Sie sind auf Seite 1von 267

TUBULAR SO C LLECTO ANALYS IS LAR O R ADC N OMPAR N WITH FLAT PLATE C LLECTO ISO O RS IN SD WAPPLI CATIONS H

by

K evin A. Cole

A Thesi s Subm i t te d

in Parti al Ful f illm ent of the


R equirem ents fo r t he D egree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE in
Mecha nica l Engineering

Approved by:

Prof . Paul H. Wojuid (Thesis Adv isor) Prof.


Prof.

Wayne Watts
Robert Des

Prof. Alan H. Nye

DEPARTMENT O M F ECHAN ICAL ENG INEERING C OLLEGE O ENGI NEERING F ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHN OLOGY ROCHESTER, NEW Y RK O
Febru ary, 1981

J
rv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER
o

PAGE

Acknowlegements
List
of

"

Tables

ii iii
viii

List
List

of

Figures
Symbols

of

Abstract

xi

1.

Introduction

2.

Tubular Collector Literature Survey

3.

System Description 3.1


3.2

System Apparatus System Operation

7
22

3.3

Measuring Apparatus
3.3.1 3.3.2

23 23
39

Temperature Measurement
Flow Measurement Insolation Measurement

3.3.3

42

4.

Component Models 4.1


KTA Collectors

43 43
Equation for Useful

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3

General

Heat Gain

43
47

Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction Effective Insolation,

ff

53

4.1.3.1 4.1.3.2 4.1.3.3

Beam Enhancement

Factor,

l\

54
r,

Diffuse Enhancement Enhancement

Factor,
r

78 86

Factor,

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(contd.)
PAGE

CHAPTER
7.

Operation
7.1

of

the TRNSYS System

171 171
171
-

Parameter Definitions 7.1.1 7.1.2 Tubular Collector

Flat Plate Collector Selective Surface


Heat Exchanger Preheat
and

Nonselective

and

174

7.1.3
7.1.4 7.2

174

Hot Water Tanks

178
178

Load Requirements
Climatological

7.3

Input Data

179

8.

Economic Analysis 8.1


8.2 Economics
of

183 Solar

Energy Heating

183

Economic Analysis Parameters

189

9.

Description of Results

192

9.1 9.2 9.3

Results of Storage/Hot Water Tank


Simulation Results

Study

192 192

Solar System Economic Analysis Results

193

1Q,

Conclusions,

Recommendations

196

References

199

Appendices

203

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study
Gas
and

was

funded in

part

by

grant

from the Rochester

Electric Corporation.
assistance with

would

like to thank Mr. Lew Durland


work and

for his
work.

the

experimental

data

analysis

of

this

Thanks is

extended

to Dr. Alan Nye


computer

who

contributed

the

material

of

Appendix 7, developed the


operation.

simulation model

and

also

assisted

in its
of

Mr.

Greg

Amorese
and

was

instrumental in the development


the
material

the system

control

scheme

supplied

of

Appendix 1.
of

Mrs. Margaret Urckfitz is


typeset.

complimented

for her

preparation

this

Finally, I
continual

would

like to thank my advisor, Dr. Paul Wojciechowski


and

for his

patience

helpfulness
would

at all

stages

of

this

work.

Without his support, this

work

not

have been

possible.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1

KTA Tubular Collector Materials

and

Properties

Table 4.1 Table 4.2

Shading Factors
Reflection Factor, Parameter b
Reflection Factors

Table 4.3
Table 4.4
Table 4.5

Beam Enhancement Factors


Solar Time
and

Hour Angle Conversions


a

Table 4.6

Ratio of Beam Radiation on on a Horizontal Surface, R.

Tilted Surface to that

Table 4.7
Table 4.8

Enhancement Factor Parameters Collector Loss Coefficient, U, Data Reduction for U.


and

12
,

3
,

and

Table 5.1 Table 5.2


Table 5.3

FR
Conditions

Data Reduction for

(to)

Data Reduction for Normal TRNSYS

Table 6.1
Table 7.1

Library

Version 7.3

Collector

Operating

Parameters

Table 7.2 Table 8.1 Table 9.1

Tank Parameters

Economic Analysis Parameters Economic Analysis Results


-

Solar Savings Present Worth,

Table A3, 1 Table A3. 2

Temperature, Resistance Characteristics


RTD Constants

of

Five RTD Probes

a-|

and

a2

Table A3. 3

RTD Temperature Check

xx

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures
Figure 3.1
-

Chapter 3

Forced Circulation, Solar Water RIT Energy House

Heating System

Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3

Actual Solar Water

Heating

System Layout

Plan View
with

Single Tubular Collection Element Cross Section End Plate Single KTA Tubular Collector Layout

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8


Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 3.11

Flow Pattern For 2 KTA Tubular Collectors in Parallel KTA Tubular Collectors 15 Gallon Expansion Tank 120 Gallon Preheat Tank Closed

Loop

Circulation

Pump

40 Gallon Hot Water Tank


Recirculation

Pump

Figure 3.12
Figure 3.13 Figure 3.14

Way Water
Valve

Valve

Mixing

forced Circulation, Solar Water Instrumentation

Heating

System

Figure 3.15 Figure 3.16 Figure 3.17 Figure 3.18 Figure 3.19 Figure 3.20

Resistance/Temperature Curves RTD Temperature Measurement Thermocouple


and

RTD Materials

Housing
-

Basic Two-Terminal Current Source

LM134

Solid State Temperature Measurement

Part A
Part B

Flow Rate

Monitoring Equipment

Figure 3.21

Water Meter

iii

Figures

Chapter 4

Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2


Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4

Tubular Collection Element Control Volume

Shading Angle,

Collector Tube Geometric Angle, y Tube Orientation 1 Tube Orientation 2 Tube Orientation 3
Reflection
Reflection
-

Shading By Adjacent Shading By Shading By


Tube
of

Tube Interest

Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7


Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9

Combination

Factor,

Parameter b, Part A
-

Factor, Parameter b, Part B

Limiting Angles
Projected Area

Reflection Factor, Parameter b, Part B Causing Reflection to Absorber Tube Schematic


of

Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12

Radiation Flux

on

Unit Sphere

Determination of Diffuse Enhancement Factor, r. Radiation Equation


on

Horizontal

and

Tilted Surfaces

Figure 4.13
Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19

of

Time
Radiation Variation

Extraterrestrial

Plot

of

vs.

KT

With Correlation Equations


-

Loss Coefficient Thermal Network

Tube

Cross Section

Simplified Thermal

Network
U.

Collector Loss

Coefficient,

iv

Figures

Chapter 5

Figure 5.1

Collector Time Calculation of

vs.

FR
vs.

and

Temperature Profile U. Summer


-

Experimental

Figure 5.2

Collector Time Calculation of

FR
vs.

and

Temperature Profile U. Winter


-

Experimental

Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4

Experimental Collector Loss Coefficient, U.


Collector Time Calculation of Temperature Profile
-

Experimental

(xa)
-

Figure 5.5

Collector Time vs. Temperature Profile Operating Conditions


Tubular Collector

Normal

Figure 5.6
Figure 5.7

Efficiency
vs.

Curve Time Profile


-

Preheat Water Temperature Calculation of U Test 1


-

Experimental

Figure 5.8

Reduction of Preheat Tank Data of U Test 1


-

Experimental Calculation

Figure 5.9

Hot Water Temperature vs. Time Profile Calculation of U Test 1


-

Experimental

Figure 5,10

Reduction of Hot Water Tank Data Calculation of U Test 1


-

Experimental

Figure 5.11

Preheat Water Temperature Calculation of U Test 2


-

vs.

