At very high frequencies, however, the
wavelength is short and the effect of in producing a
"shadaw" 1s pronotmced.
.3. The Ground Wave
The waves radiated from an an.tenua apreail out into the atmos-
phere, along the earth, and also into the earth. Because of the
condu.QUll& properties of the earth some of theene-rgy is reflected
from the earth's surface, and the part which enters the earth 18
rapidly dissipated in the form of heat. The waves which spread
6ut along the earth and into the atmospharetravel to the receiver
end provide radio communication
. The wave which is received in the absence ofa "skywave" is
general1;r known as the "ground wave", The field intensity of the
ground wave depends- in a cOmPlex manner upon the geometry of the
path and of the transmitting and receiving antennas.
upon the diffraction of thE! waves around the earth. upon theelec-
trical cha.rscteristicB (conductivity and dielectric constant) of the
local terr'lin. upon the frequency of the waves. and. also upon local
meteorologicnl conditions, such &s thedistribut10n of the water-
va:porcontent of theatmosphere.along the path. Most of the re ..
ceived ground-wave field intensity can usually bE! accounted ,for in
terms of one or more of the above-Hated factors. Where the ground
wave cen be considere.d as dilepredom1nantly to one or more of the
factors separately. it may receive a special Il8lllS. such as. "direct
wavs", Ifground-reflected wave". "surface or diffracted wave" , and
"tropospheric .
. The direct-wII.vs component 1s the wave which travels most
directly from the transmitting antenna to.tbereceivinc entenna.
In the case Of communication between airplanes, say, at heights of
sIIveral thousand teet and over of a fllw miles, this is
the principal mode of trensmission. The electric field intensity 1n
a direct wave ,varies invereely as the dista:nce of transmission;
this is called the "inverse-distance" at. tenuB.j; ion , and is cause.d
by the .sprep..dill out of the waves. whereby the energy in a unit
volume of apace ia less. the farther away the VOlume' is from the
source. The. direct-.wave component is nQ.t affected by .the ground.
or the ee.rth's surfa.oe. but it is 8ub,ject to .refi'act1on in the at-
mosphere between the transmitter and the receiver. This refraction
is particularly important at very high frequencies.
The ground-reflected wave component, as its name implies. 1s the
wave which reaehes the receiver after being reflected from the ground.
For communication between planes lower than a few thousand feet and
separated by several miles the gr.ound-reflected wave takes on an 1m-
-14-
portance comparable to the direct wave for communication. The phase
of the wave ie altered upon reflection from the ground. The combina-
tion of the direct with the ground-reflected wave i8 affected by
their relative phase. as well as their amplitude.
The 8o-called"aurface" or diffracted wave is the wave which i8
&ffected primarily by the conductivity and dielsctric constant of
the earth. and 1s able to follow the earth's curvature. When both
transmitting and receiving -antennas are on or close' to the ground,
the direct and ground-reflected waves cancel out, and the entire
field i. that of the surface wave. The surface wave 1s,
however, not oonfinedto the earth' slurface. but extend8 up to
considerable heights, with increasing height . Energy
is constantly fed into the earth from the surface wave, to supply
'the energy di88ipated in the ground. When the transmilision d1111-
tanoe 1. appreCiably greater)han line-of-sight tranemission. the
IlUrface vave. in the absence of a tropoaphere wave, oonst! tut the
entire field. The effeot of ordinary refraction 1nthe layers of
the atmosphere cl08e to the earth's eurface contributes to thiB
wave aleo. This refraction ie oaueed by the normal vertioal ohange
of atmospheric denei ty and mo1eture content.
The tropoephere vave component is the wave whioh is refracted
or reflected primarily steep gradients in atm08-
pheric humidity-and possibly aleo from steepgradient8 in atmos-
'pheric density and temperature. Its phase 18 more or less random
d. th respect to the othe r component. of the ground wave. and 1 t is
1'I!IIPondble for (1) fading of the ground wave beyond the optical .
horizon, and (2) abnormal, and sometimes great inoreases in ground-
"!Ie'!'e fi\!.ld. at d1etanoes far bllyond the normal ground-wave
range. This effeot is similar to Il mirage. which 1s sim1ivrly
cauled by refraction ot light from e,tmospheric grad1ehts.
The electrioal properties of the underlying terrain which de-
termine the 101. of ground-vave field intenaity vary but little
"i th time. so that "ground-wave" tranemission has relatlvely
.table cbaracter1BticBo An exception to this may be found in looali-
tleB where thlre are diltinot "wet" and "dry" leasons, and where the
ground characteristics mBfthus b, markedly different ln different
"aiOns. '
In general. vavee of low frequenol .. are transmitted by the
ground vave with lell energy 1081 than are high frequencies. At
low and medium frequenci'" the conductiVity ot the underlying ter-
. rain is aore important than thl dielectric conetant; the decrease
of tl_14 lntenl1ty 11 1 ... over loll of high conc!-11Otivity. The
Conductivity of lea water i, approximately ;000 times as great as
that for dry loll. B'ellCegroundoow.ve tran8mlle1.on .over sea vater
il far 8uperior to that over land. If the path betveen transmitter
and reoeiver liee principally over water, lt i, advantageous to
-15-
have the transmitting station located as close.to the water's edge
as practicable; the loss in field intensity caused by removal of the
transmitter from such a location to a distance as little as a mile
18 quite appreciable.
it high frequencies (above 3000 kc) the dielectric constant
plays a greater role in the decrease of field intensity
with d.istance, and becomes the chief factor at very h!gh
For .frequencies higher than a'bout 30,000 kc the transmitting
antenna is usually several wavelengths above the ground, and the de-
crease of field intensity with distance. is much more rapid than for
lower frequencies. The field intensity varies roughly inversely as
the square of the dl.stance. The combination of direct and ground-
reflected waves, from anten.nae at heights of a wavelength or more
above the earthrs surface, is responsible in part for this.
As will be mentioned later, frequencies above about 40 Me are
in general unsuitable for communication over great distances, and
on these fre,quencies only grollnd.-wave transmission is reliable.
The surface wave component b!lcomes less and less important as the
frequency is raised, .. the direct eud ground-reflected wave com-
ponents assume the predominant role. It be noted that
whereas the die t ance range of the ground wave at low fr'eql1enciea
can be effectively increased. by increa.sing the radiated power. the
distancEi range at frequencies of a,bout 30Mc and higher can be
effectively increased only by increasing the heights of 'the trans-
mitting and receiving antennas. .
The ground wave is essentially vertically polarized at appre-
ciable distances. from the antenna. This is caused by the cancell.-
tion of direct with ground-reflected components at low angles
for polarized waves., and also by the relatively
greater attenuation of a horizontally polarized surface ws.e
MIDpOnent as compared with that of a vertl.c!llly polarized surface
wave component.
4. Propagation in the Atmosphere
The ptmosphere has, in general, less conductivity than the earth,
but its conduetivity is far from negligible. Conduct1vity of' the at-
mosphere is due to the presence of electrically charged particles of
matter. called ione. These particles are produced chiefly by 801a,r
radiation. which separateR such electrically. charged particles from
the atoms of matter comprising the atmosphere. At very great heights
there are only a few such fons per unit of volume. since the atmos ..
phere there i8 very thin and there is little matter present to absorb
the radiation and become ionized. At. low levels. below about 30
miles above the earth, there is a great amount of air present, but r
-16-
the powerful ultraviolet Bolar radiation hae been mostly absorbed,
and there are few ions' because there is not much radiation left to
produce them. At heights between 60 and 200 milet above the earth' B
surface, there occur regions where' the density of ionization is
great. This is because (1) these regions have enough matter to
produce sufficient ions, (2) the concentration and degree of ioni-
zation of the oxygen and nitrogen in the earth's atmosphere there
are such as to absorb the ionizing radiation particula,rly well,
and (3) the solar radiation has suffered li absorption before
reaching sllch levels.
Ions may be positive or negat.ive 1n electrica.l charge, and of
different sizes; the small negatively charged particles called elec-
tro"\1! are the mOst important in affecting the behe:vior of radio
waves, because of their sme.ll mass and the corresponding ease
which they can be set 1n motion.
When electromagnetic wave encounters an electron, some of the
energy of the wave ill absorbed by the electron, and the electron it
set into vibratiou by wave. Part of the energy thus
absorbed in dles1;pated when the electron hi tsnearby air particles,
but the rest is reradiated by the electron. The slight of
tilOO 1n this process tends to slow down the speed of propa-
gation of eleotromagnetic energy traveling in matter. Actually,
however, the wave itself is speeded up and is faster th"./)
in free apaoe. The reason for this 1s that the electron possesses
a certain amount of inertia, and therefore does not reradiate the
wave 1n phase with the wave incident upon it, but rather advances
it part of a cycle. The velocity with which the wave itself is
propagated is oalled the "phase velocity". The velocity with which
the energy is propagated 1s called the "group The en-
velope of modulation of a radio wave travels.wtth the group velocity;
the propagation of the individual waves, however, determines where
the group is to go. The waves maybe considered as . merely consti-
tuting a guide, and telling the 'energ:r, which travels at a different
velocity, where to go. '
The effect of increase in bpeed of the waves is to ohange the
direotion in which they travel as they pass through the ionized
region. Tha manner in which this occurs is in Fig. 1.
mach point e.long a wave front may be regarded as an individue.l
source of eleotromagnetic waves (Ru:rgens' principle). If we con-
sider a wave sufficiently distant from its origine.l source so that
the' wave me,y be regarded as pla.ne, the., direction Of travel
M perpendicular to that plene, 8,S in Fig
A
lA, the indiVidual
point 6ources, a, b, c, etc., be regarded as sending out in-
dividual w"ves. These are by the small semicircles.
which indicate positIons having the stage of the elteTMtion
(/loual "phM!,II). At the sides of these indiVidual wavllS, i, (11, n.
o. etc., where they encounte,r other, one will cancel. the af:'

fect of the
oppositely.
where there
other, if they are equal in strength, since they are moving
The total effect 1s the propagation of the wave
is no such interference.
If, however, some of these individual waves were adtlUlced part of
an alternation over the others, there would not be total cancellation
of the ir effects in the same places, and the wave front would change
directiOn. This 1s shown in Fig. lB, constant advancement of
wave form as the waves enter the ionized region 1s effectively the
same aa if they moved at greater speed, as far as their interference
with waves is concerned. The individual wave fronts. which,
combined. make up the total wave front. are thus seen to lie so as
to the resultant wave front to move in direction away frQm
the perpendicular to the surface separe,tlng the ionized medium
from the non-ionized A wave front bent in this manner
is Baid to be refrArted.
The ratio. of the sine of the angle of inoidence to the sine
of the angle of refraction depends upon the number of electrons
per un1 t voJ.ume in the ionized medium and upon the frequency of
the electromagnP.tic waves, This ratio is equal to the refractive
index of the ionized medium (Snell' e Law). If' N is the number cf
electrons per cubic centimeter. f the frequency of in
ke, and p. the refrMtive index, it may be ea,sily shown that
]A=
l_m
f2
This neglects the effect of the earth's.magnetlc field; if this
field is considered, the expression for }l is much more complex.
The earth's magnetic field, in combination with the electromag-
netic alternations of the radio wave, has a very interesting effect
on the reradiation of the wave by an electron. Instead of simply
vibrating back and forth with the applied force of the wave, the
electron is out of line by the earth's magnetic field, pro-
portionally to the speed it possesses while vibrating. This is 'be-
cause the moving electrical charge of the electron is equivalent
to an electricaleurrent; the current,is proportional to the rate
of of the charge. The speed being greatest at the center of
its path of Vibration, the electron is caused to, move in a small
elliptical path.
At high frequencies the electron has not enough time in which.
to. lI,ttain great speed, so that the effect of the. earth's magnetic
field is only slight. As. the frequenoy is lowered, the speed in-
creases and the electron's elliptical path becomes larger. The
field reradiated from the electron, thereforA. is affected by the
-18-
el.ectron's behavior in the magnetic field, and this effect
is greater the lower the frequency.
Actually, a plane pola.rized wave incident upon the ionosphere
is split in.fo two oppositely rotating elliptically polarized com-
ponents. the one rotating to the left being known as the ord:inary
wave, and the one rotating to the right as the extraordinary wave.
The physical explanation of this is that the electron in its com-
plicated, motion, radiates a wave can be regardedM mI'J.de uy of
two waves, one of which travels faster than the other, and hae a
different but a definite state of polarization. The refrective
indexem of the ionized medium for the two kinds of waves are
and so their propagation che,racteristios are different,
bot.h as to velocity and absorption, When the two component waves
emerge from the ionized medium again,they oombine, no longer as a
plalW polarhedwave but as a single elliptically polarized wave
of characteristic amplitude. phase,and orientation of axes.
Due to a resonance effect, the extraordinary wave is absorbed
to it great extent if the frequency is near the so-cttlled II gyro-
freqooMY" which hae the nature of a frequency of precession for
electron. in the earth!s magnetic field. This frequenoy is about
Me. Near this frequency the direction of the electron which
i8 driven by the radio wave changes just as the direction of the
electrical force in the wave on it reverses, and the path
of the 'electron becomes a spiral in which the electron's speed
builde up indef1nitely, so that a great deal of energy is taken.
frol/l the incident radiO wave, and very little of it
5. Reflection from the Ionolphere
So fe,r in thio discussion a sharply defined boundary he.s been
I),Blumed between the ionized and the non-ionized regions. This is,
however. not the case in the ionoephere, for the number of electrons
per unit volume increaees gradually w1th distance of penetration.
According to Snell's law, mentioned above, the sine of the angle
of incidence (o) of the waves upon the ionosphere 1salways
to the product of the refraotive index (p.) and the sine of the
angle of refraction at any point. Expr08sed mathematically,
)l sin = o
As the waves penetrate farther and farther into the ionosphere N
bec'omes greater and therefore J.\ becomes small.er. Sil1ce o is con-
. stant th1e lI1eans that must become greater, i.e., the waves are
bent farther and farther from the verticl!ll, until finally, at e,
oritioal value of)l equal to sin the vavas arA traveling hori-
lontally.
-19-
At this the portion of the wave front which is
in the region of greater dens! ty (the higher raglan) is traveling
faster than that part which is traveling in the lower region, of
.lower electron density. The wave is therefore bent downward and
eventually is deflected back again into the non-ionized me,d1um.
The smallest value of Il encountered by ,the wave is. the
)l " sin lJo The electron density corresp()ndil:l4!: to this value is
f2 2
N '" 81 C.OI!o
The fre(l'"wncy f. at angle of 1Xll:idcrH);) ill", iz t,huB reflected from a
region of electron density N = 0.0124 f2 ooe
2
o'
If e wave is sent' into the ionosphere at normal incidence (par-,
pendlcuJ.e,r to the ionosphere), o " 0, and the wave is reflected
from a level where the electron density is N 0.0124 f
2
,where f
is in kilocycles and N is the number of electrons per cubic centi-
meter. H follows that a,' waveef fraq11enc:;y' ieee o does not need,
for at IlJl /Ulle of incide".ce o' MY greater electron
density does a wave of frequency f at normal incidence. If
there Ii; a maximum'value of N reached ilomswhere in the ionosphere.
then higher frequency waves will be reflected at oblique incidence
than at normal inc1de;lce. ,
The two components of the wave present when the earth I smag,.
netic fieldie considered requiresolllewhat different electron den-
sities for 'reflection. At normal, incidence the, electron density re-
quired :for refleotion of the ordinary wave is independent of the
earth's magnetic field, but this ia n()t the case for the extra.-
ordinary wave. nor for the erdin,ary wave at other angles of in-
cidence. If ix is the frequency cf th.El extraordinary wave, and fo
th",t of the ordinary wave, reflected at a: ,level where ,the ele,ctren
dens1. ty is N, and 1: fa .. eH/2rr me. the "gyro-frequency". where
l'( is ,the intensity o'f the earthts magnetic field in gauss and Cl
is the velocity of light. then s,t normal inc l.dence !
'f; = fXCr f
H
).
6. Sky-Wave !,re,nmnis8iol1
For ordine.ry v/lluE's, of power ra,diated from an antE/nna, trans-
m:lss1on of a signal over very great dtstences is only practicable
by the sky wave refracted back to ee,rth from thIJ conducting l/1Y8r8
in the upper atmosphere. Thh is bec!:l.Use the los a in f1819, intensity
is far less for this method of transmission than ,for a dbect path
to the raceiving station, and sO this wave generally predominates
for ell except short distanoes, for frequencies between about 300
kc and an upper limit which varies at different, times from 2000 kc
-20-
to as milch as 100 ,000 kc. Because of the wide ve,riations in the sky
wave caused by the ionosphere, it is necessary to know the ionization
characteristics of the earth'. atmosphere in order to explain or pre-
dict long-distance radio transmillsion characteristics.
At frequencies of 100 ke and below, and especially between 15 and
50 ke. radio transmission over long distances takes place by a com-
bination of sky wave and ground wave. At such low frequencies the
two components are not readily distinguishable, as they are at the
higher frequencies, between 1000 and 50,000 ke. say. Propagation
at low frequencies has the' nature of a wave guided between two con-
ductors, the earth and the cpnducting layers in the atmosphere,
rather than the combination of two aeparate waves, the ground wave
and the sky wave. Propagation at frequencies of about 100 to 300
kc or so is not easy to describe, since these frequencies mark the
transition between guided-wave propagation, where the diStance be-
tween ground end conducting atmospherio layer is but a few wave-
lengths, and sky-ground-wave propagation, where the distance is
greater than several hundred wavelengths.
The. I!Ikywave, which travels outward,toward the upper g,tmospl:ere,
suf'fers eompare.tivel;y little lOBS or'deviation from a straight line
until H; reaches the co!)ducting la;yere. where there' are many free
electrons. These l ~ e r s lie at heights of from 60 to 200 miles
above the earth's surface. If there is sufficient ionization (a
great enough number of free electrons) at these heights, and if too
milch of the wave IS ene,rg;y has not be'en absorbed at the levels im-
mediately be19w, due to collisions of eleotrons with molecules of
air, the wave is refraCted or bent around so as to return to earth
again, perhaps at great diet,ances from the' emitting antenna.
The distanoe at whioh the wave returns to the earth depends
upOn the height of the ionized layer and the amount of bending of
the Pl10th while traversing the layer,the latter depending on the
freque:acy of the wave. Upon. return to the earth
1
s surface. part of
the energy enters the earth, to be re,pidly dissipated, but part is
reflected baok into the atmosphere again, where it may travel upward
to the ionized layers, as before, and be refracted downward again
at a still greater distanc.e from the transmitter. This mode of
travel in hops, bY1al ternate refleotions from the ionosphere and
from the earth's surface, ms,'r continue indefinitely, and may en!\ble
messages to be received at enormous distanoes frOm the transmitter.
Figs, 2 and 3 illustrate this mode of travel for paths involving
one and t,wo refleotions from the ionosl>here (single-and double-
hop tranllmhsio'n). _
The pathB shown herll illustrate three of the many possible
paths of radio waves from a transmi tter to a receiver a,s tl'ans-
mitted by refleotion from the eleotrically conduoting layers in
the atmosphere. This pioture I simple as it is. does in fait rep- ------------ -------
-21-
reMnt the basic mechanism of long-di stance high-frect,leney radio
transmission. "hen the varie,tirms of innization and heights of the
layers with time and the effects of the ionization the
intensity and the limits of at a particular time_
are taken into conside re.tion; the pict\1re loses its simplicity.
Almost all long-distance high-frequency radio transmission is, how-
ever, explainable and predictable in terms of the behavior of the
conducting layers of the earth's upper atmosphere.
!n general. radio are radiated at all vE'rtical angles
fr.om the transmitting antenna. For a frequ.eney above a certain
limi t (about 5 to 10 Me by day. 2 to 5 Mc by night) there is a
certain crHical angle, above which the waves PEl,SS all the way
throue;h the 1onospherl' and are not reflected back to earth. The
distance correspDnding to this cr1ticalangle and a given layer
height is the minimum distance from the transmitter at which the
sky wa,v'e of the given frequency will return to earth. This dis-
tence ie called the "skip diRte.nce" for the given frequency, since
the sky wave Skips over all pOints closer to the transmitter.
Correspondingly, the given freq,l1ency is the II ma.x1mum usable fre-
C!.llency", abbrevi.ated m.u.:!' for the distance. because waves. of
higher f:r\Hl.\\encies will not be returned to earth at that distance.
The relation between mou.f. and skip distanoe is therefore that:
The man.f. for a given distance is the frequenoy for which
is the skip distance.
li1u'in the 81c1p dia'tance' is zero, the sky wave will return to
earth nea.r t.he transmittin,g location, and 'both the sky wave and the
groundwave may he,va .nearly the same tield intensity, but,a random
relative phase. When.this occurs,the field of the sky wave
ly reinforces and cancels that of the ground wRve, causing severe
"fadin,gll of the signal,. When the skip distance is great enough so
that the field illtensity ill too small to detect at thd
distance, there iea reg1on, between the limiting range tor .the
grouD.d wI'l,ve and the skip distance, within whieh no 'signal can be
heard. Thill region 10 known as the "skip zone". The limits of the
skip 20ne depend on frequency, since both the skip distance and the
rate of weakening of the, ground wave with distance depend on fre-'

Beyond a certain distance trom a given transmitter on a given
freQuency, the waves are too weak for reHabla communication. This
is a result of the weakening of. the waves with distance, due both
to the spreading out of thE> waves and to the absorption of the
waves I energy as they .travel alon,g. This 11011 tin,g d,htance is
known as the "distanoe range" for the given frequency and trans-
mitter power. The absorption of redia waves in the ionosphere1e
greater, the lower the 'frequency, and so sky waves of frequencies
lower than the given frequency will not be strong enough to deteot

-22-
at the distance mentioned. The given frequency 111 therefore celled
the "lowest useful high frequency" for the distance and power (ab-
breviated lou.h.f.). The relation between the l,u.h.f. and the dis-
tance range isl
l.u.h.f. for a given distance and transmitter power is the
frequency at which that distance is the distance range for the given
powers
The path which the radio waves normally traverse in traveling
from the tr.msmi tter to the receiver ties in the plene passing
through the center of the earth and the transmi tUng and receiving
intersection of, this plane with the surface of the
earth is the "great-circle
n
path between transmitting and receiving
:points. Radio-we,ve transmiSsion paths which 11e in this plane ere
generally, for brevity, also celled great-circle paths. Frequently,
however, waves do not follOW paths c.onfined to this plane ," and" this
is celled "Off-path transmission".
/
The geographical part of the ionosphere which controls sky-
wave propagation is the portion of the 10nospherl traversed by the
waYes in tl'aveling from transmitter to receiver. For
transmismion, this portion is a region. centered about the midpoint I
of the great-cirole path; for mult1hop transmission that part of the
ionosphere lying between ths first and last refleotion points on the
transmission path affects the propagation of the waves.
Waves oan follow either the major arc or the minor arc of the
great-c:!.rcle path between transmitter and receiver. The two types
of transml.IJdon are ce,lled II long-path" and IIshott-path" transllliuion,
respectively.
7. sUmmary: Overall Picture ,of RediC!.. Transmission
The overall picture of radiO transmission on frequencies greater
than about 1000 kc'is this: There is a ground extending to
short distances about the transmitting antenna: the higher the fre-
quency and the poorer the ground. the shorter the distance. Eeyond
this range and on frequencies greater than a certain limit (the
maximum ttsable frequency), there is a lone of silence where no signal
can be heard. At the" skip dilltance, the sigr,al cuddenly comes in
very strongly; as the di"stance is still further increased the inten-
sity falls off until beyond thA "distance range" it can no longer
be used for communication. ThA sky wave is lower thn
frequency, the longer the distance of transmission, and the more
sunlight there is' over the path. The maximum usable frequency is
greater, the longer the Mste.noe (up to 2500 miles), and the more
sunlight there is over the path . Thull the best frequency to use
for communioation over more than a few hundred miles is greater
during the day than at night, and greater the longer the distance.
-23-
For any distance beyond the ground-wave distance range, there
is .aband of useful frequencies., bounded on the one hand by the
lowest useful high freq,uency (l.u,h,f.) and on the other by the
rlaximum.ue/l.ble f,requency (m.u.f.) .. 'The l.u.h.f. is limited by. the
absorption, and the m.u.f. h limited by the ionization.' Corres-
pondingly, for any frequency for which the skip distance is not
zero.there ia a range of useful distances bounded on the one hand
by the skip distance and on the other hand by thE' distance range.
The distance range is limited by the absorption. and the skip
distance by the
At frequencies below 2000 kc there is. genera,lly no skip distarice.
At some distences, hcwever, the sky wave mA,Y be equal in strength to
the grnund and the interference I)f the hiO ceuses continual
variation of the signal st.rength, or "fading".
Mthe frequency is lowered below about 1000 kc. the ground.
. .
wave extends farther and farther out, the sky wave becomes more
intense. At the lower frequencies the we.ves are guided between the
earth and the ionosphere, acting as conductors, and radio trans-
mission. 18 more stable and reliable.
8. The Ionosphere
The sky wave is reflected. from electrically conducting layers in
the high atmosphere of the earth, from 60 to 200 miles above. the
earth1s surface. Tbe air at these levels is rendered electrically
conducting by the ultraviolet ra,diation from the sun, and a,lso by
charged particles shot off by the sun. This upper region of the
atmosphere 1acal!ed the" ionosphere"; the conducting property of
the layers ie called" ionization"; the ;erm "ion" is used to desig-
nate the extremely small electrified particles of the air.
Solar radiation at such high altitudes is far more intense
than at the earth's surface, since it has beer. but l1t'tle absorbed
by the atmosphere. In fact, the ultreviolet radiation
the sun h so intense at such heights that it WOllld prove fatAl to
humQll beings. Fort'Wlately mOllt of this radiation is absorbed by
the atnrot;phere e,t.high levelS, thereby enabling the earth's 1nhabi ...
tants both to live, and enjoy good radio transmission.
The ultrav10let'light absorbed by the atmosphere is suff101ently
intense to disrupt the atoms of the !dr, separating charged particles
from them. Two parts of atoms SO disrupted are oppositely charged
electrically, and s,re attracted to each other, tending eventually
to rejoin. Distances between atoms at such heights, howe"er, are.
very grep,t, e,nd once ionization occurs, recombination may not take.
place for a considerable time. The probability of recombination
is greater. the gres,ter the atmospheriC density (i.e. the lower
the height above the surface of tho ea.rth).
The ion.ization in the ionosphere is not uniformly distributed wi'th
height, but is stratified, and there are certain definite layers where
the ionization density is sufficient to absorb or reflect radio waves.
If one were able to ascend to somewhat-more than twice the highest
altitude ever reached by man, one would encounter, betweRn heiehts
of about 30 to 55 miles (50 to 90 km). the first region of pronounced
ionization, known as the D layer or D region. In comparison to con-
di tions in the ;Layers existing at greater hRights. the amount of
ionizatIon he.re is not very great, and has 11 ttle effect in bend-
ing the paths of -htgh-frequency radio ws,ves. The chief effects
of the ionhation tnthis region ar.e (1) to cause a weakening of
the field intensity of high-frequency radio waves as the
misdon path crosses thh layer, and (2) to cause complete renec- ..
tton of 10 ... - and medium-frequency radio waves. The D layer is only
found toex1st during daylight hours. since Its level is sufficiently
low eo that recombination of ions takes place. It is chiefly
responsible for the fact tha.t the intensity of sky waves is lower
, .
when the transmission path lies in sunlit regions than when it
11es in <ill,rkll.ess.
At heights between 55 and 90 miles (90 and llJo Ian) lies another
,region of ionization, called the E region, in which there appears
a well defined layer of much more intense ionization at a height
of about 70 miles (nO km). This is known as the E layer. ThiB
layer is .1\180 ordinarily observed only during daylight hourIS,
since ita level is low enough for fairlyrap1d recombination of
ions to take place. The ionization in it is a maximum at .about
local noon. The number of electrons per unit volume in this layer
may be great enough regularly to refract radio waves of frequen-
ciee as high as 20 Me. at times, back to earth. The E layer is
of greatimportanoe to radio transmission for distanoes below
about 1500 miles. For greater distances than this, transmission
by E layer is rather poor because of the low vertioal angle of
departure from the ground. Better transmission will take place
by the F. Fl' or F2 layers, for these distances.
At heights of between 90 and 250 miles above the earth's sur-
fs.ce is another region of ionization known M the F region. In this
region at night. there edsts a layer of ionization cs,lled the F
layerr, the loWer edge of which is at about 170 miles (270 km) in
height. The atmosphere at these heights 18 so rare that recombina-
tion of iona takas place very slowly, and sufficient ions remain
here all during the night to refract radio waves of some frequenCies
back to earth.
During the daylight hours, especially when the sun is high, as
in tropical latitudes and during summer months, there are two layers
in the r region; the Fl layer. with II lower edge at a height of
about 100 miles (140 1oi1). and the F2 layer. with a lower edge p,t a
height of about 160 to 220 miles. depending on season and time of day.
-25-
Besides these regions o,f, ionization which appear regularly-.
and undergo variations in height and ionization diurnally-. sealOD-
ally-. and from year to y-ear, other layers occasionally- ,appear.
particularly at heights near that of the E layer, much as clands
appear in the sky. Frequently their appearance is in sufficient
lIlllounts to enable good radio transmission to t!!.ke place by means
of reflection from them. At other times. especially during dis-
tUrbed tions in polar regions, diffuse ionization, may occur
over a fairly large range of heights. and may be detrimental to
radiO transmission, because of the excessive absorption it pro-
duces.
The relative heights, thicknesses and degrea of ionization of
the regular ionospheril 18,ye1'8 are illustrated in Fig. ,2. which is
for a typics,l summer daytime condition, the l,F
l
, and '2 layers
all being present. This diegraJII is drawn to scale, eo the 1Ul81es
of reflection of radio waves from the layers may be estimated cor-
rectly. The three layers are shown as thin linss, for simplicity.
The layers heve in feet a certain thickness, and the density of,
ionization varies somewhat in th1s thickness. At the right of the
is l'l rOUE':h illustration of a possibie distribution of ioni-
zation density with height.
- 9. Measurement (If Ionosphere Characteristics
The principal ionosphere characteristics which control long-
distance radio transmission are the height and the ionization den-
sity.of each of the layers.
It is necessary to define the sanse in which the term, height, .
is used, since each layer has a certain thickness. When waves
aI'S I'eflected by a layer, the train of waves is slowed down as soon
a,s it starh to penetrate into the layer. The process of reflection
goes .on from the place at which the waves enter the layer until they
have been fully bent back around and the layer. This is true
whether the waves travel vertically or obliquely to the ionosphere.
It is illustrated for the oblique case in Fig. 4. The waves fol-
low a curved path in the layer until they emerge at a vertical
angle equal to that .at which they entered. The time ot trans-
m1eel,on along the actual, path BCD in the ionized la;ver is, fQr
the simPle case, the same as would be required for transmission
along the path BED if there were no ionized particle a present.
(Th1e is known as "Breit and, Tuve I s theorem".) The height h'
from the giolUld to E, the inters .. ction ot the two .projected
streight parts of the pftth, h called tho "virtual height"of the
layer. Thh is an imPortant quantity in all. measurements and ap-
plications.
Knowledge of the height and degree of ionization of the dif-
ferent ionosphere la;vers, and how they vary wi thgeographi.cal posi ..
tion and '11th time. 1& obtained by sending radio weve s of, various
trequencies up to the ionosphere and measuring the time which elapses
betore they are received atter being reflected by the ionosphere.
lIIferrin,g to Fig. 4, the virtual height ota layer is meas,ured by
tranemittin,g a r,adio signal from A. and receiving at F both the
signal transmitted along the ground and the echo, or signal re-
tlected by the ionosphere. and measuring the difference in time
of arrival ot the two. Since the time differences are mere
thouliMdthe of a second, the signal ise. very short pulee, in
order that the ground-wave and retlec'tion may be separated in an
oscillograph. 1'he 'difference between the distance (AE:t D) and lIZ
htonndby lII111.t1plyill8 the lIleasul'ed time d1:i'ference by the vel,ooity
ot light. From thiB and the known d1BtlilMe AF ,the virtual height
18 calenlated. In pra.etice. measuring equipment is calibrll.ted
directly in' kilometers ot virtual height rather than tillie differ-
eneee. It is 11cual to make AI zero, i.e to transmit 'theslgnnl
vertically upward and receive it a.t the same plMe (and it is for
thill calle that the te.rM "virtue:!. he1ght
li
rigorously applies). In
general. the virtual height varIes . with freq.uency of the radiO
waves ueed in the measurement. The Virtual height for such '
vertieal=ino1dence measurements is called hi and !l. c,urve showillg
the Te,riat:l,on ot hi with the frequency f ,is called an "hI-" curve".
The effectiveness of the ionosphere in reflecting the waves
back to earth depends on the number of electronspreeent ,in a unit
of volume. 1.e the ionization density. The higher the frequency,
the greater 1s the density ot ionization required to reflect the
wave 8 back to earth. It has been shown that a wave of frequency f
incident upon the layer will penetrate the ionosphere
until 1t .reaches Q level where the ionization density N is eqt1al
to 0.0124 t
2
(f in k:c ,N in eleetronsper cubic centimeter). This
relation is tor the "ordinary wave" referred to 1n9lction II, 4.
It Nreprellents the maximum value of ionization density!n the
layer; theu the correspondillg frequency f ill the highest frequency
which will be returned to earth by the layer. This value of f is
called the "critical trequency" of the layer. FO.r vertioal trans-
11118l1on, waves of all frequenCies higher than this ,pass on through
the ionized layer and are not reflected 'back to eart.h, while ws,ves
ot all lower are reflected. If the frequency is too
lOW, however, the waves be absorbed so much as to be too weak
to o"lIervoon their return to earth (see discussion of absorption
below). Measurement of t.lle cri tioal frequency is. with the equation
Juat given, a means of meaeuring the mexilliUlll ionization density in'
an ionized layer. (Waves ot frequencies higher than the critical
are sometu\es l'I!tlected by another mechanism see dhcussion of
"Sporadic I". below).
1'he procedure generally followed in measuring the oritical
trequency is to mePBure the virtual height. hI. by the method
described abovs, at successively incree.sill8 frequenciee, until the
-27-
are no 10Ilger received back from the layer. Typical results
of such l!IASSUrements are illustrated in the h'-f curves of Figs.
5, 6, and 7, obsorved at Washington, D.O,. for different of
yeE.r, day and night. The sharp incrf'ases in ,virtual height,' ,in
certain frequency renges, indicate the critical frequencies. These
sharp increases in virtual height occur bf'cause waves of frequencies
".ee.r thP critical are excessively retarded in the ionized le.yer.
For elXPlple. in Fig. 5. ste,rting at a frequency below 2000 kc
(2 Me). the'l'1rtual height is found, In this exrunple, to be about
110 kilometers: and remains at about this height until about 3.3 Mc,
The critical frequency of the E layer ,at the time of this mepsurement
is thus 3.3 Mc. i.e this 1s the highest frequency I't which vertical-
ly incident waves are reflected back to earth from this layer; all
vertieally ineident I.aves' of higher frequency pass on through the E
byer And go on up to the next higher la.yer, the Fl. At about 4.6
}.!c the waves pass on through the Fl layer and go on up to the F2
layer. The, F" ll\.yer has a greliltcr ionization density and BO it
reflecte back 'waves of frequency greater than 4.6 Me. It is not until
frequencies greater thlUl. 11.6 Me are used that the F:? layer fails to
reflect them, in the Case illustrated. Near the critical frequency
of any the virtual height increases sharply wi th increasing
frequa.p,ey, until the wave iii no 10Iler reflected by the layer;
with further increase of reflection is only obtained
frOID a la-ver of a higher critical frequeney higher level.
It there 18 no euch level, the. we,ves go on into apnce and El.re lost.
At the right of each curve appear two critical frequeneies for
the F or F2 layer. Thin is an indication of the splitting of the
wll",e into two components due to the en.rth I s magnetiC fie l.d, I!l""tl,onpd
A,bcve. -- Seetion I I, 4 The ordinary wave and the eytrAordinpry
weve are designated by the symbols 0 and x, respectively. The criti-
cR,l frequency of R, IF,yer n is by the symbol fn' Rnd to
such the 0 or x is added as a .uperscript. Thus the cri tiCR.!
freoue!)cies of the F2 lAyer for tr.e ordine,ry B,nd extrAordinAry waves
. 0 J
erp indicatl'd by r""pecttve symbols. 9nd IF
22
In the CllaR o,f the]! layer, the ordinary wave predominates
and the extre,ordinary wave is so >,'8E\k it does not affect radio recep-
tion. The extraordine.ry wave must hO>Tever be conddllred in r,. F:r or
F
2
-layer transmission. At Washington the oritical frequency for the
extraordine.ry wave is sbout 750 kc higher than for the ordinary wave,
for frequencies of 4000 kc or higher, The d1fferenee in frequency
is proportional to the intensity of the earth's mesnetic fielo. at
the plMe of reflection, and is therefore different a,t differ<lnt
places on the earth, and at different heights in the ionosphere.
It also varies with the of the critical frequency. The
difference is given by the relation
-28-
where fH is the gyro frequency, and fO. and ;eX are the critical fre-
quencies for the ordinary and extraordinary waves, respectively.
The map of Fig. 9 gives the gyro frequency for the F, F2 layer, at
any place on the earth. In reporUng results of measurements of
critical frequencies it is customary to give the values for the
ordinary wave.
Besides the virtual heights and critical frequencies, the
absorption of the energy of radio waves by the ionosphere is an
important factor in l1mitillg. radio transmiBsion. This absorption
exists because the electrons Bet in motion by the rs.dio waves co1-.
lide 'with air molecules and dissipate the energy they have taken
from the radio waves. The energy thus absorbed from the radio
waves is greater. the greater the distance of penetration of the
waves into the ionized la,yer and the greater the density of ions
and air moleoules in the layer, i.e., the greater the number of
col11s10ns between electrons and air molecules. Absorption is
especially great in the d,e,ytime.and it ocours chiefly in the D
region, because of the relatively great atmospheric denei ty in this
region. It also occurs in the high ionosphere. near critical fre-
The absorption is usually of greater signifi-
cance in radio communication than is absorption near the critical
Kost of the D-region absorption disappears with the
decrease of iont'zat1on of thh region at night. Higher frequencies
are leu e.:f'fected by absorption than are lower frequencies, for
waves passing thr01l8h the same ionized layers.
10. Normal Variation of Ionosphere Characteristics
Regular variationa in ionosphere characteristics are of three
typesl diurnal. seasonal, e,ndfrom year to year with the sunspot
cycle.
Moat fundamental is a gradual, long-period var1et ion with solar
like that manifested by the solar sunspot cycle. Sunspots
. are whirlpool. in the outer layers of the sun, which are visible as
dark spote on the sun' 8 disc 8l\d which indicate local varia,tions of
the 8Un'e temperature. The number end activity of sunspots are a
geMrl'll indication of the relative intensity of the radie,tions from
the sun. The intene1t;y of solar radiation variea in approxime,tely
an eleven-year cycle. called the Itsunspot cycle". There is a cor-
responding variation of radio transmission characteristics. The
period of time near the year 1937. for example. WII.9 a period of
maximum solar activity, as manifeAted by the number of sunspots
observed. The ionizat10nof the ionosphere a,ndconsequently the
critical of all ionosphere layers were at a maximum at
this time. A period of minimum Bolar aotivity ocourred in 1933. ----------- ---
-29-
IlIld will probably repeElt in the latt!!r -part of 1944 or in 1945. The
next pin"iod of maxblwri will probab1yoccur about 1949 or 1950, .but
the times arid relative degrees of sunspot maxima' and minima can not
be predicted accurately.
From .,le sunspot minimum in 1933 tothe simspot maximum in 1937
the F ,F..,-lnyer criticel frequencies for mos\ rours of the
day, ana ,)-laYH critic!?l frequencies 1.25 tirnesas grellt.
Conse'luently the bes t rlldio freqtwncies for trene- .
miseion were aT/proximately twice s.S great in; 1937, e.s 1111933 (ex-
cept for Bummer when they were about l.5times 'as great).
In about 1944 or 19115 they ore expected to returntop1inimwn vsJues,
and reRch tleXim'lm vclups agAin fe,bout lS1+9 or 1950'.
Ionosphere va:ry regularly with season and time
of day, since the amount of anyplace on earth
depends on ,the of the year' and the time of . .
The diurrial and ,see conal variations of the critics+
of the .Mrffial Elayer are particularly . ticalfre-
quencies varyw:!:th thealti tude. ofth., . stl
l1
.beillg liighest when the
sun is most nee.rly overheed. Thus tM diurnal maximum of theE-layer
criUcal is at locp,l .. noon, al!d the I)easonal mll-Xill\UlIl is at
the SwnmlH solstice . At night this regulf1,rly
reflect"at verUcallndidence waves of freqUeIlcies higher than"about
Olle megpc,rc la. . ' , . .. . . . .
Il.Jl'lMaSOnF!lv>lrl"Uonoi dr'the,
of the F ,F
2
leyer RrequftedffferentfrOin. tho"eof layer.
The daytimeF iF -1"yercriticlll frequencie8 are in general greeter
in winterthe.n in summer. They are higher 1nthe trfJplcs than else-
whAre in the world. They have generlllly a, brond diurnsl,maximull1;'
centering about 1300 or 1400 locel time, except that in the northern
hemispher!O in sUilUner, themaximulll occurs about sunset; The night
F-lalrercritical freqll.encies are lower in winter th"riinsummer.
and reaCh a minimum just beforesuiu'ise. MoredeteilA bf tlie .
diurnal and sen.sonel vartFtionsmaybe,sflenfrom the critical
m.,.;,:; c.f'Figs. 47 through 49.
durihgTh:,
Bame in wInter as in summer. .
The seasonal effects in the ionosphere synchronize with the .
sun' B seasonalpos1tfon, not laggillga month or>twoas doth'"
seasons of weather. Winter conditions In the F
2
1e,yer obtain
durillga perion. of several months from about the fall equinox
to the spring 'equinox, and summer condit!ons fora -PeriOd. Of
several months from about May 'Onthes1llll!ller
Bide of the eqUinoxes. there tsa transition period of 'about a month
.inwhich the Change occurs between winter and Summer oonditions.
-30-
rig. g showe the typlc/!,l variations of ionosphericcri tical fre-
quenQiee and virtual heights during the da1 for both summer and winter
at Washington, D.C., and for period s of mrucilllUlll anci minimum solsr ac-

