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Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Detailed Curriculum of M. Tech Programme in Thermal Science and Engineering (ME 2)

Semester 1

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Semester

ME60013

Conduction and Radiation Heat Transfer

3

1

0

4

1

ME60011

Fluid Mechanics

3

1

0

4

1

ME60301

Thermodynamics

3

1

0

4

1

ME60357

Mathematical Methods in Thermal Engineering

3

1

0

4

1

 

Elective I

3

0/1

0

3/4

1

ME69005

Experimental Methods in Thermal Engineering

0

0

3

2

1

ME69321

Seminar I

0

0

3

2

1

   

15

4/5

6

23/24

 

Semester 2

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Sub. Name

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Semester

ME60014

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

3

1

0

4

2

ME69322

Seminar II

0

0

3

2

2

 

Elective II

3

0/1

0

3/4

2

 

Elective III

3

1

0

4

2

 

Elective IV

3

1

0

4

2

 

Elective V

3

1

0

4

2

ME69006

CFD Laboratory

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0

3

2

2

   

15

4/5

6

23/24

 

Semester – III

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Subjects

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ME68022

Comprehensive Viva

0

0

0

3

ME67021

Thesis – Part I

0

0

0

20

 

Semester – IV

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Subjects

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ME67022

Thesis – Part II

0

0

0

20

Elective I

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Sub. Name

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Semester

ME60146

Environmental Pollution & Abatement

3

0

0

3

1

ME60209

Nuclear Power Generation & Safety

3

1

0

4

1

ME60073

Computational Methods in Thermal Engineering

3

1

0

4

1

ME60111

Internal Combustion Engines

3

1

0

4

1

ME60085

Refrigeration Systems

3

1

0

4

1

ME60105

Atmospheric Flow

3

1

0

4

1

ME60101

Non-conventional sources of energy

3

1

0

4

1

Electives II, III, IV,V

 

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Semester

ME60107

Thermal Systems Design

3

0

0

3

2

ME60012

Computational Fluid Dynamics

3

1

0

4

2

ME60208

Solar Energy Technology

3

1

0

4

2

ME60210

Theory of Combustion & Emission

3

1

0

4

2

ME60212

Turbulence

3

1

0

4

2

ME60086

Waste Heat Recovery

3

1

0

4

2

ME60088

Compressible Flow

3

1

0

4

2

ME60098

Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion

3

1

0

4

2

ME60096

Air-Conditioning and Ventilation

3

1

0

4

2

ME60084

Hydel Power and Wind Energy

3

1

0

4

2

ME60136

Two Phase Flow

3

1

0

4

2

ME60138

CFD in Manufacturing Processes

3

1

0

4

2

ME60310

Microfluidics

3

1

0

4

2

SYLLABI FOR CORE SUBJECTS

ME60011

Fluid Mechanics

Concept of continuum and definition of a fluid. Body and surface forces, stress tensor, principle of local stress equilibrium. Scalar and vector fields, Eulerian and Lagrangian description of flow. Motion of fluid element- translation, rotation and deformation; vorticity and strain-rate tensors. Continuity equation, Cauchy’s equations of motion, Transport theorems. Constitutive equations-Stokes law of viscosity. Derivation of Navier- Stokes equations for compressible flow. Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations: plane Poiseuille flow and Couette flow, Hagen-Poiseuille flow, flow between two concentric rotating cylinders, Stokes first and second problems, Hiemenz stagnation-point flow, flow near a rotating disk, flow in convergent-divergent channels. Slow viscous flow: Stokes and Oseen's approximation, theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. Boundary layer:

derivation, exact solutions, Blasius, Falkner Skan, series solution and numerical solutions. Approximate methods. Momentum integral method. Two dimensional and axisymmetric jets. Introduction to hydrodynamic stability, Orr-Sommerfeld equation, neutral curve of linear stability for plane Poiseuille flow. Description of turbulent flow, velocity correlations, Reynolds stresses. Equations for turbulence kinetic energy and kinetic energy of mean flow. Eddy viscosity models of turbulence: zero-equation, one-equation and two-equation models. Prandtl's Mixing Length Theory. Empirical laws: law of the wall, velocity defect law, universal velocity distribution.

