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Trans-Continental Profile: The lithospheric cross section provides a continental-scale synthesis of more than two decades of multidisciplinary research

carried out by LITHOPROBE and complementary projects. This plate-scale perspective emphasizes the relationships between orogens and permits visual comparisons regarding structure and tectonic development. The cross section includes merged interpretations, near-vertical incidence seismic reflection profiles, and P-velocity structure models. The trans-continental profile spans 6000 km. Earth curvature is incorporated. See text for details. The interpreted lithospheric structure is displayed in conjunction with seismic reflection and seismic P-wave velocity compilations; no vertical exaggeration. Transect (or experiment name if not part of a Lithoprobe transect) and seismic line names are given for each segment. Direction headings note changes in the general orientation of the profile segments. In general, the reflection fabric and velocity models are coincident; offsets are noted where present. In the migrated reflection profiles, thin red lines represent the most prominent reflections and denote fabrics and faults. The composite P-wave velocity model panels are presented using a common color scale. Velocities are also shown using numbers (km/s) and thin, dashed contour lines. Black lines represent interpreted wide-angle reflector locations. Interpretation panels represent a current synthesis of published work. Colors indicate tectonic age (see map and text). Heavy black lines represent major reflective or compositional boundaries inferred from seismic data. Anisotropic and/or heterogeneous structure in the lithospheric mantle is noted by short dashed zones. In the Western Superior transect segment, teleseismic velocity and resistivity anomalies in the lithospheric mantle are denoted by shaded ovals and corresponding annotation for average velocity (AV), high velocity (HV), low velocity (LV), and high resistivity (HR) regions (Percival et al., 2006). The teleseismic dataset revealed lateral compositional changes in the lithospheric mantle that corresponded closely with the orogenic boundary and possible subduction and delamination that were inferred from the active-source dataset (Musacchio et al., 2004; White et al., 2003). Estimates of lithospheric thickness are based on the work of Shapiro and Ritzwoller (2002) and Artemieva (2009). The many references used in the compilation of the interpreted cross section and the two data panels are included in the data repository accompanying this article (Appendix DR2; see text footnote 1).

Trans - Hudson

Gr en vi lle

Midcontinent Rift System

a) a)
Cascadia Megathrust Interface

53o

50 km

100

D e p th ( k m )

52

N. Caribou Superterrane Uc hi English River

b)

b)

0 20 40 60 80

Northern Caribou Superterrane

Uchi

English River

Winnipeg River
Winnipeg River

Wabigoon

Wawa Quetico S

Imbricate Zone
Subcreted ocean crust

North Caribou Superterrane Basement

Wawa
Moho
MA N T L E

a)
Nemis c au

Garibaldi Volcanic Belt Vancouver Island Wrangellia


uca L itho
sphe ric M antle

Line 2
ER WR T Wabigoon Quetic o
-94
o

Moho
Mantle Vp (km/s) 8.0
0

8.3 8.0
Suture

51o

8.4

Suture

8.6

8.4

51o

NR

SZ

b)
a)
50
EXPLORER PLATE

0 Depth (km) 20 Juan de F 40 60 80 0


SW-NE 5.0 8.2

Vancouver

100 120

8.6
9.0/8.5 (?)

8.2/8.7 (?)
200 300

P lutons

CB WR

BR HA

50o

8.5

8.9
100

Line 2
400

Opatic a
50o

Vanc o u ver

T ime (s )

Serpentinized Mantle

49o

KI

Wawa
Lake Superior

cc) )

Line 48
CBTZ

Seismic profiles Shear and tectonic zones


0 50 km 100

0
8

Distance (km)

n fabric
Moho

48

JUAN DE FUCA PLATE

PR

OL

CR

Reflection R/WAR Teleseismic Subduction trench

Asthenosphere
100
SW-NE
6.6 6.2

48

100

W KI
-90
o

A bitibi
Moho

-130

D e p th ( k m )

-125

Seattle

200
5.8 6.2 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.8 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.67.0 7.0 7.6 7.8 8.0 W-E 6.2 7.0

km
0

-92

-88

-86

16 24 00
202 0 404 0 606 0
05
6.0 6.5

49o
100 km

Depth (km)

Depth (km)

0 20 40 0

d)
OM R F

8.0 20

6.8

100 km

200

)mk( htpeD

C C E
[Clowes et al., 1987b]

c)

0 40 60 80

Line 2 Refraction and Reflection Profile

Line 1 Refraction Profile Other Reflection Profiles

d)

d)

Suture

Suture

-80o

-79o

-78o

-77

-76

-75

01 03

Refraction velocity
Moho
7.0 7.5 8.0 Vp (km/s) 8.5

5.9 7.2 6.9


8. 0 Suture

6.7 8.4

6.4
Moho 7.5

b)
1EN 1ES

CDP 10

NNW

ESE N

5000

4000

8.3

Moho
1A 1D

Pluton

3000

NE

Pluton

2000

1000

SW N

CDP 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

7.6

e)
[Zelt et al., 1993]

e)

100 km-depth slice

8.0

Upper Delaminated Plate Indentor

Suture

1D

Depth (km)

[Drew and Clowes, 1990]

[Ramachandran et al., 2006]

100

200

km

f)

f)

. 00

Lithoprobe Transect

20 30 40 50 60 70

Depth (km)

