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Wave forces on a long pontoon (floating breakwater, floating bridges etc.) depend to a large extent on the three dimensional wave pattern. There is no deterministic method for calculating wave forces for such structures in a three dimensional sea and laboratory equipment for testing long structures in irregular three dimensional waves does hardly exist Forces, bending moments etc on floating structures may in principle be calculated on basis of a transfer function K(f,<9 ) and the two dimensional wave power spectrum E(f, 0) giving the one dimensional force power spectrum 0(f) according to 0(f) = fK2(f,0 )E(f5a)d (1) where f = frequency 9- angle between mean wave direction and direction of the individual wave component

1667

1668

COASTAL ENGINEERING

This concept, which is bemp used to a certain extent in ships hydrodynamics, is based on a linear relationship between wave height and forces, bending moments etc. The force distribution is calculated from the relationship derived by Longuet-Higgms (2) and is freauently used m wave statistics. This relationship is the following

vr*

where

(f)df

(2)

F = force k = coefficient, depending on which statistical force is wanted. The force F is the zero-upcrossmg force as defined in Fig, 7. (see chapter 3 1). For the significant force F1/3, k = 2,83, (2), (3). The whole concept is shown in Fig. 1. The transfer function K(f,O ) can be found analytically or by model tests. The purpose of the investigation described in this paper was to obtain some experimental data on the validity of the concept applied to a pontoon of rectangular cross-section. As the transfer function for such a pontoon, partly reflecting and partly transmitting the waves, is not so easily obtained by calculations, the force transfer function was found experimentally in regular waves. The wave forces in three dimensional waves were obtained in a wind wave flume. The scalar wave

1669

power spectrum has been measured, but unfortunately we have not had the opportunity to measure the directional power spectrum of the waves. We have therefore in the calculations had to make assumtion of the directional spread of the spectrum. 2. MODEL TEST ARRANGEMENT

The tested pontoon had a rectangular cross-section with width, draft an length of 0,44 m, 0,12 m and 3,00 meters respectively. The two dimensional transfer function was obtained in tests using regular waves in a test arrangement as shown in Fig. 2 Fig. 3 shows details of the pontoon and its instrumentation. The total lateral forces were measured by use of strain gauges placed at both ends of the pontoon Except for the small motions necessary to obtain a response of the strain gauges the pontoon was fixed. The tests in three dimensional waves were carried out in a wind/wave channel This channel is 78 meters long, and 3,8 meters wide. The water depth at the pontoon was 0,37 meters, while the depth in most parts of the channel was approximately 1,0 m. The test setup m the wave channel is shown in Fig. U. The waves were generated by wind with a velocity of approximately 10 m/sec. The ratio between wind velocity : and wave celerity in such wind wave flumes is generally high, and the waves tend to have a steepness which is higher than normally found in fiords and in the ocean In order to reduce the wave steepness a wave filter was placed some distance m fromt of the pontoon as shown in Fig. 4.

COASTAL ENGINEERING

Transfer function

The transfer function was obtained by runninp tests with different wave periods, wave heights and wave directions. The wave pattern xn the test basin was as indicated in Fig 2. All measurements were made before the secondary reflected waves from the walls of the test basin reached the pontoon. Fig S shows samples of the test results The diagrams show wave force vs wave height The angle between the direction of the wave propagation and the direction of force is indicated. The relation between wave force and wave height is fairly linear and "best-fit" lines showing the linear relation is drawn by eye. This relation is given by T* = K *( <<?, f)H where T* = force H = wave height K (<9,f) = coefficient depending on wave frequency and wave direction It is seen that the forces towards the "lee" direction of the waves are slightly larger than towards the "windward" side. Th3s is also revealed in the force recordings, a sample of unich is shown in Fig. 6. The reason for the difference between the forces in the two directions is believed to be higher order effects (3)

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However, at is not possible within the simple linear concept we are dealing with to include these righer order effects '.'e have therefore combined the two directions by defining another coefficient K(& ,f) as K<*,f> = K*(tf,f)lee+K-(,f)windvard The following relationship is then obtained F = K(& ,f) H where V is the double amplitude force r is comparable to H as indicated in Fig 7 8 (5)

(1J)

Based on the diagram of Fig 8 we have made a contour "map" of the transfer function as shown m Fig 9 3 2 Directional spectrum

As mentioned in the introduction we have not had the opportunity to measure the directional spectrum of the waves in the wird wave flume, however, the scalar spectrum has been obtained. The raves were measured at the pontoon site in the flume when the pontoon was ta)'en away Fig 10 shows a sample of a paper record of the waves. The waves were recorded on a magnetic tape This record was then digitized with a time interval between samples of 0,1?8 sec and the power spectrum was calculated, from a sample of 200 consecutive waves The "raw" spectrum was smoothed by the method of banning (3) The calculated spectrum is sho"n in Fir 11

1672

COASTAL ENGINEERING

It has been usual m theory on uave directional sncctra to assume a spectrum directionality function

fa(f,0 )]

where

y(0>^>

and K

= /a(f)]2 y( 0 , ft )

, .* (cos <9 )

=

(6)

K(

*>

(7)

-7?