Time Profile

Experimental

figure 5,12

Reduction of Preheat Tank Data Calculation of U Test 2


-

Experimental

figure 5.13

Hot Water Temperature vs. Time Profile Calculation of U Test 2


-

Experimental

Figure 5.14

Reduction of Hot Water Tank Data Calculation of U Test 2


-

Experimental

Figures

Chapter 6

Figure 6.1

System Information Flow Diagram System Schematic


-

Figure 6.2

TRNSYS Simulation

Figures

Chapter 7

Figure 7.1

Daily

Normalized Mass Flow Rate Profile Data

Figure 7.2

January Climatological

(Day

18

and

19)

VI

Figures

Appendices

Figure Al.l Figure A1.2

Solar Water

Heating System
Heating System

Control
Control
-

Logic Schematic
Board
and

Solar Water
Solar

Figure A2.1

Energy Collection Loop Supportive Piping


Solar

Shot Feeder

Figure A2.2

Outlet
Figure A2.3
-

Energy Collection Loop Piping

Preheat Tank Inlet,

Materials Required to Charge the Solar Energy Collection Loop with Non-Freezing Transfer Fluid
RTD Details
and

Figure A3.1 Figure A3. 2 Figure A3. 3

Installation
-

RTD Time Constant

Moving
Still Still

Water Data Water Data

RTD Time Constant


RTD Time Constant

Figure A3. 4
Figure A3. 5

Air Data

Solid State Sensor Calibration Solid State Time Constant Solid State Time Constant Closed
-

Figure A3. 6
Figure A3. 7

Moving
Still

Water Data

Water Data

Figure A4.1

Loop Calibration Curve

Figure A5.1
Figure A5.2 Figure A5.3 Figure A5.4 Figure A6.1 Figure A7.1 Figure A7.2

North-South Tube Orientation Section A-A,


Projected

Incident Angle, 2

East-West Tube Orientation

Section A-A, Projected Incident Angle, 2 Tube Orientation 1


-

Geometric Layout

Collector, Preheat Schematic


Ratio of Collected Collectable

Energy

to Maximum Amount

vn

LIST OF SYMBOLS

This table is

listing

of

the
are

most

commonly

used

symbols

in this

report.

Infrequently

used

symbols

defined in the text.

Aa
A, b

absorber

tube
area

2
projected

area,
of

aperture

(diameter

outer

glass

tube
plane

total

length

of

collector

tubes)
of

fraction of the projected area

(unto
beam

perpendicular

to the direction

beam radiation)
receives absorber

of

the outer
over which

cover

tube

silvered

backing
reflected

which

directly

radiation

radiation

is

to the

tube, %/100

C d
d'

fluid

specific

heat, J/kgC
outer

absorber

tube

diameter,

inner
outer

cover

tube tube

outer

diameter,
diameter,

cover

outer

E F
F'

eccentricity

correction

factor for the

solar

constant

(S )

fin efficiency factor


collector

efficiency factor

FR
g(2)

collector

heat

removal

factor

collector

tube shading factor

G h

collector

fluid

mass

flow

rate

per

unit

aperture

area,

kg/hrm

heat transfer coefficient, kJ/hrm C


hour beam
angle 3

h s
H. H, H

radiation

on

horizontal
a

surface,

2 kJ/m hr
o

diffuse
total

radiation

on

horizontal
radiation

surface,
on a

kJ/m^hr
p

extraterrestrial

horizontal surface, kJ/m hr

VXll

LIST OF SYMBOLS

continued

H.

total
angle

radiation

on

horizontal
rays
and

surface,

2 kJ/m hr
normal

between the in the


plane

sun's

the

outer

to the tube
and

lying

formed
sun's

by

the tube

centerline

line

colli near

with

the
on

rays.

I I,

total

radiation

tilted surface, tilted surface,


a

2 kJ/m hr

beam
,

radiation

on

2 kJ/m hr
2 kJ/m hr
which

I
I

diffuse
total

radiation

on

tilted surface,
aperture area

ff

radiation

over

the

is

either of

directly

absorbed cover

or

backreflected
absorber

by

the

silvered

portion

the outer

tube to the

tube, kJ/m hr

kf
K

thermal
ratio of

conductivity,

kJ/hrmC
to total
radiation

diffuse length
total

radiation extinction

on

horizontal

surface,

coefficient

K.

ratio

of

radiation

to

extraterrestrial

radiation

on

horizontal
I

surface

latitude

longitude, total length


collector

of

collector

tubes,

M
n

fluid

mass

flow rate,

kg/hr

index

of

refraction

Nu

Nusselt
Prandtl

number

Pr
q q
A/

number

collector

net

energy
per

gam

per

unit

aperture

area,

kj/hrm

net

energy lost
Q

unit

surface

area

of

the outer

cover

tube,

kJ/hrm q
collector useful

energy

gain

per

unit

aperture

area,

kJ/hrm

collector

useful

energy gain, kJ/hr

IX

LIST OF SYMBOLS

continued

Q
QTp...

total
rate

heat capacity
of

of

the

storage

tank, kJ

heat

addition

to the storage tank from the tubular

collectors,

kJ/hr
of

Q...W

rate

of

addition

auxiliary energy to the hot

water

tank, kJ/hr

Re
S T

Reynolds
solar

number

constant

outside

ambient

temperature, C
of

TMR
T

ambient
water

temperature

air

surrounding

storage

and

hot

tank, C
temperature
at
preheat

water

tank

inlet from city supply, C

TINC
TTWH
T^.,

collector

inlet fluid temperature,


water

CC

preheat

tank

temperature, C
C

-^collector

outlet

fluid temperature,

^flWH
U
U.

'10t

water

tan'<

water

temperature, C
2

tank loss coefficient, kJ/hrm C


overall

heat transfer loss

coefficient

of

heat exchanger, kJ/hrm C

U.

collector

loss coefficient, kJ/hrm C

glass

absorptance

3
n

collector

tilt

angle

collector

efficiency tube
orientation

9 r
y(2)

collector

angle

radiation

enhancement

factor, I
area

^^/

1
which

fraction of the to the


abosrber

aperture

over

beam

radiation

is

reflected

tube, %7100

absolute

viscosity

LIST OF SYMBOLS

continued

p
t

reflectance

transmittance

of

glass

(tcx)
2

transmittance,
collector

absorptance

product

of

the tubular collectors to the sun

tube

orientation

angle with

respect

xi

ABSTRACT

A
solar

residential

solar

domestic hot for

water

system

utilizing tubular
typical
system
of

collectors

is

analyzed

climatic

conditions

various

regions

of

the Northeast.
analytical

Experimentally
to

determined
the

parameters

are

used

in

simulations

compare

performance

of

systems

using two different flat


type.

plate

collectors

to the

system

using the tubular


economic

cost/benefit

analysis

is

performed

to determine the

feasibility

of

the

various

systems.

Xll

1.

INTRODUCTION

The
rate

world

and

U.S.

demand for energy is


and at

expected

to

grow

at

slower

than in the past,


expected

least

during

the

next

decade the

world

supply

of

energy is

to

meet

this demand [1].


and

However, the United States


more

is far from
on

being

energy independent
supplies

now

finds itself
other

dependent

foreign energy
places

than possibly any


a
vulnerable

time in history.
and

This

situation

the country in

position

hence,

provides

the

motivation

to

develop

and

implement the

use

of

alternative

energy

sources.

Solar energy is currently attracting


alternative.

widespread

interest

as

one

Applications
managed

are

being

developed through the

support

of

public

funds

and

administered

by

the U.S.

