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Binomial Distribution

Theoretical or probability distributions are such distributions which are not obtained by actual observations or experiments but are mathematically deduced on certain assumptions. These distributions provide data so that decision maker can take rational decisions. Important theoretical distributions : (1) Binomial Distribution : By James Bernouli (2) Poisson Distribution : By S. D. Poisson (3) Normal Distribution : By Demoivre Hence p =
2 3 and q = 5 5 The probability that the snow would fall on just three days of given week.

= 7C3 p3 q4 = 35 = 35
8 81 125 625

FG 2 IJ FG 3 IJ H 5 K H 5K
3

22680 4536 = 78125 15625

Binomial Distribution
This is a discrete distribution. Following assumptions are taken in this distribution (a) The number of trials or `n' is finite and fixed. (b) the experiment must result in either of the two events i.e. there must be only two possible outcomes of the event which are mutually exclusive and exhaustive e.g. tosiing of a coin either head will come or tail will come (c) The probabilities of the success and failure for any trial of the event are contant. (d) All trials must be independent of each other.

Ex. 2. 8 coins are tossed at a time, 256 times. Find the expected frequencies of success (getting a head) for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 successes. 1 Sol. Probability of success or p = 2 and hence q =
1 , n = 8 and N = 256. 2

The probability of success r times in n trials is given by nC pr qn r. r Therefore probability of r successes or p (r) =
=
8

nC r

pr
8

qn r
1 256

=
8

Cr

Getting probabilities with the help of Binomial Distribution


Suppose p is the probability of success and q is the probability of failure. Then probabilities of exactly 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ........ successes are given by successive terms of expansion of (q + p)n. (q + p)n = qn + nC1 qn 1 p + nC2 qn 2 p2 + ........ nCr qn r pr + ........+ pn p(0) = Probability of exactly 0 success = qn p(1) = Probability of exactly one successes = nC1 qn 1 p p(2) = Probability of exactly two successes = nC2 qn 2 p2 p(r) = Probability of exactly r success is given by = nCr qn r pr

F 1I C G J H 2K
r

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ H 2K H 2K
r

8 r

eCj
r

Hence in 256 throws of 8 coins the frequencies of r successes are


256

FG 1 H 256

Cr

IJ K
Expected Frequency

Thus the frequencies of 0, 1, 2, ........ 8 successes would be

Success
0

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Ex. 1. If on an average snow falls on 12 days in every 30 days, find the probability that snow will fall on just three days of a given week 12 2 Sol. The probability of snow = . 30 5

(1)

FG 1 C IJ = 1 H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 8 256 G H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 28 256 G H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 56 256 G H 256 K


256
8 0 8 1 8 2 8 3

2]
4

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[ Binomial Distribution
Here n = 5, p =
4 6 ,q= 10 10

8 Ex. 3.

FG 1 C IJ = 70 H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 56 256 G H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 28 256 G H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 8 256 G H 256 K F 1 C IJ = 1 256 G H 256 K


256
8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 8

Sol.

If a random variable X denotes success then the probability of r successes in 5 trials is given by p(r) = P (X = r) =
5C r

pr

qnr

Cr

FG 4 IJ FG 6 IJ H 10 K H 10 K
r

5 r

(a) The probability of 0 success is


=
5

C0

FG 4 IJ FG 6 IJ H 10 K H 10 K
0

=1 1

FG 6 IJ H 10 K

= 0.078

(b) The probability of 1 success is


=
5

C1

Eight coins are thrown simultaneously. Show 37 . that the probability of obtaining atleast 6 heads is 256 Sol. Here n = 8,
1 , 2 1 Hence probability of tail q = 2 the probability of r successes in 8 trials is given by

FG 4 IJ FG 6 IJ H 10 K H 10 K
1

=5

4 6 10 10

FG IJ H K

= 0.2592

p = probability of a head is

(c) The probability of at least one success = 1 probability of no success [i.e. zero success] = 1 0.046 = 0.954 Ex. 5. Assuming the probability of a male birth as
1 , find the probability that a family of 3 children will 2 have

p (r) = P (x = r) = 8Cr pr q8r


1 1 = 8Cr ( )r ( )8r 2 2 1 1 8 = 8Cr ( )8 = Cr 2 256

(i) At least one girl (ii) Two boys and one girl (iii) At the most two girls. Sol. Probability of male birth =
1 2