Depth (km)

20 40 60

Depth (km)

e)
F OM R
[Calvert et al., 2006]

f)
E OM T F E OM T

0 20 40 60 80
[Nicholson et al., 2005]

001 .100 002 .200 003 .300 004 .400 005 .500

O patic a
Moho

Abitibi
Moho

Nipigon Embayment

E OM R

E OM T

A
100 200 km

Lithospheric Mantle

Lower Plate

Wedge Accretionary

100

ed uct b ubd ic Sla S an Oce

25 km

50

16 18 20

) W 5 2. 9 8 , N 0 0. 6 5 ( :

) W 5 2. 9 8 , N 0 0. 6 4 ( : A

Inset Figure A: Results from the Cascadia subduction zone. Heterogeneous structure along strike complicates interpretation and resolution of discrepancies between the active source seismic and teleseismic studies. (a) Simplified tectonic map locating seismic profiles. Navy and turquoise linesnear-vertical incidence (NVI) seismic reflection profiles; green linesrefraction/wide-angle reflection (R/WAR) profile; pink lineteleseismic profile. CBCoast belt; CRCrescent; BRBridge; HAHarrison; OLOlympic; PRPacific Rim; WRWrangellia. (b) Schematic interpretation based on multidisciplinary studies. (c) P-wave velocity models based on R/WAR data (adapted from Drew and Clowes, 1990; Ramachandran et al., 2006; Zelt et al., 1993). Thick black lineswide-angle reflections. (d) Offshore and onshore seismic reflection crossing central Vancouver Island (Clowes et al., 1987a). C and E strongly reflective bands. Blue dotted line (F reflector)interpreted top of oceanic crust; blue dashed lineMoho of subducting oceanic plate (OMR). (e) Offshore seismic reflection projected onto a line crossing Vancouver Island (Calvert et al., 2006). Pink dashed linelow-velocity zone defined from an overlapping teleseismic profile (see f). The base of this zone is interpreted as representing the teleseismic Moho of the subducting oceanic plate (OMT). (f) Migrated teleseismic image using the scattered P-p-s phase (Nicholson et al., 2005). Broad dipping red bandlow-velocity zone interpreted as dehydrating oceanic crust (the base of which is the OMT). Dotted black lineE-zone, defined by active source reflectivity; dashed blue lineMoho defined by seismic reflection.

Inset Figure B: Results from the Western Superior transect. (a) Simplified tectonic map of the current sub-provinces crossed by Lithoprobe profiles. EREnglish River terrane; KIKeweenawan intrusives; WRTWinnipeg River terrane. (b) Simplified interpretation along Line 2 (adapted from White et al., 2003; Musacchio et al., 2004). Numbers in mantle are P-wave velocities in km/s. (c) Migrated reflection seismic section for line 2. (d) Refraction velocity model superimposed on the reflection section. The lower crust and upper mantle are strongly anisotropic, consistent with relic oceanic lithosphere tectonically accreted at the base of the crust. (e) Location map of teleseismic results from Frederiksen et al. (2007). Redactive source corridor; map in (a) noted by the black box. 100 km-depth slice through P-wave tomographic model is displayed. (f) AA slice through Frederiksen et al. (2007) P-wave model shown in (e). Downgoing lithospheric slabs are not visible in the teleseismic model but may contribute to the overall high velocity of the western Superior province. The slow velocity region is attributed to the Nipigon Embayment (a branch of the 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift).

Inset Figure C: Results from Abitibi-Grenville transect, line 48. (a) Geological map showing the location of the line. The part of the line shown in red is the location of the seismic section in b. CBTZCasa Beradi tectonic zone; NRSZNottaway River shear zone. (b) Migrated near-vertical incidence seismic reflection profile with interpretation (adapted from Calvert et al., 1995). This profile provides one of the best images of relict subduction and convincing evidence for modern-style plate tectonics back to 2.69 Ga. Geometry of synformal reflections (R) and subducted slab are consistent with geodynamic models that show two oppositely vergent belts of deformation above the subduction (e.g., Beaumont and Quinlan, 1994).
Supplement to GSA Today, v. 21, doi: 10.1130/G95A.1 The big picture: A lithospheric cross section of the North American continent by P.T.C. Hammer, R.M. Clowes, F.A. Cook, K. Vasudevan, and A.J. van der Velden

Ap pa la

MHB

r er io Sup

ch ia ns

vi Pro

nce

Pr ov in ce

H ea rn e

Map: Location of trans-continental corridor (yellow lines) on a simplified tectonic age map of northern North America. To emphasize comparative structure and collisional sequence, tectonic elements are grouped by tectonic agedefined as the most recent episode of major tectonic deformation in an orogen. Thin white lines identify terranes and other domains within the major tectonic units. Grey polygons mark the 10 study regions. The southern eight transects (and their internal components) were designed so they could be linked directly or by projecting along strike, providing near-continuous coverage. Double-headed red arrows show the along-strike offsets. JdFJuan de Fuca; MHBMedicine Hat Block.

Tectonic Age
Cordillera Wopmay Slave Paci c Plate Cordillera
Th el on

e Ra

e arn He
Taltson
Oro gen

Nain Province

ing om Wy

Time (s)

) m k ( ht p e D