The critical frequE'ncies and virtual. heights of the. ionosphere
la1ere are not the same from day to da1, at the same hour,
apt to vary, within limits. Thh is discussed in detftil in Sec.
III below. It is sufficIent to say hp..re that the r .F
2
-layer critl.uJ
freq:uenciea will in general nearly alweYlI fall within 15% of the
aversgs, on quiet da1e, i.e., days when there is no ionosphere storm
(llee below). The E- and rl-layer criticftl frequencie s show much less
de.;V'-to-dp-y varia tioll. .
ror a given local time, the cond! tion of the iOUl')spherc varies
considerably with geographical latitude, and also somewhat with geo-
graphiesl longitude. To a first a:oproximation. a picture
may be given. as in Figs. 10 through 25 of this Handbook, in terms
of .latitude and. local time, neglecting the above mentioned longitude
variations. Thi8simplified picture will lead to some discrepancies
when.lt i. attempted to app11 the world ,ionosphere charts to
tude . other than those for which the charts are constructed.
An example of the longitude differences mP.1 be seen on
ingFig. 14, which gives the June, 1943, ionosphere
for Washington,' D.C. <39.0
0
N) with rig. 15, which gives the. June,
1943, ionosphere characterhtics for Stanford University, Calif.
(37.40N). The dashed curves in each Fig. are from the predicted
world chart which was made weighting the Ifashington obee.rvatio!ls
more .than the Stanford obeerve,tions. The observ.etions
are Been to fit the predictions more closely than do theStAJlford
observations.
A more. striking example of the longitude difference isse.en
in rigs. 25 and 24, which compare predictions and observationsfor
July, 1943, for :Baton Rouge, La. <30.50N) and Delhl, Indl.a (2g.6
0
N).
:Both predictions were made without the benefit of observations from
either place, but the locations considered in m .. tking the predictions
(i.e Washington and P,lsrtb Rico) were much closer to the longitude
of Baton Rouge (9l.2
0
w) than to the lOYlRitudeQf Delhi (77.2":5:).
It seems posdble that longitude variations ma1 be connected
wi th geomagnetic let! tudt>. the critical frequencies being lower,
the higher them88netlc latitude, for a given geographic latt tude.
I t may be seen from the map of Fig. 43 that the auroral z.one is
farthest south at about longitude 70C1lf, and this m!l.y be related to
the fact that the critical frequ.mC'iesappear to be lower
at Washington the.n e.t 391lN lat! tude at any other pbce in the world.
The statement about r ,r
2
-layer critical frequencies is based both on
critical-frequency observations .and on e.ctual radio commu.'1ication
dIota over different paths. .
/
-31-
Diurnal curves of critical and virtual heights are
given, in Figs. 10 tr..rough 22. for thirteen observing stations
scattered throughout the world, for June; 1943. These represent
typica.l conditions in June near the sunspot minimum, and consU tute
P. sample of the type of data available. for making predictions and
constructing world charts similar to those of F1gs. 47 through 58.
of note is the similarity of the curves for Watheroo, Mt.
Stromlo, Brisbane, and the Is., all fairly close in geo-
grE'.phical lOCAtiOn, In ea.ch of the Figs. 10 through 25. the
line graphs show the averages of the observed values; the dashed-
line graphs show the IRl'L predictions made five months _ before. 'The
predictions l'Xe not those for the stations themselves but are
for the latitudes of the stations, taken from the predicted
world chart.
11. Abnormal Variations in Ionosphere Characteristics
While the normal behavior of ionospheric ionha.tion is such
that He characteristics may be predic.ted with fair succes. for
cODrpara,tively long periods of the future, there aI'", occe.sional
large deviations from this behavior which are important in their
effect upon ro.dio transmission.
a. Sporadic E.- The presence of occasional scattered irregular
clouds or pa.tchee of ionization in the atmosphqre hI'S already been
mentioned. Most prevalent is the appearance of clouds at about
the height of the E layer, where they may often be .so intensely
ionized and 80 continuous in occurrence that excellent radio com-
mu.rdcation at high frequencies is possible by means of reflections
from them. In temperate latitudes this so-called 11 s1'orao.ic-E"
ionization is most preVAlent in the s1lJlll!ler. It is a me.xinl1lJll in
the aurore.l zones durhg disturbed periods (see below). It in-
creases with decreasing sunspot number, which is very fortunate,
since it sometimes enables better radio trensmission to be achieved
during pre-sunrise hours than might otherwise be obtll.l.ned due to
. .
t,he very low ionization densit which occu:rduri!l!', such times.
Sporll.dic-E reflections occur from F,.-layer heights but at
freouencies c'bnsiderably In excess of the regula.r'm.u.f. for the
]iJ Thus in the example shown in Fig. 6 waves of frequencies
up to about l? Me would be reflected, at vertical incidence. at
E-lp,yer heights, although this would not regularly occur for
frequencies above 3.9 Me. as shown. Some of ttese reflections
are probably produced. by"partial reflection" at a sharp boundar;r
of stratified ionhation; this may. but need not
. involve great ionization densities. REldio tre.nsmission may
te.ke place to points wi thin the normal skip zone. by such
sporadic-E reflections. The existence of these sporadic re-
flections necessitates a redefinition of the term "e r!tical
-----------------------------------
frequency", prev1oui!1y defined as the highest frequency at which
waves SiIlnt vertically upward a,re received back from the layer.
When sporadic-E. reflect! ons occur they may often be rece,ivad.
with reflections from higher layer!; thus, in the
case referred to above, vertical-incidence rAflectlons might be
received. at 7 Me from both the :til and the F2 layers. The E-layer
critical frequency, more precisely defined, is the value (3.9
Me in the exaruple shown in Fig. 6) at which the observed vi rtual
height shows a sudden rise to large values as the frequency is
increased. Except' when sporadic-Jll reflections occur. all waves
of higher frequenc3' pass through the :til layer and are not reflllcted
by it.
Sporadic E leads to interesting results in long-di.sta.nce radiO
transmission. As stated, it transmission within the normal
skip zone of the regular layers, and it acoounts for long-distance
traneml.FJdon up to higher frequencies than by any other means.
Strong vertical-incidence reflections by sporadic :til sometimes
occur at frequencies up to ellan 16 Me. :By reason of the large
angles of incidence possible with the E this makes occasion..;
al long-distance communication possible on frequencies as high as
BO Me, Sueh communication is gemre.lly for only a short time end
for restricted ;localities, Sporadic E is patchy in b.oth time and
Apace.
b. Scattered Re:flections.- An irregular type of reflection
from the ionosphere occurs at.all secsons and is prevalent both
day and night. These reflections are observe,ble wi thin the skip
zone of the regular layers, and at frequencies higher than those
well receivable from the regular layers. They are complex, con-
slstingof a large of reflections of slightly different
retardation. They may cause signal distortion and so-celled
"flutter fading". Ei,ther they arrive from all directions, 0'1'.
if the transmitter operates with a highly directional antenna,
they may appear to come from the direction in which the antenna
is pointed. Many of these scattered reflections are believed to
be produced in the E layer. The mechanism of scattering by the
:til layer may be envisaged by the follOWing analogy, in terms of
visible light! ' ,
Let the radio transmitter be replaced by a small light b111b.
or if it is used with a highly directional antenna, by a focusnsd
searchlight. Now consider the F le.yer t.O be /l, mirror (for the moment
ignoring the phenomenon of If the frequency is high enough,
the normal l!l layer will always be penetrated; it' can be represented
in this as a tenuous layer of smoke. If the focussed search-
light is directed upward toward the mirror (F layer) for reflection
downward to the reception point (a single-hop transmission), the
-33-
bealil will pass through the smoke region (E both going up to
\U'd returning from the m!.rror. The regions in the ,smoke layer
(E will be illuminated and become visible, e.g., will scat-
ter some of the rao.iation. This scattering can be thought of as
the irregular reflection of the from a very large number
of very small reflecto.rs. .
If the scattering region were absent, no rf'.diation would illumin-
ate the ground except that in the reflected benm. With the scatter-
ing layer _present a relatively weak illumination win fall over a
con.sidera.ble s,rea the places where the E or scattering
region Is illuminated by the direct radiation.
There are several important features of this E-layer scattering.
The re.diation scatterad from the portion of the E layer illuminated
by a transmitter is in general very weak and is only easily detected
if the original transmitter is very powerful, and if no regularly
reflected radiation is present, i.e., the particular observation'
point must be within the skip zone for regular transmission.
Insofar as vertical-incidence pulse measurements of virtual
heights are concerned. scattered reflections coming from direc-
tions other then the vertical will, from the time delay involved
on the path, appear to come from heights between or above the
regule.r layers. At one time observe.tions of this sort were thought
to indicate higher leyers.
Since scattered reflections e,re usually observable wi thin the
normal skip zone, it follows that bearings taken on such reflections
coming from en . area of the E region lll'1I'!inated by fl. narrow beam of
radiation, be in error by 9.S much as 180; indeed such bearings
will have no mee.ning whatsoever as far a.s loce.ting the transmitting
station is concerned.
Another type of very complex reflections, sometimes called
"spread echoe.s", is often Observed at night and during ionosphere
IJtorms. These are of inten.siUes. as great as, or greater than the
intensity of the normal reflections, and their apparent
virtual heights may cover a range of several hundred kil.ometere,
beginning with a height of about that of the normal F la.ye r.
These reflections are usually observed moet strongly near (below,
as well as above) the F-layer critical frequency, end me,y make the
determine.tion of the critical frequency quite dif'f'icul t. Little
is known about the mechaniBm of production of this tY}le of scat-
tered reflections, or about their effect on radio transmission.
It seems likely, however, that transmission 18 possible by way of
these reflections at frequencies in excess of the regula.r m.u.f.
c. Sudden Ionosphere DisturbRnces (Dellinger Effect).- The
most startling of ell the irregularities of the ionosphere and of
radio wave tranAmission is the sudden type of disturbance mani-
" --------- -----------
fewtd by a "radio fadeout". This phenomenon is the result of a
of ionizing radiation from a bright eruption on the sun, caus-
ing a ruudden abnormal increase in the ionization of the D layer,
fl:'<l.11ntly with resultant disturbances in terrestrial magnetism
and earth currents as well as in radio transmission, The radio
effeet 1m the Budden cessation of radio sky-wave transmission on
usually above lOOOkc, caused by absorption in the D
This effect has occasionally been observed on somewhat
lower At the very low frequencies the effect of the
!ludd.en ionosphere disturbance is a strengthening of the sky wave.
because of the increase in the conductivity of the D layer.
'rne drop of the s1enals to zero usually occurs within a
mln1.te. The effects occur simultaneously throughout the'hemisphere
illUminated by the SUll, and do not occur at night. The effects last
about ten minutes to en hour or more, the occurrences of greater
intensity in general producing effects of longer duration. The ef-
are more intense, and last longer, the lower the frequency in
the high-frequency range (i.e from about 1000 kc up). It is con- .
$@quently BometiDills possible to continue communication during a radio
fadeout by raising the working frequency.
The radio and magnetic effects are markedly different from other
types of changes in quanti ties. The effects are most intense
in that region of the earth where the sun's radiation is perpendicular,
1
0
e at noon than at other times of day and greater in
equatorial than in higher latitudes.
Taking due account of the relations bet.ween the occurrences of
theM dl.sturbMcee. the and the' distance, varying effects
in differing directions can be explained. ThUB. reception in the
United States from stations in the southern hemisphere usually
greater effects than reception from other diTectione (be-
cl!tu@of passing the equatorial regions). Similarly, when the dis-
tUl"oancll occurs at a time when it Is morning at the receiving
pOint the effects are usuallT greater in reception from the east
than'fl"om the west, and vice versa for the afternoon (because of
pasdg the region where it is noon). A ra.die fadeout sometimes
it is night at the receiving point, but only when the
path of the waves is somewhere in daylight.
Thh effect should not be confused w1 th the "radio blackout"
with ionosphere storms in polar latitudes (see below).
d. ?ro1onged Periods of Low-Layer Absorption.- This phenomenon
is IlimilaT to the Budden ionosphere dieturbance in its radio efff'cts .
allA ch!l!'Rct.eris.tica except that its beginning as well as recove ry
is gradual and it has a longer time duration, commonly several hours.
The intensity diminution is in general not as severe as in the more
intense fadaouta. but Bomet:l.mea the intensities fall to zero.
-35-
The low-layer absorption ef.fect appears to be due to increased
ionization in the. D region (below the E layer). exactly astor the
sudden ionoephere disturbances. The increased. ionization is caused
by an abnormally great outpouring of ultraviolet light from the sun,
but in this case it is not so sudden as in the eruptions which CBuse
the sudden ionosphere disturbances. The variation of the effech
with frc'luency, and other characteristics, are the same as for the
sudden ionosphere diEturbences.
Both phenomena occur at e.ll seasons. but the prolonged periods
of low-layer absorption have been found to occur irregularly in
gro'lps of high sunspot activity, the groul's being separated by more
or less quiet periods of severel months. They frequently but not
always occur durIng periods when sudden ionosphere dieturbances B.rB
numerOU9.
e. Storms.- An ionosphere storm 1s a period of dis-
turbance in the ionosphere during which there are great anomalies of
critical virtual heights. and absorption. High-fre-
quency radio sky-wave transmission above a.bout 1500 kc is of low
intensi ty and subject to flutter fading caused by complex reflec-
tions from an =ste,ble ionosphere. The flutter fading is especially
me.rked a.t night and may then be present over high-latitude paths
for even minor storms. At frequencies below about 1500 kc the sky
wave is conside.rably weakened at night. At the very low frequencies
the daytime sky wave increasac in intensity while at broadcast fre-
quencies it sometiLlS increas.es and sometimes decreases in intensity.
The high-frequency usually last for one or two days while
the low-fre'lnency sffects persist for several days or sometimes
weeks. AD ionosphere stom is 'usually accompaniei!. by e magnetic
storm (i.e a period of unusual fluctuation of terrestrial magnetic
int.ensi ty). During the first fs" hours of very severe ionosphere
storms the ionosphere is turbulent, .. stratification is destroyed,
and radiO "lave propagation erratic. During the latter stages of
very severe storms and. during the whole of more moderate storms,
the upper part of the ionosphere, principally the F2 layer, is
expanded end diffused. The critical frequencip.s are much lower
than normal and the virtual heights much greater, and therefore
the maximum tlsable frequencies are much lower the.n normal. It is
often necessary to lower the wor!dngfrequpncy in order to maintain
during one of these storms. There is also increased
absorption of radio waves durJ.ng an ion"sphere storm, Ionosphere
storms are most severe in auroral latitudes and. decrease in inten-
s1 ty a,s the equator is approached, Ionosphere storms occur approxi-
mately simultaneously over wide geographical areas. The condition
of the ionosphere is lIluch less uniform from point to point than on
undisturbed days.
An Ionosphere ttorm uQually develops during a perl.od of a few
minutes to several hours. The effects are noticed first in the 1,12
l/l,yer nnd move progressivellT downward. Recovery. to normal conditions
------------------,---------------------------------
uually takes several daye, depending on geographical ,and
l;h" al!lv"ri iy of the storm. Ionosphere storms are probably cs.uEed 'oy
'buI'ilh of l<!lctrU'led particles from the stm. They are prone to
(lCI1I' dll;dng 'b11rsta of high Ilolr..r activity, and to recur at about
intervals, the period of solar rotation. The latter effect
llW.;vtbe cil,usdby the reappearance of an active aI'ea on the part of
the sun which faces the ear.tho
12. Fading
'ilhell radio transmission takes place by way of sky waves or
troposphere waves, the intensity is not constant, but varies with
time, because of fluctuations in the atmosphere or in the ionosphere.
&1i;erMie increase and decrease in field intensity of the re-
Ilel.we(" waves is called "tll.ding". In general fading is more rapid
cn hIgh than on low troquencies.
Thre are many types of fading which fall into four principal
.. (1) interference fading, (2) polarization fading, (3) .
absorpt:ioll fading, and (4) skip fA.ding. Most of the rapid fading
1:.sua11yobserved when' listening to a eignal ill a combination of the
firat two. typellJo .
a. Interference Fading.- Interference fading is caused by phase
int",rference of tW() or more waves from the same source arriving at
ther.e.ce,iverover slightly different paths. If the paths are 0:1;
dlff",mmt lengths, and their relativelengthe vary. because, S".
of .fluotuations in the height of the ionosphere layers. therela-
tive phases of the waves arriving over the various paths vary
with time alBo. causing Rl ternate reinforcement and cancelle.tion
o[the fil.d intensl.ty. Because of irregu.larities in. the .ionO>-'
.. !l. !Singl.e arriving sky wave is really thesUD)lIlatlon of a
great !lUIllber of waves ot smallintellsity and of random relative
plul,B'3it,. The resul tantfield intensi ty. cen vary over wide linli.ta.
th!J ID!!X!.I!l'lU!1 value being the value which would be observed were'
all thecompo!l6nts in phase, i.e., for a "homogeneous" wave .
Thh IDI!l:;d.mum value occurs only rarely.
The IDowi convenient value of this fluctuating field intensity
to talk. about is the "med1"n" value, or the value which is er-
C4!ltld.ed fifty percent (If the time by the instantaneous field jntetl-
aity.The di.stribution of the resultant velue of' a large number
of waves of rnndom phases and of nearly the amplitude has
been studied, and gives the followingrEllationo
F 2
-0.693 (-)
T=.e Fo"
WMtl'<! T h th ... fraction of the time the instantaneous field inten-
d ty exceeds the value F. and ll' is the median value of the field
intenSity. This is .called the RRayleigh" distribution.
-------------------------------------------------------
-37-
Very bAd interference fEl.ding 1ael';Pertenced in cases where the
skY wave returns to earth at a dhtance from the transmi tter such
that the ground w",ve is of comparable amplitude. The combination
of a randomly fluctuating sky wave with the steady ground wave
produces much more severe fading than is commonly experienced with
the sky wave alone.
The "flutter" fading, or very rapid fluctuations of intensity.
associated usuIllly wi th ionospheric disturbance A on pe.the passing
in or near the auroral zone. is another type of intarference fading.
It is caused by the.combination of a large number of wave components
which have traversed paths differing appreciably (possibly several
wavelengths) in length. This type of fading is ell'lo Bssociated
with transmission by scattered reflections, for the scattering
centers; themselves, are fairly widely separated, and the waves
travel different distances in gOing to and from the scattering
centers
.Another type of interference fading is experienced primarily
at low frequencies, where transmission is relativelY stable.
Neer sunrise and Runset the heights of the ionosphere layers change
rather rapidly, and the sky wave arrives alterM.tely in and out of
phe.Ae with the e,round waves, produoing fading with a
relatively long period.
b. Polarhation Fading.- Polarization fading is caused br
.variations in the state of polarization of the weve relative to
the orientation of the receiving antenna. When the pol.ariz!l.tion
is such that the electric force in the wave has a'large component
in the dire<::tion of the receiving antenna., the resultant voltage
induced in the antenna is large; when the.t component sme.ll, the
induce d vol tags is aleo. small.
In general, the state of polarization of the downcoming sky
is constantly chtl.llging. This is due me,1nly to the combination,
with random amplitudes and phases, of the two polarized
mE;gnetQ-iqnic componentA. the .ordint!l:'Y w!I.ve. and t':1o ext.rM.rAinar.Y
wave (see Section II. II) The stilts of pOlarization of the down-
coming sky wave iR in general elliptical. with either direction of
rotation . and th randoll and constAntly chAnging values of the
dimellsions and orientation of the ell ipso with respect to the re-
ceiving antenna . The Stpte of p01"rl of. sky wayes varies more
. rapidly the higher the frequency, which accounts in pe.rt for more
rapid fading on the higher frequencies.
Near the critical frequency for tr.e ordinary wave,. the re-
tardation of the oFdinary wave becomes great and erratic compared
with that of the extraordinary wave, and the place of reflectiQn
of the ordinary wave is not very definite. In this case the
polarization lind interference tadir.g due to tb.e cOlllbination of the
two components of the sky wave is par'ticularly Bevere.
c. Absorption Absorption fading is. caused biT short-time
vllriatlons in the amount of energy lost from the wave beoause of ab.,.
sorption in the ionosphe1'e. In general .the period, of tt.ls tl'pe of
fading is much longer than for .the othpr two types, since the iono-
spheric absol',lltion usvally changes only slowly . The sudden iono-
sphere disturbance is an extreme case of this of.feding, al-
though it is usually clas.ified an anomaly rather than as fading.
Somewhat analogous to this of fading although the cause is
not in the ionosphere but in reflections and absorption in ob,lects
close to the receiver, is the type of .fe,ding experienced inreceiv-
ing a signal while moving along .in an automobile. The fading out
of a signal when the receiver is passing und" r a .bridge or near. a
steel structure is caused by absorption ofthewavelsenergy by the
structure, Effects of thl.s sort are involved in so-called "ds8.d
spots" or placsB where radio recElption.is especially difficult.
Also. reradiation from wires, fences, and steel structures can
cause an interference pattern which is rele.tivelY fixed in space.
end <lanbe. noticed on moving the receiving eO,ttipment around. Where
there are nenrby structures which <can cause .these effects, care
must .be Ijxercised in selecting a receiving site.
d . SkipFIl.ding ." Skip fa,d1r>.g is observed at places near the
skip distance, and is caused by the we,ves alternately,sk.l,ppiP.gand
returning to e.!1rth. Near sunrise and sunset, when the ionization
dcnai ty of the ionosphere ischangl.ng. t t l1lay ha,ppen that them.ti.f.
for a given tl"ansmission path oscillates about the actual ,freouenoy.
When theSk1pdlstanc.e moves out !last the rece:l,ving station (some".
times called "go1nginto the. skip") the receive.d intensity abruptly
drops by a, factor of 100 or more. and just as a,bruptly. increase.s
again when the skipdietance moves in again. This. may take place
mllny times before' steady condi tiona of transmission or skip are
established. '
Besides variations of field intensity, fading also causes dis-
tOrtion of 'radio telephone signals. .This iabecs,use, at any instant
the fading is different on different frequencies; and therefore
affects differently the sidebands and Carrier wave. Thls is. called
"seleotive fading" because .the fading is thought of as "selecting"
Bome frequencif'ls rather than others .
Fadiw. may be reduced by a num.ber of different methods . such as
lautoms,tic volume .control, suppressed carriertrsnsmission, and di-
versity reception. mscussion of t.heeemethods is not Within the
scope of this Handbook,
13. Availability of 10nosnhericData
Ionosphere observations are made continuouslY'9,t a number of
observatories throughout the world. The data thus obtained are
centralized, eummarhed, and' disseminated by three
prinCipal laboratories:
(1)
(2)
(3)
-39-
The Interservice Badio Fropagp.tion Lllbore.tory at the National
l3u.rC!!U of Standards, ,( IRPL), Washington, D.C U. S.A..
The Inter-Services Ionosphere' :Burea.u (ISlE). London, England.
The Australian Badio l'ropagation Committee (ARPe), Sydr.ay,
Australia.
All of these 1abore.tories issue regular ionospheric and radio trarlS-
mission de.ta, and offer special services in the solution of specific
problems.
In part:lc.ular, 10r,g-range forecasts of maximum usable freq.uen-
cies, optimum working frequencies, lowest useful high frequencies
and dilltance ranges for all times of a.ay and all laU tudes arE' pre-
sented in various publications in thE' form of contour charts,
nomograms, and. tables, together with predictions of spora.dic-E
occurrence and short-time transmission Informll,tion in
reply to special authorized rett"ests concerning transmission prob-
lema reloo.l;ed to p"rticu1ar paths or eq'lipmant is also
by the IRPL. Also, monthly aVE'regE' ve1'lel! of iOllOapheric data for
each station are available at the IRPLehortly after the end of
,each month. Fredicted \Ilonthly IIverege values' are available at the
IRPL SOJ1le months in advance - both values for the individual ob-
serving stations and summaries made up by interpolation
stations for 11l.t1t'lde e.nd local time.
The world maps and contour chlU'ts issued b'y the IllPL, of which
S9m91
es
are presented in this Handbook, are all plotted on a modi-
fied cylindrical projection coordinate This prOjection is
simn"r to, but not the seme as, the fHf"Uh,. projection
of the world. The world maps Ilnd great-circle ch!'rts, Figs. 43
46, 92, 119, 120, ere plotted in conventional iatitude and
longitude; the contour charts ofm.u.f. ,etc., e.g. FieE. 47 thrOUgh
58. 64 through 66, and 80 through 91, 'I>,re plotted in terms of .lAti.,
tude and local time, exprescing thuB the idsE> that the ionosphere
"moves wi th the sunil e,nd i R the Bame, on the average. at Il.ny l .. U-
t'1de. "t thf'!8Ame local (This may not be strictly true - see
disc'lsdon of lO"l'.itllde d'fE\ct in IIt b"low).
SECTION Ill. IWCIMUM USABLE FREq,UEi,CIES
1. General
The maximum usable frequency. p.bbreviated m.u.f., for rAdio
sky-t1aVe OVE\r a given dhte.nce depends on two quan-
H tiel':
(1) the ml!.Ximum ionization density of the la?er which reflects
the which is me/l,BurAd by the 'critical frequency (fc>,
,-
-40-
(2) the angle of incidence at which the waves meet the 'layer; 'this
depends on the height of the lay",.,' E'ltpressed in terms 'of the tlvh-tual
height" (hi). The mou.f. is ,,'function Cinlyof the ioriospheric condi-
tionR elld the distance of transmission;! t . has 'nothing to do with the
radiated powsr or the radio noise level at the receiving location.
A knowledge of the heights and criticalfrequeilClee ofth.e 'ionO-
sphere layers is therefore sufficient to enable the a.u.f.; 'to 'bcide-
termined . For very precise determinp.tion, it is necessary to know .
the virtual heights of reflection for all frequencies, since the
height. end tl:erefore also the angle of incidence varies with' .
frequency. . ,
If f 18 the critical frequency 9 fl the maximum usable frequency
fo>:' a d, and h' the virtual height end the anele of in-
cidence of the waves' upon the layer (see Fig. 3). then to a first
approximption. ft = fc sec. FOr relatively short transmission paths,
fl = fc hl2
approxl.mately.
h'
More precisely. fora curvedee>.rth.
fl = f
c
2R(R+hl)(1-costu) + h
2
hi + R(l":cos
where R is the radius of the ear.th. This reduces to the simpler
. d . hi . .
expression .when R and If' are < < 1, i.e., for short distances and
low lays l' heights.
. .
(1)
(2)
Since the virtual heigM hI of reflection varies with frequHncy.
the height of reflection of radio. waves travelillg from a tra.n.amitt.er
to s. distant receiver varies both wi th frequency and engle of inci-
dence. In any actual radlotransmission,therefore. the frequency
and the angle of incidence of the waves upon the layer must be sucr.
that they will be reflected &t the pro:ger height to reach the re-
ceiver when they are reflected at. the given e.ngle. The frequency fl
and the height hi must siml1lteneol1Bly both. the geo-netricRl
rele.tiOl) (2) above and the observed h'-f curve.
The solution is most conveniently done graphically, by plottiT'.g
on the S!lme coord1natescale both.the observeo. h'-f curve and. the
relAtion hI and f .in the equation:
fl = f sec

-41-
for the given frequency ft end. distance d. The intersection of the
twocllrves tr_e height h t of reflf'ction of the waves and the
angle of incidence implic,itly from the relation sec = f' If.
Ii' the curves do not intersect, the will skip over the givEn
dist!lnce; if they are just tangent to each other, the frequency f'
is the m.u.f. for the given distance.
The calculation i.s simplified ,by plotting both the h'-f curve
and the f':: f sec curve (called. the "transmission curve") on
logarithmic or semi-logarithmic scales. The mou.f. can be deter-
mined by sliding the two curve s along the fre<tuency sce.le. with thf'
height scales coinciding, the transmission curve a given
distance is ,lust tangent to the observed, h '-f curve. The index
(sec = 1) on the trensmission curve then indicates the m.u.f.
Figs. 26 thrO!leh 28 "how sets of transmission C'lrVes plotted
on semi-logarl thmic see,les for vllrious diste.nces in or.dinEry (stB_-
tute.) miles, nlluticol miles, and kilometerp, reRpect1vE'ly. (Note
ted 1 MutlcAl mil .. " 1.1516 ordiMry mllAA ,end'" 1.1>:532 Icllometers).
For more accurate determination of maximum usable fr,,".uency,
nllawanee' ,"Ulit-- be made' for the curvature of the ionosuherf', e.nd for
tJ19 'effect of the earth' smsgnetic f1';'lo.. The i'onosph",re curvature
'lorrection, forF ,F2-lA'l'er trensmission, has been included in the
traMmission curves of Figs. 26. "T, and 28. The correction for
the ea.rth's m"gnetic field is too COI!lplf;x a subject to be trentE\d
in detail in this Ha.ndbook; _1 t is of importance only at short dis-
t'.r1Ces. and consists of adding asma.ll nmount (usually less thlln
0.8,Mc) to the qrdinarl"-wave m.u.f. to obte.1n the
wave m.u.f. The procedure outlined below for c"lculating m.n.f.
includes an average value of ,this correction.
2. {1pC:J(imuE'1 'C"s8,ble Ji1reguency'Factors for
LA-yers
Other methods besides thE: above have been devised for
ing them.u.f. for various diets_nees from the verticp.l-incidence
hl-f curve. The results of all of them can 'be rea_dily sU:11!larhed
into an array offectors by which the oritical frequency of a given
,.la.yer may be multiplied to obtain the m.u.f. for radio transmission
viat.."et la_yer aver various distances. These fe.ctors', cs.lled the
Jlm.u.f. factors", depend principa.lly on'the transmission distances
e.nd the heights of the le,yers, but also teke into account tbE re-
fraction of the waves in the lower ionosphere layers
. The m.u.f. factor ,is roughly proportione.l to the secant of tht'!
eugle of incidence of the waves upon the l",yer. .At short d1stences
the "econt of this angle is nenrly unity Emd vl),rIes but slowly; at
the 10l'.ger d1ete.nces it appro!lChes a limiting maximum value corres-
ponding to the we,ve's leavir>.g the trans'lli tting ar:tenna horizol'tsll.1"
and grfl.zing the earth, The factor th1ls vari."" behmen uni tl' B,nd
a limiting value of approxi'lle.tely VR/Zn' where R iE the radius
of the earth and h'. is the virtual heIght of re:f1ectl.on; it attains
its Dls.xi'llum va,lue for a. di atl',MA eoual, to the me.xi!ll1lDl distence of
t!'ansml.ssion fo!' a single hop, whiC"h is roughly V8h
1
B.. 'This letter'
expression, giving the limite,ticn of transmission disbmce imposed
by the eart.h's curvature, comes from the following consideration:
For antennas clcse to the ground the waves cannot take off s,t an
wgle the horizontal; in fE'.ct little energy will 03 ",,.di.ated
at /l,ngleg of less thon about 3
0
above the horizontal, over ordinary
gr01md.
It hM been found that tJ:e F,F
2
-1ayer m.u.f. factor at dis-
tance can ee expressed as " iracti.o!'! of the m.u.f. fe-eter et a
stande.rd SB</' 2500 miles, to a degree of anprOXi'1lRtion
sufficIent for lllO!<t a:;>plicntions. This distance is a convenient
OM t,o use, sin.ce the F,F
2
-leyer mouo!. for 2500 miles is al$O
the m.u.f. for longer distances, for the srune condition of the
.ionosphere. For more precise calculations, especially for tre.ns-
",ission distances of less than about 1000 miles. there is sO!l1e ad-
vantage in expressing the m.u.f. fe.ctor sa a percentage of the
verticRl-incidence m.u.f. fnctor (the m.u.f.
factor is the ratio of the extraordine,ry-wave critical. frequency
to that for the ordlnary-wave). The F,F
2
-1ayer mou.f. factor can
be determined mOre preCisely yet for all distll.nces up to 2500, miles
,by taking measured volues of it for three dl. stences. such as O.
1000 miles, an.d 25,00 miles, plotting tl:ese values on a she>t of
the graph paper shown in Figs. 29 or 30. and n smooth curve
through the, points. The IP2L' has on hand a stock of such graph
paper, alld will supply some on request to those who wish to use
this method in their operations.
Tables I, 2, and 3 give average values of fa.otors for ce,lculat-
iug m.u.f. from ionospheric or radio prediction data furnished by
the 1I1l?L. These fectors are alsO presented in nomogram form in
Figs. 31 through 42. for direct use in mul tiplyiug cri ticel frequen-
cies by factors to get m.u.f. for various distances. The factors
given in the teoles and Figs, referred to are averages only; in tho
Case of F ,F 2-layer transml ssion the factors mElY va.ry somewhl"t th
tilllfl of d.ay, latitude, and season, but the fnctore for .E- and F
l
-
le.yer transmission are s1.lbstanti?l1y constant for any given
Tabl!' 1 gives average vl",lues of factors by ",hlch the 2500-mile
F,F
2
-le,Yer m.u.f. and th", lOCO-mileE-l/lyer m.u.f. max bE' multiplied
to obtain the m.u.f. by F,F -ll'.yer transmission end by E- or F
l
- .
layer transmission, for any 11p to 2500 miles.
The F ,F
2
-layer facto,"s are more accurate fOr nf 'between
1000 8.nd 2500 miles than for sho,.ter dhtancee; ere sub.j"I't to
an error of 111, to perha,nA 10% if for d5stenceR of 100 or 200
miles.
-_ .. _ ... _-----_._._--_._.
A single set of factors 1s given in Table 1 taking care of both
E- and Fl-layer transmission. Distances of 1500 to 2000 miles are
too great for single-hop E-layer transmission, but not for single-
hop Fl-layer transmission. It has been found that the Fl-layer
m.u.f. are roughly proportional to the E-layer critical frequenCies
during the day. Therefore the Fl-layer m.u.f. can be obtained by
the E-layer cri tic_alfrequsncy by appropriate factors,
for the range of distances where the Fl layer rather than the E
layer may control the m.u.f. The E- or Fl-layer factors shown in
Table 1 are a simplified approximation to the actual case. The
m.u.f. does not appear to decrease abruptly for distances greater
than the maximum for single-hop E-layer transmission, possibly be-
caUBe effects such as extraordinary-wave transmission, sporadic E,
and scattering, come in to bridge over the gap where the actual
Fl-layer m.u.f. is lower. A detailed analysis and discussion of
this point is outside the Bcope of this Handbook.
For distances of up to 1000 miles by F,F
2
-layer transmission
it is better to use the factors given in Table 2. This table gives
the factors by which the vertical-incidence critical frequency of
the F,F
2
-layer, wave, may be multiplied to give the
m.u.f. at any distance up to 1000 miles. Table 2 also gives fac-
tors by which the E-layer critical frequency, ordinary wave, may
be multiplied to give the m.u.f. for distances up to 1400 miles.
For completeness, Table 3 is given to show the factors by
which the 100QMmile E-layer m.u.f. and the 2000-mile Fl-layer
m.u.f. may be multiplied to obtain the E-layer and Fl-layer m.u.f.
for distances up to 1400 miles and 2000 miles, respectively.
. - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
!rable 1
Distance Factors for Maximum Usable Freguency
Maximum usable frequency for a given diBtance is the greater of
the t\10 values obtained by IIlI11 tiplying the 1000-mile E m.u.t. and
the 2500-ml1e 1,F2 m.u.f . by the tactors in this table tor the given
distaliCe.
Distance in . For E- or F
1
-layer For F,F
r
layer
mile. t ran8lll1e ai on transm ssion
0 0.22 0.35
100 0.25 0.35
200 0.33 0.36
300 0.43 0.37
400 0.54 0 . ~ 9
500
0.6a
0.42
600 0.7 0.45
700
0 . ~ 2 0.49
800 0.89 0.54
900 0.95 0.59.
1000 1.00 0.64
1100 1.03 0.68
1200 1.05 0 .. 72
i ~
1.06 0.76
1.07 0.80
1500 1.08 0.83
1600 1.08
0.86
1700 1.08
0.89
1800 1.08
0.91
1900 1.07
0.93
2000 1.07
0.95
2100 1.06
0.97
2200 - 1.05 0.98
~ ~
1.03 0.99
1.00 1.00
2500 0.95 1.00
,
Table 2
Average 11axilJl1lll1 Usable Freguency Factors (up to 1000 miles)
MAXimum usable frequency fora given distance is the greater
of the two valueS"obta.ined by multiplying the zero-distance'
m.u.t. (or fX) tor the E or 1,F
2
layers by the appropriate
taotor.a for the. d:lsta,noe under cl(\I'1e1deratio;1.
Distance in For E-1ayer For F ,F,,-layel,'
miles transmission transmiesion