ME60013

Conduction and Radiation Heat Transfer

Derivation of heat conduction equation. Analytical solutions. Eigen value problems. Solution of heat conduction equation by Laplace transform, Fourier transform and separation of variables techniques. Contact resistance. Transient heat conduction, conduction with moving boundary, solidification and melting. Problems with periodic boundary conditions. Fundamentals of thermal radiation; integral equation for radiative exchange; view factors. Radiative exchange between surfaces: black surfaces, gray, diffuse, partially specular surfaces. Radiative properties of participating media: introduction to gas properties, wide band models, total emissivity, particle properties. Radiative transfer through participating media: gray, plane-parallel slab; approximate methods; non-gray media.

ME60014

Convective Heat and Mass Transfer

Forced Convective Heat Transfer: Introduction to heat transfer by convection, a review of viscous flow, conservation of mass and momentum – the continuity and Navier-Stokes equation, boundary layer equation, laminar boundary layer over a flat plate, boundary layer separation, energy equation, derivation of energy equation, energy equation in non dimensional form, derivation of thermal boundary layer equation, heat transfer in a parallel flow over a flat surface, analogy between momentum and heat transfer in turbulent flow, heat transfer in parallel flow and cross flow over a cylinder, heat transfer in parallel flow over a sphere, heat transfer for impinging jets, forced convection in internal flows, concept of entrance length and fully developed flow, heat transfer in high speed flow; Natural Convection Heat Transfer: Governing equation and similarity considerations, free convection in laminar flow over a vertical plate, empirical co-relation in external free convection flows, inclined plates, long horizontal cylinder, spheres, free convection in enclosures, and cavities, concentric cylinders, concentric spheres, combined free and forced convection. Heat Transfer with Phase Change: Heat transfer in boiling, modes of boiling, regimes of pool boiling, pool boiling correlation, critical heat flux in nucleate pool boiling, forced convection boiling, modes of condensation, theory of film condensation, laminar and turbulent film condensation on a vertical plate, film condensation inside and outside horizontal tubes, drop wise condensation, heat pipes, theory of heat pipes, design limitations, heat transfer in freezing and melting; Mass Transfer: Mechanism and fundamental concepts, definition of concentration, mass fluxes and mole fluxes, Ficks law of diffusion, temperature and pressure dependence of mass diffusivity, diffusion in a multi component system, theory of diffusion in gases and liquids, mass transfer coefficient, conservation of species for a control volume – species continuity equation, equimolar counter diffusion, simultaneous heat and mass transfer.

ME60301

Thermodynamics

Review of basic thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, entropy, entropy balance for closed and open systems. Exergy: Concept of reversible work & irreversibility; Second law efficiency; Exergy change of a system: closed & open systems, exergy transfer by heat, work and mass, exergy destruction, exergy balance in closed & open systems; Exergy analysis of industrial systems – power systems and refrigeration systems. Cycle analysis and optimization: Regenerative reheat Rankine cycle and Brayton cycle, combined cycle power plants, multi-stage refrigeration systems. Thermodynamic optimization of irreversible systems: Finite time thermodynamics principles, optimization studies of various thermal systems, Minimization of entropy generation principle. Properties of Gas Mixtures: Equation of state and properties of ideal gas mixtures; Change in entropy on mixing; Partial molal properties for non-ideal gas mixtures; Equations of state; Thermodynamics of Reactive System: Conditions of equilibrium of a multiphase - multicomponent system; Second law applied to a reactive system; Condition for reaction equilibrium.

ME60357

Mathematical Methods in Thermal Engineering

Linear Algebra: Vector space, Norms of vectors and matrices, Condition number of matrices, Singular value decomposition, Backward error analysis, Concept of linear dependence and independence, Characteristics of linear systems, Eigen values and eigenvectors. Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Differentiation under integral sign (Leibnitz rule), Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Vector operators and identities, Directional derivatives, Line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems, Introduction to calculus of variations, Transform calculus: Fourier and Laplace transforms Differential equations: Concept of order and degree of differential equations, First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Strum Louiville problems, Initial and boundary value problems, Concept of well-posed and ill-posed equations, Classification of PDEs and their characteristics, Parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic prototype equations Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Conformal mapping. Probability and Statistics: Fundamental definition, Conditional probability and Bayes theorem, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions, Regression analysis, Elements of sampling theory. Numerical Methods: Floating point operations and errors, Interpolation, Root finding of linear and non-linear algebraic equations, Numerical differentiation, Numerical integration, Numerical solution of ODEs: initial and boundary value problems; Numerical instability. Introduction to Cartesian tensors.