(8)

Fig. 12 shovs y vs 0 for different values of s We have estimated the directional power stsectrun based on a cos B -law The estimate of the directional cpectrum is shown as a contour map in hp 13 The n-plication of using a cos e -lax; instead of, say, a cos o law will be discussed later. 3 3 Calculated force spectra and force distributions

Based on the transfer function and the estimated directional wave power spectrum, the force peer spectrum was calculated according to equation (1) The numerical calculation was carried out by applying ^f =0,1 sec and A<2> = ^/96. The result of the calculation is shown m Tig 14 The force distribution was calculated according to equation (2) and is shown in Tip. 15. 3 M. Me?cured forces and force distribution

The forces were recorded on both a paper and a magnetic tape A sample of a force record is shown in Tig 1G

THREE DIMENSIONAL WAVES The inert urea force power spectrum is shown in Fig together with the calculated spectrum 34

1673

The measured force distribution is shown in Fig 15 The measured force as well as the calculated force is the zero-upcrossmg force as defined in Fig 7 d 4 COHITIJTS

There is apparently a good agreement between the measured force distribution and the calculated force distribution as shown in Fig 15 however, the calculated force spectrum and the calculated force distribution is based on assumptions on the spectrum directionality function The form of the transfer-function is such 2 that a cos - directionality law will give lower cal4 culated forces than a cos & - law It is therefore deemed necessary that the directional wave spectrum should be measured 5 CONCLUSIONS

fhe work described in this paper gives an indication that the concept of eauation (1) is a useful tool for engineering purposes when dealing with forces on long floatmp pontoons like floating bridges, floating breakwaters etc

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L]7r<\A liJRL 1. 1RATTEBERG, A forces

COASTAL ENGINEERING

Conference, London, Enpland 19 60 2. LOft'GUET-HfGGIMS, 11 Research. Vol 3 On the statistical do str^-bu t ion Journal of Kar 13, 1952, no 3, pp, 246-26G Theory of seal-eeping

KORVIN KROUKOVSKY, B V.

DIRECTIONAL WAVE POWER SPECTRUM TRANSFER FUNCTION

1675

E(f,9)

K(f,s)

*-f

_y

* f

0(f)

FORCE DISTRIBUTION

o

-*- V. < F

FIG

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COASTAL ENGINEERING

FIG

TEST

ARRANGEMENT

DUMMY TEST SECTION DUMMY

1677

ELEVATION

PLAN

L*.

SECTION

A - A

IN CM

DIMENSIONS

EXAOFRATED-ff-,

*W

FIG 3

1678

COASTAL ENGINEERING

ixi Z

< X

UJ

I

0 iZ

1679

> 4 .3 i 2

FORCE DIRECTION I .

a - f > 0,8secJ -f= I.Osec-' 4-(s 125sec-' * -f = 1,5 sec" o-f= 1,75secJ .-f= 2,0 sec-1

er^75T-1^-r-.r--I

5 6 7 WAVE HEIGHT, em

J/^O5*^ PONTOON

s^ y^ (plan view)

DEFINITION

s

SKETCH

FIG 5

30

ERO

s 10 20 ek 30 DIRECTION OF WAVE CREST, RELATIVE TO PONTOON FRONT 0 =30 WAVE FREQUENCY f = 1,25 sec"1 WAVE HEIGHT H= 5,5 cm

FIG 6

SAMPLE OF FORCE

1680

COASTAL ENGINEERING

- H, REGULAR

F, REGULAR

H=WAVE F = FORCE

HEIGHT

FIG 7

DEFINITION

SKETCHES

175

2,0

FIG 8

THE

TRANSFER

FUNCTION

K ( 9, f )

1681

FIG

THE AS A

TRANSFER CONTOUR

FUNCTION MAP

K (0,f J.kg/rm,

i i

-t

i > i

,

f '

!

i '

'

i"

~

T-

1- '

; J

, A ~A l

t '-

'

f

WAVE CRESTS

1

' _

T T nV 5 .

1i

i i

* ' * i~ '

- - -* --

i i

_ -- .

, '

^ .

' ^

' ,-!

_

t ' 1 :' *

y y^

i ,

i WAVE TROUGHS

1 10-

' "

... -.

!..

-,

t"

\~ t -

*, "

! -f ^ }--! -

F--t-" - t

,,"i . i i

i -'.' -1-

i .-,

H 10

1-*

20

30

FIG 10

SAMPLE

OF

IRREGULAR

WAVES

1682

COASTAL ENGINEERING

20 f, sec"1

FIG 11

WAVE

POWER SPECTRUM

\

y

U,3"

- 3

V %N\

\\\

\\ iris =2

XV

00-

oo

0 TC/2

1683

POWER

FIG 14

FORCE

POWER

SPECTRA

1684 1

COASTAL ENGINEERING

in

o o 3 O O

tfl

(D

z o

LU

g z

p

CALC UL4 TEl

)P^.

o ""'\-1 <

t

'A

MEASUREC

"* *

V. SMALLER THAN F

FIG 15

WAVE

FORCE

PROBABILITY

DISTRIBUTIONS

s

10

-J i. -!_ J

SEAWARD

DIRECTION

_,

J_.J_ a +20

L__LL.

.1 L.J.

10

sec

30

-t-

FIG 16

WAVES

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