1.00 1.00
100 1.13 1.01
'200 1,47 1.03
?o0O 1 . ~ 3
1.07
100 2. 3 1.13
500 2.90 1.21
600 3.32 1.30
700
~ . 6 9
1.41
gOO .01 1.5
4
900 4.28 .1.6s
1000 4.50 1.83
- ------------------
Table :5
Dhtancel'ac tors tor Maic1l8wn Ueable1reguencl
tor given h the
of the threev$lueIJ obta'-ne<1, by multiplying the lOO()i.mUe II a.u.f .
and the :1'1 mou.t. by the tactors in tl111\ 'table tor the.
gben -distance and 1)7 mult1pl;ylDg the 25oo-iDile -J',J'2111ou.fo by the
corresponding tactors tor that dietance given in TaDle 1
.
Dhtance in
mile I
o
100 .
200

500
600
700
800
900
1000
nco
1200

1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
I'or
trallBlllieBioll
0.22
0.25
0.:53
0.43
0.54
0.65
0.74
0.82
0.89
0.95 .
1.00
10 03
1.05
1.06
1007
For 1'1-laTer
tranll1ll118ioll
0.30
0.31
0.33
0.35
00 40
0.46
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.75
0.79
0.82
0.85
0.88
0.91
0.94
0.96
00 97
0.99
1.00
3. The Calculation of Maximum Usable Frequencies for
Sl.ngle;..HolJ Traneminion
The method of calculating m.u.f. is different for short dis-
tances from that for long distanceG. The dividing line is roughly
at 2500 miles, the maximum distance for single-hop F,F
2
transmission.
The method of calculp..tion presented in this section j for trans-
mission di.tBnces up to 2500 miles. These m.u.f. are for trans- .
mieBion viS the reguls.r ionosphere over the great-circle
p!>.th from trt'Xlsmi tter to receiver; scattering in the ionosphere,
reflections and off-path transmission may modify the
m.u.f. considerably a.t times.
The first step h to determine the E- and F ,F
2
-la.yer critical
frequencies, 02', alternatively. the lOOO-mile E-l .... ver m.u.f. and
the ?50Cl-mile F ,F 2-layer m"ll..f. a.t the midpoint of the transmission
path. The basic aata from which these can be determined are
regule.rly from rec.ords at the various ionotlpheric observing stations
over the world. and are avails.ble in detail at the IRPL. They are
summt'.rized and predictions are issued regularly by the IRl'L.
Sample world charts for the months of June, September, and
December, giving critical frequencies andm.u.f., are presented in
Figs. 47 through 58 herewith. Table 4. (page 48) h a sample, for
20
0
S at sunspot minilll\llll, of a set of tables presented every six
months in the Supplement to this Handbook, giving predicted 25QOOo
mil .. F .F
2
-1ayer m.u.f. and lOOO-mile E-layer m.u.f. for each 20
0
of la.tHude, for 12 months in Daily value. of nooll,
midnight, and pre-sttnrise minimum critical frequencies and maximum
usable frequencies for oerh.in stations al''' received daily at the
IP.PL IIlld can be furnished upon reque ... t, where prompt information
ill desire" .
The method of calcllleUng the m.u.f. for path up to 2500
miles in length as follOWS:
1. Determine the latitude and longliude of the midpoint of the
transmission path. Methods for such determination are given in
Part 4 of this Handbook.
20 From the longitude of the midpoint of the path, determine the
local time at the midpoint corresponding to the time for which the
cfllculat10n is to be mnde. Time is earlier to the west, later to
the east. at the rate of four minutes per of longitude.
3. From the available data for the month or day in question,
determine the .E-b.yer and F,F
2
-1eyer critical frequen\lies or the
1000-mile E m." . f. and the 250()-omile F m.u.f. for the latitUde
end local time desired.
4. Convert these values to the m.u.f. for the desired distance
by multiplying them by the appropriate factors from Tables 1. and 2,
Local Ume
of day
Midnight
4 A.M.
8 A.M.
Noon
4 P.M.
8 P.M.
8 A.M.
Noon
4 P.M.
...4g-
Table 4. Sample of Predicted Maximum Usable Frequencies. in Megacycles,
Average for Suiet Days. Midpoint of Transmission Ps.th at Latitude 20
0
5.
July Au8.
Sept. Oct. Bov. Dee. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
For F,F
2
-lsyer trAnsmission, 2500 miles
12.0 11.2 16.2 21.1 15.2 13.8 13.6 17.5 20.2 22.0
11.8
9.6 11.9 10.0 10.0 9.6 7.8 11.1 11.7 11.0
18.3 18.1 23.0 22.0 24.0 18.0 21.9 21.0 24.5 25.8
16.9 18.3 21.4 21.2 25.1 2<'.0 20.2 20.0 23.1 23.8
20.2 19.2 21.7 22.7 25.5 26.4 23.5 22.2 26.3 21.0
1 7 ~ L cl..3...& 20.0 23.0 21.1 21.0 20.9 20.1 22.7 22.8
For E-layer transmission, 1000 miles
U.8 12.7
14.9 15.8 15.6 16.0 15.9 16.0 16.6 15.8 16.2 15.
4
.
12.2
May June
16.8 12.6
11.0 10.9
20.2 11.6
.19.5 17.3
21.2 18.9
13.5 13.
14.0 13.9
01' b:, udng the l!OmogreJT1s of Figs.31 through 36. The greater of the
two Vl'I.1UPD obtained. for l!1- and F-layer trMsminion, is the
m.u,f. for the path.
5. It' no E-layer values are shown on the maps or in the tables,
or if they are shown dotted on the' E-layer mc;:>s. as is the case
tor some parts of the world, the lilo-le.yer calculation can be
omitted.
6. Skip distances can be obteined from m.u.f . values by noti1l
the fact that the mo1l.f. for e. given distance is the frequency for
that ai stence ill the skip distance.
7. Repeat steps 1 t21rough 6 fnr each time for which the m.u.f. is
desl red.
Note that tables such as Table 4 pnd charts 111m those of Fif".
50 through 52 /lnd 56 througb 51'( give explicitly the maximum use.ble
freouency by \'[8Y of the F ,F
2
l'Ger over a dista.nce of 2500 miles,
R.nd for tra.nsrnission by way of the E layer over a. distance of 1000
miles. The times and latitudes given are those of the midpoints
of thf' --"f'!, i n Cfi.se.
As an example of the use of table s like Table 4, suppose it is
desired to know the m.u.f. for 1200 miles in December, fora path
whose midpoint is at lati tude ?OO& and at 1200 local time !I.t the
ml dpoint. From TF\b1s 4 .the ?500-mile F ,F
2
-1ayer m.u.f. if, 22.0
Me end the lOCO-mile :E-layer m.u. 1s16.0 Hc. For 1200 milee
th .. distance factors given in Table 1 are 1.05 for E- and 0.72
for 1,F
2
-1a:"o1' transmilldon. 1.05 x 16.0 16.8 Me fo.1'
tra:lsmission;. 0.72 x, 22.0 Me '" 15.8 Mc for F ,F
2
-layer transmission.
Th" m.u.f. for the patn is thus 16.8 Me, and conversely the ekl.p
dhtRnce for 16.8 Mc at the time and latitude indicated is 1200
mile"
. As an example of the use of the world charts for short-distance
analYsis, suppOse the mou.f. is required for a transmission path
between York and Havana, during December, at 0800 local time at
York. The transmission pa.th is 1370 miles 101l, with the mid-
point B.t latt tude 32.5OJ:, and longitude 80
o
W. Local tim!! of OBOO
at New York corresponds to a locel time of 0740 at the midpoint
of the path.
The m.u.f. for a latitudfl of 32.5N end loce.l time
of 0740 for a 2500-mile transmission path, as given by the chart of
Fig. 52, is 18.? Me. The lOGe-mile E-layer m.u.f. for the same
. latitude .and loce.l time is given by the cha.rt of Fig. 58 as 9.1.
occurs' in the region, indicated by dotted lines. where the
E le.yer nevor controls the SO E-layer values need no
longer be considered for this nroblem.
By int@rpolation between the values of the factors given in
Table 1. the factor by which the 250o-m11e mou.f. should be mul-
tiplied in order to give the for 1367 miles 1s 0.79. By
19.2 Me by 0.79. or by use of the nomogram of Fig. 31,
the m.u. f'. for between New York and Havana for the
time unCle I' conddlilration is 14.4 Me.
11. of Maximum Usable Frequoncip.
for Multi-hop Transmis.ion
There ie uo practical W8 simplifying the picture of radio
transmillsion over of 2500 miles or more. No single seriee
of graphs, nomogrnrns or tables can poes1bly. repreeent all the varia-
tions of the factors involved in m.u.f. determination, especially
dnce the g@ograpi11ca1 variation cf crt tical frequencies obeys no
dinple 11!.'!11 and enters into the determination of Mou.f. in a very
complex manner. .
For transmiBs10n over distances involving more than one hop,
or refleotion from the ionoBphere, thepathB must be indIvIdually
analyzed. The phenomena of reflection in these oases are no longer
simple and able to be apprOXimated by a ray theory.
The ionosphere, as well as the earth (land or sea). is rough to a
radiO wave, (ocean waves at times are higher than a wavelength of
a high-frequency radio vave) , and henoe there 1s considerable scat-
tering of the radiation at each reflection from the, ionosphere and
from the earth. This results in tranamias1-. over a multiplicity
of paths, each of'which'oan show different transmission character-
istics.Furthermore. the probability of off-path transmission
from ion or clouds of layer is greater. For these
and other reasons, transmission over paths than 2500 miles
can not be in general considered as a simple extension of slngle-
hop transmission to multiple hops. In 80me respects, suoh as
vertica1 angles of departure ("angles of fire") and arrival, the
aimpl1fied picture may give results conshtent with experiment;
in respect to the calo1l1ation of maximum ulable frequenCies, it
certainly does not. .
After detailed study of the relations between ionospheric'
data and long-distance radio transmission, during which it has been
at temp-ted to exolude scattered transmission, sporadic E, and similar
.effects, a relatively simple operational procedure for long-path.
oalculation has been developed.
The be.s1o materials needed for the caloulations are the following:
(1) 2500-mlle !'>Mou.f. charts of the world, shoWing aV!lrage values
for the months for which caloulations are to be made. Figa. 50
through 5? are samples included for illustration only. Predicted
oharts arc iBsued regularly as a supplement to this Handbook.
(2) A great-circle chart of the world, centered on the equator,
showing great-circle paths marked off with equal intervale of dle-
along the paths. Figs. 44 through 46 in this Handbook are
such with the intervals expressed in miles, nautical
miles, and, kilometers respectively.
(3) A world map showing oceMs end land masses and the auroral
zones, which exe the zones of maximum ionospheric storminess. This
is for assisting in locating the transmitter and receiver on the
great-circle chart. Fig. 43 in this Handbook 1s such a map.
(4) A supply of blank transpuent paper for Il1lperposing over the
maps and charts.
The procedure for using the maps is as follows:
1. Rule horizontal lines on the transparent paper corresponding
to latitudes 900N, 0
0
, 90
0
S for aid in orienting the paper properly
on the several chuts.
2. Place the paper over the world map of Fig. 43, BO that the
latitude seales coincide 'and mark the locations of the terminal
points of the path to be investigated.
3. Mark the meridian whose local times ue to be used as the
times for the c8,lculation.
4. Place the paper over the desired one of the great-circle charts
of Figs. 44 throllgh 46 so that the latitude scales coincide.
5. Move the paper horizontally until the terminal points marked
on it either fallon the same great-circle curve, or fall the srune
proportional distance between adjacent great-circle curves.
6. Sketch in the great-circle curve between the terminal points,
and plot points 1250 miles (1100 nauticel miles, 2000 kilometers,
or 18 degrees of !!I,re) from each end along the. curve. Une the dh-
marks on the great circles of the chart as guides in locating
thes'" points. These are the "control points". or the pointe at
which the ionosphere determines the m.u.f. over the path.
7. Place the transparent paper over the 250Q-mile F,Fz-layer
m.u.f. map for the desired mOllth, BO that the latitude Bcales
coincide. (It is not necessary to consider E-layer values).
8. Slide the paper horizontally until the meridian which was
marked in step 3 falls on the local time for which the'm.u.f. 1.
desired. '
90 !lead the value of the m.u.!. at each control point. The lower
of the two values is the m.u.f. for the path. The ionosphere between
the control points need not be considered, nor the number nor length
of the hope.
10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for each time for whIch the m.u.f. is
desired.
As an example let it be desired to calculate the mou.f. for the
path between New York London, at 1100 GMT, in December as shown
on the sampli!l map of Fig. 52. The control pOint at the New York
end of the path is at about latitude 49N,longltude 53'11'; tho control
point at the 1.ondon end is at about latitude 53 oN. longitude 30OW.
Following the procedure outlined above. the control points. at
1100 GMT, lie at about 0730 and 0905 local time, respectively. <
The F,F
2
-1ayer mou.f. at the New York control point is
10.0 and at tlie London control point is 16.5 Mc. The m.u.f.
for the path 18 thus 10.0 Me at 0860 GMT
.
The idea given here, of waves taking off horizontally and al-
wayti making the first and last hopa of maximum length 2500 miles'
should not be taken as denoting that this is the actUAl mechaniam
of transmieeion. It is merely a usa.ble picture for m.u.f. calcula-
tion, takes into account !ome of the complexities which occur
in multipath, multihop transmission. These complexities - scattered
reflections, lateral deviations from the great-circle path, asymmetry
of the transmhsion path, laterally and longitudinally, scattering
from the earth and innosphere, even u?on normal reflectlnn, the
coexistence of several mOdes of transmission - all serve to in-
crease the ffiou.f. above what it would be according to the geo-
metrical ray theory.
It should be noted further that all calculations described' here
m>e for average conditions on ionospllerlcally quiet days. i.e daya
when there are no ionosphere storms. They are also for transmission
via the regular layers. The actUal m.u.f. may oftp.n excep.d the
values calculated as above because of reflections from cloudsot
slloTadic-E lay(,r, or because of scattered reflections ( described
00 low)
5. Th", Pre die ti on of CI.:ttlcal anJi.J:lJ!;xilll;!!!l
Usable
In order to predict maximum'usable frequencies for the construc-
tion of the world charts shown in Figs. 50 through 58, it is first
necessary to predict the critical frequencies of the E. Fl. an6. 11' ,F
2
layers and to construct the F.F
2
-layer critical frequency charts. of
Figs. 47 through 49. Furthermore, the complete story of maximum
usable freq.uencles 1s not told until information is aleo given on
the day-to-day deviations of critical frequenCies and m.u.f. from
the awaN..,Il.

The average variation of the crt tical frequencies of the vllrloui!
lon')aphe:ro ll'l.yers dint-nelly. sMOMlly. from yeM' to y<!ar with the
ounspot cycle. and with geog.r!l.phicel lA,tl tude are sufficiently regular
to permi t lor,g-range predictions to be made for average cond.i tions on
ionospherically quie t dl'l.ya (da,YG wi thollt ionosphere disturb,uces).
The method of prediction of critical frequencies used by the
IH.PL consist." of analyzing the data supplied by each of its various
conperating laborato)'i,," 'for sunspot cycle, seasonal, =d diurnal
trends, extrE'.polating these trends to the time for which ;:>rediction
is to be mad" and ;>rop,,:rly combining the re,sulting pred,icted values,
Coordination of such predictions for "''''.rious observation stations
over the earth affords the means of making world->Jide predictions
of critical frequency for any time. The prediction method is
described in detail in report IRPL-Sl. evailable ,upon request to
the IRPL.
The extrapolated trends are then combined to obtain predicted
monthly valuf's of the cd tical frequency at each time of
day. A graph of dillrool variation of the critical frequency, for
the month 1s then drawn through the predicted points,
wi th dlle regard to the observed diurnal for the same month
in years. The reS'll t gives v!".lues of the predicted
critical for the month in quastion.
The same procedure 1s fOllowed with respect to the F,F
2
-1ayer
factors for the st .. of 3500 kilometers (2175
miles). This was adopted several years ago for the regular
scaling of mou.f. fe,ctl)rsfrom vertical incid,once h'-f records. The
resn1 bnt predicted factors. converted into fl'..Ctors for 2500-mile
are multiplied by thp- predicted F,F
2
-1ayer critical frequen-
cies to obtain predicted 2500-mile F,F
2
-layer mou.f. Predicted
values of the lOOD-mile E-layer mou.f. are obtnined by multiplying
the,nredicted E-layer critical frequencies by II factor of 4.5. which
Is IlMumed constant with time of day a,nd sunspot cycle. The experi-
mental evidence to date fa not sufficiAnt to indicate e:rr:I systematic
deviations from thi.s value of the factOr. Similarly. predicted
values of the 2000-mile F1-layer m.tt.f. are obtained by multiplying
the predicted F1-layer critical frequencies by a constant factor of
3.87.
The predicted F ,F
2
-layer cr1 tical frequencirs, 2500-mIle
F ,F
2
-1ayer m.u.f, !Uld lOOO-mile E-le;ver m.u.f. for station
are plotted on the modified cylindrtcal projection bpse chart
form,which 1s used for all the world maps and contour charts in
this Handbook. Contours are then drawn through the predicted
points to obte . 1n the pred.1cted world charts of F ,F2""'lr:rer cr1 tical
frequencies, of 11hich samples o.re shown in Figs. 47 through 49 and
the predicted world maps of m.u.f of which samples are shown in
Figs. 50 through 58.
------
6. from the Predicted Values
The contour maps and tables plotted from the data predicted as
d$sc1'1bed above GOW monthly 1I.'9'arege values, for quiet or undis-
turbed days only. for transmilldon via the regular ionosphere
].a;yeMi.. Qp.iet days are thoss when there is lees thM a certain
of ionospheric storminess (see Ssc. lI-lle above). It 1s
I18celillla.ry topresant average values like these, rather than de-
tailed data, for the sake of Bimplify1118 a comprehensive picture
of them.
Ha:dmum usable freqUencies are not exactly the same day atter
day, for the same time of day. but are distributed about the monthly
average. lurthermore, the monthly averages themselvss do not fall
on a smooth seasonal curve, since the solar radiation varies irregu-
larl;r. and thus far l18arly unpredictably. about a meM value. ]'or
both reason. the actual daily and hourly values of ,the m.u.f. durill8
a given month show a deViation, even on quiet days, from. the pre-
dicted mean. The followill8 discussion indicates the nature, source,
and approximate magnitude of deviations from the predicted averages.
Dev:!.at1ollB from predicted average values for a particular time
and place fall into .six general classesl (1) errors in utrapolating
eetabl1ehed10llOaphere trends; (2) dllY"'to-dayvarlations about the
average. random in natuNl (3) irregular month-to-month variation
from the smooth trend, cBUBed probably by variations in solar
activity; (4) latitUde interPolation errors, due to insuffiCient
,
number of observing stations from which basic data are obtained;
(5) the errors in the assumption that the only.loll81tude variation
of ionosphere charecterhtics is due to d11'f.erence in local time,
and (6) large d$viationB from the average due to ionospheric
disturbances.
The errors of ClUB (1) due to incorrect e'stimation of iono-,
sphere trends are likely to be relatively minor, Bince the trends
are well established tor most of the observing stations. Those
dUe to latitude interPolation errore can, 1n general, be estimated
only 'll,Pon the acquisition of more data from a greater number of ob-
servation stations.
It has only recently become possible to estimate the errors
incurred in the assumption that longitude differences in ionospheric
characteristics are the ents of tho." caused by differencei!
in 1<;oal time. At present. three of observatoriell for iono-
spheriC: dAta are located so as to have condderable longitl\de 41-
farenees in comparison with the lat! tude differences be tween them.
There are notable differences in the criticsl freauencies renorted
for Otta.wa (Lat. 45.4'10, Long. 75.70;/) iti with
for Great Baddow (51.7N, O.5
0
E), for Stanford (37.4
0
N, 122.2
0
11)
. in comparison with those for Washington C39.00N. 76.$010, those
for Watheroo (30.305. 115.g0m) in comparison with those for ;;t.
Stromlo (35.38, 149.00Jl). ana thoBe for Delhi India (28.61, 71.20)
in comparison with thoee for BllltonRouge. La. <30.5ON. 91.2
0
W). The.e
differences may possibly be caused by variation in geomagnetic lati-
tude, 'or by geographical effects upon the ionosphere. due perhaps to
the influence of land masses upon atmo.pheric convection current
Thill hi the subject of investigation now goiDg on.
In uwing the data for the above pairs of stations, the present
pracUce is to comproll'liBebetween two sets of values, g:l.v1Dg greater
weight to the values of that station for which the trends are best
est!!',"UshGd. This helps to guard againet possibility of the die-
crepancy'w being due to random ionospheric variations.
The approximate magnitude of the day-to-day deviation in E-,
and r,F
2
-layer oritioal frequencies, at the present phase of the
sunspot oycle, together with their seasonal and diurnal Variations.
is shown in Fig. 59. The number of cases where the oritical frequenc;r
falls between band limits of every 0.5 Mo. is given for Washington
for the winter, summer, and equinoctial months of January, June, and
.April, in comparison with the Dlonthl;r averages tor thelle quantities.
The lil-l'ayer cd tic"l f;requency varies much less from de.y to d8Y
th,l.n does the. F,F
2
-1ayer edt. ica1 frequency. Deviations of F,F
2
-layer
cri tic!'.l frequency from the monthly averages are generally greptest
during the sprine equinoctial period, due to the prevalence of iono-
spheric storms during this period. They ere also greater for the
steeply slopedportlons of the diurnal curve in the morning and
evening, than for the level portion" at night, noon, and the pre-
sunrise minimum periods. The day-to-day variations of the m.u.f.
are greater than thOse of the critical frequencies, becRuse
m.u.f. variation? depend not only upon variations of criticRl
frequency. blit also moon vru-ie,tions of virtUAl haight.
Tre variation of the average deviations in the F,F
2
-
layer critical and approximately also of lII.u.f, at
Washington, expresl\Bd in percentages of the average value, is shown
in Fig. 60. The Sill Taluee are averages of the day-to-day deviations
taken without regard to sign. Corresponding average reed
on the chart of Fig, 61 indicate that at this latitude the use ot II
frequenoy equal to or lower than 80'1> of the 1I0nthly' average lI.u.f,
for Bummer months, 85% of the Dlonth1y average for Winter days, and
75% of the monthly average for winter nights insures
continuous transmhllion, except insofar as :I. t 18 It.tted by absorp-
tion.
An indioation of the variation of the normal day-to-dq 4evi ....
tiona with latitude 10 given by Table 5. !!his table brieny
the results of a statistloa1survey of "ive-hour averages ot the F,FZ-
layer critioal frequency taken for the hours 23-03 inc1uslve,and 11-15

inclusive, local ttme. at four etatipna. ltw!ll be Been that" the
relative dispersion of the values (relative dispersion" standard
deTiation divided by the mean) iB generally greater at night than
duriDg the daq. The particularly large night TaluSB for the Hu.ancaqo
data are doubtless partially due to the fact that the diurnal Taria-
tion of critical frequency i8 unusually rapid at this station during
these hours.. High 'l'al1168 of relaUn dispersion are also exhibited
by the data from Oollege, Alaska, f6r both night and dlq. This
station is in the auroral IIltlDe and the F,F2""layer critical frequen-
ciee are thersfore subject to very great deTiations from normal
periods of ionospheric storminess. The critical frequencies
obo.rYed in north temperate regions lIhow a greater relative disper-
alon during the .pring equinootial period. as preTiously noted, than
during other.eaeene. This 1s probably caUBed in part by-great" de-
vlaUon. from normal duringionosphel'8 stoms, whioh are particularly
prevalent in the spr1ng ..
Table 5
Statistical analysis of 5-hour averages of f; F for
" .' 2
tYpical night and midd!i
at four obserYat1on stations
0
Mean fr F
Station
Midday
2
Niht
Winter Spriilg SumiDsr AutUllU!. Winter Spring Summer Autumn
Cellege ,Alaska 5.92 5.36 5.36 2.29 3.3
4
3.69 2.69
1I'aBhiDgton, D.C.
7.99
5.60 8.89 2.98 3.60 3.60 3.16
Hwwcayo
9.96
8.64 1.21 6 .. 26
6 .. 17 "
4 ..
6 .. 24
iatheroo
8.05
8.62 .
7 .. 66
5.30

3 .. 5

Standard Deviation
(lo11egl!l.Al.e.eb 0.846 0.871 0.505 0.937 0.598 0.941 0 .. 656"
Washingtoll,D.C.
0 ..
1.212 0 .. 651 0 .. 698 0.488 0.803 0.409 0.314

1.396 1.061 0 .. 881 1.370
1.309 1.089 1.115
Watha roo
,
1.392 1.045 0.823 1.063 0 .. 719 0.581 0.653
.
-
Be1ative DiilJ arsion
.
College ,.Al.aldta
0.162 0.102 0.175 0.261 0.282 0,,178 0.278
Washington,D.C.

0.116 0.078 0.223
0.099
Huanca70 0.1 0.123 0.122 0.163 0.232 0.212 0.221 0.1"(9
Watheroo
0.173 0.121 0.107 0.120 0.136 0.134 0.164
0.1
4
5
-
,
-57-
Further analysis of the random deviations from average
hils indicated that the distribution about the model (most probA.ble)
v"lue is, in generel, fRirly symmetrica.l, althOl't;h slightly fle,tter
thl'n for an ideel "normal" random distribution.
In generRl, frequeno1.eg should be kept slightly under
the usable frf<quency cRlculated, if continuous. trallsmission
is to be insured, to a.llow for dlly-to-da.y varhltions in criticRl
freouency and virtual height. The frequency used should be, where
practicllble. about l5,t below the ma..-:imum for F ,F
2
-le.yer trarunission,
and 3% below the ma.-:imwn for E-h'yer trsnsmission, since the
latter is less vnriable. The "optimum workil",g frequency", e.bbre-
vi&ted oow.f is as near the usable frequency as can be
used, after the above. allowances have been for probable day-
to-deyveriations in the m.u.f. This is because thE' loss of field
intensity by absorption at mediuJll end higher frequencies is greater,
the lower the fraoul'ncy.
7. Sporae.ic-E Reflec t.i ons
Beddes the regular predictablesky-waveredio transmission
th"t is chltracterl.zed by the m.u.f. shown in the s(lJlJple graphs and
of this Handbook, there occurs at irregule.r and unpredictable
times "t'::oy strong re.dio tre.nsmission, e.t frequencies much
then the normal mtp,imum uBe.bIe frequency. ceused by reflections from
E-lE<yer heights. Such trensmissiim 10 co11eo. spor"dic-F. transmission,
and often resnl ts in excellent reception within the normal skip zone,
and OVer long distances on frequencies which are considerably higher
than any which normRlly are propagated by we.ves. This type of
is not usually widespree.d or of long duration.
Spo:op.dic-E reflections ere described in Sec. II-lla above.
. Spornd.ic E (abbreviated Es' end sometimes called "abno1'm8.l E",
since reflections occur at frequencies higher than those trensmi tted
by tl:e normal E le.yer) appears to' be of tHO classes, which may be
the "re:t'locting" t:;pe (type R) en.d the "blanketing" t.ype
(ty"e B) from their observed cheracteristics.
Th" R-ty"e of spore.dic E lI'ay cause either tote.l or pe.rtial re-
flection ofrell.io waves. In genere.l it produces a very steady
reflection at the lower of the frequencies 'for which it is
observed at e given time. Its reflection coefficient 1S very high
at these fre".uencies, tmo. it reflect A all Or nf\erly 8.11 of the
energy incident upon it, sO that no higher level reflections are
seen through it. This type of sporndic E becomes, however, in-
creaeingly trnnspe.rent as the freqllency r:Jf the waveR is incr"'ll.sed,
and a IFrger and larger fraction of the incident anergy penetrates
the layer and is reflected by higher It is the R-type of
sporadic E which is most prevalent in temperate latitudes in the
summer. It seems to correlate inversely with ionospheric stormi-
ness, being a minimum ir. the spring and fall, when ionosph'!!ric ----- ------ ---- -------
storniinese is most likely, and occurring at higher frequencies and
much more regularly at the than at the maximum of sunspot
activity. Very little sporadic E has been reported from equatnrial
leU tudes, but instead there is present all the time a rehtively
we&k: aha'"P-1>oundary E reflection which may produce usab.1e radio
1JranemiSsiob.e over long distances. Thts type of sporadic E does
not necessarily invo:>lve gree.t ionization densities, 1)ut rather very
steep gro.dlents of ionization denaity.
The blanketing type of spore.die E ( ... ype B) is sO named because
it is completely opaque to r!1dio waves at All frequencies at which
it is observed. It is this type of sporadic E which to be
correlated with aurorae in polar latitudes, end in temperate lati-
tude s during the onset of severe ionosphere etorms. I t is moat
prev/tlent and the frequencies at which it is observed are highest
during ionosphere storms; it is most likely to oocur during the
spring end fell, when ionospheric storminess h most preva.lent.
It is most likely to oocur.during the hours of darkness; it ap-
pears possible that this type of ionization may produce absorption
during the daylight hours, end sporadic..]) reflections at night,
both associated with ionospheric storminess. This type of sporadic
.E probe.bly involves great ionization densities.
Sporadic-E reflections, in view of their great prevalenceat
certain seasons and hours of the day. are very important in their
effect upon radio transmission. Because Ea reflects fairly high
frequencies at low heights it cen produce transmission within the
normal skip zone of the regular layers. end it elso accounts for
.long-distance transmission up to higher frequencies tha.n by any
other means. Strong vertical-incidence reflections by sporadic E
sometimes occur at frequencies up to above 12 Mc. By re"son of '
the large angles of incidence possible with the E layer, this
makes long-distance communication possible on frequencies higher
than 60 Mc. Communication at such high frequencies is generally
for only a ahort time and for restricted localities. Sporadic E
is patchy or sporadic in both geographic distribution and time.
At lower frequencies. however, it can sometimes produce nearly
continuous transmission at frequencies above the m.u.f. calculated
for F,F
2
-layer
There is evidence that the probability of sporadic-E trans-
mission OVer an oblique path on a given frequency is greater than
the probability of getting reflections at vertical incidence on a
frequency equill. to the obl1qt.te-l.ncidence frequency divided by the
secant of the angle of incidence (or by the factor 5 assumed fOr
long-distance transmi:sion). This is accounted fllr by th" "patchi-
ness" of the layer. permitting off-path transmission from patches to
the side of the great-circle path, thereby greatly increasing the
number of possible modes. of transmission.
-59-
. Sporadic-E re:f'lacti'on data are relatively few, except from a
few observing stations, so that predictions of its occurrence are
considerably less precise than tho$e of critical froquencies for
the regular layers of the lono"phere. ' .
Vertical-incidence reflections from sporadic E do not ordinarily
exhibit the variation of virtual height with frequency characteristic
of the regular layers. Frequencies through an indefinitely estab-
lished rc.'1,ye are continuously. reflected from e. relatively constant
height, followed by the cessation of reflection without any pro-
nounced retardation of the wave (increase of virtual height) euch
as characterizes a critical frequency.
Sporadic-E ionization may be described by indicating the rela-
tive frequency of occurrence of vertical-incidence Ell reflectlonR
at a station for various transmission frequencies. The curves' of
Fig. 62 show the re1etive Occurrence of sporadic-E reflections .for
three months, typical of summer, spring eQ.uinox, and winter condi-
tions, at savers1 observatories, for maximum reflected frequencies
equal to or greater than 3 Me, 5 Me, and 7 Me, respectively.
Sporadic-E reflections are seen to be most prevalent in the auroral
zone during morning and evening. fuJlatively 11 ttle sporadic E is.
observed in equatorial regions (except the sharp-boundary E reflec-
tion mentioned above).
Fig. 63 illustrates the apparent increase insporadic-E occur-
rence with &ecreasing sunspot number. This increase is fortunate
in that it somewhat compensates for the general (k'lcreaAe in the
critical. frequencies of the ragu1er layers with decreasing sunspot
number; it is., especially in a.nd near the auroral z.ones, of marked
aid to radio transmission. The value of sporadic-E reflection to
transmission may be seen from Table 6. Here is shown, for each
hour. the percentage of time that transmission over a 2500-mile
distance was possible at 15 Mc, due to F,F
2
-layer reflection, and
to sporadic-E reflection, separa.tely, and in combination during
typical winter, summer, and equinox months in 1943. These tables
are for the stations at lVashington, D.C. and at College, Alaska.
The semple contour charts of Figs. 64 through 66 show the relative
freQ.uency of occurrence of long-distance sporadic-E transmission
at 15 Mc for the tYl?ica1 months JUnFJ. September, and December.
charts are based on the available information frow such
ionospheric stations as reported sporadic-E occurrence during
these months. On these charts. the relative frequencies ofoceur-
renc$. a!; percentages ot total time. are shown as OOllo<
tour lines. eimile.r to those of the critical frequency and m.u. f.
charts. These, together with tha regular m.u.f. charts, give a
much more complete ooncept of radio transmission conditions likely
t.o prevail durb.g a. given period. The sporadic-E charts e.re also
issued regularly 9.8 predictions by the IRPL. They should be con-
3idered in making any analysis of sky-wave radio transmission over
a given path.
Hour
F,F"
00 0.0
01 0.0
02 0.0
03 0.0
04 0.0
05 0.0
06 0.0
07 0.0
03 89.7
09 92.0
10
100.0
,11 100.0
12 ... 00.0
13 100.0
14 100.0
15 100.0
16 100.0
11 100.0
18
57.1
19 11.1
20 0.0
21
0.0
22
0.0
23 0.0
.
-60-
Table 6
of total tiue t:l,,,t m.u.f. in excess of
15 Mc, for transmission dhtlU1ce of il500 milas, due to
F ,F2""l.ayer reflection, sporadic-E reflection, and the
comoinatlon of both.
Washington __ ,
Jllnuarz, 1943 April, 19 43 June,
Sp.E F,F
2
" Sp.E
F,1
2
Sp.E F,F
2 &0 Sp.JI:
F,F
2
Sp.E
___ 4h __

F "F! f,Sp.!

