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Genre of the Text

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Genre of the Text

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Analytical Exposition Text Analytical exposition is a text that elaborates the writers idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Generic structure of analytical exposition: Thesis, introducing the topic and indicating the writers position; Argument 1, explaining the argument to support the writers position; Argument 2, explaining the other arguments support the writers position more; Reiteration, restating the writers position.

Language feature of analytical exposition: Using relational process; Using internal conjunction; Using causal conjunction; Using general nouns, e.g. car, pollution, etc; Using abstract nouns, e.g. policy, etc; Using technical verbs, e.g. species of animals, etc; Using relating verbs, e.g. that is important, etc; Using actions verbs, e.g. we must do, etc; Using thinking verbs, e.g. some people believe, etc; Using modal verbs, e.g. we must preserve, etc; Using modal adverbs, e.g. certainly, surely, etc; Using connectives, e.g. firstly, secondly, etc; Using evaluative language, e.g. important, valuable, etc; Using passive voice, e.g. are changed, etc; Using simple present tense.

Example of analytical exposition: Laptop as Students Friend Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every students desk, this method will help student to get better understanding. Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |

shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, and then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students houses. That is really easy and save time and money. From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.

Anecdote Text Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Generic structure of anecdote: Abstract; Orientation; Crisis; Incident; Coda.

Language feature of anecdote: Using exclamation words, e.g. its awful!, its wonderful!, etc; Using imperative, e.g. listen to this, etc; Using rhetoric question, e.g. do you know what?, etc; Using action verb, e.g. go, write, etc; Using conjunction of time, e.g. then, afterward, etc; Using simple past tense.

Example of anecdote: There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.

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Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was. The Clark family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Source: Look Ahead 2).

Recount Text Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Its social function is either to inform the purpose, to entertain or to retell the events to audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative. Recount is a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order in which they happened. The purpose of a recount is to give the audience a description of what occurred and when it happened. Types of recount: Personal recount, these usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in; Factual recount, recording an incident, e.g. a science experiment, police report; Imaginative recount, writing an imaginary role and giving details of events, e.g. A day in the life of a pirate, and How I invented.

Generic structure of recount: Orientation, introducing the participants, place and time; Events, describing series of event that happened in the past; Reorientation, it is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story.

Language feature of recount: Introducing personal participant, e.g. I, my group, etc; Using chronological connection, e.g. then, first, etc; Using linking verb, e.g. was, were, saw, heard, etc; Using action verb, e.g. look, go, change, etc; The recount has a title, which usually summarizes the text; Specific participants, e.g. Mum, The Crab, etc; The basic recount consists of three parts, the setting or orientation - background information answering who, when, where, why. Events are identified and described in chronological order. Concluding comments express a personal opinion regarding the events described; Details are selected to help the reader reconstruct the activity or incident (factual recount); The ending may describe the outcome of the activity (e.g. In a science activity (factual recount)); Details of time, place and incident need to be clearly stated (e.g. At 11.15 pm, between Reid Rd and Havelock St., a man drove at 140 kilometers toward the shopping centre (factual recount));

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Descriptive details may also be required to provide information (e.g. He was a skinny boy with a blue shirt or Red sneakers and long tied back hair (factual recount)); Includes personal thoughts/reactions (imaginative recount); Using material processes, e.g. was walking, etc; Focusing on temporal sequences; Describes events; Using adverb; Passive voice may be used; Using simple past tense.

Example of recount: Tour in Bali There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The first one was to Singaraja, the second was to Ubud. On the day of the tour, he was ready. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. It is a busy but quiet town. The streets are lined with trees and there are many Old Dutch houses. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The first stop was at Batubulan, a center of stone sculpture. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. The next stop was Celuk, a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Mass is a tourist center. My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tours, all his day was spent on the beach. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. He was quiet satisfied.

Report Text Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis. Informative reports are written about living things like plants and animals and non-living things like cars or oceans. An information report is used when we talk and write about, e.g. Bikes. When writing a description we only talk/write about one specific thing, e.g. My Bike. Generic structure of report: General classification, stating classification of general aspect of thing, such as animal, public place, plant, etc, which will be discussed in general; Description, describing the thing which will be discussed in detail, part per part, customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials, habit/behavior or uses if no natural.