The probability of obtaining at least 6 heads is given by sum of probabilities of obtaining 6, 7 and 8 heads. P (X > 6) = P (X = 6) + P (X = 7) + P (X = 8) = p (6) + p (7) + p (8)
1 8 [ C6 + 8C7 + 8C8] = 256 1 [28 + 8 + 1] = 256 37 = 256

1 2 If the male birth is taken as success, then probability of at least one girl

Probability of female birth =

= 1 Probability of zero male = 1 3C0

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ H 2K H 2K
0 2

=1

1 7 = 8 8

Probability of two boys and one girl =


3C 2

Ex. 4. The probability that in a match India will win is 0.4. Determine the probability that out of 5 matches. India will win Note : Suppose In this series as a special case only win or loss is possible, draw is not allowed. (a) None (b) One (c) Atleast one match

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ H 2K H 2K FG 1 IJ H 2K
3

3 8

Probability of at most two girls = 3C3 + 3C 2

FG 1 IJ FG 1 IJ + H 2K H 2K
2

3C

FG 1 IJ F 1 I 1 H 2K G 2J H K

1 7 [1 + 3 + 3] = 8 8

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LINEAR INEQUALITIES
1. The solution of the inequation 3 3 2x < 9, where x R. (a) ] 3, 3 ] (b) [ 3, 3 ] (c) [ 3, 3 [ (d) ] 3, 3 [ The solution of 2x 3 < x + 2 3x + 5, where x R. (a) [3/2, 5] (b) ]3/2, 5[ (c) 3/2 x < 5 3. (d) None of these x3 < 0 is x+4 9. 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (b) 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (c) 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (d) 4. 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 The solution of |x| < 4 is (a) ] 0, 4 [ (b) ] 4, 4 [ (c)[ 4,0 [ (d) [ 4, 4 [ The solution of the inequation |x + 1| > 4, x R is (a) ] , 6 ] [ 3, [ (b) ] , 4 ] ] 4, [ (c) ] , 5 ] [ 3, ] (d) ] , 5 [ ] 3, [ The solution of inequation x 1 < 0. In a twodimensional plane with graphically representation is
Y Y
X=.5 X=1

7.

2.

8.

If solution of the inequation |3x - 2| 1/2, when x R (a) [ 1/2, 2/3 ] (b) [ 1/2, 5/6 ] (c) [ 2/3, 1/2 ] (d) [2/5, 5/7] Which inequation represent the solution set on the number line ? 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 (a) |x| < 4 (b) x < 4 (c) x > 5 (d) |x| > 5 Which set can be represented on the number line as shown below.

The graph of the solution set (a)

1 2 3 (b) [2, 3] (a) ( , 3] (c) (3, 3] (d) ] , 3[ Directions (for Q. 10 to Q. 14) : Choose the correct alternative.

True or False
10. 5 x < 20 x < 4 is (a) T (b) F (c) Cannot say (d) None of them 11. 3x > 9 x > - 3 (a) T (b) F (c) Cannot say (d) None of them 12. x > -3 -2x > 6 (a) T (c) Cannot say (b) F (d) None of them

5.

6.

13. x y = 2 x > y (a) T (b) F (c) Cannot say (d) None of them 14. p < q and r < 0 p/r < q/r (a) T (b) F (c) Cannot say (d) None of them

(a)
X

O Y

(b)
X X

O Y

Y Y= 2

Y Y=1

ANSWERS
Ans. 1. (a) We have 3 3 2x < 9 3 3 2x and 3 2x < 9 Now, 3 3 2x

(c)
X

O Y

(d)
X X

O Y

(1)

2]

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In this case , |x| = x

[ Linear Inequalities

3 + 2x 3 [adding 2x on both sides] 2x 6 [adding 3 on both sides]

x 3 [dividing both sides by 2] ........... (i) Again, 3 2x < 9 2x < 6 [substracting 3 from both sides] x > 3 [dividing both sides by 2] 3<x
............. (ii) From (ii) and (i), we get 3 < x and x 3 respectively. 3<x 3 Solution set = {x R : 3 < x 3} = ] 3, 3 ] Ans. 2. (c) 2x 3 < x + 2 3x + 5 2x 3 < x + 2 and x + 2 3x + 5 Now, 2x 3 < x + 2