Department
are

of

Energy
solar

and

other

federal

agencies.

Many

state

governments

promoting
also

energy in

utilization.

Private

groups

and

corporations

are

investing

solar

research

and

development.

Some

solar

energy technologies currently


sunlight

being
solar

developed
cells,

are

direct
thermal

conversion

of

to electricity through
ocean

solar

electric

power

generation,
and

thermal

conversion,
materials

agricultural

applications,

conversion

of organic

to

produce

fuels.

Solar

assisted

space

air

heating

systems

and

solar

assisted

domestic
attention.

hot
Some

water

systems

however
account

continue

to

receive

the

most

public

reasons

which

for their popularity

are

the availability

of

materials

and

technology for

the construction of the basic components of

these systems,

the simplicity
and

of

these basic
effective

components

from
when

an

engineering

design standpoint,
and

their

cost

performance

designed

installed

correctly.

While these
assisted space

reasons

provide

sound

basis for the


assisted

utilization

of

solar

air

heating
number

systems

and

solar

domestic hot

water

systems

in

large

of

places

and

for many

system

configurations,
analysis

it is imperative that
conditions

systems

not

conforming to

previous

be

evaluated

on

system

by

system

basis.

The
example

solar

assisted

domestic hot

water

system

at

Energy House is
efficient,

an

of

such

system.

Energy

House is
on

thermally
of

solar

assisted

heat pump
of

residence

located

the campus
of

the Rochester
assisted

Institute

Technology.
system

The

configuration

the

solar

domestic
air

hot

water

(SDHW)

(which is totally independent

of

the

space

heating
using
system a

system)

is

two-tank, indirect, internal heat


and propylene glycol

exchanger

scheme

50/50

water

anti-freeze

solution.

The

utilizes

commerically
absorber

available

tubular solar collectors utilizing

copper

conduit

enclosed

by

two

glass

envelopes.

The
and

collectors

are

non-evacuated.

The

outer

envelope

(which is
silvered
on

circular

eccentric

with

respect

to the absorber

tube) is
radiation

the lower half for back

reflection

of

incoming
this

solar

onto

the absorber tube.


combination
of

The

uniqueness

of

particular

system

lies in the
of

its
use

location in the partly cloudy


tubular
collectors.

climate

the Northeast

and

the

of

The
of

purpose

of

this

work

is to

perform

thorough

analysis

the

solar

assisted

domestic hot is
as

water

system

located
an

at

Energy

House.

The methodology

utilized

follows.

First,

analytical

model

is developed for the tubular


ment
of

solar

collectors.

To

assist

in the develop
was
performed

the model,
presented

literature survey
The

of

tubular collectors
parallels

and

is

in Chapter 2.
for flat
are

analysis

that

of

the

Hottel-

Whillier-Bliss
optical

approach

plate

solar

collectors.

Certain
circular

enhancement

factors is

developed to

account

for the

geometry.

This

analysis

presented

in Chapter 4.

Experimental
reasonable

verification

of

the

mathematical

model

indicates
varying
well

correlation

between theory
A description
are
given

and

experiment

under

insolation

conditions.

of

these

results

as

as

the

experimental

procedures

in Chapter 5.
of

In

order

to clearly

understand

the

experimental

procedures

this chapter,

description

of

the

system

components,

the

system

operation, and the

experimental

measuring

apparatus

is

given

in Chapter 3.

Operational
are
used

data from the SDHW


the TRNSYS

system

and

the analytical
program

model

to

calibrate

computer

simulation

configured

to
and

simulate

the

experimental

system.

This is described in Chapters 6 for both tubular


and

7.

TRNSYS

simulations

are

compared

flat

plate

systems

for

meteorological

conditions

corresponding to partly cloudy


analysis

Northeastern
worth
method

climates.

cost/benefit

based
this

on

the

present

is

also

given.

Chapter 8
stated

outlines

procedure.

The

results

of

the

analysis

are

in Chapter 9.

Conclusions
are
given

and

recommendations

are

given

Chapter 10.

Appendices

at

the

end

of

the

report.

2.

TUBULAR COLLECTOR LITERATURE SURVEY

Information searching four


a

dealing

with

tubular

collectors

was

found
chosen

by
provide

abstract

information files.
of available

The four

comprehensive

summary

tubular
searched

collector

information.

The

Engineering

Index

(Ei)

file

was

from 1970 to 1979, the file


was
searched

National

Technical

Information Service

'(NTIS)

from from

1964 to 1979, the 1971


to 1979
and

Energy

Information Abstracts file

was

searched

the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange


was searched

(SSIE)

Current Research file


were
performed

from 1975 to 1979.

The

searches

by

computer

utilizing the

Dialog

service

which

maintains

each

of

the
and

above

files

online.

Dialog is

maintained

by

Lockheed
were

Missiles
in
more

Space Company,

Incorporated.
are

Some
only

references

found

than one

file, however, they

counted

where

the first

occur.

Eighteen Ei
all
of

references

were

found

dealing
which

with

tubular

collectors

in the

which

dealt

with

collectors

were

evacuated.

Of the

eighteen, thermal
cluded

nine

dealt

with

collector

analysis

exclusively.

Both the
con

and

optical

performance

was

evaluated.

It

was

generally

that

by

evacuating the

collector

tubes, the losses from the


than those from
a

collectors

could

be kept
with

at

much

lower level
area.

flat

plate

collector

the

same

collection

This

occurs

because
evacuated.

convection

losses

are

negligible

when

the

collector

tubes

are

Optical

improvement

over

flat

plate

design is

achieved

by utilizing

properly designed

specular

reflectors

[2j.

One

paper

discussed the
cycle

use

of

evacuated

tubular

collectors

in

two fluid Rankine


the
of use
of

to

generate

electricity

[3]
water

while

another

mentioned

tubular collectors

for domestic hot


collectors

use

[4].

The

remainder

the
well

papers

dealt
air

with

using the

in

space

air

heating

systems

as

as

solar

conditioning
are

systems.

Results

show

that

evacuated

tubular
required

collector

systems

capable

of

supplying the high temperatures

for

solar

air

conditioning

units.

The NTIS file


tubular
collectors.

yielded

twenty-three
covered

references

dealing
only
solar

with

evacuated

Twelve

collector

analysis

and

eleven

dealt

with

their use

in

space

air

heating
papers

systems

and

air

conditioning

systems.

The

conclusions

of

these

are

similar

to those of the Ei

search.

Eleven

references

were

found from the


collector

Energy Information Abstracts


and seven
which

file; four
with

of

which

dealt

with

analysis

dealt

their

use

in the two types

of

systems

mentioned

above.

Seven listings
research

were

found in the SSIE Current Research file.


performance of

Most

concerning the

tubular
at

collectors

in

systems

applications

is currently

being

undertaken

Colorado State University

at

Fort

Collins, Colorado.
which

An integrated
evacuated

solar

heating

and

cooling

system

at

that location
as

utilizes

tubular collectors
of

is

being

assessed

to its

practicality.

The
glass

components

the

system are:

Owens Illinois Liquid


Bromide
absorption

evacuated

tube collectors, ARKLA Lithium


cold
and

cooling

unit

(3 ton),

hot storage,

and

non-pressurized

water

storage.

Research
the

by

private

corporations

is being directed
as

at

improving
construction

performance

of

tubular collectors as well

reducing

costs.

Some

companies

currently involved

are

Solaron Corporation
of

of

Commerce City,

Colorado;
and

Westinghouse Electric Corporation


of

Pittsburgh,

Pennsylvania;

Owens-Illinois Incorporated

Toledo, Ohio.