Language feature of report:

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Introducing group or general aspect (generic participant); Using conditional logical connection, e.g. when, so, etc; Using simple present tense; No temporal sequence; Nouns and noun phrases are used rather than personal pronouns. The use of personal pronouns is limited; Some reports use technical or scientific terms; Linking verbs are used, e.g. is, are, has, have, belong to, to give coherence; Uses some action verbs, e.g. climb, eat, etc; Technical vocabulary; Usually accompanied by photographs, diagrams, maps, etc.

Example of report: Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick and woolly layer of fur. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Platypus eyes and head are small. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Platypus lives in streams, rivers, and lakes. Female platypus usually digs burrows in the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. In the other hand, male platypus does not need any burrow to stay.

Spoof Text Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Generic structure of spoof: Orientation, sets the scene; Events, writer tell what happened; Twist, provide the punch line.

Language feature of spoof: Focusing on people, animals or certain things; Using action verb (material processes), e.g. ate, ran, saw, etc; Using adverb of time and place; Told in chronological order; Use of past tense.

Example of spoof: Mrs. Andrews and Her Clever Losing Cat Mrs. Andrews had a young cat and it was the cats first winter. One evening, the cat was outside when it began to snow heavily. Mrs. Andrews looked for it everywhere and shouted its name. Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |

But she didnt find it. So, she telephoned the police and said, I have lost a small black cat. Has anybody found one? No, maam, said the policeman at the other end. But, cats are very strong animals. They sometimes live for days in the snow and when it melts or somebody finds them, they are quite alright. Mrs. Andrews felt happier when she heard that. I think you are right, officer, she said. And besides, our cat is very clever. She almost talks. The policeman was getting rather tired. Well, then, he said. Why dont you put your telephone down? Perhaps she is trying to telephone you now.

Narrative Text Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Narrative deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution. The basic purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers interest. However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes/social opinions e.g. Soap Operas and Television Dramas that are used to raise topical issues. Narratives sequence people/characters in time and place but differ from recounts in that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must eventually find a way to be resolved. Generic structure of narrative: Orientation, introducing the participants and informing the time and the place; Evaluation, it is optional, used to a stepping back to evaluate the plight; Complication or problem, describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with; Resolution, showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse; Reorientation, it is optional.

Language feature of narrative: Using processes verbs; Using linking verbs and linking words of time; Using temporal conjunction and temporal circumstances; Using material processes, behavioural and verbal processes; Using relational processes and mental processes; Using mental verbs and action verbs; Focus on specific and usually individualized participants; Some dialogue may included, using present or future; Connectives, linking words to do with time; Specific nouns, strong nouns have more specific meanings, e.g. oak as opposed to tree; Use of the senses, where appropriate, the senses can be used to describe and develop the experiences, setting and character, e.g. what does it smell like, what can be heard, what can be seen-details, what does it taste like, what does it feel like; Using simple past tense. Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |

Imagery of narrative: Simile, a direct comparison, using likes or as or as though, e.g. The Sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown or The wind wrapped me up like a cloak; Metaphor, an indirect or hidden comparison, e.g. She has a heart of stone or He is a stubborn mule or The man barked out the instructions; Onomatopoeia, a suggestion of sound through words, e.g. crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, e.g. The tires whir on the road or The pitter-patter of soft rain or The mud oozed and squished through my toes; Personification, giving nonliving things (inanimate) living characteristics, e.g. The steel beam clenched its muscles or Clouds limped across the sky or The pebbles on the path were grey with grief; Rhetorical questions, often the author asks the audience questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of involving the reader in the story at the outset, e.g. Have you ever built a tree hut?

Types of narrative: There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both; They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience.

To help students plan for writing of narratives, model, focusing on: Plot, e.g. what is going to happen; Setting, e.g. where will the story take place, when will the story take place; Characterization, e.g. who are the main characters, what do they look like; Structure, e.g. how will the story begin, what will be the problem, how is the problem going to be resolved; Theme, e.g. what is the theme/message the writer is attempting to communicate, etc.