290 0 29.0
3.3
38.7 38.7 0.0
29.0 29.0 0.0
41.9 41.9 0.0
.45.4 48.4 0 .. 0
48,4 48.4 0.0
35.5 35.5
26.9
33.7 33.7 53.6
3?3 93.0 66.7
19.4 93.6
.
87.5
25.8 100.0 57.1
29.0 100.0 80.0
3
2
.3
100.0 76.9
29.0 100.0 82.4
29.0 100.0 32.6
12.7 100.0 91.;
?2.6 100.0 83.5
32.3 100.0 92.6
33.1 73.1 38.9
32.3 39.8 85.2
32.3 32.3 73.1
25.'5 25.8 52.0
19.4 19 .. 4 1.1
25.8 25.8 7 . 1
-
20.0
16.7
20.0
26.7

13.3
16.7
20.0
36.7
23.3
16.7
13.3
10.0
6.7
13.3
20.0
26.7
26.1
26.1
23.3
1,;.3
23.3
23.3
20.0
22.7
16.7

26.7
20.0
13.3
39.1
62.9
13.9
90.4
64.3
82.7
19.
2
33.5
34.9
93.0
91.5
94.6
91.8
83.6
76.7
63.2
28.8
25.7

0.0 10.0 70.0
0.0 50.0 50.0
0.0 63.3 63.3
0.0 60.0 60.0
0.0 60.0 60.0
0.0 66.1 66.7
18.2 1<0.0 8}.6
47.1 70.0 34.1

76.7 1'16.3
35. 13.3 32.7
76.9 66.1 92.;
80.0
53.3 90.7
92.3 56.7 96.7
45.
4 6e.0 73.2'
63.2
53.3
132.8
53.8 70.0 36.2
69.2 36.7 95.9
34.0 36.7
9709
96.0 13.3 98.9
100.0 60.0 100.0
92.0 13.3 9709
61.9 63.3 36.0
16.0
73.3 77.6
3.8
60.1)
----
--, ---
-61-
Table 6. = (continued)
Percentage of total time that m.u.f. is in excess of
15 Me, fo r transmission dis tance of '2300 mile s, due to
reflection, sporadic-E reflection, and the
com lna.t ion of both.
Colle e Alaska
Janus!";):': I Al1rl1l June I 1943
Hour F,F
2
Sp.ll r,F
2
& Sp.E F,F
2
Sp.E F ,F 2 & Sp.liI
F,F
2
Sp.ll: F,F
2
& Sp.E
00 0.0 68.5 68.5 0.0
53.3 53.3 50.0 42.5 71.2
01 0.0 74.2 74.2 0.0 . 59.2 59.2 0.0 45.0 45.0
02 0.0 76.6 76.6 0.0 56.7 56.7 . 0.0 52.5 52.5
03 0.0 70.1 70.1 0.0 55.0 55.0
0.0 49.2 49.2
0
1
+ 0.0 65 . , 65.3 0.0 41.7 41.7 0.0 45.0 45.0
05 0.0
}+9.2
49.2
. 0.0
22.5 22.5 70.0 32.5. 79.8
06 0.0
. 48.4 48.4 0.0 12.5 12.5 80.0 18.3 83.7
07 0.0 33.0 33.0 O.d 8.3 8.3 0.0 10.& 10.8
08 0.0 21.0 21.0 0.0 4.2 4.2 83.3 11.7 85.3
09 0.0 4.8 4.3 0,,0 4.2 4.2 0.0 2.5 2.5
10 15.4 O.!! 15.3 0.0 0,,0
0.0 90.0 1.7 90.2
11 44.0 2.4
45.3 4.5 0.0 4.5 83.3
5,,1)
8
i
f.:?
t2
75.0
4.0 76.0 s.o 0.0 0 .. 0 90.0 4.2 90.4
13 76.0 0.0 76.0 12 .. 5 1.7
12.1
83.3
4.2 84.0
14
6709 0.0 . 67.9
11.5 0.0 11.5 80.0 1.1 80.3
. 15
42., 0.0 42.3 12.5 3.3 11.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
16 24.0
. 4.8
27.3 8.3 w.o 17.5 80.0 3.3 80.6
17 0.0 11,.3 11.3 13.0
7.5 19.6 86.7 12.5 88.3
18 0.0 18.5 le.5 12.5 15.0 25 .. 6 90.0 10.0 91.0
19 0.0 41.9 41.9 12.5 20.8 30.7 80.0 10.8 82.2
20 0.0 58.0 58.0 0.0 34 .. 2 34.2 90.0 15.0 91.5
21 0.0 61'!.5 68.5 6.2 50,,0
a
3

1
76.7 30.0 83.7
22 0.0 71.7 71.7 0.0 48.3 8 . 3 63.3
35.8 76.5
23 0.0 66.1 66.1 0.0 48.3 48.3 66.7 34.2 7S.1
---
-,,-------------------------------
Thus far sky-wave radio transmisrion hAS open dAscl'il)ed, in
terms of simple regular the normal ionosphere
laYl'rs, el'l\lbiting,except in the CA,se of the sporadic":E h,yer,
1-rell defined end calculable I',bscrrpt:ton end m.u.f. characteristics_
The p"''''HlnC", of scattering centers in the E layer, 'IS de sarned in
Sec. II nbove, requirf\s that this simple picture be somewhRt modi-
fied.
In gcnare,l, r"d10 wmres of frequencie.s hIgh 8nough to pass
thr01,<,:h the E layer 'are scattered in a,11 di ,'ca'done by the p",tches
in the layer. Hoat of the trevpls ?ol'Ward in the genera.!
direction which the "aves had 'b"fore they on'tared the Inyer. bllt
epprec:1abl!l amounts of energy may be pcettered at t,,,
this direction, and even be,ckward tbward the trcnsmitter, as
described in Soc. II. For short-o,tstenc!'< single-hop trnnsmhsion
(less, the.n a.bout 1000 mile s) these scattered reflections cause
trp.l1"mission the skip zone of the rAGul".r layers. Or B.t
f,..eqnencies higher the ro.u.f, of the I'A{;ular layers. In this
ca-flQ the r<'!flections are cO!1lIJlex and ;jump;" thus cnus:lng signll.l dis-
tortion and flutter fadil'.g, B,lld $,r" almoqt useless for re,diotelephqne
cO"lmimicIEI,tion. They are, however; useful for rfldlote1egraph com-
munication, especi.ally for manue,l on.
In gellerel, rs,dio tranemission by scattered reflections can be
di vi(lcd into two categoric s; ,
(a) "Short scatter" the first ref1Act-\on t;j reRch the rAcaiver,
coming directly off th" J edGe of thC1 Mattering pgtches
or clouds.
(b) "Lone the reflections ,-eturned to the receiver from
thA u:pper surface of the scatterl.nc; plltches or viI'.
th" F ,0'2 layer, after havb.g ree,ched the sce.tterfng pA.tches
vie the F,Fry layer. .
,
Long scatter is the most common cr,use ff!flr reception in the skip
ZOllP (reception on frequencies e.bove the m.tt.f,) wd is often
responsible for tl:e condItion wherein no sharp be"r:\ne Or a
bearing is obtained, Short .ca,ttor, coming from rela-
tively widely separated and short-lived pa.tches ,usup,l.ly give" rise
to nigns,ls of poor quality,. whereas we,ves received by long scatter
often arrive with fair t,' a,,,d ca.n be \,tsed for automatic
teleeraphy up to modere,te spepd
The effect of scattering must be te,ken into in
determining trsnsmission conditions over long pcths. lI,e$8Urements
have indicated thnt mud: of the energy received from a trmlsmi tter
a lone dl.tance away sometimes comeS from directions considerably off
the great-circle Fe.th . This is especially true for pat.hs which are
subject to ionosphere storms, such as the North Atlex,tic path. Thus.
in eddition to the ",.eat-c.ire1s pHth calculation of the m.u.f. an out-
lined above, it is necessary to consider to what extent sCAttered re-
flections from regions off the great-circl" l'pth may affect the tr".ns-
mission.
The manner in which long SC.tter call pffC'ct long-distance radiO
transmission pan be Visualized as followB. A radio transmitter ill
general radiates energy in all directions, and a receiving set c.an
receive from all directions, if antenna directivity be neglected.
At frequencies lower than the m.u.f. the attenuation suffered by the
is, in generttl. less Over the shortest popsible path between
and receiver (i.e., the minor arc of the great circle
upon which they both lie). Consequently the preponderant portion of
the received signaJ. strenr;th arrives aJ.ong this path. The tot!i1 field
intensi ty is thp, sum of th"t due to along this path, and
that erriv1ng from all other dlrections, dne to sCB.tter.
In Sec. III, it was stated that for long paths the mou.f, Can be
obte.ined ct;ndderation of ionosphere condl tion. at only two,points.
the sD-c!?llec. control points 1250 miG from each end of tho' tn,tismiscion
pa.th. Transmission and reception of radio waves at the working fre-
Qnency are possible in aJ.l the directions for which the m.u.f. at the
respective control points is high as or higher than the working fre-
quency. Thus', at some times of day long-distance transmission or re-
ception is possible from ",11 directio!)s on 'a given high frequenc;(.
neglecting since at no point on the c1 rcle 1250 mi. in
radius a.To1Jnd the station dOl;)8 the m.u.f. drop balow the working fre-
quency. If the frequency is high enough, however, a time comes when
the m.u.f. s.t one of the control points on. a given path drops beloW
the operating frequency. For low- and medium-powered stations communl-
gene deteriorates in quality at this time. and a
cha.nge to a lower frequency has to be made if it is desired to con-
tinue communication.
When this happens there are nearly ah'a.ys directions - usually
tOl'rArd the equator- pver I<hl.ch signa.ls can still be tr".nsmitted limd
in which directions the upper surface of the scattering region
may be"illllminated" by the downcoming waves flrom thf' F ,F
2c
leyer on
the fir}!t hop. If the power 18 suffiCiently great, WA.ves scattered
from these illUmine.ted area\! will continue to be received above the
noise lAve1 at the receivine station, but the bearing, or horizontal
direction of arrival of the weves, .will deyia.te from the great':'cirde
path toward the eqllF.tor. The signals would be expectec. to be rA-
ceived. by this process until, for all points on the circle of 1250
mi. rad_ius a.bout e1 ther the trll.nsm1t.ting or the receiving station,
the m.u.f. is belo", the oper"ting frequency. Any further received
signals would be expected to be weak and of quality, propagated
perhaps by a. mechanism involving short scatter. There i. some eXl)eri-
mente.l evidence in S1Xtmort of the a.hove pictllre. e.e in the case of
rece'Ption in Bngland of tran"missions from Japan, where bea.ring indi-
cations point to a transmitter in the direction of the Indian Ocean
near the time of failure of communication causAd by decreaSing m.u.f.
Inasmuch as the received waves always arrive predominantly by
the path offering the le!tl!t overall e,ttenuation, the mechanism of
transmillsion by long scatter just described is of considerable import-
ance. It is especially important in intercept work, both w1 th regl>rd
to the possibilities of interception of intelligence on working fre-
quencies of an order believed to be above the m.u.f. for enemy st&-
tions, and with regard to the false bElII.ring indications which will
be obtained. The effect of lateral deviation from great-circle
pathe appee,rs to be most pronounced on long paths passing through
high latitudes, for in such cases ionosphere storms may often, block
d.irect great-circle communication and leave only the scattered
tranronission arriving by pathR closer to the equator.
Thus, although scattered reflections alone may not suffice to
explain transmission over long paths at frequencies in excess of
the calculated m.u.f they ma,v well provide 0 means where1)y radia-
tion can reach portions of the ionosphere where the ionizetion is
sufficient to support in the regular manner over
of the path. This is especially applicable where the transmission
is limited theoretically by a bcl< of ionization on one end of the
path. and scattering may prov1detransmission over this difficult
condition.
It is also worthy of note that the longer the path. the less
abrupt is the beginning or end of transmission as determined by the
m.u.f. For paths of 1000 miles or less in length a change in field
intensity of 100 to 1 may take place within a minute at these times,
whereas for paths of 3000 miles or longer the change require
several hours. This probably indicates the gree,ter ralatlve 1m-
, portance of scattered :reflections over long paths.
Field-intensity records of radio transmission over a North
Atlantic path show definite changes in transmission at the 'times
when the calculated great-circle path m.u.f. falls below the fre-
quency used. Transmission is. however, often observed to persist
several hours after this change is observed,. This effect may be
explained, and taken /lecount' of in describing or predicting radio
transmission over long paths, by conSidering scattered reflections.
It is possible ,that short scatter may pla.v some role in long-
distance transmission. While norme,lly not conside"ed as important
ail long scatter, it might' account for proloYlf:".tion of communication
on long east-west paths, when highlydirectlonal antennas are used
both for transmitting an'd receiving. If the m.u.f. at Qne control
point is too lew, it is possible that the effect of short scatter
may be to send some of the energy back: to earth 9.t a point about
1500 mi. a.way. (8.S if the first reflectIon had taken place from
the E leye,,). From tr:l. ground-reflection point the Vlaves
trnvel to a point in the F '}"2 Ip..yer. perhrps as much as 2
7
50 mi
from tree .tetion. normal reflection can tB.ke ple.ce. Such
an ollhe.rd extension of the control point max permi t continued
weak ''SigMls to be rf'cf'ived for soverel hours after failure of
trlL"1mdssion. '['he mechanism just descrIbed may a.lso be
extended to r.()n-grent-circle sce,tter communication as suggested
previously_ That is, ))osqibly the F']'2-,Jayer m.u.f. on a circle
of 27)0 mi. rDdiu" ee.c!". eyltl cf tr_e trplIemission p&th 13 of
iJI;'lcrtance for this type of scatter.
The above 0.1sc'.18s10'1 been in terms of omni-directional
'I,,)"i,,1s. This condition is not necessary, h0wev<,,,,. for any prac-
t.ir:ftl directional 1I,ntenna hHs many lesser rp,diation lobe. besIdes
its pri'1c ip1:1 one. There thus be considerable amounts of
energy lr. nearly all directions even from a good directional
antenna.
The genern1 ch'irN,teristIcs of the sCl.ttedng patches .,hleh
ho:ve so far been pr:inciI)hlly (113c'UtH;ec. are:
(a) Their apparent coincidence in height wIth the E layer.
(b) Their frequent occurrence and short life. giving the effect
of a rafidl
o
' fluC'tue.ting la.yer.
(c) The fact thll.t't.l:e Jntensity of raciiatiol' scattered from
patches "t th incressing fre,quency .
The type of comflex reflections referred to in Sec. n, lIb
above as II sprfl;:'d ecr.oes" appear$C at frequencies ncar to ?.nd above
the F ,F
2
-1ayer critical fre'w(mcy, and at about F ,F
2
-le.yer height".
TJ-_9se reflections are very intense and complex. u.nally nppearing
0nly at night. It is uneer-tain as to e'l(Actly Vlhat rele.ticn they
ha.ve to lor,g-distanceradio comJllunication. but measurements indicate
thnt c.re som"",hat efi'ecti'Te in !ncre'tdr.g tl:e m.u.f.,
signals tra.n.P1itted thue ".re fading a"d fluttery. The
sca.ttp.r\ng resl'o'1sibla for ttf?se re:\,lections may posd'tly
be p?.tches or clo1l,ds above the main body of tl: F l"Yer. which re-
turn W:,JVP.S "'ih:!.ch have thrcllf;h the layer.
). third kind of cOID:,lex reflecti<)n ll.ppelU'f' during ionosphere
dorms. and probabl:r !' turbulent c0ndition of tht> ione-
iT' >'hich the normal in up into eddies
"nd patche.. This tJ'pe of sce.ttering is especially prevAlnt in and
neA!" the p.u'f'orru,. zone f but during severa iono-
sphere stor:':ls. They :::1tl:r be b:y ttl? iTl.fllL,,(" of heterogeneous
groups of particles into t'l" ionosphere. in the act of pro-
ducing an ionosphere storm. This "A111orelzor.e
ll
scattering i. kno",1tl,
t.o prod.uee off-prcth radio transmission on high freo.llenciez at
time". and mqr be OnE' of the princiI'al sources of dtscrepancies in
pa,ths which pass near the auroral zone (see below, :l'or description of
auroral zone).
A fourth kind of complex refleotion is especially prevalent at
nIght in equatorial lati.tude s. It shows up, on vertical-incidence
measurements, on a laTge number of nights, shortly after sunset, and
may persist most of the night. The regulal'-layer reflec-
tions are entirely obscured by strong complex reflections with
lent paths anywhere from leas than normal F-layer heights to many
Umes the normal F-la;yr'helghts. They OCcur over a wide range of
frequencies and, often occur on frequencies greatly in excess of
the normal F-layer critical frequency. They seem to have little
or nO relation to the critical frequency, being in this respect
different from the second type of scattered reflections described.
a:bove. show nO correlation with ionosphere storms or other
disturbances. The extent to which they affect night-time radio
transmission in the tropics is unknown, but it seems likely that
they can cause radio transmission to take place at frequencies
far above the usual m.u,;:!'. for tropi'cal latitudes at night.
9. Ionosphere Storm Effects
As de.crib"d in II above, an ionosphAre storm is a perlod
of dlcturb"nce in the characterized by great in
CritIcal frequencies" virtuel heIghts, e.nd ab eP!"Jlti on. It is prob-
_bly CAused by bursts of electrifiecc from the sun. This
Cnllses "ndio transmission conditions to be abnormnl, with 8 decrcll.ee
of maxlmumusA.ble frequencies. of skip distances, re.iidll/; of
leyer heights. And lowering of received intensl ties. Usua,lly
91so abnormal magnetic fluctuation" occur, High-frequency radio tra.ns-
mieion "bove 200 kilocycles is of lw intenRity end sub,lect to nut-,
tel' feding .. cnused by complex reflections from a patchy and unstable
ionosphere. Night ak)T wnves below 2000 are greatly
both during the storm and for several days after the effects on the
higher freqnencieR have disappeared. All effects are grfleter in
radio transmission paths pnsEing through the poleI' regionn.
lJuring the first few hours of severe ionosphere a'torms. and
in high latitudes even for small the ionosphere is very
turbulent and radio transmission is weak and erratic. During the
later steges of the storms the maximum usable frequencies are
lowered and the lowest useful high freQuencies are raised, so that
the bands of useful frequencies are narrowed and sometimes com-
pletely disappear. This results in the condition often referred to
as "radiO bllWkout", whi'ch is often experienced in GreenlA.nd, Ice-
land, 'Alaska, and Antarctica. Very low frequencies are little dis-
turbed, and cOlllmunl.ce,tion ml! be carried on at frequencies below
100 kilocycles when all high-frequency communication is
Ionugphere storms are most severe in'auroral-zone latitudes and d&-
..
1m ionosphere storm usuelly develops during B. period of B. few
minutes to an hour or more. The effects are noticed In the F ,F
2

layer first and move progressively downward. Recovery to normal
condi tions several deWs. dependir.g on the severi of
the storm and the geogr6phical ls.titude.
,,Then a radio transmission path pA.Aees through latitudes higher
than "bout 50
0
it mllY pass through regions tte ionosphere is
unstable e.nc1. there is abnormally high e,bsorption of the rRdl0 we:<re.
energy eVer. when no ionosphere storm is in progress. Such pe.ths
s.re che.re.cteri zed b,r lower re.cei ved intensi ty, and more fluctuation
in field intE'nsity, than other peths. Tl:is poor radio trensmiscion
is caused by conditions in the "auroral, zones", Or the regions >there
visible p-llrOrR is most prevDlent. In these zones there are U6D.rly
continuous magnetic fl11d radio disturbances, alldthe disturbances are
much mor" severe than in surrollrding regions, e1ther closer to or
more remotE'< from tl:e me.gne tic poles of the earth. The auroral
zones are roughly circull).1', with centers a,bout 78
0
1<, 65ot{; a.nd
about 7&OS, 11l0E. The center line of ea.ch auroral zone has a
radius o.f roughly 20
0
of arc On the earth I s surfa.ce. The maxilLum
of radio disturbE,.nce occurs in a band ssyerRl degrees wide and
epproxime.tely at the center of the auroral zone. The
radius Of. t},e aurOral zone is greater during severe ionosphere
storms than during mild or modera.te sterms. During the develop-
ment of' a storm the radius increases to an ultimate extent detel:'-
mined by the severity of the storm. This increase often tekes
severe.l hours Hnd the effect Can be used to anticipate poor rRdio
condi tiona ove r patr.s passing not too fer from tLe normal auroral
. ZOM. During severe storms tLe disturbance at a given place wi thin
the auroral zan" ma.y nctllally be less than during less severe dis-
turbl'lnces becP.us8 of the expe.nsion of the radius of the zone.
Transmissions OVAr pp.ths which lie, even in p,art, in or near
the auroral .ones, .are subject to !J. greater degree of irregular and
err9.tl.c performance. and poor radJo tnnsmlssion condi than are
transmissions OVer other pp.ths. Severe and prolonged ionosphere
stOrnlS with associpted. re.dio b12Cko'lts occur frequently, oftf'n
dev<'loplng snddenly in the course of a minutes. Over such
pa.ths, it is not unnsl,p.l for long-distance re,d:!.e> transmission to
be difficlll t or impossible on ell high frequencies for a dRY or
mO"e at 8. time, and to be errRtic and only partie,lly recovered on
f.\ eme.ll -portion of the frequency spectrum for R$ much as B- week:.
There hav" been instances of ionospheric storminess le,stir.g almost
continuously for", month. .-- -----------
-615
Frequently, also, in auroral zones during ionosphere stOI'lllS,
there appear strong, wlaespread, and continuous intense
reflections lasting for many hours. These may considerably improve
radio reception in certain directions and some paths while the
sporadic E lasts, but there is nO way of predicting this.
For transmission pathe which do not pass through the suroral re-
g19ns, radio transmission may genera.lly be he.d during an ionosphere
storm of moderate s<9verity by using frequencies somewhat lower than
usual. Such transmission" however, is probably weeker than normal,
and the change to lower frequencies should EI.lways be made with cs.u-
tton,because absorption is liable to increase during ionosphere
stOI'lllS, even for paths somewhat outside the auroral zones. How-
ever. when an ionosphere storm of severe 1ntensi ty oe-curs over
such. a pe.th, or when even a relatively mild storm occurs over a
path which lies even partly in the auro,ral zone, there is usually
nothing that can be done to obtain better week sporadic radio
transmission on any high frequency over a of greater than a
hundred miles or BO in length. Transmission over auroral-zone
paths during ionosphere storms can be insured only by the use of
the ground wave or by using low frequencies (below 300 kc). Trans-
lI'i8sions on frequencies below 100 kc are actually improved during
severe ionosphere storms; this is because the D layer becomes more
heevily ionized at these times and therefore abetter conductor, .
. B.nd better able to reflect waves of w8,velengths great compared
with the thickness of the layer, although it may completely absorb
waves of wavelengths short enough to penetrate. it.
For reference, the auroral zones, or zones of maximum auroral
frequency, are on the map of Fig. 43. The dotted line shows
the approximate lower le.ti tude limit of ionosphere storminess, for
mild and moderate storms. Severer storms sts.rt in the auroral zones
and spread out from them.
-69-
SECTION IV. LOVIE.ST USEFUl. HIGH
1. General
The high frequ.ency (l.u.h.f.) for rs.dio sk;l'-wave
transmisdon over a given disteI,ce depends chiefly on:
1. The povler radlFtted b;' tee transmitting antenna (not the power
out"ut of the tr"nsmHter, but the e.ctual power radie.ted).
2. The energy lost b"' thE' 0 WFl.VP due to absorption in the
ionosphere.
J. The vertical and horlzontal direction1.'.l properties of the
transmitting p.nd receivir.;o; .w.tennaB .
4. The radio noiee level (I.t the receiving loc"tion (loCFl.l noise
P,$ a.tmospher:tc no:i.pe propsr,Hted f!'oIP a -distance) ..
5. The skill of the radio receiving operetor.
6. Tho type of service (A3. Al printing, Al R\lra.l, direction
finding, etc.).
It. possible to calculete the emotmt of absorption of the
sJ<y wave ill the ionosphere under .pecified condi t tons of peason.
time of !l.lld direction end lengtb. of the transmission pe.th.
If the rnd.lllted power and the transmit.ting antenna pre also speci- \
fied, it is possible to determille. the intensity of
the received radio wave. in m; crovol ts per
The question !is to whether int'lnsi ty ",Ul be great enough
to use depend. on th'l other fAetors listed. These ma.y. to
e. rough approximation, hf' considered together end specified as a
"required field intensity" for a given service. In general, the
required field intensity for any specified service is va.riable with
time nr.d with geoeraphical location, nnd often it is chiefly
mined by the mngnl tude of the radio llois" at the receiving
process of de termining the sky-.rave .dhbnce range for R
given frequency, or the l.u.h.f. for a given distance, is really
two problems:
(1) The .clllcu.lation of the actu.al sky-wave field intensity at the
!"ecei ver.
(2) The determillatioll of the required field intensity.
If the actual field intensity is equal to or grea,ter than tl:e field
intensi ty required. the communication can be cA.rried on - othe 1'1,1.s9
not.
The matter of required field intensities will be treated in de-
ts.'n in Sec tiona V and VI of Pe.rt 4 of this Handbook. The 1'I'E!SAl1t
discussion is concerned chiefly >1i th the ce.!culation of cky-wa,ve
field intensity, a.nd only' rough indict'.tions of estimated required
field intensities are given for use as a guide until Pe.rt4 is
issued.
2. Radla.tion
In traversing a regiOn. of. the atmospher., practically
no energy is lost from the wave, and the only decreE.se in field in-
tensity is that d.ue to the spreading out of tbA w".ve front, the
"inve.rse-diBtlUlce attenue.tion". The field intensity along e. path
encountering no obsteelee (neither larg" masses nor ions) and no
interfering Wave trsl.ns, vA.ries inversely as the dis te.nce from the
emitting source; the energy density in the we.ver., is pro-
portional to the square of the field intensity, vD.rics 'inversely
as .the equere of the distance (the femil 11',1' uinveree square la.W
U
).
If a short dipole (less than, say. 1/10 long) is
.radi@ting J? kilowatts of power in fref' the electric field
intensity E of the- direct wave at a distanced in a direction milk-
ing angle G with the ezis of the. dipole is given by
E :: 131,700 Vf 81n Q.
where E is in mtcrovolts per meter,
P 18 in kilowatts radiated.
d is in miles.
Note that P is the actual radiated from th" 9ntennr, (current
sqWU'fld times radie.tion resistance) not the power <lutput Po from,
the tranemittine set. (The retio p/p
o
is the uradiation efficiency"
of the antenna). The field intensity produced by' other entennasis
similar in magnitude. but different in detail as to direction'al pa.t-
tern, etc. For example, field intensity at one mile, due to a
short vertic ... l end of which is on the ground, is given by
E = 186 .300yP sin Q
for perfectly conducting ground. llJ is lesa than this for
average ground. Part of this fteld intensity ne/l.r the ground (near
Q 90
0
) is due to the surface wave. which is negligible when the
Wave reaches the ionosphere. Consequently the verticil'! directional
pattern of IUl antenna, for sky-we.ve calCUlations', is considerably
-71-
J.1ff"r"nt from the pe.ttern as mes.snred within a mile or so of the
..
To a first approximation, tte field intensity prc-
duced by ,m n,nt"nna can be condderpd as thA field intensity pro-
duced b), a similp.r over a perfect earth, lIlultiplied by th"
nuanti ty l-R where R is the pl&.ne-w8.ve reflection coeffl.cient of
T
thp ground for incident B.t nn angle equal to the vertical
'I' of depllrtur'E' of the waves. This reflection coefficient
hnn s. phl'.se angle as well as a magni tude. !ll1d is:
- sin "'.
si.n Vt
u sin'" '1J,._u
2
Cos
2
1/1
R ;:
u sin'" + V l_u
2
ccs
2
1j1
1
u=
V - jx
foz: verticall.y polarized waVe s., and
for horizontelly polarized waves. wh'ere
-
dielectric constant of ground,
x ,=. 1S ,0(:'0 g-
o
cr :::: cond.uctivity of ground in
f " fTf! ouency in Me,
.1 = N.
ThE' of R is giver here for only; further
of it is outol.ite the scllpe of H!lndbo(\k.
A more comrlct.e descrintlon of redia.tion patterns from varIous
antennas is also ontsic\e t"e SCC-p6 of this of 'thl" Handbook.
ThA c!'llcult1tions outlined in the remaInder of section ,n'e
011 the ""tWlYlf\ characteristic,,;
1. " short ,,,!'ttcal I\'J \'9 is aSGuMlPd !'adiating 1 kilowatt, for trans-
,.nlssion distel1ces beyond ?bout 500 (for vertIcal ar,gles of rf,liAr
tlon 0:' acout or less. above the horizontal).
2. A half-wave dipole, one quartc,. wtwelength abO'lethe <?p,rth, h
a,ssumed rRdlatill 1 for distan""" of "bout 100 miles or let:w
(fo,. vertical FIlJes of radiation of "b""t 60
0
or greater ",bov! the
hO!"izontal) -.------
). The field inte:asity at veirtical between about 400 and
60
0
'1s interpolated between these two cases.
The median value of the field intensity is the value used in
most sky-wave calculations. Sometimes it is useful to'consider also
the value of the field intensity, or the value which
is exce,edsd only 5% of the time by the instantaneous fiel.d intensity.
The is about 1.5 times the median value of field inten-
sity, for a normally fading wave.
3. 1hJt Unabsorbed Intensity
The unabsorbed fiel.d intend ty of a sky 'wave is defined as the
field intensity which ill received at a given distance from a trans-
mitter of given power and antenna system in the absence of
spheric absorption. For standardization, the unabsorbed field in-
'tensity is usually referred to l,kw radiated from the antennae
described above.
When no absorption 1s introduced by the ionosphere a radio
decreases in strength with distance because of!
(1) the lIinverse distance" cttelluation (spreading of waves).
(2) the breaking up of the "homo;eneous" wave into components
which combine with random Intensi ties and phases to produce
a fading wave whose ,median field i nte?lsity is less than tha,t
of the homogenAotls wave;
(3) loss of \J,p,)n r<lflectlon p',t the ground bet\1een hops.
Thee effects, together with the assumed directional patterns
of the transmitting antennas, have all been conoide,red together in
formulat1xJg curves of "unabsorbed field intensity" given in F1gs.74
through 76 and described for use below. For the convenience of
users. Illost of the graphs and nomOgrams in this Section are giVen
in terms of three dis'tance un1tB.- miles. nautical miles. e.nd ,
kilometers. One mile (sometimes called statute mile) 1.6092 km,
and one nautiMl mile (abbreviated n.mi.) = 1.8532 km.
4. Sky-Wave Absorption,
The slower and more regular variations of intensity which the
sky-wave field undergoes are the result of absorption in the iono-
sphere. In general these variations are prediotable. since they are
due to diurnal, seasonal. and year-to-year variations in the iono-
sphere. The mechaniSM of absorption 1s essentially as followsl
When the radio wave encounters a free electron in the ionosphere.
some of the energy in the wave is given up to the electron, causing
it to vibrate. SOme of this energy is reradiated at the frequency
of the incident wave. and some is in the form of heat as the
eleatrol1. Collides, with neighboring air molecules. The lOBS of
energy by collision becomes ISl'eater wi th increasing chance of colli-
sion, and therefore is greater at higher atmospheric pressures, or
lower atmospheric heights. The energy loss is also greater, the
greater the amplituda of vibration of the electron. For this reason,
the loss is greater, the lower the frequency.
The loss of energy thrOltgh absorption per unit distAnce of tra.vel
of a wave of frequency f, in a region of the ionosphere where the den-
sity of electrons is 11 and the collisional frequency of electrons with
air mOlecules (due to ordinary thermal agitation) is V is given by:

It ..
NV
}l f2
where e and m e.re the che.rge and mass of the electron, c is the
velocity of light, and}l is the refractive index of the medium for
the frequency f. This is on the basis of the simple theory. not
considering the effect of the earth1s magnetic field.
The presence of the earth1s magnetic field complicates the
picture greatly. In general, the extraordinary wave is absorbed
more than the o.rdinary wave, especially near thegyro-freq.llency
(about 1.4 I;c at 11a.shingtcn, - different at other places). Near
the ordinary-wave critical frequency, however, the ordinary wave
is absorbed mere tha.n the extraerdinary wave. The inverse..,frequency-
squared variatien ef absorption is also. modified, especially at the
lower frequencies; the variation frequency is not quite so
rapid, for the ordinary wave, when the earthls field is considered.
A more detailed discussion of this peint is not at present in the
scope of this Handbook.
As the sky wave leaves the no. less. except that
due to. spreading of the WaVe front, is .suffered until the wave en-
counters the Idwest height at which there is apprecie.ble ionization.
Hera the absorption loss depends. as described above. upon'thenum-
ber of electrons !Jer unit volume, the density of the atmosphere ..
p-lld the length of during which the waVe remains in the ienized
region.
'During the night hours, when the F layer is the only layer of
proneunced ionization present, ionospheric absorption is, for most
frequencies. negligible on frequencies above 2 or 3 Mc, for quiet
condi tiona outside the auroral zone. This is bec!l.use at F-layer
heights there are relatively few encounters between ions and gas
molpcules. There is some absorption for frequencies near the maXi-
mum usable frequency. because waves of such frequenCies are abnormally
retarded in passing through the ionized region and there is sufficient
ti:ne for appN,ciable energy loss to take place. This is called "de-
viative absorption" since it occurs with the bending of the wave
path in the ionosphere. Since the critical frequencies for ordinary
and extraordinary waves are slightly different, the maximum deviative
absorption for each component occurs at slightly different frequen-
cies; thus, while in general the Axtraordinary wave is mOre suscept-
ible to absorption, this situation is reversed at frequencies very
near the crt tical or maximum usable frequency for the ordinary ray.
During daylight hours, there 'is also appreciable sky-wave
energy loss due to deviative absorption for frequencies near the
m.u.f. for each layer. However, the principal daytime energy
loss occurs in the D region, which lies just below the E layer.
In the D region the atmosphere is relatively dense, and the fre-
quency of collisions between electrons and air molecules is fa.r
,greater here than at, the heights of the other layers. This type
of energy loss is called "non-deviative absorption", since 1 t takes
place in a region where there is little or no bending of the waves.
Ionization in the D region is principally caused by ultraviolet
radiation from the sun, and the height of the region is 'low enough
for rapidrecomMnation to occur, so that the density of electrons
1n this region varies practically in step with the amount of sun-
light incident upon it. The electron densl ty is thus gree,test at
noon, at latitUdes directly under the sun,
5. The Measurement of lonosnheric
In the measurement of ionospheric absorption, the quantity
e,ctually measured is the "reflection coefficient
ll
of the ionosphere.
the ratio of the field intensity of the reflected sky-wave to the
intensity of the incident wave at the ionosphere. The negative of
the logarithm of this number is called the "absorption cdaffiel',llt".
The absorption cOE'fficient varies regularly diurnAlly, sea,90nally,
and from year to year with the sunspot cycle end ionospheriC stormi-
ness. It 1s different for differpnt frequencies, distances, geo-
graphicat locations, and angles of incidence of the sky waves upon
the i ono &phe re
Two principal methods are now used to measure the ionosphere
reflection coefficient. One consists of using pi118e8, and of com-
paring the relative amplitudes of successive reflected pulse'S ata
given frequency at vertical 'incidence. The amplitudes differ be-
ceUS9 of the absorption in the ionosphere, and elso because of the
extra distances that must be traversed by different pulses (i.e
a pulse received after two l'eflections will have suffered tl1ice the
e,bso1'l'tion of, a pube received after one reflection). The distance
traversed is known from' ionospheric height measurements; therefore
the absorption can be evaluated.
Tha other method is more widely applicable end does not need
Special equipment' like that needed for the use of pulses. It con,-
-75-
sists of making continuous automatic records of the field intensities
produced by radio transmitters, both at vertical incidence and for
transmission from a distance. These records can be interpreted in
terms of ionospherl.cdata, so that the modes of transmission
are The field intensi ty as mee8ured is the sum of the inten-
sities of a. definite number of waves. whose relativeampli tudes can
be deduced. By this meRns a great mass of data can be obtained auto-
ma.tically for a wide rs.nge of frequencies and angles of incidence,
and the resultg combined into curves of absorption coefficient
against frequency.
The results indicate that the absorption coefficient of the
ionosphere for vertical incidence increases with frequency to a
me.ximum at a frequency in the neighborhood of one mege.cycle, then
decreases steadily with frequency, except for sma.ll ranges of fre-
nuency in the neighborhood of the cT! tical frequencies of the regu-
lar ionospheric layers. Fig. 67 shows a typical curve of absorption
coefficient all a function of frequenc;<r for noon conditions at Wash-
ington in 1942, as obtained frot] data of the National
Bureau of Standard.s. The absorption coefficient is given as 'the
logarithm, to the basee , of the ratio of incident to the re-
flected field intensity.
It i. convenient to deal with absorption in terms of the
logp.r:!. thmB of the field intensity ratios. because the relation
between actual field intend ty and "unabsorbed" field intel1si ty
over a given pl'.th iF.
-k1
E " E
o
wher!> E is the actual field intensity. Eo is the unl'.bsorbed field
intensity, Or the intensity which would have been observed in the
absence of absorption, "It is the average, over the path, of the
a.bsorption coeffici.ent. end d is the length of the path of the
,.ave in the ionosphere.
6. SUmmary of Absorption Phenomena
Fig. 68 shows the results of automatic field intensity measure-
ments for an actual station. Were no' ionospheric absorption present.
the f'ield intend ty would be practically constant over the day; ac-
tually the intensity is much less during the daylight hours than
during the night hours. principally bece.use of the absorption in the
D region during the daytime. Analysis of many recordc such as this
have led to the following conclusions regarding absorption.
(1) The absorption over a given path cen be represented by the
rela.tion
where E 1s the median value of field intensity, Eo is the median value
of unabsorbed field intensitY'. which is negligiblY' different from
the night value of E, for frequencies of 4 Mc and above, and 5 is
the "absorption constant", which depends on frequenpY'. length of
path, and the. amount of sunlight over the path.
(2) In general the absorption con. tent 5 ce.n be considered to be
"",de up of the product of three factors, the length of the trans-
mission path. d; the "absorption index", K; and the "subsola.r absorp-
tion constant", So' Thee,bsorption index K depends on the eleve.tion
of the sun above the horizon; it is a maximum at noon for a given
latitude and season, it is unitY' at the subeolar point, and i.t de-
creases with increasing altitude of the sun, reaching zero when.
the sun is about 9
0
cir 10
0
belo,! the hotbon. There is e,pprecis,ble
absorption at ground sunrise and sunset, because of ionization of
the D region at these times due to diffusion, and other effects
whose description is outside the,Bcope of ' this Handbook. The 'sub-
solar absorption constant So is twice the logarithm to tr.e. base 10
of the ratio of the incident to the reflected sky-wave field inten-
d t;r for a wave traversing a unit distance (saY' 1000 miles) at and
near the S11bsole,r point. It is a function of and of
ionospheric conditions. 'The dists.nce d is expressed in the same
units as those for 50 - 1n this ce,se, thottsands of miles. We can
write. then,
5 ;::; SoK d .
This is onlY' valid for paths of lengths in excess of about 500 miles;
for shorter paths the distance d is not the length of the trans-
mission path on the earth's surface, but is proportional to, but not
equai to the distance the WB,ve travels in the D region.
(3) If the field intensitY' is expressed as the logarithm to the
balle 10 of the microvolts per meter, the field intensit;r maY' be
readilY' calculated as
where F and Fo are the logarithms to the base 10 of the actual and
unabsorbed field intensities, respectively, and 50' K, Rnd dare ".8
described above. It is oonvenient to use logarithms in field inten-
sity work. beoause the response of most. communioe.tions is'
on a peroentage basis.
(4) The vr,riation of the absorption index with the elevation of
the sun, except in the auroral zone, may be fairlY' well expressed
bY' the empirical
K = 0.142 + 0.858 CO!! 1/1
and K;::; 0
1/1 >' -0.165 ( l/I <0(99.5
0
)
cos1/l.-<:-0.165 ( Vt >99.5)
Here !{ ia the rntic of the ab sorption of a particule,r frequency et
any l"tl tude local time, to that directly under' the sun, l',nd I/'
is the 7,f,nHh e,ngle of the sun for the lnti tudfl and lace! time
u:ndf:,r cons:tdet'etion",l
Fit-. 69 shows tYl)icnl of field intensity measured
throughout the de:
r
fOr three different transmission peths on two
different freqne\'\cl1'1'. The gr"pha shown are uverages for all the
dars of th", month. They illustrate the effect of D-region e,bsorp-
Hon, as ",,,11 $,9 the effect of "skipping",
]'or the lower of the tl,ro frequencies i.e., 5000 kc,
night reception is good over the path from Washington
to Baton Rouge, for which path 5000 kc is well bela>! the mFIXimum
usuble frequency. This transmission suffers little ionospheric
During midday there is pronounced D-region absorption
500r IDe over both paths, end, consequently, low values of field
intensl ty.
On the more northern transmission path from Washingto.n to
Boston, fOr 5000 kc, the frequency is abOVE! the maximum usable fre-
quency, about 2300 and 0530 (75W time), so that relatively
small field intensities are recorded, between these hours. Just fol-
lowing this period, at about sunrise. the avel'agp. intensity in-
crea,ses. following the eu"e of probabili t;v that this frequency
will be reflectpd, and not skip. In '" short time following sunrise.
this prob"bility becomes a certe,inty, but 11 ttle increa.sA of field
intensity is now exhibi tod, since here the D-reg1on ionizP.tton hI'S
become aufficiently great to cause appreciable absorption. In the
evening, the field intensity rises eg!\in eO the D-region absorption
and then falls of the fFet th"t the
begins to skip on some day", of the month. ./u; the the gets later
in the evening the transmi ssion skips on more and more days until a
time 1" re.ched when it skips eVl'JrJ' dey. and e,t this time the
fle),d i'ntensi ty becomes relatively small, ,since only
tared' 1'd']ections are received (see Section III, 8),
Field intend ties measured on the higher of the t>!o
i.e 13,525 ke, manifest charaeterietics airuner to thoseehown on
500C kc 0"1"'1' thp northern path during til" night, early morning, and
eveNing hours. (The break in the CUrvA between 0150 and 0330 (450W
time) indicates absence of record at time). During midday,
ho',.ever, reCorded field intensities are higher at this frequency
the.n s.t 5000 kc, sInce D-rE'gion absorption is less" the 'highe,. the
freauency.
7. Abnormal Ionospheric Absorption
In add it 1 on to such abnorption effects, believed to be caused
loy ultrs,violet light normR.l1y 1'aMated from the sun, thpre are the
effects, rT!'lvl.ouBly mentioned in Section n of this H/I,Ildbook, due
-78-
to sudd"n outbursts of sollU' activity and to solar particle
ticn. They include the absorption effects manifested during iono-
spher .. storms and sudden ionosphere distu,.bancec, and the absorp-
tion continually pres.mt in thp auroral zone.
As mentioned in Section II, there arE' irregulprities in the
eleven-year sunsnnt cycle, ting in ,!.bnormal verie-tion of sun-
.pot number. During such periods of p.bnormA.lly increMed s.ole.::'
ectiv! ty, D-le.yer ionizAtion, and consequently ionospheric e.bsorp-
ticn, is increased, These perions me.l' last for ee,'er"l weeks, e.nd
appear at interve.ls of A few months a.part.
During periods of ionospheric stol"!lliness, 'lhich orA often heralded
by the app",,,rancp of lEl.rge sunspots or groups of spots, ior,i zation
bpcomes dlffuse. and poroetimes the normal stratification of the iono-
sphere into layers disappears. At these times f ... r more tonizR.t1on
exists at low levels than ordinarily, especially at night, and ab-
sorption is abnormRlly high, and irregular in nature,
Fig. 70 shows, for comparison, the records of field intensitie.,
measured on the Brune frequency, fo.,. an ionospherica1ly quiet day,
and during days of modera.te and severe storms. Fig. 71 pre tents
field-intensity showing the effects of a severe iono-
sphere storm on tra.nsmission at three different
Coincident wi th the appearAnce of solar flert's, or brlght erup-
tions on the sun, there often oc"ur l'eriods of p.bnormelly high D-
layer ionization, lasting from a minntes to an honr or more, and
occurring only during daylight hours. These sudden iOnosphere dis-
turbances are caused by sudden bursts of ultraviolet light
emanating from the solar flares. The light
reaches our atlLosphere. penetrating to the lower regions where it
produces sufficiently i.ntenEc ionization to ciluse cessation of all,
Or all bnt the higher. high-frequency radio transmission.
This increase in D-layer ionization makes it a better con-
ductor, and so we.vea of frequencies which normally are reflected
from this layer (frequencies below 500 kc or so) are actually in-
creased in strength, while the waves which normally penetrate .the
D layer, as in thp mt>dlum-frequency broadcast band., mll.t be strot:/I;ly
reflected from the D l",Yer durir.g this' time .
Fig. 72 shows field-intsnsit;r records of signals received at
widely stations over te d.ifferent paths durillg a day
on which. one of the'se sudden disturbances occurred. I t will be
seen that the striking Budde" drop in fie:!.d intensity to pr/l.c-
tiCRlly zero Oc"urs simlll tansousl;:.
Streams of particles frOM regions outsidP- the e"r'th
l
s atmos-
phere arrive contin'.lally near the eartht s magnetic poles, being
deflected into the lower atmospheric regions there by the earth1s mag-
netic field. Rlso clluse pronounced ionization at low atmos-
pheric heights. and are considered to be the primary crmee of auroral
displays, which are also ionization phenomena.
A1 though auroras are frequently seen at lower l .. ti tudes, they are
observed Most at places located roughly on.circles centered
.. bove the eerth1s axis magnetic poles, 8.t 78 ON , 69W and 78
0
S, lUoE
in rele.tively narrow be.nds whose centers are about 20 degrees of arc
away from these poles. Fig. 43 shows the locR.tions of these regions
of maxirrmm auroral frequency.
Ionization in the auroral zones is intense at low levels, with a
generally diffuse and erratic distribution, SO that there is pro-
nounced absorption at nearly all times, enhancing the effect of or-
dinary daytime absorption and that appearing .during ionospheric
storms. Auroral absorption reaches a maximum in the regions of
maximum auroral frequency shown in Fig. 43, in general, although
erratic variation in absorption occu::'s OVer many different paths
traversing this region.
Fig, 73 presents field-intensity records taken on two days, one
being approximately normal, the other coincIdent with an auroral dis-
play. Hp.re the sudden decrease of field intenai ty wi th of the
auroral dis,play is marked.
6. The Calcule.tion of Sky-Wave Field Intensities
The distance range of radio waves is defined as the maximum dis-
tance at a given time and over a given transmission path at which a
transmitter of a given power can produce a field intensity great
enough to be useful. The lowest useful high frequency (abbreviated
l.u.h.f.) is the lowest freq)lency in the range of freq,lencies from
about 2 up which will produce s. field intensity grp.at enough to
be useful OVer a given transmission path at a given time.
The first step in the calculation ofdfstance ranges or l.u.h. f.
is to cA.lcul"te the field intensity that will be produced by a given
transmitter at a given distance over a path whose loc/!,tion and local
times are specified.
'At distances greater than about 500 miles from the emitting
source. the field lntensi ty received at a sta.tion may be expressed
by the following relation:
F = F 0 - t( So K d) + t log P ,
where F = loglO of the field intensity, in microvolts per meter,
received at the location under consideration.
F 0= 10glO of the "unabsorbed field intensi tyll, in microvolts
per meter, produQed at the distance d by a transmitter
radiating 1 of power.
So'" subs otar absorption constant, twice the loglO of the ratio
Of incident to reflected sky-wave field intensity for a
wave traveling 1000 miles at Or near the subsolar point .
K = average value of the absorption index K Over the peth.
d = length of the transmissloh path, in thousands of miles.
p radiated power, in kilowatts,
(so and d can also be expressed in terms of thousands of kilometers,
Or thousands of nautical miles, if convenient).
To aid in evaluating the received field intensity, the follOWing
are presented in this Handbook:
Figs, 74 through 76. Fo' the loglO of the unabsorbed field intensity
for l-kw radiated power, and its variation with both dis-
tance and frequency (distances expressed in mi nomi and
lon).
Figs. 77 through 79. The variation with frequency of So. the sub-
Bolar absorption constant, for calculations in terms of ,
nomi and km.
Figs. 80 through 91. A set of absorption index charts showing the
variation of K with latitude and local time. for each
month of the year.
Fig. 92. An absorption map for the Burors.l zone.
Miscellaneous graphs and nomogram. facllite.ting rapid computation
of quantities in the above equation.
To compute the received field intensity. it is necessary to know
the power radia,ted, the frequency of the signal, the locs,tion of both
ends of the path, and the time.
It is first necessary to' calculate K, the average value of the
absorption index OVer the .pe.th, or if d, the average e,bMrption index
times the distance, over the given path. If the distance of trans-
mission is not known, but is to be calculated, it i. necessary to
eValuate K Or K d for various distances of transmission along the path.
For pe.ths which do not pass through the auroral zones the fol-
lowing met,hod is convenient for this calculation:
(1) Plot the terminal points of the transmission path on a sheet
of transparent ps.per placed over the .world map of Fig. 43. Just as
in the procedure for calculating the m.u.f. described Section III
above.
(2) Mark the meridian whose local times are to be used as the
times for the
(3) Superpose the transparent paper on the great-circle chart of
Figa. 44, 45. or 46, depending upon 'the ch?ice of mi,. n.m!., or km
-81-
as distance units, SO that the latitude coincide.
(4) Slide the paper horizontally until the terminal points fall
on the same grea.t-circle curve. or the same proportions.l distance
between great-circle curves.
(5) Sketch in the grea.t-circle curve between the terminal points
and mark distance intervals of 500 miles On it for reference, using
as guides the small circles 9n the chart placed 500 miles apart.
Note the total length of path d.
(6) P1Rce the transparent paper over the absorption-index map for
the month desired. Align the meridian marked in step 2 with the
local time for which the calculation is to be made.
(7) Read Kl and K
2
, the values. of the absorption index at the
terminal pOints of the path. If one or both of the terminal points
lie in the region bounded by the K 0 contour, enter 0 for these
values.
(8) Read the length. of the path, in thousands of miles (orn.mi.
or km). which lies.in the region where K is .!!2! equal to zero. Call
length D'.
(9) Repeat steps 6, 7, and 8 foree.ch time for whic.h the calcula-
tion is to' be. made.
(10) The quantity K . the average va+U9 of K over the path, can
now be calculated by ullingthe formula
[
tan tD' . :l D'
K = 0.142 + D' + K2 - 0.284)J d