The given inequation is x < 4 x > 4 4<x<0 .......(ii) Thus, the solution is (4 < x < 0) or (0 x < 4) Solution set = {x R : 4 < x < 0 } {x R : 0 x < 4 } = ] 4, 4 [ = ] 4, 0 [ [0, 4[ Ans. 5. (d) Using the fact that |x| > a x < a or x > a We have |x + 1| > 4

x 3 < 2 [adding x to both sides]


x < 5 [adding 3 to both sides]
........ (i) And, x + 2 3x + 5 3x + 5 x + 2 [ a b b a ] 2x + 5 2 [adding x to both sides]

x + 1 < 4 x + 1 > 4 x < 5 or x > 3 Solution set = {x R : x < 5 } {x R : x > 3} = ] , 5 [ ] 3, [ Ans. 6. (a)
Using |x| a a x a, the given inequation may be written as 1 1 3x 2 2 2 1 1 2 3x and 3x 2 + 2 2 3 5 3x and 3x 2 2 5 1 x and x 6 2 Ans. 7. (b)

2x 3 [adding 5 to both sides] x 3/2 [dividing both sides by 2]


............ (ii) 3/2 x From (ii) and (i), we get 3/2 x and x < 5 respectively 3/2 x < 5 Solution set = {x R : 3/2 x < 5} [ 3/2, 5[ Ans. 3. (b) Note that a/b < 0 when (a > 0 and b < 0) or (a < 0 & b > 0) either (x 3 > 0 and x + 4 < 0) or ( x 3 < 0 and x + 4 > 0) Case I : When x 3 > 0 and x + 4 < 0 In this case, x > 3 and x < 4. This is not possible, as we can never find a real number which is greater than 3 and less than 4. Case II : When x 3 < 0 and x + 4 > 0 In this case, x < 3 and x > 4 4 < x < 3 Solution set = { x R : 4 < x < 3} = ] 4, 3 [ Ans. 4. (b) We have either x 0 or x < 0. Case I : When x 0 . In this case, |x| = x The given inequation is x < 4 0 < x < 4. Case II : When x < 0

5 1 1 5 x 6 Solution set = [ 2 , 6 ] 2

Ans. 8. (d) We have either x > 0 or x < 0 Case I : When x > 0, in this case, |x| = x The given inequation is x > 5. .......... (i) Thus, x > 0 and x > 5 So, x > 5 Case II : When x < 0 in this case, |x| = x The given inequation is x > 5 x < 5 Thus, x < 0 & x < - 5 ...........(ii) So, x < - 5 Thus, the solution is x < 5 or x > 5 Solution set = { x R : x < 5 } {x R : x > 5} = ] , 5 [ ] 5, [ Ans. 9. (a) Ans. 10. (a) Ans. 11. (b) Ans. 12. (b) Ans. 13. (a) Ans. 14. (b)

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Binary Operations
N = Set of Natural Numbers Z = Set of Integer Numbers Q = Set of Rational Numbers R = Set of Real numbers C = Set of Complex Numbers 1. Addition on the set N of all natural numbers is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 2. If N is a set of natural numbers then subtraction on N is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 3. Multiplication on N is not a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 4. Let S be a nonempty set and P(S) be its Power set, then the .......... opertion/s on P(S) is/are binary operation/s. (a) Union (c) Both (a) and (b) 5. (b) Intersection (d) None of these (b) False (b) False (b) False 9. * on Z defined by a * b = a b is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 10. * on R (1), defined by (a * b) = a is neither b+1 (b) False

commutative nor associative. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 11. * on Q defined by a * b = ab + 1 is commutative but not associative. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say 12. * on Q defined by a * b = (a) Commutative (b) Associative (c) Neither commutative nor associative (d) Both (a) and (b) 13. * on Z+ defined by a * b = ab is (a) Commutative (b) Associative (c) Neither commutative nor associative (d) Both (a) and (b) 14. * on Z defined by a * b = a b is (a) Commutative (b) Associative (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these 15. If (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) for all a, b, c S then a binary operation * on a nonempty set S is said to be (a) Associative (c) Commutative (d) None of these 16. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. An operation by a b = max {a, b}. A is closed for the given operation and then the given operation is (b) Distributive (b) False (b) False

ab is 2

Which statement is true for set Z of all integers? (1) Subtraction on set Z is not a binary opertion (2) Subtraction on set Z is a binary operation (a) 1 is true (c) Cant say (b) 2 is true

6.