SYLLABI FOR ELECTIVE SUBJECTS

ME60012

Computational Fluid Dynamics

A brief overview of the basic conservation equations for fluid flow and heat transfer, classification of partial differential equations and pertinent physical behaviour, parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic equations, role of characteristics. Common methods of discretisation: an overview of finite difference, finite element and finite volume methods. Numerical solution of parabolic partial differential equations using finite-difference and finite-volume methods: explicit and implicit schemes, consistency, stability and convergence. Numerical solution of systems of linear algebraic equations: general concepts of elimination and iterative methods, Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, tridiagonal matrix algorithm, Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel iterations, necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence of iterative schemes, gradient search methods, steepest descent and conjugate gradient methods. The finite volume method of discretisation for diffusion problems: one-dimensional steady diffusion problems, specification of interface diffusivity, source-term linearization. Discretisation of transient one-dimensional diffusion problems. Discretisation for multi-dimensional diffusion problems. Solution of discretised equations using point and line iterations, strongly implicit methods and pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods. Convection-diffusion problems: Central difference, upwind, exponential, hybrid and power-law schemes, concept of false diffusion, QUICK scheme. Numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes system for incompressible flows: stream-function vorticity and artificial compressibility methods, requirement of a staggered grid. MAC, SIMPLE, SIMPLEC and SIMPLER algorithms. An introduction to unstructured grid finite volume methods. Special topics: Turbulence and its modelling, phase-change problems, interface/free-surface tracking methods.

ME60073

Computational Methods in Thermal Engineering

Root finding: Complex algebraic and transcendental equations. Solution of linear equations by LU decomposition and Newton Raphson method. Root finding used in integration, evaluation of areas, surface of revolution, length of curve and volumes. Evaluation of centroid of regular geometric bodies. Double integration to compute areas, triple integration to compute volumes and quadruple integration to compute view factors. Interpolation and its use in thermal engineering. Interpolation used to find pump power and flow rate from pump characteristics. Solution of ordinary differential equations, Runge-Kutta method and Euler method. Solution of non-linear equations of any order and any degree. Solution of initial value problems and boundary value problems. Solution of boundary value problem through initial value problems, shooting method, optimization of objective functions to determine the solution of boundary value problems. Application of shooting method or the optimization method to solve thermal engineering problems like: boundary layer flow on a flat plate, thermal boundary layer on a vertical and flat plate, flow near a rotating disk, Falkner-Skan wedge flow, travel of projectile in air with drag, meeting of two projectiles, temperature distribution in a circular fin, triangular fin and general solution to steady 1D heat conduction in any shape. Introduction to finite difference (FD) method. Forward, CD and upwind schemes. Solution of ODE by FD method. Solution of non-linear differential equation by EES. Introduction to stability, numerical errors and accuracy. Application of finite difference method to thermal engineering problems. Solution of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer equations by FD method. Solution of Falkner-Skan problem by FD method. Extensive Application to transient heat transfer by FD method. FD method used for 2D and 3D problems. Demonstration and use of software such as EES to apply different methods and solve system of equations (linear or nonlinear) mentioned above.

ME60084

Hydel Power and Wind Energy

Hydel Power: Stream flow data and water power estimates, use of hydrographs; hydraulic turbine, characteristics and part load performance, design of wheels, draft tubes and penstocks, cavitation; plant layouts; costing of water power. Wind Power and Engineering: Estimates of wind energy potential, wind maps; aerodynamic and mechanical aspects of wind machine design; wind tunnel simulations, conversion and storage methods; industrial applications. Instrumentation for wind velocity measurements.