3. 3.1

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION System Apparatus A


schematic
of

the

forced-circulation,
of

solar

water

heating
shown

system

at

the Rochester Institute

Technology Energy
of

House is
shown

in
view

Figure 3.1. Figure 3.2.

The

actual

layout

the

system

is

in
the

plan

in

Note that the


tank
and

collectors

are

located

on

garage

roof.

The

expansion

supportive

piping is located in the data lab


Since

while

the

remainder

of

the system is located in the basement.


region which

the system is constructed in a

experiences

subfreezing
caused

temperatures,

provision

has to be

made

to handle the problems


available:

by

this.

There

are

four basic

options

1.
2.

to

use

an

intermediate, non-freezing transfer fluid,


a

to design

piping

system which

can

withstand

freezing

conditions,

3.

to

provide

adequate prevent

heat to the transfer fluid

on

cold

nights

to

freezing,
not

4.

system

draindown

when

in

operation.

The
a
special

system

at

Energy

House

utilizes

option

1, thereby requiring
(water
of can

non-freezing transfer fluid in


summer

winter

be effectively
presence of

used

during

operation,
system

if desired).
shown

Because has
the

the

transfer

fluid, the

in Figure 3.1
remainder of

closed

solar

energy

collection

loop

as

indicated.

The

system

is termed the
of

service water

side.

From Figure

3.1, the

closed

loop

side

the

system

is

composed

of

the

following

apparatus:

1.

KTA Tubular Collectors


collectors

-There

are

2 KTA Model

No.

KT4-85 tubular
system.

in

parallel

in the RIT

solar water

heating

k
OJ
i/)

=3

N*
a;
r-

0)

5HI
4-J
.

>

^
n
ro

E
o
+J

N.I

-^

U-i

W~
>~
-^

^-s.

1-

a.

C7>

ra
CL

cu

5-

cu
+->

ro

LA)

T3

CU
U

V
CD
SC7)
I

eu

i0)
+J

m
.^

^l
t-j

c
T3
t-

o T
OJ
cn
fT3

fl
01
JC

3
CD

OJ
s-

!_

C
ro

+->

O
ro

CU

CD

c
+J

ro

QJ

CU
ro

Sro

O
Ul

ro

cn

cu sCD

10

These
Each

are

mounted

at

60

tilt
a

angle

and

face due
of

south.

collector

consists

of

parallel

array

40 tubular
a
copper

collection

elements,
with a

each

element

consisting
and

of

absorber

tube

selective

coating
glass

glass

cover

tubes.
are

The

absorber

and

inner

cover

tube

centers

concentric while

eccentric

with

respect

to the

outer

cover

tube.

The

outer

cover

tube is
semi

reflectorized

internally

over

its
a

entire

length in

-cylindrical

fashion to

provide

circular-cylindrical

reflector

2 inches in diameter
tubular
collection

by

57 inches long. along


of with

A
an

schematic

of

single

element

end

cap is
to

shown

in

Figure 3.3.

The

purpose

the end cap is

allow

each

tubular

collection

element

to be

hermetically
has been
and

sealed,

thereby reducing losses.


end

Also,
cover

provision

made

in the

cap

seals

for absorbing
each

plate

expansion

contraction.

Additionally,
which

collector

is

composed

of

insulated headers into


are attached.

the
an

tubular

collection

elements

Figure 3.4 is
and

individual
collection

collector

layout
shown.

with

header locations
are

tubular
so

elements

The headers for

constructed

that

parallel

flow is

established

each

group

of

four
of

tubular

collection

elements

proceeding from the bottom


collector

the

collector

to the

top

of

the

and

series

flow is
each

established

for these 10

groups

of

four

elements

(10
two
of

40

elements/collector).

The flow

pattern

for the A summary in Table 3.1

collectors

in

parallel

is

shown

in Figure 3.5. is
given

collector

materials

and

their properties

II

s-

cu
SLD
Ol
-Q

S+J

o
r~

O- o
CL tO

O JD
LO

rO

O < >
1

oo

Q. XI

ro
i

h-

an a:
LO
1

a:

\
\
\

CD C
r

Qro

ct:

''

o
cu u cu
CO
l/l

1_

o u

00

o
SC_)
+->

c
0)

E
CU

u cu

o
C_) Sro

CU
CD

E
LO

CU
s_
13
O'.

12

96

Figure 3.4

Single KTA Tubular Collector Layout

13

IT"

sir

IXX

TTTT

III IXXI
XXII

II

,XXTT

XXI

TTTT

tiix

VtVV

TTTT

TTTYYTT

Fiaure 3 5

Flow Pattern For 2 KTA Tubular Collectors In Parallel

14

Table 3.1

KTA Tubular Collector Materials

and

Properties

Model No:
Quantity:

KT4-85 2
63"

Outside Dimensions:

96"

3"

(160.02

243.84

7.62 cm) epoxy

Sealing

System:

-3M

Company, high temperature,


#2214

structural

adhesive

-General

Electric RTV high temperature

silicon

rubber

Working

Fluid:

Water

or water/glycol

Line Pressure:
Weight: Normal

125 4.2
psf

psi

max.

(8.79 kg/cm )

(20.51 kg/m2)
-25F

Operating

Temperature:

to 230F

(-32C to 110C)

Stagnation Temperature:

450F

(232C)

Side Rails, End Caps:


Back Cover:

6063-T5 Aluminum

500-H-34 Aluminum
per

Effective Apperture Area

Collector:
with

31.67 ft

(2.94

2
m

)
brazing

Plumbing

Connections:

Sealed

high temperature

silver

alloy

Absorber:

-1/2"

0D M-Type hard drawn


coatings:

copper

tube

-selective

black

chrome

-absorptivity:

95%

-emissivity:

7%
0.37 GPM to 1.46 GPM
temperature
=

-flow

rates:

per

collector

at water

140F
all

(60C)
cases

-flow

condition:

laminar in
soda-lime

Glass Cover Tubes:

-008

glass

-solar

spectrum

transmissivity:

92%

at

normal

incidence

15

Table 3.1

Cont.

-solar

reflectivity:

4%

at

normal

incidence
5
microns

-infrared

transmissivity:

1.6%

at

-density:

2.7 Grams/cm

Insulation:

Isocyanurate Polyurethane foam tested for


usage

continuous

at

300F

(149C)

16

2.

Expansion Tank
15
gallon

The

expansion

tank is
a

standard

Adamson Flash tank

with

sight

glass

attached.

3.

Preheat Tank
tank

The

preheat

tank is

120

gallon

water

storage

manufactured
3/4"

by

the Electric Heater tube heat


exchanger

Company
built
serial

and

contains

removable

copper

on

location.

The tank

model

number

is C1205R-0

and

the

number

is 07710332.

It has been tested to 353 psig (24.8


a

kg/cm2)

and

is designed for

working

pressure

of

150 psig (10.6 kg/cm

4.

Closed
a

Loop

Circulation

Pump

The

recirculation

pump is
pump.

Grundfos Model No.


rated

UP26-64

variable

speed

circulator

It is
and

at

1/12 hp., 3200rpm It has built in


about

single

phase,

60 cycle, 115

volts

1.65

amps.

overload

protection.

The flow
about

rate

varies

from

0.8 is

gpm

(0.05 liters/sec) to

gpm

(0.13 liters/sec)
on

and

controlled

by

hand
the
as

adjustment

located
cir

the

underside

of

the Bell

pump.

Previously,
Gossett
model

closed

loop

culation

pump

was

and

will

be described
since

for the
was not

recirculation

application.