where d is the total length of the path. Table 7 gives the values of
the function't8Jl tD'/D' for 9e.ch 100 miles.
(11) The quantity K d can be cl'llculeted by using .the formula
K d" 0.l42Dt + tan iD' + - 0.284).
(12) Alternatively, the quantities K and K d may be obtained by
entering the values of K, + K2 and D' in the of Figs. 93
through 95. and 96 through 101, respectively,
(13) For other pa.ths. or ,fa,," the S8me path at other months repeat
steps 1 through 12.
Miles 0
-82-
Table 7
D'
tan-
Values of 2
D'
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
o 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.501 0.501 0.501 0.502 0.502
1,000 0.503 0.503 0.504 0.504 0.505 0.506 0.507 0.508 0.509 0.510
2.000 0.511 0.512 0.513 0.514 0.516 0.517 0.519 0.520 0.522 0.524
3.000 0.525 0.527 0.529 0.531 0.533 0.535 0.538 0.540 0.542 0.545
4,000 0.547 0.550 0.553 0.556 0.559 0.562 0.565 0.568 0.57
2
0.576
;,000 0.579 0.583 0.587 0.591 0.595 0.600 0.605 0.609 0
9
614 0.619
6,000 0.624 0.630 0.636 0.642 0.648 0.654 0.661 0.668 0.675 0.682
7,000 0.690 0.698 0.707 0.715 0.725 0.734 0.744. 0.755 0.766 0.777
8,000 0.789 0.802 0.815 0.829 0.844 0.859 0.875 0.892 0.911 0.930
9.000 0.950 0.97
2
0.994 1.019 1.045 1.073 1.103 1.135 1.170 1.207
10,000 1.2471.292 1.340 1.393 1.450 1.514 1.585 1.664 1.754. 1.854
n,OOO 1.968 2.101 2.253 2.436 2.651 2.911 3.240 3.652 4.204 4.954
12,000 6.0497.835 11.124 19;605 83.101-36.272-14.626 -9.150 -6.604 -5.163
13.000 -4.225 -3.560 -3.07
4
-2.695 -2.398 -2.156 -1.954 -1.785 -1.639 -1.515
14.000 -1.407 -1.310 -1.225 -1.149 -1.081 -1.020 -0.964 -0.913 -0.866 -0.823
15.000 -0.783 -0.747 -0.7
1
3 -0.625 -0.599 -0.575 -0.552 we.531
16,000 -0.510 -0.491 -0.473 0.0.456 -0.440 -0.424 -0.410 -0.396 -0.382 -0.370
17.000 -0.357 -0.346 -0.334 -0.324 -0.313 -0.303 -0.294 -0.284 -0.276 -0.267
18,000 -0.259 -0.251 -0.243 -0.236 -0.229 -0.222 -0.215 -0.209 -0.202 -0.196
19.000 -0.190 ...0.185 -0.179 -0.174 -0.168 -0.163 ...0.158 -0.153 -0.149 -0.144
20.000 -0.140 -0.135 -00131 ...0.127 -0.123 -0.119 0-0.115 -0.111 -0.107 -0.104
21,000 -0.100 -0.096 -0.093 -0.090 ...0.086 -0.083 -0.080 -0.077 -0.074 -0.071
22.000 ...o.06s -0.065 -0.062-0.060 -0.057 -0.054 -0.051 -0.049 -0.046 -0.044
23,000 -0.041 0-0.039 -0.036 -0.034 -0.032 -0.029 -0.027 -0.025.-0.022 -0.020
24.000 -0.018 -0.016 -0.014 -0.012 -0.010 -0.007 -0.005 -0.003 -0.001 0.601
.
-33-
For n.nny o8,lculations. it slmplifiB R the procedure to use a que.n-
t.ity called the "field-intensity factor" (A) instead of workillgthe
through in terms of radiated power and logarithmic field
intensity. The factor A combines two quantities in a way
su'oh that after oaloulations have been made for a given path any
desired values of radiated power and reouired field intensity can
be used. The field-intensity factor A is chare.cteristic of e, given
path at a given time.
The field-intensity factor A is defined 8.S
2 .
A .. I. + log !L... 4 + ZJ!' - loglO p.
10 r
where E is the field intensity in microvolts meter, F is the
10glO of the field intensity in microvolts per meter, and P ie
the re.d.tEl.ted power (not the power output of the transmitter) in
kilowatts. A nomogrtllJlshowing this relation is given in Fi,g.102.
Table 8 gives approxima.te va.lue s of A for certain noise condi tiona
end t,rpes of receivillg set.
Table g
Estimated VjU ues ()f Field-Intensity Faotor A
- -
Good receivine set Avera. e receivine set Poor receiviM Bet
Power Mod. Bad Q)liet Mod. Bad Q.uie t Mod.
noise noise noise noise noise
------
(low 6
9
12
g
11 14 10 12
Phone (medium

7
10 6
9
12 8 10
(high 2
5
g
4
7
10 6
g
---
(low 4
7
10 6
9
12
g
10
OW (modium 2
5
8 4
7
10 6 8
(high 0
3
6 2
5
8 4 6
------
The rodtated power is based on radiation from the stande,rd an-
tenne, described above. For other types of antenna, an "effective"
radiated powerahould be used, taking into IlCcount the r('latioll. be-
tween the horizonte.l ,,;,,0. vertical radiation patterns of the "",tenna
compared wi th th()"e of a short vertic"l antenna.
Bad
noise
14
12
10
12
10
8
Examples of use of the field-intensity faotor are given below.
10. 11e Calculatlnn of A over a Given Pe.th
I'/hen the a""rage value of K over the path ie known (if). the
field-intensity factOl' for high frequencies (above 3 Mc) may
readily be calculated for any vaJ.ue of So by the relation
A = Ao - So K d,
A is the unabsorbed field-intensity factor, defined as the
value A when E replaced by Eo. the unabsorbed field intensity
(or F replaced by Fo. the 10glO of the unabsorbed field intenSity),
and P is made uni ty.
Typical values of So for frequencies And seasons
given in ]'1g9. 77 through 79. The values of A corresponding to the
above formula can be rel.'d off the graphs of Figs.103 thro1lh 105.
These graphs show. A e.s a function of dist/lnce d and of the quantity
K So. Given any two of these quantities, the third may be deter-
mined; for exs.mple, if the value of ,A. is fixed by a known radiated
power and required field intensity, a given distance'corresponds to
a definite VAlue of K So< Knowing what .the K is for a given
of day, the So cen be and thus the frequency, through
the relation So and freo),ency. Altf:rnatively, the relation
between A, d. and K So may be determined from the nomograms of
Figs.106through ll!!. which express 'the same rele,Uon as the graphs
of Figs. 103 through 105.
The relation between A, K, So' and d can be represented gr",ph-
ically in a number of different weye, each of which hEl,s i tsown
pe,rticular convenience for 1'. particular ope"l'tional USB. For
example. if it is desired to calculate regularly the l.u.h.f.
over a givAn path, it is convenient to curves of If against
frequency for that length of path, for varioue values of A. For
any time of day; then, it is merely necessary to look up the va.lue
of f corresponding to the K for the path at the given time of dElY,
corresponding to an assumed value of A based on an assumed required
field intensity. If the required field intensity oorresponding to
the frequency SO determined is not that assumed, it requires 11 ttle
effort to adjust the required field intensity assumed until it does
with that for the frequency determined frol!l the graphs',
A set of such graphs is given for a path 4000 km long in
Fig. 115. An example of their use is given later.
11. Direct Calculations of Field Intensities
If desired, the logarithm of the field intensity can be cal-
culated thout reference to the' field inte.nBi ty factor. Figs. 116
through 11e give a graph of F 6' the 10glO of the unabsorbed field
intensit;r, 1',8 a function of the distance d for various values of
radiated power in kilowatts. _For a given So can be read
off }'igs. 77 78, or 79. a,nd K d determined, as above. Then, by
using the formula,
F = F' - K d,
o '0
F. tee 10g10 of the field intensity in microvolts per meter can be
Obtained.
12. l'aths Pass'lng through tee Auroral Zone
\\'hen a radio transmission path pe.sBes through la,tHudee higher
then ebout 50
0
, it may include regions Where there is abnormally
Absorption of the 1'ac.io "'ave energy. Such paths are charac-
tertzed by lo>!er rp.cel.ved intensity. nnd more fluctuatton, than
other 1)P.tr.s.
Such poor reception is cRused be' conditions in the "a\1X'o1'9.l
zone's", the regIons where visible aurora is most prevalent. In
these zones there are nea.rly continuous magnetic and r,,,,Uo dis-'
tu"bRI'.cE's, a.ni', the rlisturbAnces are much more severe tho,n in sur-
rounding regions.
Since theabso!'ption of the energy of rs,iio w"ves is particu-
larly seve!''' in the aurore.1 ZOlles. and not symmetrici'll
the geographic poles of the enrt!'. the ve.ri!?,tion of absorption
in pol/u regions j C IlOt directly a function of lOCAl time, as is
tho normi'.l D-reglon eJ)Sorptioll repTeentf>d b:r the absorption charts
of Figs. 80. through 91. An extra amount of I',bsorption, ed.dition
to that shown in the charts. is undergone by rarlio Waves traversing
pol"r regions. and this a.l::sorption is a function of geographic
101'",1 tude. anc. not of loed time. The followint;eonsiderations
must therefore be allOl,'eo for, in determinir'-; .re,cUo tronsml."don
cha)'acteriotics over any pp.th which lies even partly in polar
regions:
(1) Trp.nsmissions 0".1'1' pHths which lie, eV"n in part, in the
auroral 7.ones, are sul::ject to a greater degree of irregularity
and e.rratic performt'-nce than aX'e transmissions over other peths.
(2) The e,bsorption is vcT.'y great, espec.le.lly durine daylight
condi t ions in polar regions. As an example, sta.t1ons operating at
less tl:an 6000 k11oc<,c18s can not be hes,rd during daylight hours
over any great distance in these regions.
(3) SC'"I'"ere >,no prolonged ionosphere storms occur frequently.
often developing suddenl<, in the course of a few mlmltes. They 9.re
meniff'sted by greatly increAsed a"hsorption., which raises the lowest
useful hieh frequency, and by a drop in the ionhption of the higher
-86-
layers of the ionosphere, which 10vJers the .maxinrwn usable fre".uency.
The result is the narrowJ.ng or complete disappearance of the bands
of useful frequencIes. It Is not unusual for lOIlg'-'dtatance trans-
mission to be impossible on all high frequencips for a d".y or more
at a time, and to be erratic and only partially recovered on a small
portion of the fre quancy spec trurn for as much as a The rc hAve
been instance a of ionospheric storrriin""s ls.sting almost continuously
for a month.
Frequently ",.lso, in auroral during ionosphere s to !'IllS ,
there appears strong, widespread, and continuous 1ntense sporadic-E
transmiseion lasting for many hours. This may considers,bly im1)t'Ove
radio reception in certain directions and over some ppths while it
lasts. 'but theY," is no "YI),Y of predicting it.
t
(5) During the polar winter nightcondit1ons (except during
ionosphere storms) good re,d.io transmission is often experIenced
on frequencies up to near the maximum use,ble frequency.
(6) Some paths which 8.re e1mile,r except for direction e"'em to
displaY different propagation chAractcris.tics. For example, from
parts of Greenland. the European high-frequency stA.tlons on sbout
9 to 15 megacycles are heard much better than United States stations
at simile.!' distances and frequencies. Also, while transmission
across the auroral 20ne between the United States end Greenland
ia unfavorable for the brpadcast frequencies, 550 to 1500 kilo-
cycles, United States stations on these frequencies are received
well in northern CanRda end Greenland. during the winter night.
Not enough is yet 'known about the auroral zop.e to explain such
effects fully.
('r) Observations seem to indicate that the northern band of
severe radio "'five absorption is a relatively she.rp one, centered
slieht1y to tl,,, south of the northern line of mFlximum Buron1 fre-
quency.. Trl"llSrnillsions outside of thh band a-re affected to 11 much
smaller extent by the auroral e.bp,orption. Transmisdons over ]laths
which lie mostly wi thin the band are not possible on frequencies
less than about 6000 !tc. over apprecieble (1500. miles
or more).
In the auroral zone, it is not possibl'l to express at ,,11 ac-
curately the variation of. absorption for several reasons:
1. Insufficient date, exist for these regions to give more, than
the roughest ofp.stimates of absorption.
2. From available data, variation of absorption in the auroral
zone is highly erratic.
3. The location of the maximum re&ion of auroral absorption being
at a longitude, rather than at a definite local time, pre-
vents acc'J.re,te expression of the longitude variation of auroral ab-
eorption on a chart sho>'ine locnl time. FOr these reasons, calcula-
tion of absorption cannot be made in the manner above.
The following is offered to assist in estImating the
normal performnnce of radio tre,nsCli sslon paths whicb lie in or near
the auroral zone. The map of Fig. 92 has been oonstructed, on ''''hieh
contour . have te'll" drawn following the observed zones of b1mrimum
fI.uroTP.l fre"q.uency. These contours a.re marked -, .. Ii th n2:!lTlberr:, which
represent the amount K' to be added to the qu"".ti ty K d for paths
>lhich through those regions. The method of use is as follows:
(1) Sketch in the gr.D,t-circle peth in the manner de scribed abOVe
for the cplculation of K.
(2) Analyze the 'Path into possible modeF of tra,nsl7lission, one-hop,
hie-hop, .,tc. Dete;'mine the length of hop for each mode; cdl this
say, for n-hop
(3) Locate the ground reflection points for each of the ()orr:ponH!t
hops. Locate points 61'proxim'ltely one-sixth of Dn an sacI', 8i(10 oJ:'
. each ground reflection point. These are the D-lBye,., points.
(4) For eo.ch mode of transmission, add together the of ;':1
for all the D-leyer points.
(5) The miniLruDl of the '18,1'.16 S sO obtained for different modes.
multiplied by the factor given in Table 9 for_the verions velues
of Un, is the amount_(K") to be added tc the K d for the path, 119
. given in miles. If K d is given in kilometers ,these factors should
be multiplied b:r 1.609; if in nalltical milee, by 0.868.
For such paths, then, the value of K d calculated as described
ebove for the normal dal'time absorption is to be increased by the
emount K" be,fore tl'.e remainder of. the field-intenAity oalculetion
'cen mAde. This pm't of the calcul"tlon is for undisturbed
When c,n ionosphere storm takes ple.ce il'. the e.uroral zone, which
happen, certain per'iodEj} Rbout 50% of the time! the
"bsorption is greatly increased, "l'.d no high-freo,uenq" radio com-
munioation of any kind may be posdble. It must be noted that
this'i8 only a. first approximHtlon to the calculation of aurorp.l-
zone abMrption. It is included SO that the user r.lpy have some
kind of rough guide as to the amount of absorption introduced
by passnge through the a1lI'oral zone. This is based on information
at present available, whk h is ::-ather scanty. As more information
beoomes availe-ble, the suroral-zone map will be revised and better
Val1lf!oS of Kt given.
----------------------
Miles
0
1000
2000
-88-
For paths which pas8 through the auroral zones it is usually
advisable to cnoose tee highest frequency that can be used for sky-
wave transmission, i.e., the m.u.f. During times of disturbances,
the, use of frequencies in excess of the normal m.u.f. ma,y be tried,
since the presence of sporadic-E layer may permi t tre,nsmission
when the F-layer m.u.f. is so low that the absorption accompanying
the disturbance would be too great to permit transmission on a frs-
ouency low SO as not to skip by F.F
2
-1ayer transmission.
Table 9
,!E.sor;etion Factors for Auroral-Zone Paths
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
0,11 0.11 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.19 0.25 0.28 0.31
0.35 0.38
0.41 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.53 0.55 0.57 0.59
0.60 0.61 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62
-
13. Distance Ra!]iles and Lowest Useful Freguencies
As radiO waves decrease in intensity on spreading out from the
transmitter,and as they lose energy by absorption in either the
ground or the ionosphere, they finally become 80 weak that they
can not be heard above' the level of radio noise at the receiving
station. This radio nois,e may be either "static" or man-made elec-
trical disturbance. The minimum radio field intensity needed to
allow an intelligible signal to be heard above noise at the
receiving station is called the required field intensity, and the
distance from the transmitter to any beyond which the .radio
field intensity is less than the ,required field intensity is the
distance range.
The required field intensity is subject to wide variation.
It depends on the reeeivill anhr.na, the type and adjustments of
the receivill set. the local electrical noise. "static", and the
type of modulatipn of the radio wave. It varies,'with the noise,
according to the time of day,artd season.
The distance range dependll in addition on the transmi tUng sta-
tion power and antenne, ,and on the energy loss by absorption in the
ground or ionosphere. The determination of distance ranges is a
very complex problem, although effects of many of the factors,
such as radiated power, antenna design, and abso!1ltion of the
wave energy ca.n be calculated with fa.ir precision.
In generel, for a given ",,,th of transmission and time of day,
waves of higher freQl1encies undergo le"s energy absorption thB.n do
.of lower frequencies. Thus WB.ves of lower frequencies arrive
B.t the receiving point wi th lesr energy tt.B.n waves of higher fre-
o,uancies, if thE' radiated power of the transmitter is the same on
high end low freauencies. There is consequently usu".lly some fre-
for e. givp.n dist".nce p..nd radipted "ower of the transmitter,
below which the field intensity of the weve., B.t t}'e receiver is too
wM,k to US8. This is ce,lled the lowest useful high frequencl'. for
the given distance, redia.tp.d power, and ste.te of the ionosphere.
(It is not cHl19d tte lowest useful frequency, because there is
useful trllnsmi ssion at vcry much lower frequelOcies).
In cont"lIst to the maximum usable frequency, which does not
depend onrE'.dieted power, the lowest useful high freq.uancy depends
on all the. fe.ctors which were given above as affecting the ci.ista.nce
range. The maximum usable frequency depends entirely on the
str.te of the ionosphere; the lowest useful high frequency depends
in additiolO on the equipment and on 10c81' receiving condit.io.ns. end
is not nesrly as well-defined or clear-cut as 5s the maximum usable
frequency. Not., the t the lowest useful high frequency has the same
rele.tion to the distance r8.nge e.s has the maximum usable frequenc;)"
to the oJ:!p distance. 1'he clistance rantce and the skip distance are
the limits of the rar,ge of us",ful dis tances; the maximum usable fre-
qUl'ncy B.nd the lowe . t usefnl high frequency are the limits of the
bend of useful frequencies.
It is possible to cnlculnte with fr.ir aecura.cy, from vert.ical-
incidence measurements, the tot"l med.ian sky-wave field intend ty 8.S
a of distance for any radiated po,"er a.nd any s!lecified type
of ".nt"mna. The field intensities' required for.reception depend on
mAny fnctors. and much more detailed de.ta B.re needed. before these
clln bE' to nn Bccura.cy with that of the
field intensity.
In order to determIne. whether or not" signal will be success-
fully received. tLe field. intensity at the poin.t of reception muet
pov.e.l or ,,",ceed a. certain V.,.lnA. cP.lled. the " reonired field inten-
detE'rmtned by the sensitivity or the receiving a.Tlp,retll.s e.nd
d.egree of of the s igne.l b;c re,d:!..o noise, which inclnde s re-'
ceivlnf;-set noie", men-ma.de noise at e.nd neer the -rece!vi!'.g station,
noise, both from neRrb,T electrical or thunder storms,
And from distnnt noise. cer> ters. pro-;c.agnted along the trn.nsmi s.sion'
!lp.th lik<' the wavI> itself.
'['he m' nimum field intensity reQuired. for a given service Rlso
depends on tr.e of service. Heasurements have shown, for example,
that the field iutensi t;<r req,uired for /l.' given re 11 aM li ty of radio-
telegraph (OW) cO!ll!'IUnication iA only about 1/8 of required for
a radiotelephone (phone) service of the same reliabilIty. Table 10
gives an indication of the rel .. tJ.ve field intensities required for
a reHllble service,based on the value for commercial phone service.
Table 10
.2rrection Factors for VariOUS T:y;J2es of Service
(Re,tl0 of required field intensity for tn)e of service under,
consideration to that for barely satisfactory commerclal telephony).
,
----
Ratio Log
lQ
of RDti.,:_
Type of' SeY'Vice
Commercial telephony
B roadcas til1
Telegranhy (aural)
Telegraphy (automatlc)
Telegraphy (printing)
Direction finding (small loop)
Dt rection finding (modern)
Feosimile
Barely
saUs-
factory
1.0
1.6
0.2
1.0
1.5
13.0
2.0
.lto
Entirely
good
6.0
13.0
'0.5
2.5
4.5
)10.0
6.0
__ M-_
Barely Entirely
satis- good
factory
00 0 0.13
' 0.2'
1.1
,.0.7 ..0.3
0.0 0.4
0.2 0.6
1.1 1.6
0.3 0.7
0.0 0.4
Aside from considerations of receiving set q1la.ll ty and opera-
tor's ability. both of whioh are hIghly :lmpC)'tMt, the ratio of
field intensity i,o the radio noise level is the most important
factor in determ1ning the reliability of a given The
type of noise mUst be considered in this respect, whether the
noise consists of high peaks and a relatively low background level,
or of relatively low peaks and a high e,verage background n,oise
level. The degree of directivity of the receiving antenna. to-
gether with thp prednminAnt direction of arrival, if any. of the
atmospheric noise plays an important role also.
15. Eadio
The first step in determining required consists of an
analysis of the causes of atmospheric noise leval in different parts
of the world, Most of the atmospherio nOise in the world originetes
in thunderstorms. At a given location the noise level is made up
of nOise from nearby centers of noise, such ae local thunderstorms
whORe distance from the receiVing set may vary from a few miles to
hundreds of miles. pllls noise whioh has been propagated to re-
CAlving looation from one or more of' the principal centers of
such a8 the active thunderstorm areas in
Mueh of the in,this Section is based on
deta from or originally collected by I.S.I.B.
'-91-
"fric8. Central .America, p.nd the East Indies. Tho location and
o.::t1vity of the vprious no.ise centers vtu';' wi th time of dAY and
seasen, but probably not much wi th the sunspet cycle.
The determination of the diurnal vari$.tion of noise at any
loc8.tien is thus a series of re.dio. prop"ea.ticn problems, in '.,!lich
the noise originating in ",pcll center of storm activIty pro.duces e.
defini te field intansi ty at the locB.tio.n being studied. The prob-
lem is to. 'cdcul"te the relative field intensity contributed on.
each freouency end et Ba.ch time o.f day by eEch no.ise center, nne.
then' to cembine them, with due to. tho eli !'9ctJ.0n of arri.'I"nl
.end the directivity of the receiving antennp.. To thIs must be
added the noise due to thunderstorm activity, if _nny. and the
result is a picture of the diurnal variation of the quality
A.nd level P.t tha given receiving loee.tien. ThE noise v"riatf.on
thus theoretice.ll1T ct'lculnble cam then be refE"rrcd to average
requiredfield-intensi ty de.tn, for SOIl'''' nnd. times Df'
da.y. A.na curves can then bl> of required field on
frequencies at all times of
. c.bove ie. the line of investii;lltion to be followed in the
of the required field-intensi ty problem. As a temporery "x-
pedient, until the morE" eTJhaustive etudy cen begin producing re-
the informatie.n on required field intensities is

Figs. 119 and 120 are maps of the world divided ronghly into
noise zones. They ar .. based en tho thunderstorm cherts
ef Dr. C. E. P. BrOOks. but contain revisions based On more
data p,nd include the tropical ecean arp"s of bad known as
the doldrums. The areas of the werld in which thllndersto1'J1ls are
mest frequ('nt. a.nd in which local thunderstorms mAY be of almost
daily or daily occurrence. ere indica.ted as zones 4 and 5. The
Aros . most remote from the principal thuClderstorm and in
"hich but li ttle ctmospheric radio noise. be expected, even by .
wa.y of lOll6-distence sky-wave prepagation on high frequeooies, are
indicated as zone 1. The other zones are intermediate in radio.
noise expectatien.
Corresponding to these noise zones ere the required field-
intensi ty graphs of Figs. 121 throngh 125. These datI'!. are for
abeut the mid.dll! of eooh zone; fer locRtions near the beunderies
bet\1e'Oln zenes the valu.es sheuld be found by interpelatien. The
required field intensities given are these for e. rea..anably geod
re.diotolephonc service; they are not Bdequate for a breadcast
. -
quality service. ner are they so 10" thAt much difficl1lty and
rep"ti tion weuld he required. in orda l' to get a through.
The fer other tYJ.'lf'$ of service. m@.y be ebtl'!_ined from the
va.lues on these curves by mult'\plying them by the ratios given
in Ta.ble 10.
The atmospheric noise (of tell called atmospherics, or static)
, which governs the required field. intensities for radiotelephony.
shown in the graphs, has all boen assumed to origillate in lightning
discharges somewhere on the surface of the earth, Man-made noise,
electrical or otherwise, and precipitation static (rain, snow) or
static due to dust or sandstorms' have not been included in the
graphs, although they may at times, depending upon local considera-
tions at particular receiving sites, be dominating factors. Light-
ning discharges which cause atmospheric radio noise are believed
to occur, at some time or other, at practically every place on the
earth t s surface except ill the polar regions. However. most light-
ning discharges occur within certain rather well-defined areas.
TheBe areas, while pril!lari,ly 1n the tropics, extend well into
temperate regions in the respectiVe Bummers and autumns of each
hemisphere (1.e., June. July, and August for the northern hem1-
December. January, and February for the southern hemisphere).
Over tropical land me.sses, such as cent"'''.1 Africa, northern
fouth America, the liest Indies, the East Indies, end Northern
the ma,xiIllUIl1 incidence of th=derstorms occu,'s at about
1600 local time, with a. minimUlll at about 0400 lOCi'll time. Even at
the mini:num, however, there may be stol;"m activity_
Over tropical ocee,n arens, i.e the centraJ. dolci!"l.1D: area, ana. the
adjoining regions of the trade wind belt, thuncierstorms rR,rely occur
by dey but are likely to be freq.uent at ni{>ht, and .ter.d to a peek
of 8,ctivity jurt before Runrise. In regions of the East and
'Iiest Indies, where the OCSar! (doldI'\lJl1) mechanism acts with the ls.nd
mechanism of thunderstorm production, there may be two peaks of
th=ders torm ac ti vi ty; one ebont 1600-2000 lecD.l time and the otJ.er
about 0600 local time. In all tropice,lregions there is a minimum
of 10co1 s.tmo"pherics eround agoe-noo local time.
A given lightning discharge proo:uces a radio noise int.er..; ty
At a nearby receiver which depends, for a given receiver ba:nd width,
:rrincipaUy upon. frequency. noIse intensity is greetest on low
f,."qttencies, ar!d appeers in general to V8:ry inversely as the first
or 3/2 power of the frequency. This f1'squency characteri stic, or
so-called "spectral" 1m", is roughly kace'1 !l.CCOUYlt IJf in the grophf.
In general, the arABS marked 5 a.nd. to a le""",r degree. those
4, are regions >lhere one or mOre loonl thunderstorms oeenr
nearly every da.y, in the vicini ty of any given point in the zone.
The radio noise observed in these zones does not show any conopicuou.
chi'roee in intensity from dAY to night. This h shown in Figs. 124
and 125. The noise is least in ttese zones in mid-morning,
from about OgOO to noo local is the best time for ra.dio re-
ception. It is to be noted the.t e dgn81' th&.t cp..nnnt be used for
COmmunication e:t this ti.me is likely to be useless at uny ether
time of de.y in these zones.
For calculation of noise, regions 4 and 5 may be regarded as
generatiP centers for the noise. The effect. diminish with in-
crecsing from these centers. A fair approximatlon to the
noise level can be obtained by making cBlculations of the, prop,,a-
tio'! from 4 ana, 5, bearing iI! mind the diurnal VAriation in
int'Onsity. The noise genera,ted in "seaS 4 and 5 is lCoughly propor-
tional to the Preas of the zones; the activity is c"eeter in zone 5.
80 th'!t a given area of zone 5 is equivalent to a considerably larger
area of zone 4. The noise produced 'by any one 19.nd center,
exclusive of propagation effects. ml\Y be considered to '\far;' within a
re,t;,o ",bOl1t 5 to 1 during the day, having '" maximum at 1600 and
a minimum at 0400 local time.
Areas merkeo. 3 9,1"e those in there are, occ8,sional local
thunderstorms in moet pErts of t),e Drea. The local noise produced
by these storms is siron"r in intensity to that prod.uced by the
storms of a,rass 4 and 5. but the general noise level is greater
in ('retis 4 and 5 because of the greater !Jrevn.1ence of storms.
For frequenciesoi' 2 to 10 Mc there is a ubstp.ntial contribution
to the noise level by ground- and sky-wave propl'1gation of noise
from these relatively 10C9,1 thunderstorms, the remainder of the
noise being caused by distance propage,tion of noise from
area,s' 4 and 5. For frequencies of 12 to 20 Me by day. end 8 to
15 Me by nleht the lOCi'll noise skips Over the receIver. and the
remaining radio noise is caused by lOl'l{;-dist8nce propagation pri-
.rtarily from areas 4 and 5.
,
Areas marked 3 Md 1, Over tropical ocean a1'9&,8 are the s ouree
of sudden intense night thunderstorms on some nights. These are
espAcially likely to occur around 2000 and 0600 local time, although
they may occur I'lt any time during the night. period of nights
oCCurs without any storms, these areas are as quiet as any other
OC6e.n area;' when the night storms are prev[,lent, the arer,S may be
very noisy. Since thOSe o.cean areas are noise centers by night
only, the diurnal variation of noise does not apply to
them. Consequently they are to .as having their
8,ssigned gra.de (3 or 4) at night, but a lcn'fer gr"de by day. It
is suggested that this lowerillg of .gre,de be accomplished, for
c",lcuJ_"Uon, 'by splitting the difference betweEln the assigned
grade' and gre,de 2. TbRt is, if a location corresponds to grade
3.4, Gay. the daytime grade will 2.7. .
ArAe,s marked 1 and 2 are "e!]jote from the centers of noise
ger!'atlon, I),nd the e,tmosphe"ic noise is d.etermined Almost entirely
by pro:p'lgation from the centero of areD.S 4 8.nd 5. In prep. 2 there
may 'he an local storm; hardly" ever 'will there be one in
eree 1.
The diurnal che.racterintics of noiee are most marked in e.rees
1 end 2. and to 'a lesser degree in 3. See Figs. 1<'1-123. In these
zones daytime noise is fairly low at frequencies from 0.5 Me up to
perhaps'10 or 12 Nc. Above and 'oelo\1 this frequency range, 10Il/;'"
distance propagation of Rtmospherics from the noise-generating
centers in sreas 4 and 5 becomes importsnt. and causes the noise
level to increase. Above about 20 Me at sunspot minimum, and
30-40 Me at sunspot the long-distance noise will not be
received because of skip. The graphs of Figs. 121 through 125
show this effect asa dropping"ooff of the required field intensity
at the higher fre que ncie s.
In the day tim" the fI.tm08pheric noise at frequencies between
0.5 Me and 12 Me is greater in area,E me:rked 3 than in those m"'rked
1 and 2 bacE-1tsB of the increased number of thunderstorms occurrio!;
within a radius of 100 to 1000 miles of the receiving site. The
effects of truly 10cl'1 storms (those occurring "ithin ",bout 20 miles
of the receiving site) c!in not be represented on ,the charts becsllse
of the enormous and varying noise intensities they produce. Much
of the radio noise from such local storms, particularly on the lower
freq.uencies, is due to Induction in the receiving antenna, rather
than to radiation of the noise energy.
At night!", zones 1 and 2, .in zone 3 to a lesser degree
(because of some local noise production), the field inten-
sit;\' decreases with increasing frequency roughly accordir.g to the
spectral law mentioned above. Above the m.u.f. for long-distance
propl'lgat:1on (about 10 Ne at sunspot minimum, end perhElps 15-:<0 Mc
at sunspot maximum) even the most oblique reflections cannot be
propEI;!3,ted, and the noise decreases very rapidly with increl',sing

VhenconBidering noise on directional receiving antennas, it
should be noted that the principal generating centers. indicated by
areas 4 and 5, will have little effect on reception if the antenne.s
point Elway from them. On the other he.nd, a, transmission path across
one of the centers, like the path from London to Capetown, gains
nothIng by having directional receivine antennas except to .exclude
a 1i ttle nols" arriving from the side. This is because the antenne,s
point directly at the no-iss source. Considerations such as these
in 'ehe past beenrcsponllible fOT supposed" non-r.,ciproci ty"
in radio For exemplp.. in trans-
mission between New York and Berlin the lJew York station e,hJays
received Berlin ouite easily ",hereas !'.t times the Berlin station,
with essentis,lly the same equipment, could hardly hear lJe" York.
The reason for this 1s that Berlin! s dirf'ctive receiving antf'nnas
point alao tn"lard the summer noise sources in Florida, ;'ieYico, end
Central America.
III using the re,mj,Ted :fielc.-intensity gre.phs of FiB;S. 121
through 125 it is to be noied that the edges of the zones do not
represent sudden in noise. For exam]lle, a locat ion in zone
2 near the bound1ll'Y between 2 and 1 will have " noise level part
-95-
W(;.y behreen those shown On the for grelle 2 an(!. those on
the. for grr.de 1. For pul'po.8es of 1 nt,rrpolaticn, th .. bou.'lder-
ies zon('s ml1,y 0 .. tclten 9,8 hA.J.f-c:rFocs. For 0YEmple, the
conndHr;T bct'"cen zones 2 !'nd 3 is to he teken an lOrado 2.5. and the
center of zone 3 is to be ta":en I's"grade 3. It is oe.Heoved that e.
",dul inrlic!).tion of the rec:uired field intensity fa:!' ractio cODimuni-
. cIltion on Imd nights will be obtdned by the usc of the
(:u.phn ann ma.ps of Figs. 121 125, bearing carefully in mind
the time the discusfJion above. The required field intensi ty
'Till in generA.1 vory from day to day; the grophs represent c."l'flge
conc.itions. The Vrl'.16e given on the gre.phs not during
perIods of purely thunder.stox!:)s; during these periods the.
reg<:irAd field intensities mey sometimes be very higb.
It is to be noted that the informatior. as given in Figs. 121
through 125 is intended to apply to non-directional receiving an-.
tanns.s only. use 0:: It- directional antenna. pointed from a
II s tatic
ll
source wU1 diecriminnt.E' Ilga.inst the noise end permit t.he.
Ilse of e sme.Uer fiel,d. inteneity for cOl!UJ:unicntion tllan ",c\\ld. be
need.ed were the antenna
16. 1h!L2pcu1e:tJ.E.!l of LOIrest Useful High !reqne.r:cl.es
The usefnl hieh frequency is the frequency, in
the rltl1e from 2 Hc on up, by the use of >Thich e trantmitter of f'
given produce at lecft the minimum rA.quired field. inten-
si ty for a giv<!n service at a eivp.n time of day s.nd over a tiv'ln
path. It is obtEl.ined by cl.J.culating the field intt'nsi ty eotlJ.e.lly
produced b)T' the tran..mitter. campari)".g it wHh l'equired
fi<!ld intEondty, on various frequencl.es. The frequency Ft whl.ch
the hro A.ro e,qt1.al ie the l.ll.h.f.
In mn1dne this comparison, til" followinl!: to be
consl.dered; the rndiete-d power of the tro.nsmi tter, the freouency or .
freQuIlncies to be the abRorption -index over the prth; tr.e re-
qul.red field intensit:t for the deRired serVice, the times >Then com:"
ruunice.tiO'l ic desired, and the directivity, if any, of the trRns-
"1Htinc Emd receivine antenm1s. Depending on the type of r>rublem,
of theRe variables are arbi trl'.rily fixed, ",TId it is desired
to cr1cula,te others. The mp.thods to be followed for rapid opera-
tional of ionospheric date. for thi s purpose need to bf' .devised
or llevlMd for each pe.rticul",r class of problem.
In Figs. 126 thr011gh l2e are given "master field-intensity
nomo","",l"S" wi th provision on them far plotting any arbl.tro.ry varia-
tion of regnired field intensity with frequency. By the use of a
number of these for a given recfJiving location, one for en.ch time
of day, values of the l.u.h.f. cnn be -,!caled off very rapidly,
after having calculc-ted the va.l1:.es of K d for the paths to be
investigated.