ME60085

Refrigeration Systems

Reverse Carnot cycle and standard vapour compression refrigeration cycle- analysis, comparison and Ewings construction. Compressor – reciprocating, centrifugal, rotary, screw type. Volumetric efficiency and performance of single stage refrigeration system, its limitations. Multistage multi evaporator and Cascade systems. Properties of refrigerants: primary, secondary and mixtures, piping design and lubricants. Absorption refrigeration systems: LiBr-water and aqua-ammonia systems, calculations by h-x diagram. Electrolux system and solar energy applications. Steam jet refrigeration, vortex tube, thermoelectric refrigeration and Gas Cycle refrigeration. Air liquefaction cycles. Condenser and evaporators, overall heat transfer coefficient, classification, design and performance. Expansion valves: capillary tube, AEV, TEV and float value; performance and balance point. System balancing of condensing unit and evaporator.

ME60086

Waste Heat Recovery

Patterns of energy use, potential for energy conservation, optimum use of energy resources, total energy approach. Coupled cycles, combined plants and cogeneration systems. Need for energy storage, thermal electrical, magnetic and chemical energy storage systems. Utilization of industrial waste heat; gas-to-gas, gas- to-liquid and liquid-to-liquid heat recovery systems; Recuperators and regenerators, heat pipes; waste heat boilers; fluidized bed heat recovery; shell and tube heat exchangers. Prime mover exhausts; incineration plants; heat pump systems; thermoelectric devices. Utilization of low grade reject heat from power plants.

ME60088

Compressible Flow

Fundamental Aspects of Compressible Flow : Introduction, Isentropic flow in a stream tube, speed of sound, Mach waves; One dimensional Isentropic Flow : Governing equations, stagnation conditions, critical conditions, maximum discharge velocity, isentropic relations; Normal Shock Waves : Shock waves, stationary normal shock waves, normal shock wave relations in terms of Mach number; Oblique Shock Waves : Oblique shock wave relations, reflection of oblique shock waves, interaction of oblique shock waves, conical shock waves; Expansion Waves : Prandtl-Meyer flow, reflection and interaction of expansion waves, flow over bodies involving shock and expansion waves; Variable Area Flow : Equations for variable area flow, operating characteristics of nozzles, convergent-divergent supersonic diffusers; Adiabatic Flow in a Duct with Friction :

Flow in a constant area duct, friction factor variations, the Fanno line; Flow with Heat addition or removal :

One-dimensional flow in a constant area duct neglecting viscosity, variable area flow with heat addition, one- dimensional constant area flow with both heat exchanger and friction; Generalized Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow : Governing equations and influence coefficients, solution procedure for generalized flow with and without sonic point; Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow: Governing equations, vorticity considerations, the velocity potential, linearized solutions, linearized subsonic flow, linearized supersonic flow, method of characteristics.

ME60096

Air Conditioning and Ventilation

Psychrometry, simple psychometrics processes, use of psychometrics chart. Comfort and industrial air conditioning. Air filtration. Principles of ventilation. Physiological factors. Comfort index. Air conditioning systems: Spray systems, chilled water and DE Coils, absorption and adsorption systems. Humidifiers. Air conveying: fans, ducts and air diffusion equipment. Estimation of air conditioning load, determination of supply state. Design and constructional details of Unitary air conditioning equipment. Noise level and acoustic control. Automatic controls in air conditioning.

ME60098

Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion

Thermodynamic cycle analysis of gas turbines; open and closed cycles. Axial flow turbines; blade diagrams and design of blading, performance characteristics. Centrifugal and axial flow compressors, blowers and fans. Theory and design of impellers and blading. Matching of turbines and compressors. Fuels and combustion, effect of combustion chamber design and exhaust on performance. Basic principles and methods of heat recovery. Thermodynamic cycle analysis and efficiencies of propulsive devices. Thrust equation, classification and comparison of ram jets, turbojets, pulse jets and rockets. Performance of turbo-prop, turbo-jet and turbo- fan engines. Augmentation of thrust.

ME60101

Non-conventional Sources of Energy

Energy scenario and renewable energy sources: global and Indian situation. Potential of non-conventional energy sources, economics. Solar energy: radiation, flat-plate and concentrating collectors, fluid flow and heat transfer analysis, estimation of solar radiation, active systems, solar pond, passive space conditioning, power generation, photovoltaics. Principles and applications of Wave energy, Tidal energy, Biomass energy, OTEC and Geothermal energy.

