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Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

1.0 Introduction
The vast majority of municipal works vehicles in the western world today are equipped with hydrostatic travel and service drives. This is true of every power range, from less than 10 kW to over 180 kW, and is attributable to the high demands imposed on the drive system, particularly as regards the following aspects: High operational safety Easy handling Integrated safety functions Ecological aspects are also becoming more important: Low-noise operation Use of biodegradable fluids to prevent pollution Low fuel consumption Thanks to their particular advantages, hydrostatic transmissions can meet these requirements for the travel drive and for the service drive: Load limiting control of the diesel engine Pressure cut-out by the variable displacement pump, ensuring loss-free protection for the drive as a whole Pressure cut-out in the variable-speed motor Power control over the full conversion range Control of the transmission at constant diesel speed Rpm-dependent control of the transmission via the diesel engine Inching function Demand-based control of the working hydraulics

Fig. 1: Municipal works vehicles



A4VG / A10VG


Leo Oberwalleney / VMT2/E Brueninghaus Hydromatik GmbH Elchingen plant Phone +49 (0) 7308 / 82 24 24 Fax +49 (0) 7308 / 53 38 E-Mail:

Fig. 2: Hydrostatic drive for municipal works vehicles

RE 00 207/10.00


Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

Operating pressure (rpm)

2.0 Cost-efficient Drives for low Power Ranges

The pressure of costs is particularly high for small municipal vehicles. Design engineers are compelled to look around for low-cost solutions without giving up the advantages of a hydrostatic drive. For this reason, Brueninghaus Hydromatik has considerably enlarged the block of components making up the MHD group (medium high pressure). Advantages of MHD components: Low-cost versions Availability of matching sizes Compact design, higher power density Large range of open and closed-loop control devices Cost savings for installation / piping To meet the specific requirements of the various vehicles, the correct choice of open and closed-loop control elements must be taken into account in the planning phase. The solutions are always tailored to the practical case in question. Complex control mechanisms are not always required. a) Mechanical pivot control MD Basic control with direct mechanical action on the swashplate, e.g. via a foot pedal for controlling speed and direction. Features: Low cost Integrated internal gear pump and MHD lowpressure valves Swivel cradle mounted in rolling bearings for low control and retaining forces (dependent on pressure, speed and swivel angle) Mechanical spring centering for zero positioning 100% through drive, e.g. for tandem pump




A10VG / A10VO A10VM / A10VE A10FM


250 bar


350 bar


450 bar
High pressure

Medium pressure

Medium high pressure

Fig. 3: Medium high-pressure range MHD

b) Hydraulic direct control DG The direct control DG is a very simple and lowcost type of hydraulic pump control. The control pressure pst is applied directly to the pump control cylinder via control pressure generators from Rexroth with optimized characteristics (pressure reducing valve). Features: No mechanical parts No zero-position problems Soft, jerk-free travel, progressive pedal adjustment Load limiting control through pump reset forces Feed rate dependent on load


Fig. 5: Variable displacement pump A10VG, with hydraulic direct control

Acceleration pedal 2TH6 R - 2TH7 R

Constant acceleration

pSt x1 x2 G B





FR:Reset forces

Fig. 4: Variable displacement pump A10VG 18MD, mechanical pivot control

Fig. 6: Hydraulic direct control DG


RE 00 207/10.00

Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

c) Flange-mounted flushing and boost pressure valve If a flushing valve on the motor side is impossible for technical reasons, this valve can also be flanged directly onto the service ports of the A10VG pump on the primary side. Features: Simple piping resulting in cost savings Variable flushing rate from 4 to 22 L/min, depending on deflector plate setting Pressure sustaining valve (16 bar) to maintain the minimum boost pressure Flushing volume by orifice selection

Fig. 7: Variable displacement pump A10VG with flange-mounted flushing and boost pressure valve

3.0 Hydrostatic Transmission with Wheel Motors and Switchable Differential Lock
Due to their resolved design, transmissions with wheel motors offer considerable advantages to the design engineer, although the majority of machines will require a solution preventing the drive wheels from slipping. The multi-pump solution is basically not new. Rexroth has taken a new approach with its MCR motors by creating a mechanical system for each axle via a switchable claw coupling. Since the deviation in speed is slight, it can be switched on and off electrohydraulically even while driving.

Mechanical cross connection, 100% limited-slip action Cross differential lock, can be switched on and off

Switchable claw coupling


2-pump system Longitudinal differential lock, permanent

Radial piston motor MCR

Fig. 8: Hydrostatic transmission with MCR wheel motors and switchable differential lock

RE 00 207/10.00


Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

4.0 Hydrostatic Transmission with combined Control System

In other words: Automotive travel with variable diesel speed Proportional travel with constant diesel speed In multi-functional vehicles and working vehicles, automotive driving can be of advantage for travelling on the road, when the ground speed is controlled exclusively via the accelerator pedal as in a passenger car. During the actual work process, on the other hand, it is better to operate with constant throttle (constant speed of the PTO shaft, fan, sweeper, etc.) with infinitely variable ground speed, usually in the lower speed range. These two states can be optimized with the aid of a combination control, i.e. automotive travel and working with constant throttle. While the direction of travel and the maximum speed are preset via any chosen control unit (HWHD-EP), the coordinating DA control valve controls the diesel in accordance with the load limits and ensures a speed-dependent build-up of control pressure for automotive driving when travelling on the road. This robust and cost-efficient control element has already become an established part in many transmission systems for municipal works vehicles. The variable-speed motor A6VM with HA1U control (HA = dependent on high pressure) on the secondary side has become established for highspeed vehicles. Features: Automatic control, i.e. traction is increased without external signals Full power transmission with constant working pressure Integrated electrical or hydraulic override for the operation in progress