-96-
Th .. like the other methods of Ccld-i '1tenei ty cal-
culation given in ttis He,nclbook. are br,sed on the e'1uA,tlon:
F = F
o
The of the. nomogr&'. marked "equivAlent ell n
needs special mention. The distances thereoE ar" Accurete
for l-kilol1att radiated rower. For other Vf'l11eS 0f power serle'
must -be displeced ve:rtic.sllY-llp"rerd for increesed po1trer,
for decreased 'Oo'ter - by a linear amount proportional' tn the lagI'-
d. tr.m to the 10 of the rail eted po>1er. For convenie'1ce, an
c,11xlliary distence scale has been printed alongside the nomo,:ram,
indicating how the should be 1incd up for ve,rious l'(lWers'.
The volue of power P on the should be aligned with the
arrow on the nomogram.
A stra.1ght line connecting the eqlli,p,.1cnt the
if d value and crossIng the intensity grid. deter-
mines the v8,rie,tion of field inj:,ensity frequency for glven
vn.luf's nf diEt1=J,nCe, and K do If on same grid. a Curve
of reg'.1ired field intensity Egainst freq!lCncy be dra,.m, the inter-
section of this curve with the streight line given the l.u.h.f.
For this purpo"e the nomograms ca,n be, simplified by omitting the
field-intensity lines and dra,wing only the vertical (f:cequpncy)
lin"" on a piece of tr,cnepe.rent paper and the required field-
inte!'lsi curve 0
For greater fr,cilit"' in estimati::1C distance ranges or lONest
useful high freqUencies under normal receiving conditions, where
the midpoint of the transmission path 11"8 between 30!' and 500N,
reSOurce me,y be hll,d to nomograms of ,the t''lJC regula.rly presentpd
in the monthly report on rGdio cupplemont-
firy to this Hpndbook, D. sample- of which is giv",,-, for J:ecember, in
Fig. 129. Here is presented the co-ve,rtD,tio!1 of the distEnce ra,nge,
po"er, time of uPy, pnd freqnency, sO the,t any O!1e of these quan-
ti ties ,mey be determined if the other threo ere known. The lO>Jest
useful hir,h frequency for a glven distance is the frequency for
whiCh th(>,t distllnce i" the dist,mce range.
Fig. 130 similarly present. mOre comprehensive although some-
what less precisel;' known i!lformetion on dieta,nee r"-"-f"es Hnd lowll.t
useful high frequencies for transmi si'nn pll ths whose miclpoints may
be e,t any le,ti tude bet>Jeen 600s and bOo)'. (In nOrnOgr,run,
northern 1" ti tude s lue IlS posith'e, s011thern 'as neg'lr'-
tive values).
Al though t:,8 method of liSS of thi s last nomogram is. an tn
other cases, ill'Istrllted by nn e]'ample thereon, speciel instruc-
tions may not be IIm'ss, since nomogrellls of thi. tspn are rather
complex.. ------------ -------- .--------- --------------
A perpendicular is drawn from the time point on the latitude
line corresponding to the midpoint of the path to the reference
line C. A line is drawn from the latitude point corresponding to
the midpoint of the path at the base of the power cone to its
tax. The intersection of thiB line with the line indicating the
radiated power, when connected to the frequency used, is pro"
jected to the reference line B. A line from the point determined
on reference lineC, through the pOint determined on reference
line B, is projected to line A. From its intersection
with A, a perpendicular drawn to the latitude line corresponding
to the midpoint of the path indicates .the distance range.
If the foregoing process is reversed to the extent that the
desired distance range is previously known. the frequency indicated
will be the lowest useful high frequency for the path.
17. on Units
Because of the logari thmlc. response of the human ear and much
radio eqUipment, and becau1'e absorption in the ionosphere h 10ga-
r! thmtc, it has been convenient for calcule.tion to adopt the 10g
10
of the field inten.ity in microvolts per meter, rather than the
field intensity in microvolts per meter itself, as the unit of
field intensity. For the benefit of radio and
engineers who are familiar .with the. decibel as a uni t of ratio,
it ts to benoted that the field intensity in decibels above 1
microvolt per meter 1s 20 times the 10g
10
of the field ty
in microvolts per meter. The power radiated from an antenna in
decibels above 1 kw is itO times the log10 of the radiated power
in kw. Since the field intensity is proportional to the square
root of the radiated power, it is evident .that a 10-db change in
radiated power aleo produoes a 10-db change in the field intensity.
If a directional transmitting antenna has a gain of 15 db, the field
intensity at a given point will be 15 db than if a non-
directional antenna were used, The absorption constant So in db
is 10 times the value given in Figs. The field-intensity
factor A as used in this book, may be expressed in db by multiply-
ing the values on the graphs and nomograms by 10.
The field intensity formula given on page 79 may be tt.'ll
F :: Fo So K d + P
if F, Fo. So. andP are all given in db.
-98-
(The order of Parts is chronological, i.e., the Cl11'roximate
ordPr in which the issuance of the multilithed versions is
planned. In the eventual printed version of the Handbook
e. more logicn.l order will be used).
Part 2.
I. Definition
II. Ca.lculdions
1. Short paths
2. Long pRths, good conditions
3. Long paths, poor conditions
III. Use of optinnim frequencies
1. allocAtion
2. Choice of freql,ency from those allocated
3. Guide to compromise
IV . Rapid estimation of optirmun frequencies end
field intensities
Pert 3. 1l11d I,o,,-Freg11ency PronngB.tion
I. G round
1. Dencrlpticn
2. GrolI"ld-wnve ranges
3. l"ethods of cPlcuhUon
II. Low frequencies
1. DescriptIon
2. Diurnc.l variations
. 3. Method of cAlcnlf'tion
a. RAdiated T'ower
b. Intensities
Part 4. Fp.ctors Determining Propagf'tion Conditions
t. Der-endence of tUl1lsm1esion conditions on the path.
1. Latitude and local time
II. Great-cIrcle path.
1. The direct path
2. The lcne, path
3. Later,,1 devIAtions
III. Ce.lculation for paths
1. Distenea
2. BpAring
3. La tHude and local times of midpoint, of path.
IV. maps
1. Rectangular projection
2. }! .. thod of datermining greet-eirc1p pe.ths
V. World rAdio conditions
1. Noi." maps
2. Auroral zan"
-99-
VI. llcquired field intensities
1. Noise level
2. Type of receiver and operRtor
4. Type of operntion
4. Antenna directivity
5. Frequency
6. Time of day And see.son
7. Variations
8. Atmospheric noise propagn.tion
9. and tabular values
10. Radiated power
a. POwer input to antenna
b. Antenna efficiency
c. Radie,ted power
d. Directional effects
e. Effective radiated power
11. The field-intensity fector "A"
a. Defini tIons
b. Ileasure of conditions ever a plI.th
c. Use in radio transmission calculations
Part 5. 'Propagation nbove 40 Mc
I. General description
II. Components of the wave at frequencies above 40 Mc
1. Surface wave
2. Direct wave
3. Ground-reflected wave
4. Troposphere wave
III. Propagation effects
1. Refraction e.nd reflection in the atmosphere
2. Effect of antenna height
3. Effect of ground conductivity
4. of field intensity and distl'mce ranges
5. Anomalous propsgationeffects
IV. Factors efecting distance range
1. Antenna directivity
2. P.a,dio noise at high frequencies.
Part 6. Angles of Arrival llnd Depnrture
I. Verticlll p.ogles
1. Rela.tion to ionospheric heights
2. Methods of calc1uation for:
a. Single-hop transmission
b. Long-pe.th transmission
3. V""ifttions of vertical angles cAUsed by:
a. Normal ionospheric variations
b. Fading of various componAnts
c. Ionospheric irregule.rities
4. Applications to problems
-lCO-
II. Horizontal angles
1. Grent-circle and off-path trp.n"miedon
2. Causoe of latera.l deviation
3. "elation to !!l.u.f. modES of propl;a.tion
4. Geof,rnnhical
5. Relation to ionosphere irregularities
6, Betheds of
III. Retardation times
1. Relation to sky-we.ve
2. Velocity of propagation
3. ilathcd. of ce.lcu1ation
4. Applications to special problems
Pert 7. Antenne. Re.ciiation and Reception
I. The mecl:.p.nism of radiation
1. Principles of rp,diation
2. The electro!!l!J;netic field from antenna
a. Induction field
b.Rodiation field
3. Polarization
II. Directionel effects
1. Directional patternS of the simple a.ntenn"
a. Ground "eve
b. Sky weve
2. patterns of 1ong-wi"E!
3. Diroctiona.l a.rra.;rs
IlI. Antcnnr. design p.nd efficiency
1. Effect of propagntion data on the design of
antennRs
a. Vertical and horIzontal angles of dcperturc
b. Location of sites
2. Radiated
a.. An MnM los "AS
b. Direction,," re,db.tion
IV. Ant!1nnN! for epec l.el puryose s
1. High- II1ld low-ellgle Rntenne.s
2. Antennas for direction finding
-101-
.
A. (field illtellf!ity factor). 83, 84
Abnormal E rAgion, 25. 31, 32, 57-61. 68 (See also Sporadic E)
Absorption, 16. 20-22. 25. 69
17 (See aleo Dellinger effect. Storm, ionospheric)
auroral. 77. 85; cclcul?tion of. 86-g9
coefficIent. me".su1'": . "nt of, 7
4
; variation 11'1 th frequency, 75
constant, S. 75. 76; subsolar constant, So' 76
D-reglon, 24, 28, 74, 7g
"deviative"., 74
diurnal v.u-iation of. 75. 76
fnding, 36. 38 .
fi"ld intensity, effect on. 73.75,76,79
lnd x. K. 75, 76; celcula,tion of. 80-82
low layer, periods of, 34, 35
IDAasurement of, 74. 75
method for calculating, 79-88
storms, abe. due to, 78
subsolar abs. So. 76
sunspots, oorrelation with, 78
transmisslon path, abe. over. 75
Airplenes. transmission between. 4, 13
Allocati.m, frequency, .IRPL service for, 9.10
Angles, arrival and departure (angle of "fire", angle of "shoot"), 6, 21
critical, 21
of incidence, 18, 191 effect on m.u.f 40. 41
of r"fraction, 18. 19 .
Antennas, directional properties of, g, 69. 71. 90, 91, 94, 95
elevation of, 4, 7 .
Atmospheric propagation, 15-20
Attenuation, signal, 13 (See Absorption)
auroral zene. 67. 68
grouno,cl\arecteristics,w1th, 14, 15
inver se distance, due. to spreading. 13, 73
sky wave, 22
Auroral zone,
absorption, 77; 79, 85, 86; of. 86-89
fllltter in, 37
scattering, 65
storm effects in, 67. 68
Bearing, deviations in, due to scatter, 33, 63
"Blackout", 1'",0,10, 66, 67 (See also Storm, ionospheric)
Breit (and Tuve) theorem . 25
Conductivity, soil, 13. 14
Control points, for transmission path, 6. 22
multiple-hop transmission, 51
scatter, effect of, 63
single-hop tr .. n"mission, 47
Critical angle, 21
Cr'tUcalfrequency, 26
:o..layer (I'll' region). 24, 28, 35
absorption in, 74, 78
Data, ionospheric
'availability of. 38. 39
reports, rRPL service, 9
"Dead spots, 38
Dellinger effect, 33. 34
absorption during, 78
Deviations, critical frequencies, mou.!.
frem ,average. 30. 55-057
from predicted values, 54-57
"Deviative" absorption, 74
Dielectric constant, 8011, 13-15
Diffraction. 13
Direction, (See also Bearing, Angles. Antennas)
'ofpr;.>pagation, 16, 17
of signals, 6, 33
Directional properties, antennas, 8, 69. 71, 90, 91. 94. 95
"Direct wave", 4, 13-15
Dhtance range', 5. 15. 2 l ~ 2 3 . 69
calculation of, 79-97
laU tude variation, 96, 97
nomograms for determining, 95-97
prediction service, IRPL. 9. 10
Disturbance, radiO (See also Sudden ionosphere disturbance, 'Storm,
ionospheric)
IRPL forecast service, 9
Diurnal variation, ionosphere cheracteristics
absorption, 75,76
critical froquencies and virtual heights, 28, 29. 30, 31, 53
noise. 91-95
sporadlc-=. 59
E layer (or E region), 24
cri t lcal frequencies of, 27-30
scattered reflections from, 32, 33 (See also Scattering,
,Scattered reflectIons)
Earth, curvature,
lilllitation of single-hop transmission distance bposed by, 42
Electromagnetic. waves, 11
Electrons, 16, 17. 18
absorption by co11i8ions of, 72, 73
dens tty of. for lonospheric reflection, 19, 26, 39
Energy.
attenuation by spreading, 13. n
of, in
loss, by ionoepheric absbrption, 69. 89 (See also Absorption)
Extraordi!lllry wave (ext;,b.ordinary rEl, x-component), 18, 19, 26. 27. 28,
37, 42,43
F, F
1
,F
2
1a;:er" ("l" regions), 24, 29
P'adlng, 14, 21, 23, 36
absorption, 36, 38
flutter fading, 35. 37. 62, 65
lnterfer"nce, 36; at FUl:.,ise, 1!unaet, 37
polarization fading, 36, 3g
selective. 38
skip fading, }6, 38
"FR.deoile (::'ge Dellinger eff.,ct;,
Field, electric and magnetic, :1
Field intensity,
abnormal incrsase in, 14
calculation of. after absorption', 79'-89,: in terms' ot power.
distance, direction, 70
distance, at, trom transmitter, g,. 11 . 12.,13
diurnal Variation of, 77
':"lltol', A, 83; calc1l1a.ticn of. over path, g4
frequency. variet ion with, 77
ground wave, 14, 15
ground and slcy wave, 21
measurement of, 74, 75
median. 36, 72 ;75
noise grades, for various, 91
nomograms, for determining, 95
effects of, 71
".quas l .... axill!Ulll". ve.Ius of, 72
reQuired, 7. 69. 70,
sky-wave, 69, 70
soil effects on, 14, 15. 70-
un/lbsorbed, 72, 75
Forecasts,
agreement wtth observation, 31, 54-57
IRPL service, 9, 10, 39
methods of, 52, 53
. m.tt. f. table, sample. 4g
sporo.dic-E, 59
..
'-104-
Frequency.
allocation, IRPL 'lervice,'9. 10
classification of. 12
critical. 26
lowest useful high; See Lowest useful high frequency
maximum usable; See ~ . a x i m u m usable frequency
optimum working; See Optimum working frequency
. \"
Graph pap<lr, m.uof. (IRPL). 42
Ground wave, 3. 13-15. 22. 23
propagation, typical, at variou8 frequencies, 4
very high frequency. 7. 8, 12. 20
Ground-reflected wave. 4. 13. 14. 15
Group velocity. 16
Guided wave. 3. 20. 23
Gyrofrequency, 18, 19. 28. 73
Heights. lonosphare layers. 24, 25
Huygens
l
prinCiple. 16
lnoidence, angle of. 17. 18. 19
Index,
absorption. 76; calculation of. 80..g2
refraction. 17. 18, 19
Induction field, 8
,Information, IRPL service. 10. 11
Interception, signal, g
IRPL Bervice concerning, 9
Scatter, effect of, 64
Interference fading, 36, 37
Interservlce Radio Propagation Laboratory, services of.
8, 9, 10, 11, 39
graph paper for 1II.u..f. calculation, 42
m.u..f. prediction tabl0, sample. 4g
prediction methods, 52, 53. 59
"Inverse distance" attenuation, 13
Ionization, 15, 16. 23, 24
diffuse. 25
maximum denstty for ionospheric reflection, 19. 26, 39
Ionosphere. 12, 23-25
abnormal variation of characteristics. 31-38
characteristiCs of, 25-28
normal variation of characteristics. 28-31
-105-
Ionosphere storm (Sec Storm. ionospheric)
Ionospherio dElta.
IRPL service. 9
Ions, 15. 16
IRPL, services of, 8,9. 10. 39
gr8.ph pApe,. for m.u,r. calmtlation, 42
mouof. prAdiction table, sample, 48
prediction methods, 52. 53.59
K, absorption inde,x (See Index. absorption)
.... Heavislde lA.ver (See Ionosphere)
Leti tude variation, in ionosphere characteristics. 30. 31, 54
ionosphere, 24
"Ll.ne of sight
fl
trllnsmission. g
variation in ionosphore 30. 31. 54
"Long path" tre-nsmiss1on. 22
. "Lor.g scatter", 62. 63. 64
usefttl high frequency (I.noh.f.), 5. 22, 23. 69
of. 95. 96, 97
general, 69. 70, 89
1aU tudev!lriutlon. 96. 97
nomograms, 95. 96. 97
Low-frequency propagation, 4
L.u,h.f. (See Lowest useful hieh frequency)
Magnetic field. earth's. effect. of, 17, 18, 19. 27, 28, 37, 41, 55
absorption effects, 73
effects on,
Maximum uBI,ble frtlquencl', 5. 21, 22. 23. 39-61, 89
calculation of. multi-hop trenllmi6sior.., 50-52
calculation of, single-hop transmission, 47w50
deviations, from monthly average, 5 '
dE!viations. from predIcted values, 540.57
factor, 41-43
tables of, 44, 45, 46
zero dhtance, 42, 113
of ionosphere charee teristics,
absorption, 74 .
critical fr!'quencl,es, 25-28,
virtual heights, 25-28
Mflteorologica1 conditions, effec t on rlHiio transmission,
7. 13, 14 (See also "Noise
ll
). 90-95
, l!.ulti-hop trl'nsmi asion, 20
calCV.la,tion of m.u.f. for,
M.u.f'., (See Maximum usable frequency) H ____ __ ________________ _
-106-
Noise, 5. 7. 69, 90-95
calculation of, 93-95
diurnal variation of ,91-95
effect on field-intensity factor, A, 83, g9, 90
frequency, dependence on, 92, 93
geographical distribution, 90-94
zones, 91-95
"Non-deviative" abs o"'ptl on , 74
"Non-reciproci trensml tter-receiver. 94
IIOff-path" transmission, 6, 22, 50, 58
due to SCIE>,tter, 63. 65
OptilllWll working frequency, '5. 22, 57
,IRPL service for, 9. 10
Ordinary wave (ordinary,ray, o-component), 18,19, 26. 27. 23, 37. 42, 43
O.w.f. (See Optimum working frequency)
Paras! tic reflector, 15
Particle radia,tlon, soler, effect on absorption, 715
Phase, 16
chenge upon ground reflection, 14
effect in directing wave, 16
of tropoephere wave, 14
Phase 'velocity, 16
Polarization,
effect on field intensity, 71
effect of magnetic field on, 13
fading, 36, 37
of ground wave, 15
Power radiated from antenna, g
effect on field intensity, 8. 69, 70. 79, 83. 89
Prediction of ionosphere characteristics,
agreement w1th observation, 31. 54-57
IRPL service, 9. 10, 39
methods of, 52, 53 '
m.u.f., sample table, 415
sporadic-E, 59
Propagation, radio waves,
atD.ospheric. 15
of. 3. 11, 12
n10city of, 16
Radiation field, 15
Rayleigh distribution. 36 ('>ge Fading)
Recombination, ionic, 23, 24
-107-
Reflection,
atmosphere. in lower, g
ionospheric, 18, 19. 20. 25. 26
coefficient, of ground, plane-wave, 71
coefficient. of ionosphere, and measu,rement of, 74, 75
Refraction,
angle of, 17, 19
atmosphere, in lower, g, 13, 14
index of, 17. le,
ionized medtum, in, 17
Reports, data, IRPL service, 9. 10
f4.eld intensity, 7,69;' 70. g9-96
graph", 94
service, for types of. 91
S, See Absorption constant
So' See Absorption constant, subsclar
Soattering, 32, 33. 37. 50. 52, 62-h6
Scattered reflections, 32, 33. 37, 52 (See Long scatter, short scatter)
sky-wave transmission by. 62-66
tropical, 66
Seasonal variation in ionospheric characteristics. 28', 29, 30, 53
in sporadic-E, 59
in redlo nOise. 91
"Selectlve" fading. 38
Service, IRFL, g, 9. 10
types of,
affect onl.u.h.f., 69
field intensity, for various, 89, 90
radi 0 wave. 13
Shor't-path tl"ansmlssion. 22, 63
"Short scatter". 62, 63, 64
51 ngle-hop transmission.
Urr.iting distlUlce for, 42,47
m.u.f. calculation for, 47-50
Skip distance, 5. 20, 21, 22, 23. 49, 89
sign"l;; .rithin. due to scattering, 32.33, 58. 62-66
Skip fadIng. 36, 38
Skip' zone, 21, 22 (See also "Skip distlUlce")
Sky wave, 3, 12, 19. 20
absorption, 72, 73 (See also Absorptlon)
propagllt ion. 5
radiation, 70
Snell's law, 17, 18
SOlar ra.diatton, effects of, 15. 16, 23, 2g, 29. 33. 34, 35, 36, 53
On absorption, 74, 77. 78
Spread of ,-,ropagation. radio waves, 16, 19. 25, 26
-]015-
Spors.dle-E, 25. 26, 31, 32, 50, 52, 57-61, 68, e:6
. auroral zone, in, 6g .
"blanke ting" tne. 57, 58
"reflecting" type, 57, 58
relative frequency of occurrence, 59
"Spread echoes, 33. 65
Spreading of attenuation, due tb, 73
effect of. 13
Storms, ionoepheric, 55, 36, 52, 63
effect of, on absorption, 78, 85
scatter. during, 33. 65, 66-68
6udden ionosphere disturbance, (Dellinger effect). 33, 34
effect on absorption, 78
Super-high frequency, 12
Sunspot cycle variations in ionosphere characteristics, 28, 29. 53
in sporadic-E, 59
effect on radio nOiee, 91
Sunrise, sunset, interference fading, 37
"Surface wave". 4, 13. 14, 15
above 40 Me, 7. 15
of ionosphere layers, 25
Thunderstorms, effp.ct on noiSe level, 7 (See also "Noise"), 90-95
Time correction for long1 tude difference, 47
Transmission curves, 41
Transmission path, 6
deviations from great-circle path, 6, 22, 50. 58 (See alsO
"Off-path
ll
transmission, Scattering, Sporadie-E)
mou.f. calculations for long, 50-52
m.u.f. calculations [or short, 47-50 .
Tropical "sc .. ,tter", 66
"Tropospheric" wave, 4, 13, 14
Tuve (and Breit) theorem, 25
Ultra-violet radlatlon,(eo1!tectofl,l6, 23. 29, 33. 34, 35. 36, 53
On absorption, 74, 77, 78
"Ultra-high" frequency, 7. 8, 12
Units, field-intensity. 97
"Very high" frequency, 7, 8, 12
Very low" frequency, 12
Veloci ty of propegation, redio waves. 16, 19, 25, 26
Virtual height. ionosphere leyers. 25. 26. 27
1101e of - in m.u.f 40
Waves. electromagnetic. 11
---- -------
CAUTION
Figs, 4 3 ~ 5 a . 66. 80-92. 119. 120 should all be to S8me scale
(length 9 in.) if transparency is used

Direction of
..... ,
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.... -.
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., f: ef'a
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being advanced.
/
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OENS/'ff'
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Fig. 2. of the ionosphere, summer condition. Dashed lines 1 and 2
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,-
Fig. 3. and multiple-hop transmission by reflection ionosnhere
- layers. night (or winter daytime) conditions.
/Q
E
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Earth
Fig. 4. Transmis8ion path of a radio wave refraoted by an iono8phere layer (ABCDF).
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800
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1 J

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F'z
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MEGACYCLES PER SECOND
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15
FIG. 5
I J'o-J
x

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SUMMER DAY'
f FJ F, J . J
1 /
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SUMMER OR F - ;-
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MEGACYCLES PER SECOND MEGACYCLES PER SECOND
2345678 0 2 . 3 4 5 9
FIG.6 . FIG. 7
Figs. 5. 6. 7. Typical virtual height'-frequency sweeps (h'-f curves).
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00 02 04 0,6 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00
LOCAL TIME
Fig,23
600
1- ,I I IDELHI,INDIA
600
i
JULY 1943 JULY 1943
BATON ROUGE,
::;;
/28.SI'l, 77.2E
500
LOUISIANA
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Fig,24
(See note in text) Fig,25
o 00
o 0> 0
o
o
It)
0'"
0'"
00>
o
o
II')
'DISTANCE IN MILES OJ
, . "-".1 11'1 '1/ 60" I 800
: !! LOGARITHMIC TRA'N'SMISSIO'N 'CU'RVES I' ,.' V 2 1
3
j( .: If I
CORRECTED FOR IONOSPHERE CURVATURE '0" I, ,f--3.'

ON CURVES ARE ANGLES OF '<lEP'RTUR") J. 16' 2'" 36-/ I ' ! I I! 700


OF WAVES ABOVE HORIZONTAL rl I ' f.. ! t
I
8' I' if 56 I
'4' 2 " I I
II1111 I I ." '1,,'2" :/ : 1 600
I IIII ' 6' " fA 20' 1/ i W
I
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I Il-(l / " I w
I I I I I Iii 10 I l' I'" i ' 2';) ;( I 50; I I 500
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!G;, ,- , 34'
- .
30"
. - 28"'
12 8'
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...
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18- I
0 E6 curve fo; 3500 "'m
IS
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l-
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'SECANT t. (CORRECTED)

LOGARITHM
CORRECTED
(ANGLES ON
OF
O
2' "1
If
iii
.j
6.\) 5.0
DISTANCE IN NAUT. MILES
IC TRANSMISSION CURVES
FOR IONOSPHERE CURVATURE
GURV .. ANGLES OF DEP-ARTURE)
WA'ilE$ .ABOVE HORIZONTAL
I

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2.
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.
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0
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I.' "a.
u
iii curve for 3500 km
I.'
"b" iii curve for 1500 itm ,..
12
'I"
4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5
SECANT t. (CORRECTED)
Sfa
I
0
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
o
1.0
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0:.
w
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....
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r
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to
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0
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----
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E
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Jill:
...: ...:
0
0 0
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0 0
10
0
10
(\I
It) It)
,
.
.- ..... .. -
1.0
0
500 1000 1500 2000 2500
. Fig. 29.
DISTANCE IN MILES
Graph paper for rapid determination of maximum usable frequency factor
for transmission distance up to 2500 miles. (Distances indicated in
miles and kilometers).
ce:

<.:)

4.0
3.5
3.0
&
E
E
E E
E
E
.
.
. . .
.
.
0 0
0
8
0

0
0
0 0 0
0
0 10
0 10

o It)
-
-
'"
N
It)

.
I
._-
_ ..
I
--
.. , -

.. _---_ .. -
- -'-"-"-
.-. - -_.- -.-
.
--r----- f---I-----
1++-+--+--- 1-- -- ----- --- f----H-I-f++I
1+-1--+-+--+-.--- f---L -.--.----4t----+--. - 1------ --.-.-. 1--------
2.5

--
_.-
1----
1.5
.
. .
I
I
. -
--
- ....
:
1.0 ..
0
500 1000 1500 2000
DISTANCE IN NAUTICAL MILES
Fig. 30. Graph paper for rapid determination of maximum. usable frequency factor
for transmissiondistano91 up to 2200 nautioal-milas. (Distances in-
dicated in nautioalmilee and kilometers).
2500-mile F. m.u.f .
Megacycle.
50
45
40
30
20
15
10
9
e
7
6
5
4
3
--
--
--
---
--
--
--
--
--
m,u,f"
Megacycles
-.... - ...
50
40
30
25
20
15
--
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
--
2.5
2
1.5
--
Example "hown by
dashed lin .. :
DI,lo'!0.9QO Mil ..
--
--
2COOmU. Fi m.u.f.t 20 Me
Ii -l.ay.r m.u.f.11.9 Me
--
--
--
--
---
Distance,
Mil ..
2400.2500
2000
1500
1000
900
800
700
600
500
0,100
Fz-layltrmax:111)\11!1 eno 1 es
at 2500 IiUea to equivalent rilunatlowltr
(Diltalloea 1nlll118s). '. ' ,
2500-mile F2 m .. I.,
Megacycle.
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
9
8
7

5
4
3
Fig. 32.
'\ ..
m.u.t,
Megacycle.
50
40
30
20
- ....... ':"0_.... 15
--
--
--
--
----
----.. .. 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
--
--"';"--
Example shown by
dashed lines:
--
platance 600 NClut;M; Miles
FI m:u,f . 20 "Me
Ii ... 9.6'
--
--
---
--
--
Distance,
Nautical Miles
----
21 DO, 2200
.2000
-1500
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
a??oo
lea
at 2600 lid. lea to .. .dhtallOea.
'(Dhtancel iii na:ut1oallid.lea). '... .. .. .,
;:;,', " .
2500-mile F2 m.u.!.,
Megacycles
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
m.u,f"
M.gacycles
50
40
30
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
Example shown by
daah.d lin .. :
DI,tance' I:!OO ,Kilometer.
aaOOwmllt" ",,1I,f.' 20 Mo
Fa wLOYI' m.lI,f.IIO.t Me
Distance,
Kilometers
3900-4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0, 200
Fig. 33. N O I I I o g ~ 1'01' traJllltol'lll1ng 11'- 01' 12-1ayel' maximum usable trequencies at
2500 m11e. to equivalent values at lower transmission distance.. (Di8-
t-.no lil leUoaetel's).
-----------------------------------------------
1000-mlle E m J.
Megac yc les
40 -:
'0 -=1
;
,
.J
.J
10'--0
,
---
---
---
m. u. f .
Megacycles
50j
40
'o-
j
20
15
",,!-
Distance,
Mile s


1000
900
1'-800
----10
9
------------- -- .
B . --- ___
6
4--
2
1.5
J
$ho,"n by
dO'sh'ed "lints'
O"IOI'Ie.p490mlli., .
IODO.mill E,m.v .. f. ' 15.8 Me
E--ley"u
I
t- 400
l

I
Fig. M. Nomogram tor transforming E-layer at 1000 rail ..
to .... quivalent .... luGS of maximum usable trequenoy due to oolilbined etteot of
E-layer and i'l-layer at other transmi8llion distal:wea up to 2500 railes.
1000-mila E m. u. f .
Megacycles
50
40
35
30
25.
m.u. t"
Megacycles
50
40
30
---_ 20
--
20
--
--
--
--
15
10
9
8
1
6
4
3
--__ 15
--
--
---
--
--
10
9
8
1
6
5
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
Example- shown by
dashed
--
--
--
Distance 400 Notltical Milts
IOOOmUe E- m,ll,f,- 20 Me
--
--
Comblud m. u. r, -12 Me
--
--
--
Distance,
Nautical Miles
--
1400-2200
1000
900
800
100
600
500
400
300
200
100
-0
Fig. 35. iomogram for tranaforming B-l.,er maximum usable frequencies at 1000 miles
to combined .e.t,tee.t. of.
J.:.,ll&yer. tran.amhsiOndiatan!leB up to, 2?,OOnauttcal
.mi.... .' . ','
IOOO-mlle E m.u.f.,
Megacycles
lig. 36.
50
40
30_
25
20
15
9
8
7
a
5
4
m.u, f.,
Megacycles
'0
40
30
20
15-

8
7
6
5
4
3
2.5
2
I..
Example shown by
,dosh.ed line;s:
Dlstonce 3 500 K lIometors
" . IOOO-mlle E -milL f. c 2:0 Me
" CombIned FJ-Loyer m. u. f. B.S Me
Oi
Kilometers
2500- 4000
.-2000
> 1500
1000
-900
800
70"0
600
500
-,-400
300
200 .'
100
0'
IOllogJ'1UI miles
to equ1va1entva1u ot illllZll1N11u.ab1e {rilquenq'due' ot
1-11Q'8r and 'l-l.,e:r othe:r t:ran helon 'd1etance. up 4000''j':il'ometen.
IOOO-mll. E m.u.f.,
M.gacycl ..
10
41
40
II
10

.0
'II
10


T

.'
4
a
-...
... -
--... -
--
.......
m. 0. "',
Moaoycln.
10

10
II
...... ,......... 10
...
8
T

I
J
I .
2
I .
-....
......
Kompla' Ihown by
dnhed lin",
.... -
..........
SOO Mil ..
IOOOrf!'lll.! ,",v.t 20 Mo
.1.ay., m.II.I 8.8 Me
.......
-...
... -
--
Distance, .
Miles
F1300-laoO
F
IOOO
-900
BOO
'700
600
eoo
400
300
200
100
o
11,. 37. IoIlOII'U for bu.forallll 1IIU1_ Il.able, frequenchl at 1000 mile.
to eqq1yaleat .. luI. at other traa.al.sion 4i.taacea up to 1500 mile -------------------------------------
.1000- mile E. m. u. t.,
Megacycl"
50
45
40
35
25
20
m.u.'t.,'
.. Meoaeyel .. ' .
10
40
. 110
20
.............
............. 15
...................
15
;'.'
10

8
7
6
4



............. 10
9

7
I
5
4
11

2
1.5
I!lc ... plo oho .. b,
... _1""'.,.
I
-: NlltlOiI Mil"
(OCSO"'M,u1 IIJI.u.' . 10 Mo
. I.e- Mo
Djalance,
Nautical' Mil ..
, .

800
700
100
400
1100
200
. i
I
ISO
roo
0
"
Fig. 38. Nomogram for traneforming .maxll11Wl1 u'!J.ble frequeno181 Ilt 1000 lII!lee
to eqUi"e,1entvaluel at other tranlmias1cn.cllltano81 \JP to 1300I)l'uUer.l
mll... .
, ,'.'
IOOO-mlle E ,m.u.f.,
Megacycle.