* on Z + defined by a * b = ab is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say (b) False

7.

* on Z+ defined by a * b = | a b | is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say (b) False

8.

* on R defined by a * b = ab 2 is a binary operation. This statement is (a) True (c) Cant say (b) False

(1)

2]

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(a) Associative (b) Commutative (c) Either commutative or associative (d) None of these 1 (b) 1 1 1 i i 1 1 i i 1 1 i i i i i 1 1 i 1 1 i i 1 i 1 i

[ Binary Operations

17. * on N by m * n = gcd (m, n) for all m, n N. (a) Associative (b) Commutative (c) Commutative as well as associative (d) Neither (a) nor (b) 18. The composition table for set A = {1, 1} by multiplication operation is 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

i 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 i i (c) i i i 1 1 i i i 1 1 1 1 i i i 1 i i i i 1 1

(a)

(b)

1 1

(c)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 (d) 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 (d) 1 1 1 i i i i i i

19. If the operation * on Q is defined by a * b = a + b ab, then its identity element is Q {1}. This statement is (a) True (b) False (c) Cant say 20. If the operation * on Z is defined by a * b = a + b + 1. Then the inverse of an element a Z is (2 + a) Z. This statement is (a) True (b) False (c) Cant say 21. Let A = {1, 1, i, i} be the set of four 4th roots of unity, then the composition table for multiplication on A will be 1 1 i i

22. The operation * on A is given by (a, b) * (c, d) = (a + c, b + d). If * is associative, then * will be defined by (a) (a, b) * [ (b, c) * (d, f)] (b) { (b, c) * (a, b)} * (b, a) (c) (a, b) * [(c, d) * (e, f)] (d) (c, d) * (a, b) 23. The commutative law is defined by (a) a * b = b * a for all a, b S (b) a * b = b * a for all a, b S (c) a * b = a * b for all a, b R (d) (a * b) * c = a *(b * c) for all a, b, c S 24. Let * and # be two binary operations on a non empty set S. We say that * is distributive over #, if a * (b # c) = (a * b) # (a * c) for all a, b, c S. The above statement is (a) True (b) False (c) Cant say 25. Let R be the set of all real numbers, then which statement is true (i) Addition on R satisfies the closure property, the associative law and the commutative law.

1 1 1 i i (a) 1 1 1 i i i i i 1 1 i 1 1 i i

Binary Operations ]

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Ans. 7. (b) a Z+ such that a * a = |a a| = 0 Z+ So, it is not a binary operation. Ans . 8. (a) Let a R, b R then b R b2 R a R, b R

[3

(ii) Multiplication on R satisfies the closure property, the associative law and the commutative law, (iii) Multiplication distribution addition on R, since a . (b + c) = a . b + a . c for all a, b, c R. (a) (i) and (iii) only (b) (ii) and (i) only (c) (ii) and (iii) only (d) All of the above 26. Let Z be the set of all integers, then subtraction on Z is a binary operation then (3 5) (5 3) and (3 4) 5 3 (4 5) it is (a) Commutative (b) Distributive (c) Commutative as well as associative (d) Neither commutative nor associative

a R, b 2 R ab2 R
* on R is a binary operation.
Ans. 9. (a) We know that the difference of two integers is always an integer. a Z, b Z

a*b= ab Z
So, it is a binary operation. Ans. 10. (a) We have 2*3 = 2 2 1 = = 3 +1 4 2 3 3 = =1 2 +1 3 1/ 2 1 1 = *4 = 4 + 1 10 2