Inching function

Load limiting control as Direction of travel a function of ground speed / engine speed EP HW DA HD

Hand-operated accelerator lever




Accelerator pedal


Variable displacement Through drive pump for PTO shaft

Variable displacement motor

Fig. 9: Hydrostatic transmission with combined control system

Control unit

Pressure cut-off

DA control valve A6VM

Bild 10: Variable Displacement pump A4VG Bild 11: Variable Displacement motor A6VM

Fig. 12: Multi-functional vehicle

Fig. 13: Multi-functional vehicle


RE 00 207/10.00

Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

5.0 Hydrostatic Transmission with Microprocessor Control

Electronic systems are becoming more and more widespread. Such complex functions as: motor pump control, gearbox management, diesel engine management, traction control for single-wheel drives and implement hydraulics, etc. cannot be implemented without the help of microcontrollers. Almost all municipal works vehicles are equipped for different driving modes, such as: working, road travel or repositioning. The advantages of electronic systems are particularly useful here, as they permit adjustment of the operating modes and characteristic curves. Example: Driving program with load limiting control (FGR) Controlled driving and braking through downstream pump motor control. Programmed control of the engine strain The drive is controlled independently of temperature and viscosity Data are exchanged with the diesel engine via a CAN bus interface Limitation of the maximum diesel speed (overspeed safety) Can be optimized with the control box BB3 or BODEM software during commissioning Easy access for diagnostic purposes and troubleshooting Limp home concepts are available for emergency operation so that the vehicle can be towed home or drive at low speed via redundant sensors, for example. The use of electronics essentially presupposes that: a) the service personnel have been duly instructed and trained and b) appropriate equipment / diagnostic tools are available.
Fig. 15: Road sweeper

Selection: Ground Direction work / road Service brake travel speed of travel
RS 232

Programming, diagnostics via PC, BB3

Microcontroller + FGR software


Implement hydraulics Steering

A4VG...EPD Travel drive Electronic injection pump

A10VO Implement hydraulics

A6VM Travel drive

Fig. 14: Hydrostatic transmission with microprocessor control

RE 00 207/10.00


Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

Traction effort

6.0 Hydrostatic Transmission with Mechanical Bridging

A hydromechanical drive may prove the best answer for vehicles with extensive road travel. Such a drive combines the familiar advantages of a hydrostatic drive with the high efficiency of a mechanical drive. The vehicle is driven entirely by the hydrostatic system in the working range, while this is bridged mechanically for road travel. The changeover is effected automatically via an electrically actuated clutch while driving. The switching point can be defined by the gear ratio as desired, for instance at 30 km/h. The complete drive is controlled by a microcontroller. Advantages of the system: Lower fuel consumption Lower driving noise Smaller hydraulic components and oil cooler Combined mechanical and hydrostatic travel drive is widely used throughout the world particularly in large road sweepers, in which a conventional truck chassis is modified to include a special gearbox in the drive train. This gearbox accommodates the hydraulic components for both the hydrostatic travel drive and the working hydraulics. Two operating modes can be selected, usually when the vehicle is stationary: a) Mechanical travel drive for road travel via the truck gearbox, hydraulic components are at a standstill. b) Hydrostatic travel drive for working, e.g. vf = 0 12 km/h for sweeping = 0 25 km/h for repositioning The advantages of the hydrostatic drive make themselves fully felt here: Infinite adjustment of the feed rate without engaging the clutch and changing gear Easy change of direction, more convenient operation Eminently suitable for braking Low fuel consumption and low noise emissions due to driving at lower drive speeds

MC + Software

Hydrostatic drive

with losses low-loss

b a
Mechanical drive Switching point







Speed v
Fig. 16: Hydrostatic transmission with mechanical bridging and automatic changeover

Hydraulic power flow

Mechanical power flow

Fig. 17: Mechanical truck drive with coordinating hydrostatic system (example: large road sweeper)


RE 00 207/10.00

Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles

7.0 Suction Blower Drive for Sweepers

The intake turbine is variously positioned in the compact sweepers. Our 40 axial piston motor A2FM/A2FE in bent-axis design has proved particularly suitable for mounting the fanwheel directly. Due to the O arrangement of the taper roller bearings, the drive shaft is rigidly clamped and the generously dimensioned taper roller bearings can effectively absorb the axial and above all radial loads (Fq). Our plug-in motor A2FE has proved particularly suitable here on account of the recessed flange. Advantages: Ideally suited for direct mounting of the turbine Very high efficiency, large speed reserves, lownoise operation Compact, suitable for low overall heights Integrated speed sensor Integrated bypass valve for delayed fan switchoff

Fig. 18: Suction Blower Drive for Sweeper

Fig. 19: Large Road Sweeper

RE 00 207/10.00


Hydrostatic Drives for Municipal Works Vehicles


RE 00 207/10.00