45
40
30
25
20
15
10
9-
8
7
6
4
l
I
3-.l

---
--
--
--
--
---
m. u. f.,
Megocycl ..
so
40
30
20
15
..... --..... 10
-.
8
7
6
5
4
3
i.5
2
1.5
--

--
Example shown by
dashed lines: .
--
-.--.
. --
--
Di,tanc, SOD Kilometers
, IOOOmU . E m.\I.9,. 20 Mo
E Layo, 1'II.,u.t 9
--
---
Distonce,
Kilometers
--
2000-2400
ISOO
1000
900
800
700
600
600
400
300
200
100
o
Fig. 39. l'lomogl'l'.m for transf",.ming E-l .. .yer maximum u9aole frequenc\e. "t lGOO Iniles
to equivalent valup.8 At other tranamisR10n riietances up to 2000
2000-mile F, m. u. I.,
MeQacycles
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
----.
15
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
--
---
---
-
m. u. f.,
Megacycles
--
so
40
30
20
15
--
10
9
B
7
6
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
---
---
Example shown by
do shed lin":
--
Distonce 600 Miles
2000.omlle', m,lI.f. 20 Me
' Loyst m.u. f . 10.4 Me
-
--
--
---
2500
1600
1000
900
BOO
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
o
Fig. 40. Nomogram for maximum frequencies at 2000 miles
to equivalent value8 at other tran8mi8sion dletancee up to 2500 miles.
2000-mile FI m.u.f.,
Megacycle.
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
m.u. t.,
Megacycle.
eo
40
30
20
-.- .
"
4
3
2.5
2
I.'
"-
-,
Example shown- by
dashed line,:
"
--
Di.,ance COO Nautical Milli
2000-mlle r,.- m.u.f. 20 Mc
Fi - Layer m.u.t. 10.2 Me
--
---
Distance,:
Nautical Mile.
---....
2200
1500
1000
900
BOO
700
600
500
400
300
Fig. 41, Nomogram for,;ransforming J'l-ia;rer m.u:imum ueablefraquenc1ee at 2000 milefi
to equivalent v a l ~ e 8 at other transmission distances up to 2200 nautical
miles,
2000-mile F, m.u. I.,
Megacycles
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
--,
........ _-
15
10
9
B
7
6
4
3--
.... -.""--
--
--
m.u. f.,
Megacycl
----
50
40
30 -
20
15
---
10 -
9
B
7
6
5
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
Eltompls- shown by
dashed lines:_
OJ,fanoe' 10aO, Kilometers
2000mJte FI m.u,f. = 20 Me
F, LOYlir m.u,f. ~ _ to.S Me
---
---
--
Distance,
Kilome1 us
---
n&&-4000
2500
2000
- 1500
1000
500
200
o
Fig. 42. Nomogram for tran.form1ng r l - l ~ e r maximum uaable frequene1e. at 2000 mile.
to equivalent valu .. at otber tran.miee1on dt-tanee. up .t!S 4000 kilometer..
0
0
m
NORTH
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(Xl
I'- 1.O
ID.
<t
~

~
~ :
)1 _
0
0
r<l
o
o
N
LATITUDE.
o 0 0
o 00
o
o
N
o
o
r<l
1 L__ ('.... I";', :lo. ~ \
~
SOUTH
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
<t ID 1.O I'- (Xl
''I.,
1\\
"
\
"
~
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.
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.
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v
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mo
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0
0
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r<l
0
0
3:
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,
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3:
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Grelit circle chArt. centered on equator.' Small circles indicate distances. in thouBBn(o.6 of naut"icA.l "iles.
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ts.. -c - .... . t. ..- 1.-.
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7
0.
I . i. ' .. .. ... ",.. .... . ........_... 0"..... ;...". \ ... V . Y'.. . .. . i.. . .... I ....
. ,: ,. ..... . :--"" . .c ... 3 25 . .. ....... . .. \ I J.
U
... ,.......... .... ..... ....... ... .. .,' 800
.. ...... ....... . I.. .. . . . , "'- . ... ..,. ..;. ... . .. ' ' ..
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. .. .... . . ..... . '. ... ... . .............. .. ......l9
- 02 .. 04 .. 06 os. iO !2 14 16 .. . 1.8' .... 20 22 - - - 0
00
LOCAL TIME
Fl.g; 47; . F_ 8Ild ll';2"'leyer GTiM.calfreqJlen'cHs.
<ft)"'f:1; -l n ., -, '," -\','
. .. . '. .... .... .. ...... ' .. ". .' '.', '. ". . .
n
. T .. .., . .".....,.,........ .... .. ........ ....... ......... ... ..t . . -;--
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. ..... ..... . .... A<' .. ',' '. '. .... . .'. I ' "31 -
:'110 " ". ".,"', ". .' .."C :- 80
;:;.w ............ 2.51....... V I . '1-- .... " .. , . , .......... , . 2.5 ......... .
1 . , \ ;1 V.. '. . . .'., ....,. . ....,;. ..<, r-....c . '.I . 70
! ,.... .' 4'5 ....... ...... ........ ....... ....... ... . t-..:: .. I .. ;.--t-.......
.. ... '/ '. .... ... '''' L - 1-'::" .. ::-- r-:, ....
." ' ............. +.....' I' 7 /., .. I '.' .. ....... ... "::::" ...... 60.
2
, ...... ...... ! .' . ....... .' 1 .'\ .., II : " j '\
25' \, j / V'. . 5 5' ....... ,..... ...... ...... ....... . j'",! .... /. .35 - [7 50-1
.' \ : ........ I .. ' I-""'/"'J-- :c
i E I;: --- . '.' ..( :' I r!' -I 40
\... i II! j : J"" h::. . ....................... :---.... 4.5\\ l .. ->- I
>- '. ...; .... J /J I: I ;. .... 0" . '. ". ". . .30.
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..... ... : ....... : ......... ; ..... i:/ V ..... ... ;8< ... .. ... /::: .. ::.: ........... : .... 20
\-. '. .. I .'. / ,:'. '/ .. ' . --, ". I. '\. , :"-., .... , - ..... ..... 10. r
4.5.. L- '. . .( .. .... ). .: , ..... .. ........... :..
'5'5! i ///( :1.......... . ............. ..... i ?-I
. li' ........ .' .", '. I . '. c
... : .' .. ' ". '. : ..... ..' . . 1""-' .......... .-' 10. C1
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.. ' ,oo.' ... '1- ., '.' \1." .. '- . ...... ...... ...--:....... . ......... 1
20

..... ;:V / 1/ . 1:.. . .' .1 .' 6 5' ...... .... :::::: ............... ,
.... " '. \1\.. . ... ":.' .. .. .., .... ................ :.,.., ,'...... ....... 30.
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I ' '. .... ..... '. .... '\ " I -.... .' 1-""'. ..' j. . I J ",
,"" V " i' I '\ .... K' .... '- ..... .... . .. '. ....! ..' . ,,' . .3 5 --;- 40 (J)
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"I .,...... .' .......... '. '/. V'. 50.c
. "tI r--.. _ I. ..... . \ ....... f"".' .' V ,/ V. V P i!
tit '. ; \. '. r.:..:.: ............ ". ..,. " // 60.
m
3: . ; ......... ;; .. ;........ \ . K . I 3.5 ..... r-:.. ..... ... : ............. , ................... V ........ j ..... <.
'. . . . IX. .... . .... f i 70
. Is:! .' ./ ." '" . .' ...... . ..... .; ....................... + ....... (" ( . I\. .-' I
. ,..... '. I 1/ '.. 80.
L.....Jl .. ... I ...... ............. , ...... : ....... / '. -- - ... 3"""'" L., I" ............ j ...... tD
00 02 04 r 06 08 10' '" 1.2 14 16' 18 20 , .. 22 6lfO
'.LOCAL TIME
Fig. \fS; criUoal :!':requenoie 'foX' quiet da,.s) , .. . lIumbereon 011%''''"
are 1'0'1'.111 <110. . .

.... -'-" "-" ............ .
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....... 1' 1 ... ......... _ .. J. .. ........ ..... ". . .\ ", ',. I I I I .-
"-..' -. e 0" .' ,0- _ .,_. __ _ _ _ '0.. \ 0. . .....
A I--L !-Yfif. .. .. .... f5tI .. .l",J:l\t .. .... .. >
1\ I 1\ I I ..
...... 1 ....... l'3.5.J 1'3f! :V:/J' :/ . .. y' .... j .. :1: ...... .. jU .["-K:., ..... ..... .... .. 1 .L. .... .1 ..........
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80
60 0'2 0'4 06 08 10 !2 I. 14 j 16 18 21:> 2'2 00
900
LOCAL TIME
and Frlayer <:predlcted for Quiet dRys) Decem.beT",
are -to],. 'in Me", .
lig. L19.
1:h:unoel"s on
I -r-- I': 1 I L:=1'3 I II
I - ...... ,.
I - 1 I' - . . ! 12,. I .
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. ;10 ................. 17. '- VII 18 r,9 I __
;1 /' -, ...... 10-""':-.... -""'J-.!.. _.', I:::::L"; "..,-/ /",
b,. \.... . 's_f-)) l2} v 16
1
17 ( . < ,4:'
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"'\ 14 ( II y . 21'22 (' LJU! 1"-
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I/'/ V IV \1\ f'.. _20 I- . r.---- V V V 17/
k:::::.- I / _ - .....
v/ rl /. . '19./ ('S;) !/ ___ _ 16;1-""
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12
/ \ '9, (\ \ ".....- !!- 20 -.... . 10
10 I /1-" ). \ '-h- 21"-k V;tl/V:::f- 7
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80
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20
30
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60
70
eo
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01_ V __ . __ __ .. __ . 8 __ ........ 1--.. __
QO 08 18 22 20 10 12 - 14 16 02 04 06
90
00
LOCAL TIME
I'\G. 50
?-: f")r o"-liet June 0
L.<")ir:::r" '::1. v. _T', in ;"0 f,);- t:'''.t;'f,:l;tSS:C)J\ of i2.5DO J:i:J..es ..
on CL1.rvet1 aT'e ]'- II}nd .7
2
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....... 8' r-14 .... __ - IS-V .,// V 1/ 12"' . ...-:;---
s:: I \\ 1'-, __ .-/ I /V 1 / , .....
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90
0
80
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100 r
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0
50
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60
70
80
L-J . V _V 9 ....
, 0
::'0 02 04 06 08 10' 12 14 16 18 ,20 22. 00
90
LOC,lIL TIME
51.. $-" J!"'2<-18yer (predJ.cted for qUiRt oays) N:u.nibers "'n curves are F_ a."1t:
in Me for transmission 0f 2500
1,--1-4-11-+--1
f 1 ill I / I ,- _ I T 1_ I' I ., -I - I ,90

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20
6
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40
(f)
50 g
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10
SO
'bo d4 d6 ds 10 12 14 16 2'0 22 ob
90

LOCAL TIME
Fi.R'Q -52.. 1'-. fY'$q.1.lencies9 avera.ge for quiet days). December e on curves are 1_ and
F -layer m. u. f. in Me for transmission distance of 2500 .miles. _
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LOCAL TIMe.
Zit<, ]\-1.n;.yer (-pre(l:,ct.ef. {01" c(1J.iet days) ,T<"UH:o '"In 1"l"1)_0[,,
in f"lT :'1istance ')f 2000
I
I
,
90"
V 12 - . 1
II vI--' 13 r-
V
f-... 1\
1/ /.... \ - 17
80
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60 Z
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:z:
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r-... 1'--1-- '12''''''- ['
60
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80
00 02
..... ... ....".. ........
04 010 08 10 12 14
LOCAL TIME
. - .- --' - --
16 18 20 22
90
00
(p;;ci.icted a"i7erage for qu.iet dayz) Numbers on cu:rves are
m;; 1.1. in He f'0)'! tT!lnsmi seion (1:1 stance of 2000 miles o .
NORTH
LATITUDE
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F
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T-T---"'" r . , 7-1--'-.--...... ,.,- I 90
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:'-l--' L-............ .... ;.....--+' 'i I : ..... i' I ' :
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r . "11 !; / I .---.r::: :- '1' -I '1/ " .. r +- ,- .=180
0
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_ ___L ''- \ 1/ t I 1-\- -_. ---- - --470
0--_':." _r-. -, 10 . 1/ ,! I 1 ;:::...---...,
9, -, ' i, I': i / I -: . ...... .... l
II \. Ii\.' \ ,! 114 i ; -....,,, ! - r: . :. ,:.. L.7'-.. ! -;--1
600
z
-.:' \. i \ /i !" !':' I! .-f .... ; ,. 0
.:\." \ \ / ' .! ------"T:.L,--- I I 50 :II
I I' I I .. \ 15 i \ ! f / J' ,f : :i ,i .
I 1 ". 0 \' \ /' : II II' 'I I: : : I! :! I 40
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J '. ' i\' I I ,----< --I .' - 30
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, 1\ i I ! I : : : I. , !' ' I 1
r,\ 1-\ I; .... , I '
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.-. l I -} -l "'" ->:::=' :,:,:.:,.,... . :1: 60
C-
C
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111
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!
I.
70
I
I T-' Ili
80
0
1..-,00 02 04 06 ()'! 10 12 14
TIME
16 18
20 22 ()O
00
LOCAL
Fig" 56. E--layer .. frequencies, (predicted average for quiet d.as), .JJ.ne. Numbers 'on curves -are E-layer m.u.f.
in Me :for. tTansmission 'distance- of 1000 miles.
, -I" '0-1--"" "'90"
:-7,1-...... ./ _'; , ' I V-" ..!
\ I -t--6 \ / /v In ' _I ,"",,' 7" -4 r':", ..... 1
80

>, ..... 1--" II ........ , ,., , ...... ..... 70.
...... '1' .. :.: ::::-- :::-5. \ ill / I - 1-1' 1,2 ' ...... \"'.lr" f -.... ,5" ", ..... : ...... .
. .... ... K_ #... .' . . ...
J ". ........ ./ 0 ". 0
. I" I' V ' -......... ,\ '. " . " 60
v / / _H3 r-....." ....': / ...... 4 t5
:\ ...", I...... .... ' Q;O
'.", I /' V..... '\ '\' . .. . . 50
".:. _r .. . ... :: :...:' "
'l I / _'" .. " .. ' ::z:
. II! /" ' -, 7.:......::: 40
: ' /' -'..'30'"
I / .-":. ' .. ' .. ;; .
I ! 1 i J ::'1 II ' "I .16 \ \ l : H:f i.J "0
0
i I ".: f <1..1 I / I .... " ...
I' -.:::: I
.... . '\ . . .. . . . . .
r ! I I I
..... ' I' I .... ' .....
0. 9 0
I I I I I .....",' hi. i{ '. . . . . lOr
- ,: .' . :.'! :: :.:::-. l>
.... ;. ,- 1"":-", ' ",' ',.. .... , ......
: :!: :: .; -:.: ::, '1-,,: : . .-. . . : : 0 --f
, : :;:: : : .:: : : '\ ". ; : :::: :;:: 0-1
I I ! I! '; :: : : ! ; :: : I "1\ j"': : :: ; ::: ! ' .c
....." "A'" \ '\ V' ..... '. 10 CJ
, " j' .': ' ", ,'l\"" ') . . .... '. . , /1l
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1--, 1- i, ,I ..... V':: /; 12
00
I ,\ I ; ;:. : : \ t I" ',". :;;::;
IT!
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L
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I I :;::'111"-\ . ' '.1'''-, ' ,,:::.::::
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l' I I ' \1\\, '. ',) ',13 , J,/ If ,/ .... i ! g'
." I f-- :' '. ", "I.." 50 c
I
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, ..... !'! ' .... ' / 1\ f'\. 14: I ,i /, !i :' i : : : : ". ". ::z:
!'" I ' " I\, I "\. .# -+", ..... 60.
I I \" r-.... -,_H \-:;:.;''1' ..... ; \ .. "4 '

i .... .111
5
f'..', ! /1 ,I,... : :1: ", " 70.
"'j .'"1-',/ :.1 "" --r..........,.,-)( .... ,i" 5 I .
: All ':.:.v 1/6 / \ !" ' r'h. I i ,ILl II 'It ',:::::r-:'::':; 0
I 80
/ I'\.. '-..... /' ,". 6
I 7' I ....... i ., i J-...j . ....., i 1-
i ,1 '
00 '02 04 06 ' 08 10 12 i
J
6 ' 18 ,"20 22 (Jose
LOCAL TiME
F1;g" 51.., ( predicted s,vera:ge lor .quiet deYB.) t\ S@u;[;@mbe1:':!> .NUJ,llbers on curves are E-layel"
%1., 'iJ,,. in -P{c foX" of 1000
IT!
?
F
;-0.

----
4 r I
IV

'\"
I . ,.. . .:.. ....,. ..... ', .. ,: . -;,' :\. .. \. . i1Q -. !:"$' l' t
: ' .?" -,' '... .. - --,''-': . -" .,'.....
c f Y \1 \ .J'
. ,. .' /: J'..,j, ' .. ' .I2....[' ... J ..... r,t: .. , , ,
"y ::::r<fo'j "J '. r .... K ("'1";;:\1"
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. -: / . .. _ 'l ." .,-." , c.. _ '. __, \" :".\". : .. :t
il
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I: d. I / ". /. . .. J4. ...... . .... \.. .,"\ <.\", 'I'
jlf !!/{/ /1,/.)/[.. ...... 1.., I. I .... r. ''),
: I I! .;! i /1 /1 . _.1-iS-.l. \. \J \ h: .
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. . ". "I V I' t . "". ... 40
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I'T1 .......... .... .... : . :. '.' .'...... ............. 50
0
,... ....., .... .: \ / .\.: '. ,.......... . ...... c
.. , f- ; .. ' ..... ' ." S 7... : I ; :'. . .6 . 5'" ..... --I
........... / \ .. . ,1.: . ..,\ .. ..... 0:1:
:s:: ..... .... . .' ...... ' . .' :,. \ "'- '. . . V . i ." .... ". ' .. ' '" ..... 60
III . ..' o' S' I', '-. 2 I"" I . . . '. 7
M .... : ....... ':.. ....... .' 1\ . 1-"1 V' . f .... ";.. ..... .:.: ......
..... ...... ...... . ..' " . \\ 14 '. "'9 . '8 .. .......
...., .'. ,/' . '.
>-.... ..... ....... .' I ... . . ................. , 80.
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'::"":'1-..... 1' .. , .... ,"'- r- .,... -- .. . .............. ..
00. 02 0.4 06 08 10 !2 ' 14 16 1820 .22 00
9
(,"
!fig. 58.
LOCAL TIME
E-lmyer (predicted average tOT quiet day.), December.
in""" tOT t",a"0mi."J.OZl dht"""eof'lOOO "i:i.1e@.
NUII!OeX"s on curves Ate E-layer Ill.,. 'lJ." '1',
!i'J.go '59.
i
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ol:
2
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u

v
;.
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,

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Locol
Local Time
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.
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00010201040001110'1'01011011 1113'4. 'II" fI,.toel UtI
Local Time
Dhtribution of critiCI'Ll frecuencie. riUring the Month. nf Jrullllll'Y. A"rn, ,,,nd ,)'1Ine, :1,9430 Number" ,l1'e:fe"
to number of caSes 1;v1nl'; l) .. tween inrliCI'Lted bane limBs. Curve drs"" through this tableindica ... s ""ntllly
aVer8.R-e valu18l%"
---------- --- ------
12
I
;
8
K
WINTER
,/
\
1/\
V
\
I
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V
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10
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SUMMER
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l.&.J 8
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EST
16 20 o
Fi/',. 6(), Idealized. ,linter "nO. sum:ner curves of cliurn!ll variation of averill'S
deviations of F_ and F?-layer critical frequencies, and a.pproxi:nately
A1M of muf for trRn.mIssion by these layers,
w
C!)

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LLI

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2 4 6 8 10
AVERAGE DEVIATION IN PERCENT
12
51. the rplAtton between ratio nf
:')per!3:.t,tng t1 the IlVerA,ge fiU! for a given distance, and
cent.qge of time f0r which the operating frequency will not skip over
the given Theal"! curves ,are baaed on ideAl random distritl':l-
tiona.
~
,
f
i
!OO JANUARY
~ COLLEGE, ALASKA
."
~
OTTAWA WASHINGTON. O,C. STANFORD PUERTO RICO
,Ira"... ~
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i
,
I
l
",0 JUNE
ro "
QO 0 ~ . 0 4 0 6
=
Maximum frequency Sp-E exceeds 3 Mc
. . Maximum frequency sp-E exceeds 5 Mc
Maximum frequency Sp-E excee's 7 Mc
08 10 12 .4
I..ocal T .....
16 Ie 20 :<2
!hi
A
. - .- -- --
00 en 04 06 08 ,0 , ~ ,. ",
Local Time
Fig. 62. Relative occurrence of spore.dic-E vertical reflections, in percent of totaltlme, for several
observe.tories, during the months of January, April, June, 1943. at frequencies equal to or
greater than 3 Mc . , Mc, and 7 Mc.
CD
E
I-
"5
-
o
I-
....
o
CD
01
1:1
-
C

U
...
CD
.0..
Local Time
Fig. 63. YeRr-to-year change of sporadic-E vertical reflections, in percentage of totnl t i ~ e , for frequencies
equa,l to or in excess of 3 Me, June, \lnshi',lgton, D. C. .
, -,-- .' ---- - ]"'V
C
I 1 - I I 'I I I , vi. - 1 I! .
. -=t--J I I I I I I b; -l- ! 1 -+ 1 eo
/lIO%t::::::-r- -
__ 1) -- _ L L . 1
600z
"'1-- , ...... 1" /,' ./ 0
- 50" :%I
-4
I I ........ 1-"" ::I:
130...1< _ __ r---- 400
I __ ..-- i---"'"
-
t::J. -1--1 I::::t::::-= r-- ' 140% -1'- r-
...t::--- --.; -- r-- - ""'% -:: r:----.
_
--
..... r--.... r- 10%1 . r--
100 r

. _ P- r-"" I'--... 0
hOI! -. i '-t-.. - 100
-I--r-.. VV
V
I/'-......:,--r- 20
1--.
V V 'I--I--!-.-_
- r-......... I-. I -..... 400

I- .... v % IA. I'--.. C/l


07, j..:---" 20% !--- f-... I rtO%......... - - g
50"-4
150% I) V /1' ...... 10% 5% :::::--.t---.
7 / /.1":::- - " """"l"" I"\, -I I -- - "
V V V VI. '" "I \ -\ \ 60
c.. .....-. ..... . . 'I . \ ",,-
c: i-"'"" -' " 70"
Z - I \ r-... ') \ "-I-..
m I' /
- v'
.--
'-----' 90"
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00
LOCAL TIME
Fig. 64.
Predicted aporadic-E distribution, June. Numbers on curves are percentages of total time for
sporadic-E maximum usable frequency in excess of 15Mc.
eft
"0
IT1
.....-:-
(J)
IT1
"0
-t
IT1
3:
CD
IT1
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'90
0
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, 3QJo" I}I' ') 1'- 5'" , c:::- V V '500 g
V, '" -I
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I I L /.----....---,L/ jV' 1 L 1300
V /1/ V I J V
, ./ ....... ,....,/ ' , II I / . '" 120
, 1/ V II IW'I( r v
, -,' ./ V '/ I' If' . 'II", ./ 10 r
If
, V 1 'r- /' V , 00
"I ,. 1\5C1f "r--. / 'j '
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i'"'- "r---......... / V .
' , ./ noo
, ....... ........... 1C.1"
, " ............ _'" I" ,.
_r- ....... 130
, 1400 ,
I I , " U>
l I ! ...,.-1-', 1.1 ", \ , I\, ' V..... 1 00 g
I 1 d ,I.......... , I ........ _ ,"- -I,
-t:::i f'\ \. ........... I\. I\, C3,O%'-"""'" :x:
- - '4(; 1Ii.\ '. f'.- I '\ I \. 40% t-. cfo
J, O'Z" 700

T -
i
LJ i()o
t'-:I9o
22 00, 10' 12 ,14 IS 20 02 04 OS 16 06
LOCAL TIME
-le . 65.
Predicted aporadic-JII distribution. September. Knmberil on'Curft's are percenta ;eB of total. time
for BpOradic-E ma.xiDlWllusable frequency in exeeBB of 15 lIc. .
(J)

1'1'1
. ":::fer
, 0%-- '
VS'Yo "O:---'i',. ___ 80.
--.r-" /V t\\ L /'- .
___ " 70
. \\\. I) / V //1'" 60.Z
e% 10% -:::::V V I JO% ... ):::: 50.
'-, .L r-- 20% I .' V..... 0% --:::... - ::.t:
I r--.. . 30% ,.- 40
'""'" '- V...... ..-- .
I I ........ . --- 30
I l...-r I i'-. '-.. ..... V:::/'
'" " " - / '/-' ......... 20
'- " .......... 1--- /V /. " .
li" ........ r-. -20 it:. ./ /"- . . ............... 10. r
- "- I I I I I I "I--.... i-- 10% ..- /.
1 -:-1===-' '5,%7 " 0
o ,) c
1-
10
% --....... 10
0%- .......
. ,,-3(% . 20.'
'. .
; ." I . If '. 30" ....
. . . ;...-::' . "'-"- . '."- .
. .... I :..,.... ...... ..;..- I -"'-.---. . - I I . '
.. ' . . ",'0""-: . . I -- ' ..:
.>"V ' 30'" ..... --. ,en
, .,. . .(0 .... 0
'1
0
' "... ./........--- I .' .' ", .1--- .... k" . 50c
. / . / .- . .L . . "- r-...... , . :i
rr1 /,' .' /' 10% J. " .'. . " .... 60
s:: / / I D' '\,\ '\ .
.. III . /' i \.. I. ) .. J ,,\ 70
I -. V I\.'-.... . __ V ./ \ '- .
, I " - . 80
'--' I V ". . r--
I ' 90
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00
LOCAL TIME
Fig. 66. Predicted sporadic-X distribution, ;lecember. Numbers on curves are percentages of total time
for sporadlc-E maximum usable fre<tuency in exees. of 15 Mc.
*
10
8
6
~
4
~
3
1&1
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200 BOO 400 800 100 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 Gooo 0000' 10000
FREQUENCY - KILOCYCLES'
'1'a:r1Ation of abBor:Ption COefficient wUh frequency. noon, January, 1 9 ~ . at
1ifashillgton, D.C. (Absorption coeff'ic1p.nt ci?Bn .e log ./.Jne1k6nt fleU
lntenm1ty/refleot.ed filild lntenl1til>. Cusp. on curve correspond to indi-
oated critical frequellciea. in indicateB frequeDCy of maximum vBrtioal-
incidence absorption; thb shcwI a 01088 approach to a condition of oritical
traquency tor the D l ~ .
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WWV 5000 kc/s
Received at Baton Rouge,
September, 1942
:
La.
----t-,. ---:- -- .........: - ..
._---
WWV 5000 kc/s GLH 13,;(>: kc/s
Received at Boston, Mass " Received at Riverhead,' L.I., N. Y.
September, 1942 .,,__ __ .. Se.ptember, 1942
. '-i-, .
-.' ___
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00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 1820 22 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00
(90
0
W. Time) (75
0
W. Time) (45
0
W; Time)
Approxim"te Local Time at' Midpoint of Transmission
Pig, 69. Typical Tariation of radiO field iz\tens1ty for norllllll ionoipheric conditione for Tari0118 frequenciee
and distances.
" ...
5000
1 . I
2000 oUO Kl LOMETERS FROM
WA.SHINGTON, D. C. __
I-- 1000 FEBRUARY 17. 1938 , _
500 . I I I
z
(/) 2001 I II I I"

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100 f-I
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50\ I .
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o
cr
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::;;
t I I ;tt, I I
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0'8101214161820-2202- '4
. Fig. 70.
EST
Field-intensity lIIeasurea. over the Sllll1e path, 'on the same frequency, :ror
iL quiet dar (February 17. 1938). a dar of moderate storm (February 14,
1938)., and lit day of Bevere 11. 1938), .
<f)

-'
o
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200
100
20
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2000,
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W8XAL, MASON, OHIO. 6060 kc/s,
650 KILOMETERS FROM
WASHINGTON, D.C.
JANUARY 25. !,938
,
,-
--I --- -- -+ ----+----*--+--- -t----j
12 14
EST
kc/s, ____ + __
16
EST
I. 20 22 o 2
- - T .--.---------,---,
W2XAD, S. SCHeNeCTADY, N.Y" ,15,330 kc/s,
SIS KILOMETERS FROM
W"'SHINGTON, D.C ..
.]
.
.

_ ___ ______ T ___ _

10 12 14
"
16 20 22 o 2 4
EST
FIg. 71. Effect of severe ionosphere storm on radio. field-intensity measurements
on three different frequencies.
GSF 15,140
London, England
Received 01
62.5 N 50.7 W
JUL. Y 28. 1941
-" :
; W8XAL
4
Mason,
I
6080 kc/s
Ohio
ReCil d at
, National Bureau of Standards""
, Washington, 0, C. -
JULY 1941
'v :
i---.---" ___ j.z. __ i - - - I - ~ - - ' - - - - - ..
:. 72. - Field-intensity records showing simultaneous ef-
fecte of sudden ionosphere, disturbanoe for widely
separated transmission paths'. ~ - - - - - - - " - - - - - - - - - - - -
, I I I I I I III II I I I Ii'
i i
_ _ I. _. 0,
S GSD 11;750 IIc/s London, England =,
E . 'Received at 52.2 N 55.So W :=.
,:=:: OCTOBER 7-e,. 1941 E:
ie:=: (Di.turbod Day) i=:=-
!;- :=r
i! I
I
:
I
'-I.
perloli
of vlalbl, auwo.
'2118
.......
..... ~
I ....
2218 2318 0018
LOCAL TIME
- ..
0118
) .. .. '. 0., $: I!t ,0. (
I> .N u ~ .
----------.. -. --
: IU 8' ,f 'I
il
11,750 kc/s
Rocalved al 51.8
0
N'
London; England
55.0 W
OCTOBER 8-9, 1941
2120 2220 '2320 0020 0120
LOCAL TIME
::;
, II) " " . , ~ "" ..
IN 1,1,$ A.
.. .
I
)'ig. 73. Field-intensity variation during and aft@T visible aurora at
October 1-8. 1941, Note depr;c8t1111on of field int@nllity 11111 COlll-
pared with following day.

a::
w
I-
W
::!:
a::
w
a..
(f)
I-
.J
0
>
0
a::
0
:i:
0
(!)'
0
.J
UNABSORBED FIELD INTENSITY
ii' I I liii
FOR 1 KIN RAD!ATED POWER ,,'n
" ,
DISTANCES IN MILES
hUJ/LL1lIJilliltllm!il!lIII'ElI1l1111Iillllll!llllii, II, I, 1IIIIiILTlillill:lll!!i
i.0
o.
-I
-2.0
'5000 !OOOO 40000 100 200 500 1000 2000
DISTANCE IN MILES
Fig. 74. Logarithm of unabsorbed field intensity. F
o
' for I-kilowatt radiated
power. as a function of distance. (Distance in miles.)
0:::
W
....
W
~
0:::
W
0..
(f)
~
~
c:::
<.)
:2:
o
o.
g riliiiill!\'
-l _I.
-2.
I
Fig. 75.
~ .
-
UNABSORBED FIELD INTENSITY
FOR ! KW RADIATED POWER
DISTANCES iN NAUTi
2000
. DISTANCE IN NAUTICAL MilES
Logarithm of unabsorbed field intensity. l!'", fOr l-ldlowatt radiated
power, as a function of distance. (Distance in.nautical miles.)
a:::
ILl
t 2.
:2!
a:::
w
Q..
(/)
I-
...J
o
>
o
!.
t3 0
.:2!
Q
(!)
o
...J _I
-2
200
UNABSORBED FiELD INTENSITY
FOR I KW RADIATED POWER
DiSTANCES IN KILOME'TERS
I I j ! I jl n)],
i i!II!!I;!;
,
2000
I I
5000 10000
DISTANCE IN KilOMETERS
40000
Fig. 76. Logar1 thm of unabsorbed field intensity, F
o
' for l-kllowatt re.diated
pOIVer, as a function of distance. (Distance in kilometers.)
40
30
20
0.1
0.08'11111 0.06
f
1
Fig. 77. Variation of 8':t'c%lnx' ,,:bi"orptiol1 conE,tnl1t, S", th
for summer \jit11 ,')"(ld- toJinter 'iiHHtEOnEl<l filIi' (U.%5tHnce
nnt t s of 1000 !'t\i 8,,)
0
(/)
...
z

(/)
z
8
z
0
...
a..
a::
0
(/)
!XI
<t
a::
<t
...J

!XI
:;)
(/)
30
20
10
8
6
4
3
2
0.8
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.08
0.06.lilllll
,
FREQUENCY - MEGACYCLES
Fig. 78. Va,r,iation of subsolar absorption con"tant, So. with frequenc;""
for etunmer, equinoctial and winter seasone. (So for
units of 1000 'Mutical miles.)
.tR
I-
Z
~
II)
8
z
i
CXI

a::

..J
0.2
0
II)
CXI
:;)
II)
J'
l
c. 79.
20
FREQUENCY - MEGACYCLES
Variation of euosole.r nbllorption co'nstll.llt, ~ O l with frequencY'.
fO'1',summer. equinoctial and winter oeallonll. ~ S o '0.1' distance
11liitll of 1000 kilometers.) . ,

,
---1----,.
c::r
I I
en
0
..-
,
"0
I -
...
./
i
"-
'C
V
-10_2i.,?1
,
- /
'\
_.
./

"
0
.,
L
::::J
/1 V/
./
V
0.3
"'-
,\
' !
-
./
"'-
I
::::J
/
il
VI
V
V
r-?4r,' ,\ \1\
Q.
./
0.5
tD
....-
X
/ VI
//
V
0.6

,,\ \ \
..
I ./
"
ill
IJ /
0.7
,,',"
\' \ \
./
/ / /1 '/
1/
V
-
0.8
....
\\
\ \ \i\ 1\ ./
"
/
/,
/
(
V

0,9
\
\\ ,\
f\\'
VI
/
II
/1
/ II
/"

\ \

\
\ \\
. j
II
I
I
I
/
1\
\
\ i\ \
i
/
V /
\
\ \
-
'/
V I
r\ \
I
\ \
\\
j
"-

J !\

0'
1/
/ I \
"-...... .".
0.9, /
\ \
\\
'0
I\.
c:..
/'
0.1
/ V \
\ /
II
\ \
0.1
.........
r--
-
.,,-
i',.'
0.8
"-
Z ....
/ /
- '. -
""
0.7
\
'"
r--
C
0.2 0.2

--
:- ..........
AI_ I
0.3
V
. ,
..... 1
I ..!. \
0.3
-(i
/"
! ...... ;0.61
"
0.4
"
-. -
-
- -iV
I
1
0
.
4
I
I
,0.5
\ \
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20. 22
LOCAL TIME
Fig. 80. Absorption index chari, January (excluding auroral-zone .. ) Numbers on curves
are absorption ind<'xes, X.
90
0
80"
70
60
z
0
50. ::tI
-I
::z:
40
30"

10
r
l>
-I
O
-
-I
C
10
0
JI1
20
30
40 (f)
o
c
50 -I
60
70
80
90
00
:r:
-.--.- '-, ' , , , , " 'I I
, '-, - : l r--r
l.->! - i' ill I
0' j ,L - 0 '. ! ' __ ',_.. _ !
I . I /1/ t; . I I t+t ! t:
o / I-"""' OAt !'\. i\ '\ 1 I z
:J 1 / / i " l '\ b. !\

80"
- ' V V '-,' \ \ \ - 5()0
&. II / / L - 0.6 r--.. 1\ ' 40-%
I 1 V v v -1-0.7' \l \ \ ' ' , !'
.. ' - I / /' r--.. I\. 1\ _.1. !3C"
A I 'IL I V V _ \ \ \1\\ I I
, Ii. .... i' !'. I \ \ i \ I I I I I 120-
1 V IV V }\ \1 I
111/" /1 - loeS
oe=t
c:

0 10" 1"1
I I I I
I ! I 11 \ " '\ \ I I
II I i J i\ \ - - If,) 1\ I r II l20"
I I II/If Y \ I \ I I I
I \' V III \1 I I I l3()5
/ TJ I 1\ r-. -f'..- oJ)') '1 \ 1\\'
VOJZ.)( J __ r- _ -:' ___ ... 0,'
I' V 1--0.( / II '\, K LV-
, ',02" J .." 0.6 / . 1\1\ 'Ql 60'
\ ' __ 05/ / '\..... '
, I i 0.3,......-1 r-- " . 0.2 70"
.". _ ---.L 80"
__ _ _ rv . .,
,I' I"
02
lj'jgfl 81.
04 06 08 10 12 -14 16 18
- LOCAL TIME '
Absorption index chart, lebl'l1ary (excluding auroral-lone absorption.)
are absorption ind.e.llllt8. K.
20 22 0090e
lumbers 'on curves
- '-I :0,1\ -If.! k-I I 1
(/) 0 ' /' ,,7, I "
\)" 0,31'r--.. i,O '
l V / v-:--
r
'.. \ I
::3 / \ 1\ I ,I,
[ / 11 / r\1\ \ _I ' I
(I) /1 Y , 0,8 " \' \ \
!' I II /r 1\ I I I I :1 i
" I /1/ VIL= \. \ \ \ I I I III I I I I
I 'i I I \ \
90
::1
80

70"
I
600
z
0
50. ::II
....
%
40
30
200
100 r

I
I I
0 =i
c::
0
10. f'i.
20
30-
400(J)
0
c::
50
0
....
%
60
70
800
900
00

rei 1 1 1 1 1 1)11 twIj::tJ/fJ 11\\ 1 1 1 1 1
L" . I
rntt1:Hit\+-++i-lJ
3:
V V 1\ "'. -k --:IT'
11
01
0 V I \ I.............. ../ 10.4 7 T \.
:J: \ t-- _/ \'.
I' 0.' 'i, '- I "rON I I
, 0,1:-. I .1 1
OQ 04 06 02 08
12 14 18 20 10 22
LOCAL TIME
19. 82. Absorption index chart. '<arch (excludill auroraJ,,:;.fpne absorption.,) Numbers on curves
are absorption indexes. K. <e,.__ ,
'';'"

0.1_, /' 05 004" i V Ii .1-
0
0.2
1
. it
-0.... "\ /. ........;, i I. ./'"1'
: "\' // /_ r 0.6_',,", 1\ 71/-.V.=-+-
. \ / /7 /'" 0.7 '1 \.. 1,/ j/ II
. \., / 'I / '0.8 ".... \! I!
I ' \ '
: / ) .. ...-- 0.9 i\. \ I I I ! !
0"
0"
0
0
Z
o
.00 ;v
....
%
0
0
I I V
ti
.
95
{ \ \ . I
'I ' !
I
0
,
I . I
\- \ "-. / / I
\
\\ / II
\ 1\ I'- 0.9 I' /
\ \ \ ./ o.all I / I I !l:
00 r