Example of narrative: The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time, there was a handsome man. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He liked fishing. One day, he caught a fish. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. The fish begged him to set it free. Batara Guru could not bear it. He made the fish free. As soon as it was free, the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He felt in love with that fishwoman. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru agreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. They were married happily. They had two daughters. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He could not control his mad. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daughters. The daughters were crying. They found their mother and talked her about it.

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The mother was very annoyed. Batara Guru broke his promise. The mother was shouting angrily. Then the earth began to shake. Volcanoes started to erupt. The earth formed a very big hole. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake.

Hortatory Exposition Text Hortatory exposition is a text which represents the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Generic structure of hortatory exposition: Thesis; Arguments; Recommendation.

Language feature of hortatory exposition: Focusing on the writer; Using abstract noun, e.g. policy, advantage, etc; Using action verb, e.g. we must act, etc; Using technical verb, e.g. species of animal, etc; Using thinking verb, e.g. I believe, etc; Using modal adverb, e.g. certainly, surely, etc; Using modal verb, e.g. we must preserve, etc; Using temporal connective, e.g. firstly, secondly, etc; Using evaluative words, e.g. important, valuable, trustworthy, etc; Using relating verb, e.g. should be, must be, etc; Using passive voice; Using simple present tense.

Example of hortatory: Where Should Be After School? The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. In the other hand, it will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. For those who succeed soon will think to decide, where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planned yet, it will be quite confusing. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. When they think about continuing study, they will think hard about the time and cost. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. In the same way, when they think about straight seeking job, what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. So, doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. It will be very hard to looking for job. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |

from their own home. As result, the available time will be more flexible for them. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. As the alternative method of studying, besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly, distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them.

Discussion Text Discussion is a text which presents a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text. Discussion used to support ideas presented in sequence to justify a particular stand or viewpoint that a writer is taking. A discussion usually consists of the following: A statement of position at the beginning; A logical sequence; The argument is put forward in a series of points with back up evidence; A good argument shows cause and effect. This is the connection between an action and what leads to it, e.g. The fish died as a result of pollution in the water or Violence in movies contributes to violence in society; A summing up or restating of position at the end.

Generic structure of discussion: Statement of issue, stating the issue which is to discussed; List of supporting points, presenting the point in supporting the presented issue; List of contrastive point, presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point; Recommendation, stating the writers recommendation of the discourse.

Language feature of discussion: Introducing category or generic participant; Generic terms relevant to the subject i.e. degradation, conservation, etc; Use of comparison and contrast words i.e. also, as, like, similar to, although, differs from, however, etc; Use of linking words i.e. on the other hand, although, in contrast to, this is supported by, in spite of, however, etc; Language indicating judgment and values i.e. very funny, depressing, etc; Using present tense; The writer uses repetition of words, phrases and concepts deliberately, for effect; Use of passive voice i.e. verbs in which the subject is acted upon and not doing the action. This helps structure the text (e.g. We would like to suggest that an enquiry be held into the running of the steel mills and Water is being polluted); Conjunctions that can exemplify and show results - they are usually used in concluding statements to finalize arguments; Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


Verbs are used when expressing opinions (e.g. I think ... are the best! and We believe students should not be stopped from eating junk food!); Using thinking verb, e.g. feel, hope, believe, etc; Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection, e.g. similarly, on the hand, however, etc; Using modalities, e.g. must, should, could, may, etc; Using adverbial of manner, e.g. deliberately, hopefully, etc.

Example of discussion: Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Many farmer and even conservationists, however, have always argued that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.

Explanation Text Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say why and how of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books. There are two basic types of explanation which focus on: How (e.g. how does a pump work, how does a computer work, how are mountains formed, how does a spider spin a web); Why (e.g. why do some things float or sink, why is the ozone layer getting thinner, why does iron go rusty, why do living things need food).

Generic structure of explanation: General statement, stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained; Sequenced explanation, stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena; Closing.

