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EARTH
THIRD EDITION

Frank Press

Raymond Siever

EARTE{
THIRD EDITION

Frank Press
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Raymond Siever
HARVARD UNTVERSITY

W. H. FREEMANAND COMPANY New York

Preface xiii Acknowledgments

xvii

Part I

THE EVOTUTION OF THE EARTH AND HOW WE STUDY IT 1.


Chapter L History of the Earth and Solar System 3 The Uniqueness of Planet Earth 3 Aspects of Geology 4 Origin of the System of Planets 5 Earth as an Evolving Plahet I Heating, Overturn, and Formation of a Differentiated Earth LL The Earth Machine Set in Motion, Much as We Know It Todav 16 Summary / Exercises / Bibliography Chapter 2 The Rock Record and the Geological Time Scale 28

How Long Is a Long Time? 23 The Rock Record 25 Rbcks as Records of Earth Movements 37 Evolution and the Time Scale 39 Absolute Time and the Geological Time Scale 40 The Clocks in Rocks: Radioactive Atoms 42 Ages of Meteorites 46 How to Synchronize Clocks: The Stratigraphic and Absolute Time Scales An Overview of the Geological Clock 48 Suminary / Exercises / Bibliography Chapter 3 Rocks and Minerals 51

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The Materials of Earth s1 Crystals: Faces and Symmetry 53 Minerals and the Microscope 56 The Atomic Structure of Minerals 57 X Rays: The Diagnostic Tool of Mineralogy 64 Physical and Chemical Properties of Minerals 64 Rocks as Mineral Aggregates 70 Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography

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THE SKIN OF THE EARTH: SURFACEPROCESSES 79


Chapter 4 Weathering: The Decomposition of Rocks 81

How Long Does a Rock Last? 81 The Weathering of Feldspar 83 ') Dissolving Without a Trace BB Conceptsof Stability 91 Fragmentation 92 Soil: The Residue of Weathering 96 Weathering: Source of Sediments 99 Chemical Weathering as the Reaction of Atmosphere, Ocean, and Crust 100 Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography Chapter 5 Erosion and Landscape 105 Mass Movements 105 The Form of the Surface: High and Low 113 A Contrast in TopograPhY 11'4 The Overall Pattern 115 Climate and Topography 117 Landforms: The Physiognomy of the Earth 119 Evolution of Landscape 125 Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography Chapter 6 The Natural Water Cycle and Groundwater Water, Water, Everywhere... 129 Water Transport: The Hydrologic Cycle 130 Water in the Ground 135 The Quality of Water 143 'J'48 Where Did All the Water Come From? The Constancy of Sea-WaterComposition 149 Summary / Exercises Bibliography / Chapter 7 Rivers: Currents, Channels, and Networks How Currents Move Particles 155 Erosion by Currents 160 The River as a System 162 Drainage Networks 174 The End of the Line: Deltas 179 Summary / Exercises Bibliography / Chapter 8 Wind, Dust, and Deserts 187 How Much Can the Wind CarrY? 187 Wind Erosion 191 Deserts:Much Wind and Rare Water 192 Deoositional Landforms of the Wind: Dunes 198 Dust Falls 203 Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography The Flow of Ice: Glaciers 2O7 155 129

Chapter 9

The Formation of Glaciers 2O7 How Ice Moves 2LL Shapesand Sizesof Glaciers 213 Glacial Erosion and Deposition 216 The PleistoceneEpoch and Indirect Effects of Glaciation 225 Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography

CONTENTS

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Chapter 1O Ocean Processes 231 The Edge of the Sea 2ir2 Beaches 2J5 Tides 243 ContinentalShelves 246 Continental Slope and Rise 2SO Turbidity Currents ZS.t The ProfiIe of the Oceans ZSJ oceanic circulation and Transport of Terrigenoussediment Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography Chapter 11 Sedimentation and Sedimentary Rocks 269 Sedimentation as a Downhill process 269 Clastic Sediments 27O

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Clastic SedimentaryEnvironments 278 Chemical Sediments: Carbonates and Their Depositional Environments Other Chemical Sediments 286 Burial and Accumulation of Sediment 25.J. Tectonics and Sediment Composition 295 Sediment into Rock: Diagenesis 2gE Summary / Exercises / Bibliography Chapter 1.2 Earth and Life 2gg

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Life Begins Zgg The Oldest Fossils AOz Extraterrestrial Life 306 Interactions of Life with the Environment 307 Hazards to the Environment 30S Carbon Dioxide and Climate 8L2 Using Land with GeologicalForesight B1g Summary / Exercises Bibliography /

Part III

THE BODY oF THE EARTH: INTERNAT pRocESSES s17


Chapter 13 The Internal Heat of the Earth 819 Heat production and Transfer in the Earth Thermal State of the Interior 3zz Surnmary / Exercises/ Bibliography Formation of Igneous Rocks 331 Granite 381 Melting and Crystallization 383 Magmatic Differentiation 33b Origin of Magma 339 Summary / Exercises Bibliography / Volcanism S4S

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Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Volcanic Deposits B4b Eruptive Styles ZEz Case Histories of Volcanoes 363 The Global pattern of Volcanism 366 Volcanism and Human Affairs ZTO Summary / Exercises/ Bibliography