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Tabla 1 - Factores de conversin de unidades

Longitud
1 km = 0.62137 mi = 3281 ft = 1000 m
1 mi = 1.60935 km = 5280 ft = 8 furlongs
1 m = 3.2808333 ft = 39.3700 pg = 1.09361 yd
1 ft = 0.3048006096 m
o
1 cm = 0.3937 pg = 108 A = 10000 = 393.7 mm
1 pg = 2.54000508 cm = 25400 = 25400 m
1 m =1 =10-6 m

Densidad relativa del aceite en grados API

rea
1 km2 = 247.1044 acres = 0.3861006 millas2
1 milla2 = 640 acres = 2.589998 km2
1 acre = 0.4046873 ha = 4046.873 m2 = 43560 ft2
1m2 = 10.76387 ft2 = 1550 pg2
1 ft2 = 0.09290341 m2
1 cm2 = 0.001076387 ft2 = 0.15499969 pg2 = 154999.7 mm2
1pg2 = 6.4516258 cm2 = 106 mil2

Viscosidad

1 mPa.s = 1 cp = 6.895 x106 lb.s/ft2


141.5
API =
131.5
1 lb.s/ft2 = 0.1450 x 10-6 cp = 0.145010-6 mPa.s
densidad relativa 60 / 60 F
Donde la densidad relativa 60/60 F, significa la densidad 1 mPa.s = 1 cP = densidad.cSt
relativa del aceite a 60 F respecto a la densidad del agua a
60 F

Volumen
1 m3 = 6.28983 bl = 264.173 gal = 35.31333 ft3 = 1000 lts
1 bl 0.15899 m3 = 42 gal = 5.61458 ft3 = 158.99 lts
1 lt = 0.26417022 gal = 61.02329 pg3 = 1 dm3
1 gal = 3.785434 lts = 231 pg3 = 3785.434 cm3
1 ft3 = 28.31701 lts = 1728 pg3 = 7.48052 gal
1 quart = 946.3529 cm3 = 0.25 gal
1 acre-ft = 1233.49 m3 = 43560 ft3 = 7758.37 bl

Densidad
1 kg/dm3 = 1 gr/cm3 = 62.428 lb/ft3 = 8.3304 lb/gal
1 lb/ft3 = 0.0160 gr/cm3 = 0.1334 lb/gal
1 lb/gal = 0.1200 gr/cm3 = 7.4940 lb/ft3

Presin hidrosttica
ph (kPa) = densidad del lodo (kg/dm3) x 9.80665
x prof (m)
ph (lb/pg2) = densidad del lodo (lb/gal) x 0.0519
x prof (ft)

Conversin de Temperatura
F=1.8(C) + 32
F 32
C =
1.8
R=F+459.69
K=C+273.16

Presin
1 kPa = 0.1450 lb/pg2 = 0.0102 kg/cm2 = 0.0100 bar = 0.0098 atm
1 lb/pg2 = 6.8948 kPa = 0.0703 kg/cm2 = 0.0689 bar = 0.0680 atm
1 kg/cm2 = 98.0665 kPa = 14.2223 lb/pg2 = 0.9806 bar = 0.9678 atm
1 bar = 100 kPa = 14.5030 lb/pg2 = 1.0197 kg/cm2 = 0.9869 atm
1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.6959 lb/pg2 = 1.0333 kg/cm2 = 1.0133 bar

Gradiente de presin
1 kPa/m = 0.0476 lb/pg2/ft = 0.0102 kg/cm2/m
1 lb/pg2/ft = 21.0207 kPa/m = 0.2311 kg/cm2/m
1 kg/cm2/m = 98.0665 kPa/m = 4.3349 lb/pg2/ft
lb/pg2/ft = 0.433 x densidad (gr/cm3)
lb/pg2/ft = 0.0069 x densidad (lb/ft3)
lb/pg2/ft = 0.0519 x densidad (lb/gal)
kPa/m = 9.8066 x densidad (gr/cm3)
bar/m = 0.0981 x densidad (gr/cm3)