ME60105

Atmospheric Flows

Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Geophysical Turbulence modelling. Stratified, coriolis and buoyancy driven flows. Rosby waves, Acoustic gravity waves. Planetary waves and atmospheric tides. Stratified atmospheric boundary layers near ground. Free convection boundary layers. Boundary layers over rough terrain. Global circulation models and related computational methods.

ME60107

Thermal Systems Design

Design objectives, principle of thermal design; system simulation and optimization. Modelling of systems. Methods of optimization, Lagrange multipliers, search methods, dynamic programming, geometric programming, linear programming. Economic considerations. Case studies.

ME60111

Internal Combustion Engines

Air standard and fuel–air cycle analysis of Otto, Diesel and limited pressure cycles. Effect of design and operating parameters on cycle efficiency. Modified fuel-air cycle considering heat losses and valve timing. Engine dynamics and torque analysis. Fuels and combustion in S.I. engines, knocking and fuel rating. Energy balance, volumetric efficiency, measurement of indicated and brake power. Advanced theory of carburetion. Cooling of engine and governing of engine. Ignition system: conventional and electronic. Supercharging. Variable compression ratio engine. Wankel rotary combustion engine. Exhaust emissions, its measurement and control. Fault diagnosis of S.I. Engines. Modelling of I.C. Engine Combustion.

ME60136

Two-Phase Flow

Introduction, different terminologies, flow regimes for single and two component vertical and horizontal flow, flow regime mappings. Conservation equations based on homogeneous flow, drift flux model, separated flow model (multi-fluid model), flooding, fluidization, two phase transportation. Brief discussion on critical flow condition. Introduction to Lockhart-Martinelli and other important correlations for pressure drop, correlations for void fraction. Detailed discussion on bubbly, slug and annular flow. Description and classification of boiling. pool boiling curve. Rohsenow correlation for nucleate boiling. Zuber’s theory for critical heat flux. Bromley theory for film boiling. Cheu’s correlation for flow boiling. Experimental methods for boiling and two phase flow.

ME60138

CFD in Manufacturing Processes

An overview of fundamentals of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow; Conservative form of governing differential equations; Classification of PDEs; Basic discretisation techniques: An overview of FEM, FDM and FVM; Control volume formulation for Diffusion type problems; Solution of systems of discretised equations; Formulation of convection-diffusion problems; Solution of fluid flow equations; Numerical solution of phase change problems in materials processing and manufacturing; Formulation of mathematical model for solidification, semiconductor crystal growth, laser materials processing, arc welding and electronics cooling; Modelling of microscale heat transfer and fluid flow in manufacturing processes.

ME60146

Environmental Pollution & Abatement

Historical perspective, classical pollution episodes. Atmospheric lapse rate, inversions and heat balance. Human respiratory system. Effects of particulate matter, gases and heavy metals on human health and vegetation materials. Classifications and sources of pollutants. CO, CO2,O2 N2 cycles – sources and sinks. Combustion processes and pollutant emission. Reactions of pollutants in the atmosphere, and their effects, smokes, smog, fog, acid rain and ozone layer. Global warming and its effects. Atmospheric diffusion of pollutants, transport, transformation and deposition on global scale. Air sampling and pollutant measurement methods, principles and instruments. Ambient air quality and emission standards. Control principles; removal of gaseous pollutants by absorption, adsorption, reaction and other methods. Selective catalytic reduction of Nox. Particulate emission control; settling chambers, cyclone separation, wet collectors, fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators. Clean coal technology and shifted emphasis on non-carbon sources of energy.

ME60208

Solar Energy Technology

Current alternate energy sources – thermodynamic view point and conversion methods. Components of solar energy systems, collector performance. Radiation and meteorological data processing, long term conversion factors. System configurations and system performance prediction. Simulations, design methods, System design and optimization. Solar thermal systems applications to power generation, heating and cooling. Solar passive devices: solar stills, ponds, greenhouse dryers. Trombe wall, overhangs and winged walls. Wind energy conversions systems. Economics of solar and wind energy systems.