It
a

was

replaced

it

variable

speed

and

attained

flow

rate

of

gpm

(0.06 liters/sec).

This
solar

completes

the description

of

the

apparatus

found in the
side

closed

energy

collection

loop.

Turning

to the

service water

and

again

referring to Figure 3.1, the

following

apparatus

is described:

1.

Hot Water Tank


storage

The hot
one

water

tank is
element

40

gallon

water

tank

with

heating

located

near

the

top

17

and

one

heating
at

element

located
with

near

the bottom
power

of

the tank.
at

Each
given

element

is

rated

4500

watts

the

maximum

rating

any

time
on

equal

to 4500 watts
one

(corresponding
The tank is

to

either

but

never

both

elements

at

any

time).
number

manufactured

by

the A.O.

Smith Company. It

The

model

is Ken 40

and

the

serial

number

is 780T-G-88-40173.
a

has been tested to 300 psig (21.0 kg/cm


pressure
of

and

is designed for

working

150 psig (10.6 kg/cm ).

2.

Recirculation

Pump

A Bell

and

Gossett
used

centrifugal

pump

number

106189 FU,
rated at

series

number

100 is

in this

application.

It is
and

1/12 hp, 1725 rpm,


It is

single

phase,
and

60 cycle, 115 volts,

1.7

amps.

thermally
rate

protected

is

continuous

rated

up to
gpm

40C.

The flow

generated

by

the pump is approximately 5

(0.32 liters/sec).
had
a
much

An flow

identical
rate

pump in the

closed

loop

application

slower

due to the increased pump head in the

closed

loop.

3.

Two

Way

Water Valve

This

valve

is

manufactured

by Honeywell
at

and

is

controlled

by
24

Honeywell
watts.

Modutrol

Motor

rated

24 volts, 60

hz,

1.06 amps,

and

4.

Mixing

Valve

This

valve

is

3/4"

watts

model

number

70A.

Photographs

of

the

apparatus

described in this

section

are

shown

in

Figures 3.6 through 3.13.

18

<s

M[
:

Ft

:fj

l!H

IP' @i

%3975295 9

:'

Sro
i

13
-Q

If)

C3
1

s_

O
+->

(J
J

< CU
I
1

o
:* CJ

!F?fFf

ul!

mm

LD ro

CD
S_ 3 CD

MM

laiii ill

19

Sight Glass

Valve 10
Air Bleed Valve

Figure 3.7.

15 Gallon Expansion Tank

Figure 3.8. 120 Gallon Preheat Tank

20

^^

W
IP
i.
m

Figure 3.9.

Closed

Loop Circulation Pump

Figure 3.10.

40 Gallon Hot Water Tank

21

figure 3,11,

Recirculation

Pump

Figure 3.13,

Mixing Valve

figure 3.12.

2 Way Water Valve

22

3.2

System Operation

The
and

solar

water

heating

system

is designed to function both


also

with

without

solar

assistance.

Provision has
tank to be

been

made

to

allow

solar

heated hot

water

in the

preheat

switched

with

water

in the

storage

water

heater This

should

the temperature difference become


a means
of

greater

than 4C.
water.

provides

storing

additional

solar

heated hot

Should this

provide

hot
shown

water

temperatures that
and

are

higher than desired, the mixing


will

valve

in Figures 3.1
of

3.13
at

allow, when supply is required,


water

the

addition

city
water

water

the

hot

heater

outlet

thereby reducing the supply

temperature.

There
solar water

are

three differential
system
and

controllers

used

to

operate

the

heating
is

they

are

shown

diagramatically
energy

in Figure 3.1,

Controller #1
while

used

to

initialize the
to
operate

solar

collection

loop
ini

controller

#2 is

used

the

solar

energy

loop

after

tialization.
recirculation.

Controller #3 is

used

for the
sense

preheat-to-water

heater
of

The three
as
shown

controllers

temperature
purpose of

by
two

means

ther

mistors

located
solar

in Figure 3.1.

The
to

controllers

for the

energy
closed

collection

loop is

prevent

repeated

on-off

cycling

of

the

loop

circulation

pump

which

could

occur

if only
nature

controller

#1

was

used.

This
TMDSP

would

result

due to the transient


-steady-state

of

temperature

at

sensor

until

quasi

conditions

are

reached.

Control

is designed
a
complete

such

that both automatic


explanation,
of see

and

manual

operation

is

possible.

For
system

control

Appendix 1.
solar

Also
energy

involved in
collection

operation

is the charging
The

the

closed

loop

with

the transfer fluid.

procedure

used

is

given

23

in Appendix 2.
produced

The transfer fluid

used

is

called

Solar Winter Ban

by

the Cameo
are

Manufacturing Company
glycol with

of

Greensboro, NC.
grade

Its ingredients

propylene

food

dipotassium
added.

hydrogen phosphate inhibitor


non-toxic

and

food

grade

colorant

It is
strength.

and

offers

freeze

protection

to

-55F

(-48C)

full

3.3

Measuring Apparatus

In

order

to

analyze

the solar to
monitor

water

heating

system

performance

provision

had to be

made

various

system

parameters.

These include fluid temperatures,


rates,
of

air

temperatures, fluid flow


rates.

and

insolation

(INcoming

SOLar radiATION)
used

The

purpose

this

section

is to discuss the devices


the
reasons

to

monitor

these

parameters

and

for their

choice.

Also

covered

is the

instrumentation

used

to process, display,
as
well

and

record

the

signals

from the monitoring devices

as

their

accuracies.

3.3.1

Temperature Measurement

Figure 3.14 is

system

schematic

showing the location

of

all

the

temperature monitoring devices

required

in the

experimental

work

to

follow.

The

control

sensors

shown

in Figure 3.1

are

not

included in

this figure to simplify the

schematic.

The fluid temperatures


and outlet

at

the

preheat

tank heat exchanger inlet


outlet

(Tl
the

and

T2)

collector

inlet

and

(T3

and

T4)

and

inside

of

preheat

tank (T5)

were

measured

by

resistance

thermometer

24

ez

ro

CU
13

uo

cu
00

LO CD

C
i
+-1

ro

CU

cu
U2
t-

ro

0
ro

O
LO

ro

T3

CU O
S-

o
Q
I

h-

9
cu
.

sCD

25

elements

(RTE)

mounted

in brass housings
The devices in
resistance

and

supported

by

1/8"

compression

fittings.

conjunction

with

their brass

housings
were

are

known

as

temperature devices

(RTD).
and

The RTE's
mounted

purchased

from RDF Corporation


author.

(model

number

EP-120)

in brass housings by the


are
given

Details

on

construction

and

installation

in Appendix 3.

An RTE is
principle of

temperature-sensing
in
electric

transducer
of

which

operates

on

the
of

change

resistance

wire

as

function

temperature.
wire
wound

The
a

elements

utilized

are

made

of

high-purity
in
aluminum

platinum

upon

ceramic

core

and

encapsulated

oxide.

Platinum

elements

were

chosen

because they
and

resist

contamination,
error
with

are

mechanically
and use

and

electrically stable,

drift

and

age

is

negligible.

The

variation

of

resistance,

R
an

with

temperature,
of

T for

most

metallic

materials

can

be

represented

by

equation

the form:

Ro

(1

a2T2

a-,T

...

apTn)

(3.1)

where

Rn

is the

resistance

at

temperature T
vs.

0.

Figure 3.15, taken RTD


with

from Ref.
materials.

5,

shows

resistance

temperature curves for various


used

Rn

values

for the

elements

are

nominally 1002
the a
constants

2.0 2 tolerance.
required

For for

platinum

elements

two

of

are

generally

highly
with

accurate

work

although

quite

respectable

linearity

can

be

achieved

one

constant

over

limited

ranges.