Language feature of explanation: Featuring generic participant, e.g. sun, rain, etc; Using chronological connection, e.g. to begin with, next, etc; Using action verbs, e.g. go, do, help, etc; Using passive voice, e.g. are changed, is sealed, etc; Using non human participant, e.g. the sea, the jungle, etc; Use of nouns tends to be general rather than specific, e.g. cars, boats, spiders, schools, etc; Using conjunction, e.g. and, so, then, after this so, etc; Using simple present tense.

Example of explanation: How Day and Night Happen? Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


The sun seems to rise in the morning, crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Earths turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It is called as rotation. It causes day and night. The earth also moves around the sun. It takes 365 days or a year. This process is called revolution. The revolution process causes the changes of the season.

Procedure Text Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series. Procedure is same meaning with instruction. Generic structure of procedure: Goal, showing the purpose; Material, telling the needed materials; Step one to end or methods, describing the steps to achieve the purpose.

Language feature of procedure: Using temporal conjunction; Focuses on generalized people rather than individuals, e.g. first you take, rather than first I take, etc; The reader is often referred to in a general way, i.e. pronouns you or one; Using simple present tense; Detail information on how; Using action verb, e.g. dont cut, mix, crack, etc; Detail factual description; Using technical language; Using adverb to tell how the action should be done, i.e. for five minutes, etc; Begin with verbs and are stated as commands; Using time words or numbers; Using imperative sentence.

There are different procedural texts for different purposes: Texts that explain how something works or how to use instruction or operation manuals (e.g. how to use the video, how to operate the computer, the tape recorder, the photocopier, etc); Texts that instruct how to do a particular activity e.g. recipes, rules for games, science experiments, road safety rules; Texts that deal with human behavior (e.g. how to live happily, how to succeed, etc).

Example of procedure: Planting Chillies Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. The following is guided information on how to plant a chilli-plant easily. Here are the steps. Firstly, dry a handful seeding under the sunlight. Secondly, put the seeding on the soil. It should be in open area. Next, wait it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


Finally, put it in another big pot. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chillies soon.

News Item Text News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Generic structure of news item: Main event (newsworthy events); Elaboration (background events, participant, time, place); Resource of information.

Language feature of news item: Focusing on circumstances; Using material process; Using projecting verbal processes in sources stages; Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline.

Example of news item: Indonesian Maid Beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer, the Saudi Interior Minister said. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Rape, murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Last year, Saudi Arabia, which follows a strict interpretation of Syria, Islamic law executed more than 130 people.

Review Text Review is a piece of a text that shows the critique to some events or art for readers. Sample of review are film and book, etc. Generic structure of review: Orientation (or identification); Evaluation 1; Interpretative recount; Evaluation 2 (if any); Evaluative summation. Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


Language feature of review: Focus on participant; Using adjective, e.g. bad, good, etc; Long clausal and complex; Metaphor.

Example of review: Harry Potter: The Order of the Phoenix I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart. I have to say that of all of the books. However, this was not my favorite. When the series began it was as much of a feel good experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fastpaced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying. The Order of The Phoenix is different kind of book. In some instances this works. You feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly move by the last page. Other times the book just has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if were reading all about Harry just hanging out- instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example, housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or not, and Im not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. A few order changes in this book, the real world comes much more into play rather that the fantasy universe of the previous book. And Harry has apparently been taken off this meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friends heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it did not fit with his character, like he turned in to a walking clich often angry teen overnight. The real story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. And this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great.

Description Text Description is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to describe a special place and explain why it is special, to describe the most important person in your life, or to describe the animals habitat in your report. In other words, description text is to describe a particular person, place, or thing. Descriptive writing is usually used to help a writer develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects, and more. Language feature of description: To engage a readers attention; To create characters; Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


Using simple present tense; Focus on specific participants; Using attributive and identifying processes; Frequent use of epithets (adjective or adjective phrase) and classifier in nominal groups; Linking verbs; To set a mood or create an atmosphere; To bring writing to life; Aims to show rather than tell the reader what something/someone is like; Relies on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs; Is focused and concentrates only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description; Sensory description - what is heard, seen, smelt, felt, tasted. Precise use of adjectives, similes, metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind e.g. Their noses were met with the acrid smell of rotting flesh; Strong development of the experience that puts the reader there focuses on key details, powerful verbs and precise nouns.