ME60209

Nuclear Power Generation & Safety

Basic concepts of reactor physics, radioactivity. Neutron Scattering. Thermal & fast reactors. Nuclear cross- sections. Neutron flux & reaction rates. Moderator criteria. Reactor core design. Conversion & breeding. Types of reactors. Characteristics of boiling water, pressurized water, pressurized heavy water, gas cooled and liquid metal cooled reactors. Future trends in reactor design and operation. Thermal-hydraulics of reactors. Heavy water management. Containment system for nuclear reactor. Reactor safety radiation shields. Waste management. Indian nuclear power programme.

ME60210

Theory of Combustion and Emissions

Principles of Combustion, combustion chemistry. Thermodynamics of reactive systems. Reaction kinetics. Theory of premixed laminar and turbulent flames. Concepts of ignition and quenching, Burner systems. Gaseous diffusion flame, atomization of liquid fuel, stability and propagation of flames, droplet and spray combustion. Coal combustion : fixed bed combustion, pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustion. Mechanism and kinetics of coal combustion. Volatile and char combustion. Flames related to industrial applications. Combustion generated pollutants: various sources, modelling of emissions, industrial furnace emissions.

ME60212

Turbulence

Origin of turbulence. Hydrodynamic stability theory, Reynolds averaging and the closure problem of turbulence. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Reynolds stresses, Equations for Reynolds stresses, turbulence kinetic energy and kinetic energy of mean flow- convection, production and dissipation of turbulence, re- distribution, turbulent diffusion. Empirical laws: law of the wall, velocity-defect law, law of the wake. Universal velocity distribution. General properties of turbulence: stationary and non-stationary turbulence, homogeneous and non-homogeneous turbulence, mixing and enhanced diffusivity, nonlinearity, statistical nature, two-point correlations, turbulence scales, energy cascade, vortex stretching, energy spectrum. Turbulence modelling: eddy viscosity, Prandtl’s mixing length hypothesis, K-ε Model, application to free shear flows and wall-bounded flows.

ME60310

Microfluidics

Introduction: Fundamentals of kinetic theory-molecular models, micro and macroscopic properties, binary collisions, distribution functions, Boltzmann equation and Maxwellian distribution functions, continuum hypothesis and deviations from the same, scaling laws for micro-domains, Microscale gas flows: Wall slip effects and accommodation coefficients, flow and heat transfer analysis of microscale Couette flows, Pressure driven gas micro-flows with wall slip effects, heat transfer in micro-Poiseuille flows, effects of compressibility, introductory concepts on gas flows in transitional and free molecular regimes, some representative applications of micro-scale gas flows in accelerometers, micro-propulsion and micro-nozzles, Microscale liquid flows:

Pressure driven liquid microflow, apparent slip effects, physics of near-wall microscale liquid flows, capillary flows, electro-kinetically driven liquid micro-flows and electric double layer (EDL) effects, concepts of electro- osmosis, electrophoresis and dielectro-phoresis, analysis of hydro-dynamically and thermally fully developed electro-osmotic flows, ac electro-osmosis, an introduction to fluid dynamics over nano scales (nanofluidics), concepts of nano-fluids and their augmented transport characteristics, An introduction to bio-microfluidics and some illustrative applications (drug delivery, DNA hybridization, leuokocyte rolling etc.), An introduction to special computational modelling of micro-flows: MD and DSMC methods.

ME60356

Nuclear Fusion

Introduction to fission and fusion reactions and fusion energy: power balance in a fusion reactor, the Lawson criterion. Different types of plasma confinement/ fusion devices: Magnetic confinement: the magnetic mirror, the pinch, the tokamak, the spheromak, the stellarator, the levitated dipole. Inertial confinement: laser fusion. Basics of plasma physics: single particle motion, plasmas as fluids, waves in plasmas. Equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma: cylindrical, toroidal and helical equilibria, the Grad-Shafranov equation and its solution. Stability of a magnetically confined plasma: ideal and resistive instabilities, instabilities in cylindrical and toroidal configurations. Transport: classical and neoclassical transport. The future of fusion research:

current status of plasma physics research, the ITER project, a demonstration power plant (DEMO).