26

Nickel

ed

for

/e resistors

Copper

20C

400

600

800

1000

Plolint

lemperoture, C

Figure 3.15

Resistance/Temperature Curves
R.T.D. Materials

For

example

[5],
to

platinum

is
-73

linear

within

0.4

percent

over

the

ranges

-184

-73C

and

to +149C. to

0.3
+

percent

from

-18

to
-18

149C
to

0.25
and +

percent

from

-184

-129C,

0.2

percent

from

93C,

1.2

percent

from 260 to 816C.


elements,

For

model

number

EP-120

platinum

resistance

the temperature 0 to 100C.

coefficient

is 0.003915

ohm/ohm/C

over

the

range

In this work,
calibration)
of

however, two
in
order

constants

were

obtained

(see Appendix 3, RTD


C.
The time

to achieve
about

accuracies

of

+0.1

constant

the

RTD devices is
rate

5.5

sec

in moving

water

(1 ft/sec).

The flow
a

in the
rate of

system

is approximately 0.7 ft/sec corresponding to

flow

16

gpm.

27

Signal
RTD digital

processing
thermometer.
with

and

display
model

was

done

with

Fluke

model

2180A

The
or

2180A is

portable,

five digit

RTD thermometer features:

0.0

0.01

resolution.

The instrument

1.

Front

panel

switch

selection

of

Fahrenheit

or

Celsius

readings.

2.

Switch selectable RTD inputs.


resistance measurement are

Six RTD types

plus

direct

possible.

3.

Switch

selectable

input line

voltage.

4.

Dual

-slope

measurement

techniques,

under

microcomputer readings
per

control. second.

100

ms

intearation period, three

5.

Digital

linearization
4th

of

the RTD inputs.


curve

This is

accomplished
under

by

piecewise

order

fit

approximation

microcomputer

control.

In the

experimental

work

to follow
point

(Section 5),

readings

were

required

at more

than one

at

the same time.


provided

This
use of

requires

multiplexing capability two


channel

which

was

by

the

two,
The
reason

output

Omega thermocouple
was

selector

switches.

for two
elements

selector

switches

because 4

wire

resistance

thermometer
and

were

used.

Since multiplexing capability is required,


a

also

since

each

RTD has
a

different

RQ

value,

lead
would

resistance

error

was

accounted

for in
was

different

manner

than
of

be

employed

if only

one

RTD

used.

An

explanation

how the digital


effects are

thermometer

determines temperature for


when

and

how lead
now

resistance

accounted

one

RTD is

used

is

given.

28

In operation, the digital

thermometer maintains

constant,

but adjustable,
and

current

through one set of wires


other

(source wires)

to

from the RTD.

The

set

senses

the

voltage

drop

across

the RTD and transfers


output
voltage

the signal

to

comparator

amplifier

whose

is

proportional

to the RTD

resistance.

The

computer

algorithm

for the

particular

RTD type

chosen

now

converts

the

voltage

to a

temperature.

For any
a

particular

RTD type, level

the
a

computer

algorithm

is

constant

i.e.
and

particular

voltage

equals

particular

temp

erature

value

therefore to the
source

offset

any lead

resistance

effects

the

current

through

wires

is

adjusted

such

that the
across

proper

voltage

drop

characterizing the is
adjusted

measured

temperature is
on

the

RTD. The

This

current

by

resistor

the input
and

module.

calibration

can

be
can

made

at

any temperature
shown

is

valid

over

the

entire

scale.

This

be readily
for
a
given

from

Figure 3.15

and

Ohm's

Law.

From Figure 3.15,

temperature:

VR01
1

R2/R02
of

(3-2)

where

and

2 indicate two RTD's

the same

nominal

rating but

different

actual

RQ

values

due to tolerances.

From Ohm's Law:

v1
I,

I, Rt

(3-3)

where

is

constant.

29

Also:

V2

I2R2
constant

(3.4)

again

with

I-

but

unequal

to

I,.

In

order

for the
3.

calibration

to be the

valid

over

the
and

entire

scale,

Eq. Eq.

3, must
and

equal

Eq.

3.4

over

range

of

R-,

R?.

Equating

3.3

Eq.

3.4

gives:

I1R1
which

I2R2

(3.5)

is

'i

t\
5--

<3-6>

However, from Eq. 3.2:

Rl

R01
-5

K2

K02
gives:

(3.7)

which

substituted

into Eq.

3.6

KQ2
for any
value

which

is

constant

of

R-,

and

R2-

Thus, by adjusting
Eq. lead

the

resister

on

the input module,

such

that
and

3.8 is satisfied,
effects

V-,

will

equal

V2

at

any temperature

the

will

have been

negated.

However,
lead length,
RTD
will not

since

five RTD's
as a

are

used

with

each

having

different
for
one

as

well

different

RQ

value,

the

calibration

be

valid

for the remaining RTD's.

Therefore,

each

RTD

3U

was

calibrated

separately
and

with

its leads

and

connections

to the
used

selector

switches

digital

thermometer the same as were


resistance measurement

in
was

the
used

experimental

work.

The direct
and

setting
each

on

the digital

thermometer

twelve

readings

taken for
method

RTD

at

twelve known temperatures.


squares

From this data, the fit


was
used

of

least
a-, and

for

quadratic

curve

to

generate

constants

a2

for Eq.

3.1.

The

resistor

setting

on

the input

module

was

not

adjusted

during
and

calibration

or

during

subsequent

testing.
measured

Having
R
value

constants

a-,

a2

and

R~ from

calibration

work,

at

an

unknown

temperature readily

allowed

calculation

of

the
not

unknown

temperature.

Since the
selector

resistor

on

the input

module

had
and

been

adjusted,

the

switches

could

be

multiplexed

accurate

temperatures

found
a,

since

lead

resistance

effects

were

incorporated for
additional

into

constants

and

a2-

See Appendix 3, RTD


of

calibration

calibration

details.

photograph

the

RTD's,

selector

switches,

and

digital

thermometer is

shown

in figure 3.16.

Ambient temperature
copper-constantan

(T6,

Figure

3.14)

was

measured

by

type T

thermocouple.

The thermocouple
with
magnesium

was

constructed

from Omegaclad thermocouple


and

wire

oxide

insulation
a
well-ventilated

304

stainless

steel

sheathing.

It
of

was

placed

in

housing
and

such

that direct
mounted

radiation

the sun

could

not

fall

on

it

the

housing

on

the

northeast

corner

of

the east KTA


of

tubular
a

collector.

The

housing

was

constructed

out

tin

which

has

low emissivity thereby reducing


a
photograph

radiation

effects.

Figure 3.17

is

of

the

housing
because

and

thermocouple

in

position.

The

thermocouple was

chosen

of

its

rapid

response

time
air as

(it has
opposed

time

constant

of

approximately 50

seconds

in

still

to 2.9

minutes

for the RTD).

^ 1

32

Ii

I !!11

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO

34

Signal

processing

and

display

was

done
model

with

Fluke
a

model

2190A

thermocouple digital

thermometer.
with

The

2190A is
0.1.

portable,
a

five-digit thermocouple
range

resolution

of

It has

temperature

of

-242C

to +2471 C.

The instrument has the

following

features: 1.

Front

panel
.

switch

selection

of

Fahrenheit

or

Celsius

readings

2.

Switch
couple

selectable

thermocouple inputs.
available.

Seven thermo

types

are

3. 4.

Switch

selectable

input line

voltage.