Generic structure of description: Identification, identifies phenomenon to be described; Description, describes parts, qualities, characteristic.

Example of description: Natural Bridge National Natural Bridge National Park is a luscious tropical rainforest. It is located 110 kilometers south of Brisbane, and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang, and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park. The phenomenon of the rock formed in to a natural arch and the cave through which a waterfall cascades is a short one kilometer walk below a dense rainforest canopy from the main picnic area. Swimming is permitted in the rock pools. The picnic areas offer toilets, barbecues, shelter sheds, water and fireplaces, overnight camping is not permitted.

Argument Text To support ideas presented in sequence to justify a particular stand or viewpoint that a writer is taking. The writers purpose is to take a position on some issue and justify it. An argument usually consists of the following: A statement of position at the beginning; A logical sequence; The argument is put forward in a series of points with back up evidence; A good argument shows cause and effect. This is the connection between an action and what leads to it, e.g. The fish died as a result of pollution in the water or Violence in movies contributes to violence in society; Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


A summing up or restating of position at the end.

Types of arguments: To plead a case - letters to the school principal/local council with regard to current issues; To promote/sell goods and services - advertisement writing to promote the school concert/sports; To put forward an argument - school uniforms should not be compulsory.

Language feature of arguments: The argument is written in the timeless present tense. This might change to the past if historical background to the issue was being given. If predictions are being made the tense might change to the future; The writer uses repetition of words, phrases and concepts deliberately, for effect; Verbs are used when expressing opinions, e.g. I think ... are the best! or We believe students should not be stopped from eating junk food; Strong effective adjectives are used; Thought provoking questions are used. These may be asked as rhetorical questions. Rhetorical questions: a question asked only for effect, not for information (e.g. Would you give your pre-scholar matches to play with?); Use of passive verbs to help structure the text; Written in the timeless present tense; Use of pronouns (I, we, and us) is used to manipulate the reader to agree with the position argued (e.g. We all know that smoking causes cancer so we do not smoke); Use of emotive language i.e. words that will appeal to the reader's feelings, e.g. concern, unreasonable, should, etc; Use of passive voice i.e. verbs in which the subject is acted upon and not doing the action. This helps structure the text (e.g. We would like to suggest that an enquiry be held into the running of the steel mills or Water is being polluted); Conjunctions that can exemplify and show results - they are usually used in concluding statements to finalize arguments.

More language features: Debates, which are conducted orally, are a form of argument in which two opposing points of view are stated and both sides are argued. Supporting evidence for each side is put forward and finally an opinion is stated based on the two arguments.

Exposition text Purpose An exposition attempts to persuade the reader to believe something by presenting one side of the argument. The three parts of an exposition are: An introductory statement presents the writers point of view and previews the arguments to be presented;

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A series of arguments that aim to persuade the reader new paragraph for each new argument. A topic sentence introduces the new argument; A conclusion sums up arguments and reinforces writers point of view.

Examples: Ads, editorials, legal defense. Generic structure of exposition: Introductory statement; Argument 1; Argument 2 (if any); Argument 3 (if any); Recommendation/reinforcement.

Language feature of exposition: Emotive words that show feelings and attitudes; Words that link cause and effect i.e. otherwise, firstly, secondly, finally, etc; You can use second person words like commands; Generalizations (broad statements to support ideas); Using arguments drawn from research, and statements of others to support the point; Cause and effect words i.e. because, causes, stems from, consequently, leads to, etc; Linking words i.e. in addition, also, moreover, as well, etc; Powerful descriptive words (i.e. sensational!).

Example of exposition: Our Schools Cleanliness Degree To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school, there should be an increasing number of dust bins. When we look at classroom, school corridors and schoolyard, there papers, mineral water cops, straws, and napkin everywhere. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Anyway, I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. More dust bins should be put beside each step, outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. So when students want to throw away their litters, they can find the dust bins easily. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins, students do not have problem of discomfort any more. So, provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study.

Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |


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Copyright (c) 2008-2009 Rachmat Wahidi |