Sistema ingles / campo


1 ft = 12 pg
1 mi = 5280 ft
1 acre = 43560 ft2
1 mi2 = 640 acres
1 bl = 42 gal = 5.6146 ft3
1 lb = 32.174 lbm x ft2/s2
1 psi = 1 lb/pg2 = 144 lb/ft2
1 atm = 14.696 lb/pg2
1 BTU = 778.17 lb-ft = 25037 lbm-ft2/s2
1 hp = 42.41 BTU/min
L = 141.5/(131.5+API) , agua = 1
L = 8.34 pg = 62.4 lbm/ft3
1 lbm-mol = 493.52 mol
1 lbm-mol = 380 ft3 C.R

Equivalencias comunmente usadas


1 gal de agua pesa 8.34 lbf
1 ft3 de agua pesa 62.4 lbf
1 pg3 de Hg pesa 0.491 lbf
la masa de 1 m3 de agua es 1000 kg

Tabla 2 - Factores de unidades de conversin.


Multiplicar
acre
ngstrom
atm
atm
atm
atm
atm
atm
atm
bar
bar
Btu
Btu
Btu
Btu
Btu/hr
Btu/hr
Btu/hr
Btu/lbm
Btu/hrR
cal (gr-cal)
cal (gr-cal)
cm
cm
eV
ft
ft2
ft3
ft-lb
ft-lb
ft-lb
ft-lb
gal
gal
gal
gal/min
gr/cm3
gr/cm3
Hp
hp
hp
hp
hp-hr
pg
J
J
J
J

por
43,560
1 x 10-10
1.013250
76.0
33.90
29.92
14.696
101.3
1.013x105
0.9869
105
778.17
1055
2.928x10-4
10-5
0.216
3.929x10-4
0.2931
2.326
4.1868
3.968x10-3
4.1868
0.03281
0.3937
1.602 x 10 -19
0.3048
2.2957x10-5
7.481
1.285x10-3
1.35582
3.766x10-7
1.3558
0.13368
3.785
3.7854x10-3
0.002228
1000
62.428
2545
33000
550
0.7457
2545
2.54
9.478x10-4
6.2415x1018
0.737560
1.0

se obtiene
ft2
m
bar
cm Hg
ft agua
pg Hg
pg2
kPa
Pa
atm
Pa
ft-lb
J
kW-h
calor
ft-lb / s
hp
W
kJ / kg
kJ / kgK
Btu
J
ft
pg
J
m
acre
gal
Btu
J
kW - h
N.m
ft3
L
m3
ft3/s
kg/m3
lbm/ft3
Btu/hr
ft-lb/min
ft-lb/s
kW
Btu
cm
Btu
eV
ft-lb
N-m

Multiplicar
J/s
kg
kip
kip
kJ
kJ
kJ/kg
kJ / kgK
km
km
km/h
kPa
kPa
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW-h
kW-h
lt
lt
lt
lt
lt/s
lt/s
lb
lb/pg2
lb/pg2
lb/pg2
lb/pg2
lbm
lbm/ft3
lbm/ft3
m
m/s
mi
mi
micrn
N
N-m
N-m
Pa
calor
W
W
W
W

por
1.0
2.20462
1000
4448
0.9478
737.56
0.42992
0.23885
3280.8
0.6214
0.6214
9.8693x10-3
0.14504
3413
0.9481
737.6
1.341
3413
3.6x106
0.03531
61.02
0.2642
0.001
2.119
15.85
4.4482
0.06805
2.307
2.036
6894.8
0.4536
0.016018
16.018
3.280830
196.8
5280
1.6093
1x10-6
0.22481
0.7376
1.0
1.4504x10-4
105
3.413
0.7376
1.341x10-3
1.0

se obtiene
W
lbm
lb
N
Btu
ft-lb
Btu/lbm
Btu / lbm-R
ft
mi
mi/hr
atm
lb/pg2
Btu/h
Btu/s
ft-lb/s
hp
Btu
J
ft3
pg3
gal
m3
3
ft /min
gal/min
N
atm
ft agua
pg Hg
Pa
kg
gr/cm3
kg/cm3
ft
ft/min
ft
km
m
lb
ft-lb
J
lb/pg2
Btu
Btu/hr
ft-lb/s
hp
J/s