....
0 ::::j
c
o
0 "'.
0.
()O
. \ \ \ \." .. 0.7' /; / -
\ '\ "" 'r- __ 0.6"/ I A
. \ \. "'" '-- 0.5 0.4. /,.; .
()Of./)
o
c
0 ....
%.
"1J \ '\ " ........ . . I"
'::0. . . " --_ 0.3 // /. It
,0
'0
r ....' f"--r-'- 0.2 ... / .,
. ...... I :.,...
.' i 0....... 0.1.
e.o
,po
__ _ . __. __ .' ..... 0 .' .
... I- ....... ...... ...... ............ ..... ....
04 06 02 08 1012
. LOCAL
14
. TIME
16
Fig. 83 . Absorpti.on i.ndex chart. April (excludill8 auroral-zone cUrVes'
. 'indexes, .!C. .
()O
0,\0
:::IV
' .:--f-"II I I I,
. 1> "-1 I '
0
.
5
- qA /' . 5'1
l> OA' -- . 0.6" !I 03 .,. __ +- '0
g- "\ LV /" . '" / ,,;'---
0.3 . 07. i"-. \ . 0.2 0.1 r.::r'
o - / L 1.- ", 1.'\ I 'J'"
0.2\ . '2
"0 "'0'1 I." l\ . 08 '\ / L / v. ' .... " C).
;; 0'" 1/ /' " 1\ . .V
" " '\ \ \ \ " I V - 1\ 1\ I / I /i/. 40.
I
1:. ,\1\ II \ \ / /'095 0\ I! / II / . i 30'
\ \ \ \ \ I . \ . I 11 I I "20'
.", \ 1\ \I \ \ . 1 v . I I I
11 J4\- *1.1 Jl.l 1
1\ \ 1\ \ 1\ \ 1\ \1\1\ /1 11/ /1/ /1/ /1/ /
\ 1 \ \ K\l V Ai fJV! Y!
\1\ \ \ 1\ 1\J ""l I V Y II / I III
. I \
30
! ,,,:0
r

l>
-l
0"
-l
C
0
)0
0
iT]
20
40
(f) I';; ; I i I t.WVA II 1+
'11 I . '\f\ '-.. 0.4 oll/ / II
503
-l
60
0I
70
80

I . t'---. - OyV V . '
_0 I I I I
. I I I I
10
900
L-JI I I I I I I I I I I I I
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 ' 20 22 C
LOCAL TiME
Fig;. 84. Absorption index chart. May (excluding; auroral-zone absorption.) Number<: on ,curves
are abscrption indenls. K.
--,-- , --TI 1
, 0.4r--. V L . : '0.5,! 0.4' I
13 r---., 'I\, L""" j -'P.6 ' : I ! /",,0.3 I
"2. I - li
lO
.
2
f\. \ / V r- , M" I ' /, -" 0.2
o ' f'... I \. I -, '\ I/,_
:; .. ,.. 10.1 l"-. \ L '",0.8 :\ I II Y.I 0.1,
g. \ _) i\ ilL L I / iv I ' I
\ \ 1\ \ \ I p.3C\ J III I JV
" i.lllJ 1 I jJ / I /,1/1
\ll \}' 1 li \ V -J. 1:1 .111 jjjj
\ 1'\1'\\':-Vi/[fy llllJ/ IlLl
\1\lS1\1\J\ Nsf AIJLUm7
\1\ \1\ '{ \1\ 't 1-+o.er)1 If / Y IV /1/
\K\J\\ YJ/V AI
1\ 1\1\
\J\ l\. "h A If /11
r"'"O'
f\
H III I I tlf1 I T100'H I I I I I I I I
L..-.I I 1 ' 1 II 1 iii 1 IlL
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 [4 16 18 20 22
Fl.g,' !S.
LOCAL TIME
Abmm-pti@l), indllx ,eMM, of13l1" =orsl-Ilone
i.',,1"'e $,bso;fP.t1on ina.eX0n II x""
l'himbeJ'8 011 cllr'7efj
..------,-.- ,- ..
- if .. ' I J
o
,:'41 I' i I : : -;'0.5" 0 4 '- , ! !
...",,] ! ! , iii : . : . : ' 0
0" r---i'---:"-f-"-" .. ,-'--- ',.----- , I 80
,en i ---....;. ! i" : 0.6 , ' .,..---, ,
,. 0 I' 10.3 i ' I I ! : . 0.3 ' : '0
-a -;--;-r- .""
;; : O.S \-_t :. _n ,.'.1
600
z
:::J i \. i \ : 0.1 . : i 0
.-:- -i ;/ .. ' . _.:-.. L--500::U
j ! j 1 "-I
- !. ': 1 i .
0 4 --1 !Q.9L_.L_ .1
1
, 0.1 .. , __ .; .... :r:
co . I , : : I '
I I ; . ! !.
!< L "-- -t . -...L,----l30
o
.
! I ' ) I
" Ii. 'i
-t --..L. --.- .. _--J- --.---: .--' ---- -, --, 20
i.J_ ... L_+-_L_ ... j, 100 r
1 ; . l l>
, , , : , -i
, 1 ! I : , -
0 -i
, i. j I : J
. . i0' l1i
ii' '
I ,I i -l?OO
TJ ----:. --r-
T
-- r . -r--- -
: --+=r=--+._.j -'-';--i,30
o
I I I I '
A--+! / 1/ 4 I __ L : '40(1)
'T r Ii ,I j
I ii' I i g
, !:r:.
._, ---t- -+- 50-i
0.2Tpr;. I I ! : .160
0
i " 'r---: 1 -I -1 I +-tj-L 170
0
r . ,i' f I i +--t--+--t !--,--j 80
-<r I I !!,! I I ' I
: I I I I I I I _.J I Ii. i I ..
II nO 02 04 06' 68" 10 12 14'-'--i6 1820 22 00
90
LOCAL TIME
Fig. 86. Absorption index chart. July (eJl;clUding auroral-zone absorption.) Numbers on Curves
are absorption indexew. :ie.
"
l>, " ! -- .3-T--r-l.' r-r-'-,-: =r=--!O::;:r'M;-T'--, ;--;-6.3i- 'r--: -l'II
90
@
U "/1 1, ,", j--...,. ,,' '
fA '-r-'-- 1-'"' .. v -_.' I I --+ ! - ---t -:- - --+---; +-----.1 sao
I. i -rO.21 !\! : /Vl I iO.6: j 0.51'---.. '1 ,iO.2r ! i I
"0 ' ;- , \ \ Ii V 1 ----1;)7 , .-!-'t-t-- '-i-- ,-- YI .,- 4
700
- ' 01 ' 1 I ' , , '01 I
_. _, I ", : / ........ - 07:' ii', __ y' I ' i
g --r-i'-l'o 1\ 1\ I i II 1/ i - 0:;;'; 1 -. " 7i 7"t r 1)
:::J ._.-t- ! \ \ I -r- . -T -. --. , .. - ',", 'j' 17 _. - J 50
a. : I \, i I : 09: ; \ : I; ! I I %
CD ---1=. -C.1l ", - T '--f-- 40
)C
. 1\ \" l+IA ': "I I' ,! I 'I
I I' , 'I I!
.. j t ' I ' 0.951 ' \ I ; i j :; i
A H= . \ \ 1'-1'+ r- 'r -_. r-
1
.. 1 .. I --f:'-r-I- i300
-r .1+-/_. "--I--j --If-" : -' --1--+-+-+-120
0
I) \: . I' i!' tfV ' ill
, I ,1. , -t-, _. ,,_++ . I -i- -I
j I 1\ \ \ 1\ \' \ 'J [ / I) J J I 'i 1'1 i ! I
100 r

0 =i
c:
Q
I \ \ \ \ \ _\ V V / II III i / I I I
, : \:1 --- 0.91 17' I
I i, 1\ \1\ l\ I,. I 1/1/ AI Ji/ 1 11
20
"
I \ ' \ \ \ 1\ i i--- 0.8 J I II ,
10" A
1 \ 1\ \ 1 \ .' /i / J 300
. 1\ \ \ \1'--"t-- 0.71/ /V / '/1/ I
\ \ 1\ f',"'",t--
0
.
6
O.5
V
/ / / II . 400
g
" 'i-.. V V 50-i
l> \ 1\ I". '" i -- 0.41----'./ / / i x
\ \ "!''-: 0.2
V
V 1/ 60:
C ......... . , V ' 10
W : 1/ .
-I 1 '--. , V 800
o .. ' ,
. I
I---loo O? 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 00
900
LOCAL TIME
,ig. g7. Absorption index chart, August (eJ<Cluding auroral-2one absorption.) Numbers on curve.
." t are absorption indexes, K.
,
' ' --"" ---,+ccc;;-- '_-'-:::::r-T'I-r--- .
. 0.1 0_2 '''.3 i I I !
-0. r--.. ",. 1/ .- 0.4 '" "I I / 0-
\ !7 j 1)1-+-
1
;-I-/-I---+--I-----+--
+-,1/ 1', I \ 1\ '.,- f- ,-J,J1/-----I---l---'-;I-->---
I I II V /V ....- \. \: \ ' i
1--+-+-+-+--1\--1-+\- - --1 -1+---, -+--+--l-l---I
: /1/ 1/ 1",\, \ \ \ . :: '
- ,I-I++--If-- . ' V-
O
9 - - --/--l-,-+--+----+-----I---l
I--+-+--+----+--++---t++, 1-+-1-1-1-+-- 1--/ / ..-10.95-' \, 'rt' f- 01---++-----1------1---1--1---1
I / v '\ \ I '
I
i I : .
i
. I' I
I \ I ! , .

. . \ \ i'--1pc15V_ 1 I !
, ... .,;- ' --,1-1-i------4---I-------I---l---l
. ' . \ i\ :'-1p.9 L / / .,
r- \ \ \ \l "I-- 0.8 V .. I / / I '-, - .. -
m h \, \ "r-- o.rV V II 1_/ -f----+----+----li---l---l
J._ , .. ! \ I "i- I/J./ j'_j.1 \!, I I
/ -" ' i" . '1)\ I
I -.- . I ; -+j . -

80
70
60
z
o
50
021
-I
::s:
40
30
20
IOOr


_0
10 ,.,
20
30
40
0
Ul
o
c:

::s:
60
70
:0 I "{ / '0
1 i I : 0.1 I I 0.2 j' I 0.1 -
'-- -
80
90
00
........... .......... ......... ......"" ........... ,.... ,,.. ........... .... ......
00 22 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 18 20 16
LOCAL TIME
'Fig. Absorption ind.ex chart t Septemb'er (e:'("clt:.ding !'u:z:.oral-zone absorption.) on curves
are Rbsorpt ion indeX' S t K.
.90.
0
80.
o I I
0.1 -l--'-r'
o - ,,1 .
. 'J, I. .'.,
70
I r r::::
I L' L'r /),. " \ \ j
/ ,r 0.5. \ I \ I I + .
GOG
2:
/ ......... r- '\, \L\1\ ': J. i .

IDZ'!\ Illl.. ,_ + "


L L_y '\1' !! I 1<
U--+++*fftt11T'A-LZIL '. 01; ,[1. 1 I I'

-i
40.:1:

- .' . \ .
, 1\ f'-- 0.9 'LJ
30.
20.
10. r
l:-
o.. :j
-i
c
10..
0
f11
20..
30.
- V 1
. 1\ \ I' -10.
9
\ \
. III . / ..l
\ \ I'\." O.Sf-'" L i \ . . .
r-1 '1. Ill' . 1""-.... -=, .-().1'. L L J 1, \. 0 Ii
V '\ I' V / .
o 1 " 0.6
r
L . 1 <>.1 ,
0 I/! '1. \" D5r 0.4,'/ . \ .
o ,..,..-, \ l'-i . '. c V" '. 'i".' .
' (I) 0.1, V" I..L ,0.3 .....
40.
(J)
5c
o
g
-i
:r:
60.
70
m '. - =- , L_ .. ..
::0 . i l'
. _ 0.2 _ _ _ _ . _
- .
---.;. ,.. ..... -. ....
80
00 0.2 0.4 0.6
90
08 .10 6 8
LOCAL TIME
s9 . i'tl,de" .,hari. O,etober (exc).uding auroral zqne absorption) Numbe.r.s on curves are ab:"
sorption _. -" . .. ,- ,

. --.,-_."
.
. II I I I - .
I
v
. '",.
- -
O-r----.
L
1/ i/ .
///1/ .
. if L7 ;' / /v "- " '\ i\
.. Jill v,5f.. ",\ '
\
I ,/ // 1\
II, I 1///1/ ok" \ \ \ \
I /1 /11 / . 0.7.. \ \ \ \
II I / I / '/11 / V to .. s \ \ \
/ I / I / / /. \ \
II I I /11/,1/ O.9n
r- / I I I
Z / ;' I {'I I' .
,0' 1/ II / I \. j /1 I \ I I
ol 11/ II \ \ t---.o,.'/ 1/ J
<D " "-
'" 0.' ,IT ,\". o.a ,/
--
-
-
,
i
I I . i
d i
U! i I
... + I I
\ \J !
-
'\ 1"0 '
-..
I
1\ 1'0.1"
\ 0.2 '-.....r--. =
i
"\.. f-.
0.3 --I--
-
I--
90
80
70
60
z
o
50"i:O
-i
.:1:
40
30
20
10 r
l>
o. -i
-i
C
10.
0
f'!l
20
30
40
(j)
50g
-i
60:1:
70
80
O.3
V
\" ___ In.7
V
/ . /
in ! . i--- . .. 4 .......
N
.6 1/
. l 1.L -cio.
51
:I I -
I 10.4.j I I
90
00 00 02
90"
04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18
LOCAL TIME
Xosorption index che.,.t, Novembei' (el1Cludinga.uroral zone absorption).
are absorpti.on indexes, K.
20 22
Numbers on curves
1> rTT-r I ---1"--1"--' '. r-.. l-r-T'j .. -'T---'r"'T-l-T'--Tl
i .
_;L-, I
I
", O-i
_. 02+" ,0.1
o .
::l Q3t-=
:::J
Q.

)(
..
A
I
-'<!-'t-j\-.-T-!.\-.-j-----r----jf---t-_+_ .
I
, .
. I
I
I
0.8
tNl flj I
00
. T-rJ--j .[ I ll:T-1 -+--+---1
02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18
LOCAL TIME
.rlg. 91. Abso11JUon It1dex chart, December (exclud1r.g auroral-zone absorption.),
are absol'J;t1on 1nae"es, K.
20 22
Numbers on curves
'"
I
I
1
"I
!
L
I
r.
! '
..
h I .....

90
yJ'

I" It
!l-
Id
l"1
1\
fsi=
',.,
. ,
70
"
.....

;.-
!E1
Iol . ::::::::--.rp 11:1'
60 .
t:U
I"

4

l
V-


.. . . ,
50
-
.
0.
r-' ITl.\:' <


l.J

40
'fj

n
I!
.'" 1)'.
f]
.
;.:.
I\.
.
30
..
\ \
'oj

'h
6

.
k' 1..1 10...
. "
K .

r..
2C
, it,
. ,

...
I--

....
,

v
1\
!,.I
'"

-I-. :
10
. ....
V.
1.l(1

'f'..,..
,
u..
/
v

'"
j,

0

,...,


D
j).
I
"'
: (
r'l
10
,
r1

1\
If
TJ
I(
.


2C
I
...
If""
\ I?
u
30



I

I
""'"
40
.

If
f
.0."":
-0.1 t-r-..
. 5C


.

'"
.
M6c

.

if
. . 7C
t---.
i
\
' - -, ...
,/
8C
i
"'"
L--
. .'
.. '. i'-
I
9C

OE I 20 e: 1500 1800 ISO.W
1200W 90W .60W .30
o
W 0 30 E 60 E 90
LONGITUDE
Fig. 92. Auroral zone absorption map. Numbers 011 curves are absorption indexes. X.
'"
z
o
::0
-l
:J:
r
l>
-l
.-l
C
o
f11
(f)
.0
C
-l
:J:
0.8-
0,6
0.2
o
-
I
1.6 _.-
1.2
0:6
0.4
o
6;to
o
'Ito
o
Example shown by
dashed lines:
1(1+1<2=1.26
0'" 6000 Mi
K :,0.75 '
OJ Miles
Nomogram g1V1ng valu,es of i, (average absorption index over path) for
given <f(B2,(sumo!'absorpti0ll.indexell!lltterminalpointll
. of-pAth). IUid
c
glven lengthsof<path,'c:l)f .,wi thin the' Ilolar absorption
c (Diatanee':!.n:cmllea.)"" ". :.',c.". "'"
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
a
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
-.1.5
1.3
1.2
--"' .... -
"
"
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.1
0.2
0.1
o
"
"

'"
"0
0
"
rf, Nautical Miles
Example shown by
Jines:
K
1
"'K
2
=1.I14
5000 Nautical Miles
K 0.65
Nomogram givi:ng value a ot K, (av8re&8 absorption index over path) tor'
given valuea ot IS. + x., (allll ot a'b.orptiCln indexes at terminal pOinte
ot path). and giveD le!gthB ot path,I!' . :withlnthe 8olarabBorption
region. (.Dbtance lnnauticallliles.) .' .
K
1.0
1.9
1.8
0.9
1.7
1.6
0.8
I..
1.4
9. 7
---
1.3
--
---
1.2
I.I
0.6
1.0
0 .
0
0.8
0.7
0.4
0 .
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
o
0.1
o
--
--
--
---
---
Example shown by
dashed lines:
K, t-K2; 1.23
0
/
;8500 Km
K; 0.7
D', Kilometers
Fig. 95. Nomogram giving values of K, (average ,absorption index over path) for.
given values of Kl + K2 (I!UJn of absorption indexss at terminal po.illts
of path). and given lengths of path, D'. within the solar absorption
region. (Distance lnldlometerl!.J,
4
3
2
I
Fig. 96.
0', Miles
E ~ Q m p l e shown by
do,bed lines.:
K, .. I<,1.3
01..6310 WI
0.
0..1
0..2
0.3
0.4
0..5
0.6
0.7
0.8
.,1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
Nomogram giving-variation of!' d (product of the average absorption
index for total' traneill1eaion path aDd the tran811iesion dhtance) with
transminion di.tanc""d,and't + -L.!- (BUll of the absorption indexes
at terminal pointe of .thetranemhsionpath). (Distance>in m11eB',
up to 12430 m1188.) -
7
5
--
--
----,
4
3
2
"
'-
"
. "
0
1
, Nautical Mil
--
"
-_
_,0
,

"
'-""'-"
Ex.ample shown by
dashed ha:
K d. 4,5
1(\+1(2. 1. 2
S910-Nautlcai ",II ..
' .....
-----
' ......
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
I.S
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
o
rig. 97. Nomogram giving variation ot-I d(prod1l.ct of .. absorption
index tor total transmiesion path and lihs tran.sm1ssion dietance) witi
transmission distance,d. and Xl + (sum of the absorption indexes
at t'erminal points of the trailBmiasion path.) (DiStance in nautica'
mUeB,up to 10794 nautical mUes.)
12
II
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
2
n
]'ig. 98.
0
1
, Kilometers

0"0
-
--
-----
Example shown by
dashed linea:
Kd,,!
i<j+K
e
:1.2
0
1
10650 Km
---
--
0.1
0.2
. 0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
---
-
--
. --
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
Nomogram gi'V'ing 'V'ariation ofK d(product of thea",er8e absorption
index for total transmisBion path and the transmiB8ion distance) with
tranemhelon distance. (Bum of the absorption indexes
at terminal points of the transminion path.) '(Distance in kilometers,
up to 2000b
o
2
3
4
8
1
E lampl, .hown by
da'htel IIn"1
", +k.-.O,5.
D' -185&0 .. 1
i 4-1.5
o
8
:!
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
-o.e
0.6
.omocram cly1DC Yar1at1Qn ot i d'(product ot the 6yerege.baorptlon
lndex tor total trua.1 .. 1oapath &JI4 the tranemhdon distance) with
/tran 1 .. 10n d1ltanoe, a, and 11 + 1'.. (l11li ot'theabaorpUon index:e.
; at \8l'11111&1 point. ot the path,) ])1,.tNlCCl 1n mUea.
bet""on 12430 and 24860 IIUe ) .' '. .' '. .
0--
1-
2
3
4
5
6
7
Example -.hown
dashed linea:
KI +K
t
0.'
0' -16000 Hallfic,' Mil ..
K d. 1.48
,
,
,
,
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
J'1g,lOO. Nomograzngivillg variation of ii' d (product of theavernge absorption
index for total transmiasio.n pllth And the' transmllieion diRtRnce)
tral'iemiesion d1st"ncf!, d, and IS. + K? (sum of theabsorptlon
at terminal pOints of th .. transmlea'on path.) ( DiAtnnce in nalltlcal
miles, between 1079
4
and 21588 nF1uticBt ml1ps.)
o
2
4


7


10
"
12
13
rig. 101.
-----------------------------------
Exomple ihown by
dQshed Ii" :
K,+K
2
0.&
fI- 29&00 Km
Rd- 2.7
0 .... , Kilometers
OJ
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5'
to.&
Nomogram giving variation of i d (product ot the average absorption
index tor total transmission pl\th and the transmission distance) with
tran8llliaaion distance, D, and KJ.+ Irc! (Bum ,ot the absorption indexell
at terminal ;points ot the trenemi8l!ion p".th.) Distance in kilometers.
between 20000 and. 1 ~ 0 0 0 k11ometl1rs.)
Radiated Power,
Kilowatts
0.01
M2
0,05
OJ
o,a,
2
.5
10
20
ao
100
200
500
1000
Low
Power
Medium
Power
High
Power
Example shown by
duhed Ii"":
Raquind field = 100 IIv/m
Radiated power 10 kw
Factor "A" 1

,Field Intonsity
Foctor, RAil
12
"
'0
9
6
5
2

Required
Field IntsMity)

Per Me'er
Bod
Noise
Moderate
Noise
Quie'
1000
500
200
- 100
_ 50
20
10
5
2
0,5
0,2
0,1
o,oa
0,02
J'ig. 102. lIl'omQiram giving re1ationJlh1p of fle1d-lnteneU7 factor
A, radiated power, P, and required field 1nteneU7., 'I.
=
<t
0:-
Il:
0

0

>-

Cf)
z
lIJ

z
0
...J
lIJ
r;:
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
DISTANCE IN MILES
Fig. 103. Variation of field intensity factor, A, with distance, d. and
i,so' (Distance in miles.)
9
8
=.ct
7 I="'" 1"-1 1 I I f 1IIIIIIIIIIIllUlJUlil I
a::
6
0
I-
0

5
LL
>-
4
l-
ff)
Z
w
:3
I-
Z
b 2
....l
W
LL
0
-I
100 200
40000
DISTANCE IN NAUTICAL MILES
Fig. 104.
Var-i"tign of field-intensity factor, A, with distance, d,and absorp-
tion, K So' (Distance in nautical miles.)
::
<:;[
0::
0
I-
0
it
>-
I-
en
z
w
I-
Z
0
..J
W
I..
9
8
. 60
1
'0 . !! i iii!
7 , .
: i i! ill
6
5
4
:3
:2
(;)
-I

Jig. 105. !ariation of f.1eld intene1t,.. "factor, A, with d.inance, d,and absorption,
It 8". . (Di.tancein kilo_tere.)
A
9
1.
5-
o
-1-

-
d, Miles
-_-10
Example shown by
dashed line:
!II. 400 1.11
RS
o
6
.116.43
+
6
5
4
3
:2
IOlilogrilm giviJIB relatiGI'I_hip It dbtuo. rarage d, Valuelll of 1'1814-
intenll1ty :facto!." A, Md absorption, i So. (Other of 'l7aluefIl
&'8 blllOll!<!,flrIl1!lS, Jliti;s. 107 Imd 108.) (DhtlWltll!! in
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. ---
9
8
1
6
4
2
o
A
d, Miles
Example shown by
dashed line:
~ "800 PIli
Rs. 1.5
A= 7.2
3.5
1.5
0.5
~ I 0
'ig. 101. lIIolilogrilllll giv11lg Nlationllhlp ot dillt.!llc. reg. 4, values of t11l14=
lntene1t1 fIWtor A, and abeorptioll,X Sq' (Other l'IIXIgell of ValueD
are eiven 1n 1I01ll0graDlll. J'iga. 106 u.4 108.) (DietancGII1n lIiles.)
A
o
8
1
6
5
2
I .
0
-I
0.5
d,Miles .
0,4
0.3
0.2
Example shown by
0.1
dashed line:
d MI
KS O.2
A' 6.32
loaocru .cl"lac "acl 4, "aluel of .field--
illteDl1t;?' factor A, u4 abiOrpttOD. XI (Other rlUlPl at "alue.
are cbell. lD Dama,rllll,J'l,l.l06 &11.4 181.) (DiltallClS1Il alie )
A
9
B
7
6
5
:3
2
I .
o
-I
Example shown by
dashed line:
d' 350 Nautical toUl
Rs
o
' 7
A' 6.47
d, Nautical Miles
la.ocrUl ivlDg re1aUalllhlp of 4ht,!IIC1l rallCe 4, y&luee of 1'1.14-
lntenl1101 factor ., M4 abBorption, I: So' (Other ,rallCltI of y&lull.
are ,ivlln 111 IIOlIIocr8lls, l1ge. 110 an4 111.) (Distances 111 nautieal
.Uee. )
'19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
10
7
6
5
3
2
-- J
o
A
6-
4
I "-
o
el, Nautical Miles
Example shown by
dashed line:
d 1800 Nautical Mltea
KS 1.5
A '1.117
4.1
4.0
5.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
"- 1.0
0.5
0'
glwiilg relatloJl8hip of nwge d, valwil of f1814-
tntl;ll'.lflU, flllCtor A. and abeorpUoa, It '0' (Other l'aDgeti of yaluee
aN .. /riVW,. n in nOlllogrllllll, J:!ge,.l09, eli in Ii&1,ltieal
!IIiln. . ------------
A
7
6
5-
4
3
2
. 1
0-
-I
Ul.
shown by
dashed line
d 4500 Nautical Mil ..
KS
o
= 0.3
A= 4.88 ,
d, Nautical Miles
0.9
0.8
0.7
0,6
0.5
0.4
0.3
- 0.2
0.1
1foIIIcI\I..- pT1Irc l"81 .. tODlbip of clh\lJlCe J'8DItI 4, TalUI ot n4ll4-
tnHndt1 tactor A, an4 ablo:rpUon, r '0. (O\her raacel ot TalUI
_ cinD 111 1l000CCNIIIII, It.cl. lO9 _4 no.) (Did_on 111 nautical
aU ... )
A
9
8-
j

6
4
3
2
o
, -I
d. Kilometers
Example shown by
dashed line:
d. 700 Km
1(90.' 4
A. 6.01
tlC. 112. lrolaocNII c1,,1%!C relaUollllhlp of d1,t.anoe 1'1&\168 4, value I of 'fle14-
1IIt8118it:r faotor A. l1li4 &baorpUolI.r So. IOther rang .. of Ya1u88
are 1\'811 111 113 an4 (Diltanc ill
lcUoutel'l,) '. . . .
8
7
2
o
A.
7
5
4
2
3
-_.\ .
o
-I
Pig. 11,.
&00
'1100
\0
00
\\0
0
.
\'/.0
0
\"'J
0o
\,,00
Example shown by
dashed . line:
d 250.0 Kin .
Rs 0.8
A 5.7
d,Kilometers

2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
I.B
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
. 1.0
0.9
0.5
(l.4
0.3
O.!
o
.000ogPCIIIII .. lyll1g rd .. ot 'd1eknce rue .4, yal:ael ot ft.U-
'in.t4iltdt,-faotor .... anl! ab'Ol'PUon,iap. (Other rang .. ot "slue.
arec:ben in.'.II011og_., .18.,.11.2 and 114.) '(Distanc i11
.. )' ..
A
7
6
4
3
2
-I
Example shown br
dashed line:
d -1000 Kill
R"so' 0.2
A' 11.03
d, Kilometers .
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
o
1000OCI'Ul. "laUoahip ot4iU_' ".:lues ot ti.14-
inwnsU;r I.8
0
.(Ot.1' valuee
&1'1 giVln in_IICl'IIU, 'ice. 112 l1li4 113.) (Diet_eel.
Id.lomeM".) .
26
24
u.
20
..... 18
If)
~ 16
(,)
:>.
. (,) 14
o
o
Q)
::E 12
10
:>.
(,)
~ 8
:::::I
0-
Q)
~ .6
u..
,
7
/
/
71-
.
A=7
{
/
/
I
I
,
'/
/
V
V
/
V
""
~ / ~
~
/'
~
t;/::
~
v
-
.
.
A=6
/
/'
./
/
v
.
1
/"
A=5 .
-'
v
.
.
V
i'" .
~
.. ~ = 4
.
V
'/
V
"., .1
..---
A=3
I ./
.
~ 2 ~
V
.
?
--
f-
V ~ --::
--
~ A=O
[::::::-
I.--
~
---
1
'.
4000 km
1
I I I
00.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9. 1.0 1.1
Absorption IndexK
!!elation between average absorption index i with trequency
t, to!' ,.rioue values ot tield-1ntene1t;y t$Ctor A, tor a
tr"".lIil1i.on clhtance ot 4000 kilo'"'tere.
5.
C!:
w
I--
w
2.
:!i!
C!:
w
n.
00
L
S
0
>
0
!l:
<.:>
0
-
:E
0
~
(!)
0
...J
-I..
-2.
rig. 116.
Fig, 117.
UNABSORBED FI INTENSITY
FOR VARIOUS POWERS
FREQUENCY4MC AND
DISTANCE I N MIL
DISTANCE IN MILES
40()OO
Logarithm to the base 10 of unabsorbed field'-intensity factor r 0' at
frequencies 'abOve 4 Me all a :tunctiOll:of d1stalicefor various values
of radiated power. (Dlstanceein miles.)
Logarithm to thebaee 10 of unabsorbed field-intensity factor' f
o
' at.
frequencies ab.ove 4Kc as a function of ,dhtancs for various values
or radiated power. (Distances in nautical miles.)
0::
W
I-
W
~
0:::
W
!l.
(f)
I-
..J
0
>
o.
0:::
()
-
~
o.
-
(!)
0
-f
5.
4.
0
-I.
200
UNABSORBED FIELD INTENSITY
FOR VARIOUSPOVIERS
FREQUENCY 4 MC AND ABOVE
DISTANCES IN L
DISTANCE IN NAUTICAL MILES
5.
4.
ct::
UI
3.
I-
UI
:aE
0::
W
0-
(/)
I-
.....I
0
>
0
0::
<.:)
~
0
-
(!)
0
.....I
0
Fig. llS.
UNABSORBED FIELD INTENSITY
FOR VARIOUS POWERS
AND ABOVE
o
DISTANCE IN KILOMETERS
Logarithm to the baae 10 of lmabsorbed field-intensity factor Fo. at
frequencies above 4 Me a.s lit function of distance for var10U8 veluea
of radiated powe,.. (Distsnces in kilometers.) .
I
1---
fn-
Ira.
D J.
I I
'-'


loo
=-


..
.. -
..J

'I'-
1-1-'
:1
r"-.r--...
h. ""'" l.!X 6
2

i"""'-
\
1\ 4.
3
/" i?,

, .t-1

f0-
l-
I-
,
, '1-.
J\ I 2
1 , to'

,
It,.....-
-
"""Ic
-
J"
,\j
t?
1
,
V
")
....."
""-
90
0
EI200E 150"E 180"
,
"
r. I->
b

I"VI-
\:i(
fb' SIiIL 1'-
b In!
I
{j
"f', I'\,


IL.:!

V


I!'.
',;::

;

i'T J ld-
e 1f:6;
=

-;

V
'1
III r-,
f"


Itl
r

r/_

V


.........
......
/ t
l::


V , . /'

".'
fJ
...... (')
2
)I:::::

,
<
/4')
1\
N' t
[\
y.
)

R
---...

!
"
":
..
1\1

3

f=;
I(

['1.4
V
I lJ
'"

.....
L k
.l..3 ....
r-
.... l' 1'-
r::'
I--" .
f'
(
'1,./
)(
./
\
.....
I-
./ I r'
r"
2
\ lL
U
\

../
'!l.
-
,......

l{
V
V
I
"l
p.-
/I>
I
C.
It
- \ :--
,.-
150'W 120'W 90'W 50W 30
0
W
.
O' 30
0
E '60
o
E
,LONGITUDE
90"
,
,
"
80
It;
70
r-
f'.
V::
V
\
I'
r-
50
Z
,
,
"
o
50::0
-I
:c
40'
"
O
.,

i 1
20'
r
O' J>
-I
I
,2
:3

15
IE
'j
E
O' -I
C
o
O' rrt
O'
O'
O'
O'
(/)
0'0
Co
oi
O
.li 96 O
Figo 119. World mnp indicating noise zonf'!S for the peric,d May sept'p.moer. Figures in zones' give
p.r"des co?respondt"", to thoRe used in Figs. 121 through 125.
...,..
WiUliJ IlIlH II Ilj I .1M] Hllit

41Il1-(f" ,.
%V

1..#

bI.r I I V I I ,. I r I w:-t"-f:.'f.:J Il'll Ilrt
v
VI Th,.' If "oJ' I I IPo
JllL ... .2 I .
'Q \,/' 20
PJ. ...... . i-': r
r
. ,.;.....,. ..
. " ' I 0,,",
.. t'\ '0' 7
IN0,4' '\. 3 .. " 4.-..l'\. 3 ..!l' o
1"-.' 10 ITI
:'-I",. ...... t\. 51? '1.'"
\ ,-p I . 2 I\..: 1J 7: " 11::0'
t 2' I r ......
12
o
.I
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tttt 1.11 Fum I1I1I lITNTfff II tTIrrrl[%
,90 120"E 15O"E 180" 150W 120"W gO"oj-so"w "'00 9Cf
fig. 120.
LONGITUDE
World map indicating 'noise .zones for the per.iodNovembel' through.March.
noise grades .corresponding ,tothQse .used ill ;Figs . l"'l .. ..
Figures in ones give'
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--.... REQUIRED FIELD
NOISE
. ',--"T"---"CT
INTENSITIES (PHONE)
GRADE .4
=tt-: = TROPICAL ISLAND, OCEAN OR COASTAL AREAS
\....._.
-I-
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>
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002 0.05
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0.1 0.2
T
0.5 2
FREQUENCY IN Me
, ,
5 10

20
--,-0.2
"-r
i
,0.1
40
Fig. 1?4. Logarithms to the base 10 of required field intensities for phone reception for loca-
tions in regions of noise grade 4. For CW reception, field intensities required are
0.1 as. great, 1.e., decrease logarithm by 1. Numbers on cUrves are local times at
receiving station.
E


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REQUIRED
ISLAND, OCEAN OR
AFRICAN AREA (


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40M
20M E
I,OM


Z
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2000
1000
W
400
I-
Z
FREQUENCY IN Me
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100
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20
10
4
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02
0,1
Cl
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W
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w
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Logarithms to the base 10 of required field intensities fpr phone reception for loca-
,tiona Inregions of noise grade 4. For OW reception, field intensities required are
0.1 as/great, 1.e." logarithm by 1. Numbers on curves are local times at
station.
d'
Thousonds
of Miles
log Field Int.
F
f,Mc
Auxiliary Distance - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
Scole
Radiated Power
kw d"
0.!5 Thousands
5
10
"
ZO
50
100
ZOO
500
1000
of Miles
o
0.'
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
'.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
30,0
40.0
Fig. 126. Master nomogram for plotting arbitrary variations of required. field
intensity with frequensy in order to determine rapidly the l.u.h.t'.
t'or various values of If d. (Distances in sUes.)' .
10.0
d
ThouI,pnds cA
Nautical M'iles
Auxlll",y DfetanCI_.
Scale
A'adlotod Power
k. d'
, 0.&
't'hOllaondll of
Nalltlcal Mllta
.1 0
0."

10 1.0
I.
20
1.5
".0
2.0
100
000
3.0
000
4.0
1000
0.0
6.0
6.0
10.0
HS.O
20.0
30.0
40.0
log Field Inl. 1 IB 1413 12 II 10 9 8
F db.
1.0
2.0
3.0
7.0
Fig. 127. Master nomogram for ploiting arb! trary vFtriatione of field
intensity with frequeng in order to determine rapidly the l.u.h.r.
for var1.ous values of K d, (Disto.llCe in nllutical mn"s.)
[ild]
d'
Tbouland,
ofl!l_.
Auxiliary DiltanQ'
9.cal.
RcdlotGd . Pow.,
kw
0.5

10
15
20
.0
100
tOO.
100
1000

Thou IId.
ofKII ....
o -,::..---
1,0
29
3.0
4.0
'.0
1.0
rtQ
10.0
15.0
00.0
tS.O
So.O
40.0
---'------------
109 in," 1,Mc201918 1,.15 14 t
F'
.0 9 B
o
ll'i3. 128. )ia.ter nomogram for plottillfi arbitr .... ry variations of req.uired. ti4l14
int4lnsity with order to determine rapidly tpe lou.h.::!,.
tor values of X,d. (Distance in'kilometers.)
PREDICTED' FOR DECEMBER,1943
Distance Range,
Miles
5.000
4000
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
07 08
00
II ,I
I iii
17 16
I
15
09
1
Radiated Power,
Kilowatts'
PHONE
Example shown by
dashed lines:
Fr.quency 6.1 Mc
Po r 0.1 kw OW
Tim. 0930
DI,Ianc. Ran,. : 1500 MI
I ~
10
I
Frequency.
Megacycles
2
5
10
15
20
25
30
"
, 1 112
i I
15
Locol Time of Midpoint of Path
Fig. 129. NOQlogramg1vhgdi!ltllllA,rllilgell and lowest useful. high frequencies
fortransmiadon patha whosa li11cipolnts .lie between laU tude 300N
and 500N, predicted tor ])ecember, 1943 (averl!#i;e for quiet days).
fortranemiasion bl' way of the regular ionosphero layP,rs, over
or near land.
..,.
0000
J 4000
li
aooo
PREDICTED FOR DECEMBER,
1943
Latitude
A B
.to"
Radiated I'\'Iwer
.01
Looal Tima .." Midpoint of Paih
:IlOlllogralllgivl!1g d1at8.ll.ce :ranees Imdtotlut useful high
tor traneadedon pathswhos .. midpoints lie betw6;Q latltu4e 60
0
1
8.Il.d 60
0
8, p!'fJllicted tor llDceuiber, 1943 (average tor quiet 1!.a711l) ,
101" t2'1!1118l11iedoll' 'bF Wa7of'iibierelUlar10noeplleN laYere. over
Or !leAr llUl4. ' . .' ' . ... . ,,'. ',,' " '