ANSWERS
Ans. 1. (a) We know that a N, b N a + b N for all a, b N Ans. 2. (b) We know that a S, b S a b S for all a, b S (formula) Let a = 3 and b = 5 Put the value in above formula 3 N, 5 N but (3 5) = 2 N for all 3, 5 N Ans. 3. (b) We know that multiplication of two natural numbers is a natural number for all a, b N a N, b N a b N Ans. 4. (c) A P(S), B P(S)

and 3 * 2 =

Also, (2 * 3) * 4 =

3 3 And, 2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * (4 + 1) = 2 * 5 =

FG 3 + 1IJ = H5 K

10 5 = 8 4

(2 * 3) * 4 2 * (3 * 4)
Ans. 11. (a) a * b = ab + 1 = ba + 1 = b * a (a * b) * c = (ab + 1) * c = (ab + 1) c + 1 = abc + c + 1 a * (b * c) = a * (bc + 1) = a (bc + 1) + 1 = abc + a + 1 (a * b) * c a * (b * c) Ans. 12. (d) a * b =

A B P(S) for all A, B P(S)


Similarly, Intersection on P(S) is a binary operation, as A P(S), B P(S)

A B P(S) for all A, B P(S)


Ans. 5. (b) Ans. 6. (a) We know that the product of two positive integers is a positive integer.

ab ba = = b*a 2 2

a Z+, b Z +

a * b = ab Z +
So, it is a binary operation.

ab .c ab (ab).c abc (a * b) * c = *c = 2 = = 2 2 4 4

4]
a * (b * c) = a * bc = 2

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a. bc 2 = a. (bc) = abc 2 4 4 (ii) Associativity : Let m, n, p N.

[ Binary Operations

Then (m * n) * p = [gcd (m, n)] * p = gcd [gcd {(m, n), p}]

(a * b) * c = a * (b * c)
Ans. 13. (c) 2 * 3 = 23 and 3 * 2 = 3 2. But 23 32 (2 * 3) * 4 = 23 * 4 = (23) 4 = 212 2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * 3 4 = (2)3 = 281
4

gcd [{m, gcd (n, p)}] [... gcd of three numbers = gcd {(gcd of any two, third)}] gcd (m, n * p) = m * (n * p)
Hence, * is associative on N. Ans. 18. (b) Ans. 19. (a) Let e be the identity element then, for all a Q {1}, we have a * e = a

(2 * 3) * 4 2 * (3 * 4)
Ans. 14. (d) 2 * 3 = (2 3) = 1 and 3 * 2 = (3 2) = 1 (2 * 3) * 4 = (2 3 ) * 4 = (1) * 4 = ( 1) 4 = 5 And, 2 * (3 * 4) = 2 * (3 4) = 2 * (1) = 2 (1) = (2 + 1) = 3

a + e ae = a

e (1 a) = 0 e = 0 Q {1}
Now, a * 0 = a + 0 a 0 = a And, 0 * a = 0 + a 0 a = a Thus, 0 is the identity element in Q {1}. Ans. 20. (a) Let a Z and let its inverse be b. Then a * b = 1 a+b+1=1 b = (2 + a) Clearly, 2 Z, a Z (2 + a) Z Thus, each a Z has (2 + a) Z as its inverse. Ans. 21. (a) Ans. 22. (c) [ (a, b) * (c, d) ] * (e, f) = (a + c, b + d) * (e, f) = [ (a + c) + e, (b + d) + f ] = [ a + (c + e), b + (d + f) ] = (a, b) * (c + e, d + f) = (a, b) * [(c, d) * (e, f)] Ans. 23. (b) A binery operation * on a nonempty set S is said to be commutative, if a * b = b * a for all a, b S Ans. 24. (a) Ans. 25. (d) Ans. 26. (d)

(2 * 3) * 4 2 * (3 * 4)
Ans. 15. (a) Ans. 16. (b) We prepare the composition table as given below : 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 2 2 3 4 5 3 3 3 3 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Clearly, every row coincides with the corresponding column. So, commutative law is satisfied. Ans. 17. (c) (i) Commutativity : For all m, n N. We have gcd (m, n) = gcd (n, m) m * n = n * m m, n N. Hence, * is commutative on N.

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