Dual-slope
control. per second.

measurement

techniques,

under

microcomputer

100

ms

integration period, three

readings

5.

Digital

linearization

of

the thermocouple inputs.


order
curve

This

is
6.

accomplished

by

4th

fit.
eliminating

Automatic
the
need

reference-

junction

compensation

for

an

ice bath

reference-

junction.

Calibration

was

checked

before

experimentation

by inserting
on

the thermocouple in
thermocouple

an

ice

water

lag

bath
rear

and

adjusting Rl
port

the

input

module

through the

access

until

the
maximum

correct

temperature was
+

displayed.
as

Using

this procedure,

error

of

0.2C

was

obtained

stated

by

the instruction

manual.

Ambient temperature
measured

(T7, Figure 3.14)

of

the basement

was

by

mercury in bulb thermometer

whose

description

and

accuracy is

given

in Appendix 3,

part

3, RTD

calibration.

3b

The

preheat tank

(T8)

and

storage

hot

water

heater tank

water

temperature
LM134.
erature

(T9)

were measured

by

National
true

Semiconductor device
current
source

The LM134 is
transducer
provides
a

3-terminal
no

floating
supply

temp
This

with

separate

power

connections.

device
across

regulated,
V-

constant

current with

as

little
sense

as

volt

its V+
pins

and

terminals
used

(see Figure 3.18).


operating
to

The

voltage

across

and

3
and

to

establish

current

in the LM134
temperature

is 64

mv

at

25C
one

is

directly
resistor
~

proportional

absolute

(K).

The
a

external

(470 2)

connection

shown

in

Figure 3.18
Since
the
range

generates

current with

+0.33/o/C

temperature dependence.
uA

current
0

is

proportional

to temperature (125 in

to 170

yA

over

to

100C),

series

resistance

long

wire

runs

do

not

affect

accuracy,
a

hence only two leads

are

required.

The LM134 is

guaranteed

over

+V

in

LM134

Figure 3.18

Source

Basic Two-Terminal LM134


-

Current

temperature

range

of

-55C

to +125C

and

is

hermetically

sealed.

The LM134 devices


thin-walled brass tubes

with

external

resister were

mounted

in 1/8"0.D.
end.

with

brass plug
current

soldered

to the tube

Since the LM134 is


used

floating
sensor

source,

teflon heat

shrink was

to isolate the

from the brass housing.


sealed with epoxy.

Finally, the housing


check of each
unit

was

backfilled
made with a

with

sand

and

was

digital

voltmeter

to

assure

that the LM134


and

was

isolated

from the brass housing.


will

The LM134
solid

with

resistor

brass

housing

be identified

as

state

sensor.

An analog
output

signal

conditioning

circuit

board

provided

voltage

from the temperature-dependent


sensor.

current

generated

by

the

solid

state

In addition,
also

zeroing
on

(offset)

and

spanning

(gain)
for

circuitry

was

located

the analog board.


sensor which

This

allowed

calibration

of

the

particular

is

covered

in Appendix 3.

An

active

pole

filter effectively

removed

line

noise.

Power board
was

requirements

of

the analog

signal

conditioning
power

circuit

met

by

+25,

-25V

dc

unregulated

supply

which

fed two
also

onboard

regulators

giving

split

15V dc

supply.

This supply

powered

the LM134 devices.

Signal
was achieved

display (a
using
a

voltage

directly

relatable

to

temperature)
(D.M.M.).
of

Keithley 170 TRMS digital


equal

multimeter

The input impedance is


the reading
and
plus

to 10 mf?,

Instrument accuracy is 0.04%


was used

one

digit.

The instrument

during

calibration

during

experimentation.

37

Experimental
of

work

described in This
was

section

5.2

required

hard copy

the D.M.M.

display.
eight

obtained

using

Techni-Rite,
recorder.

Model TR-888 is done


pressure

channel

direct writing analog


stylus

Writing
puts

by
on

the
a

use

of

heated

(for

each

channel) trace.
mm/mi n.

which

heat-sensitive
speeds,
signal

paper

producing

The

recorder

has has

eight

chart

from 0.5

mm/mi n

to 100

The Model TR-888


signal con

eight

plug-in

conditioners:

two-model TSC-801
conditioners.

ditioners
model

and

six

model

TSC-810

signal

Since only the

TSC-801

signal

conditioner was

used,
of

it only
providing

will

be described.
ampli

The TSC-801

performs

the dual
and

function
power

calibrated

fication

of

signals

regulated

to the

amplifier

pen

motor

located in the balanced


with

recorder main

frame.
and

The input
provides

circuit

is differential,
mode

respect

to

frame,

excellent common

rejection.

Calibrated
are

zero

suppression

is

provided.

Eight

active

range

settings

available, from 1

mv/div

to 2
were

mv/div.

Calibration
an

procedures

outlined

in the

operation

manual

followed giving

accuracy

of

0.25 div.

Figures 3.19 is
analog
signal

photograph

of

solid

state

sensor,

the
power

conditioning the
eight

circuit

board, the
analog

unregulated

supply,

the D.M.M.
shown
and

and

channel

recorder.

With the

arrangement

by following
error

the

calibration

procedure

outlined

in Appendix 3,
sensor was

maximum

of +0.16C

was

achieved.

The

solid

state

chosen

because its

output was

more

readily

conditioned

to allow for
will

recording.

In future for RTD's

work

at

Energy House,

this capability
solid

be

available

and

thermocouples.

Also, the

state

device

38

39

only
noted

requires

two leads
and

as

opposed

to four

by

the RTD.

It is to be
location the

that TS
and

T9 shown on

Figure 3.14 occupy the


which

same

as

TMDPH1

TMDH in Figure 3.1


and

is

no

problem

since

experiments

using T8

T9 did not require the presence of TMDPH1

or

TMDH.

3.3.2

Flow Measurement

Flow

measurement was

required

in the

closed

solar

energy

collection

loop

as

shown

in

Figure 3.14.
water

5/8"

by

3/4"

model

SCER-H

positive

displacement Badger
model

meter was

used

for this
a

application.

The disc
meter

SCER-H features
of operation

bronze

housing

and

synthetic

rubber

capable

up to 250F
system which

(121C).

In addition,
the
need

the water
a

has

a magnetic

drive

eliminates

for

packing

gland.

This
meter

operates

by
The

means

of

four

pole

magnet

located inside the


rate of

water

housing.

magnet

rotates

at

the

same

speed

as

the nutating synthetic

rubber

disc.

This

magnet

then drives
water

magnet

located in
gear

removable

gear

train

mounted

on

the

meter.

The
used

train in turn drives


of

digital

register.

The

materials

for
glycol

construction

the

water

meter

permit

either water

or

propylene

to be

used

as

the

monitored

fluid.

Conventional
results

monitoring

of

flow flow

with

the

external

gear

train
work

in

an

integrated total
required

rate.

However,

experimental

in Section 5.1
of

instantaneous flow rates, hence


used.

another method

monitoring flow
conjunction with

was

A type TL170C Silicon Hall-Effect Switch

in
was

an

electromagnetically-operated

digital

counter

chosen.

The TL170C is

low

cost

magnetically-operated

electronic

40

switch

that

utilizes

the Hall

Effect to

sense

reversals

in

magnetic

field direction.
conductor or

Briefly, the Hall Effect is the property


when exposed

of

semi

conductor which,

to

current

and

perpendicular

external

magnetic

field,

gives

rise

to

an

orthogonal

internal

electric

current

due to the Lorentz force.


the internal

As the

magnetic

field direction

reverses,
signal

current changes

direction
reversal

also.