Tabla 3 - Constantes fundamentales


Cantidad
Carga
Electrn
Protn
Densidad
Aire[STP, 32F, (0C)]
Aire[70F,(20C),1 atm]
Tierra
Mercurio
Agua de mar
Agua
Distancia
Radio de la tierra
Distacia de la tierra a la luna
Distancia de la tierra al sol
Radio de la luna
Radio del sol
Primer radio de Bohr
Aceleracin gravitacional
Tierra
Luna
Masa
Masa atmica unitaria
Tierra
Electrn
Luna
Neutron
Protn
Sol
Presin, atmosfrica
Temperatura, estandar
Velocidad
Escape de la tierra
Vaci
Sonido (aire, STP)
(aire, 70F(20C)
Volumen, molal, gas ideal (STP)
Constantes fundamentales
Numero de Avogadro
Magneton de Bohr
Constante de Boltzmann
Constante de Faraday
Constante gravitacional
Constante gravitacional
Magneton nuclear
Permeabilidad al vaci
Permeabilidad al vaci
Constante de Planck
Constante de Rydberg
Constante del gas especifico, aire
Constante de Stefan-boltzmann
Punto triple, agua
Constante universal del gas

Smbolo

Ingls

SI
-1.6022 x10-19 C
+1.6021 x10-19 C

e
p
0.0805 lbm/ft3
0.0749 lbm/ft3
345 lbm/ft3
849 lbm/ft3
64.0 lbm/ft3
62.4 lbm/ft3

1.29 kg/m3
1.20 kg/m3
5520 x104 kg/m3
1025 kg/m3
1000 kg/m3

2.09 x 107 ft
1.26 x 109 ft
4.89 x 1011 ft
5.71 x 106 ft
2.28 x 109 ft
1.736 x 10-10 ft

6.370 x106 m
3.84 x108 m
1.49 x1011 m
1.74 x106 m
6.96 x108 m
5.292 x10-11 m

32.174 (32.2) ft/s2


5.47 ft / s2

9.8067 (9.81) m / s2
1.67 m / s2

3.66 x 10-27 lbm


1.32 x 1025 lbm
2.008 x 10-30 lbm
1.623 x1023 lbm
3.693 x 10-27 lbm
3.688 x 10-27 lbm
4.387 x 1030 lbm
14.696(14.7) lb/pg2
32 F (492 R)

1.6606 x10-27 kg
6.00 x1024 kg
9.109 x10-31 kg
7.36 x1022 kg
1.675 x10-27 kg
1.673 x10-27 kg
1.99 x1030 kg
1.0133 x105 Pa
0 C (273 K)

3.67 x104 ft/s


9.84 x108 ft/s
1090 ft / s
1130 ft / s
359 ft3 / lbm-mol

1.12 x104 m / s
2.999792(3.00) x108 m / s
331 m / s
344 m / s
22.414 m3 / kmol
22414 L / kmol

a0

me
mn
mp

c
a
Vm
NA
B
k
F
gc
G
N
O
O
H
R
R

R
R

5.65 x10-24 ft-lb /R


32.174 lbm-ft/lb-s2
3.44 x10-8 ft4/lb-s4

53.3 ft-lb/lbm-R
1.71 x10-9 btu /ft2-hr-R4
32.02 F, 0.0888 psia
1545 ft-lb/lbmol-R
1.986 btu/lbmol-R

6.022 x1023 mol-1


9.2732 x10-24 J / T
1.3807 x10-23 J / T
96485 C /mol
6.673 x10-11 N m2/ kg2
5.050 x10-27 J / T
1.2566 x10-6 N / A2 (H/m)
8.854 x10-12 C2 /N m2 (F/m)
6.6256 x10-34 J*s
1.097 x107 m-1
287 J / kg K
5.670 x10-8 W/m2 K4
0.01109 C, 0.6123 kPa
8314 J/kmol K
8.314 kPa m3 / kmol K