By internal
direction
and

conditioning in the TL170C, this


as a

in

current

is

outputed

change

in

voltage

level between 0.4V (low state)


from the TL170C then is
supplied

20V (high

state).

This

voltage

change

used

to drive the digital the digital


supply. counter

counter.

Power
of an

was

to the TL170C
voltage

and

by

means

RCA WP-703A

constant

dc.

power

Its
power

output

ranged

from 0 to 20V dc.


counter.

with

the setting
switch

at

20V

used

to

the device
of

and

The TL170C
activated

mounted

directly
magnet

on

the
a

outside

housing top
was

was

not

by

the four
and

pole

so

groove

0.060 inches

milled

from the

cover

the device
gear

epoxied

in

position.

Because the TL170C be


attached

was

recessed,

the
on

magnetic

train

could

either

or

removed

depending
To
measure

preference without

hindering

operation

of

the TL170C.
was

instantaneous flow rates,


required

the digital

counter

reading

divided
of

by

the time

to
rate

accumulate

it

and

from the
pole

calibration

results

Appendix 4, the flow


per revolution

found.
when

The four

magnet

resulted

in two

counts

which

taken into

account with

the
of +

calibration

technique
reading.

gave

an

accuracy for
result was

flow

rate

measurements

0.85%

of

the

How this

arrived

at

as

well

as

the

calibration

technique and procedure is found


of

in Appendix 4. described

Figure 3.20 is
counter

photograph

the configuration

above(digital

not

shown).

41

Figure 3.20.

Part A

Flow Rate

Monitoring

Equipment

Figure 3.20.

Part B

Water Meter

42

3.3.3

Insolation Measurement

Insolation data
Section 7
were

utilized

for the

work

to be described in
and

measured

by

two

Eppley Black

White Model 8-48

pyranometers,
number

two quantity two strip

integrators, Science Associates Catalog


chart

619,
619H.

and

recorders,

Science Associates
April 8, 1976
60

Catalog
on

number

The data

were

collected

beginning

both

horizontal
south.

surface

and

tilted surface,
are

from the horizontal


the southwest
corner

facing due
of

The
roof

pyranometers

located

on

the

power

lab

of

the Mechanical
mile

Engineering building.
Energy House.
of

This

location is approximately 1/2


experimental
work of

from the
output

For the
on

Section

5, the

the

pyranometer

the

tilted

surface was

recorded

utilizing

Gould 110 strip


two
channel

chart

recorder.

The Gould 110 is


recorder, which
order

ten

inch,
a

multi-speed,

strip
It

chart

utilizes

thermal

writing technique.
measurements.

was

used

in

to

obtain

more

precise

insolation in the

Following
accuracy
of

cali

bration
+

procedures

outlined

owner's

manual,

an

0.1%

was

obtained.

This

represents

the accuracy

of

the output

of

the

pyranometer

and

does

not

exclude

the possibility that the pyranometer chart,


of

itself is inaccurate. for insolation


than 1
with values

Using the Science Associates strip


over

however,

15

minute

periods,

accuracies

no

better

part

in 30

were

possible

(assuming

readibility

of

1/2

langley
langleys)

the highest total

per

15

minute

period

approximately 15

or

3.3%.

Therefore, by using the Gould 110, this inaccuracy is


eliminated

essentially
pyranometer.

and

the total

error

is only the
no

result

of

the

This

error

is thought to be

larger than 5%.

43

4.

COMPONENT MODELS

Each

component of

the

solar water

heating

system can

be mathematically
on

described.
nature of

With these formulations


the
system

plus

additional

information
it is

the to

loads

and

the

driving forces,
of

possible

represent

the thermal

performance

the

system.

The

purpose of

this
major

section

is to derive the
of

mathematical

expressions

describing

the

components

the system, i.e., the KTA collectors, the


and

preheat

and

hot

water

tank,

the heat exchanger.

4.1

KTA Collector Analysis

The derivations to follow


Since the flat
plate

parallel

that

of

flat

plate

collector.

derivation has been extensively


with

covered

in the
given

literature
Duffie
and

[6], [7]> [8] [9]


Beckman's Solar

an

excellent

compilation

in
not

Energy

Thermal Processes
results

[10],

it

will

be

given

here.

However,
plate

as

important
will

are

obtained,

their

correlation

to flat

results

be

noted.

4.1.1 General Equation for Useful Heat Gain

Figure 4.1
element.

is

control

volume

for

single

tubular

collector

Assuming
section

steady-state

conditions,

an

energy balance

on

an

elemental

dx

yields

E losses + E Gains

(4.1)

where

each

can

be

expressed

as:

44

Pos

Pos

x+dx

1/2"

O.D. O.D.
O.D.

(0.0127m)

M-type hard drawn

copper

tube

d'=

3/4"

(0.0191m)
(0.0508m)

008 008

soda-lime

glass

tube

2"

soda-lime

glass

tube

Figure 4.1

Tubular Collection Element Control

Vol ume

45

E Losses

-ir

Ddx

Cp (Tfx
(Tfx)

dx)

(4.2)

E Gains

D dx

qg

Cp

(4.3)

The
the

variable

q
q

is the energy lost is the


net

per unit area

of

the

outer

tube

and

variable

energy
4.2
and

gain

per

unit

aperture area.

Equation

4.1

in terms

of equations

4.3 becomes:

D dx

(qg

,q)

MCp (Tfx

Tfx

dx)

(4.4)

The

right portion

of

the left hand

side

of

equation

4.4

can

be

written

as

VTfx-Tfx+dx>

-%Ddx

<4-5)

where

qu

is the
4.4

useful

energy
gives:

gain

per

unit

aperture area.

Combining

equations

and

4.5

qu

qg

^q

(4.6)

The

variable

can

be

expressed

as

qg
where

Ua)e Ieff
absorptance product

(4.7)

(xa)
I

is the transmittance,
ff

of

the

cover

system and

is the insolation

per unit

area

over

the aperture

area

which

is

either

directly

absorbed

or

backreflected

by

the

46

silvered

portion

of

the

outer

cover

tube to the

absorber

tube.

The

variable

can

be

expressed

as

U,
it

ird

dx
dx

Tfx

dx

Tfx

(4.8)

where

U,

is the
tube
and

overall

heat transfer

coefficient

between the
represents

absorber

the
tube

surroundings.

The

numerator

losses

from the q
of

absorber

and

the denominator
area which

represents

the fact that


area

is
the

per

unit

outer

tube

is the

circumferential

aperture

tube.

Equation 4.8 becomes:

UL

-D

<Tfx

"

(4.9)

where

T--

fx

T--

f*

Tfx

as

dx

Substituting

Equations 4.9

and

4.7 into Equation 4.6

gives:

(Ta)e Teff
=

"

U L

frd

~D

(Tfx

"

Ta)

(4.10)

Defining qu/L

quD

gives

%/L

DK>e W

"

UL t (Jfx

"

Ta)^

(4.11)

47

This
except

result

is

analogous

to Equation 7,5.16

of

Duffie
and

and

Beckman

[10]

for the fact that F (the fin efficiency factor)

F'

(the

collector

efficiency
absorber

factor)

are

equal

to 1.

Since there
must

are

no

fins between the

tubes, the fin efficiency


if it is This is
assumed

be 1.

The

collector efficiency

factor is 1
temperature.

the

absorber

tube is at the local


resistance

fluid

equivalent

to saying that the

R,
negligible

between the fluid in the


compared

absorber

tube

and

the

absorber

tube is
network.

to the

addition

of

resistances

in the thermal
resistance.

This
of

is the

case

(see Section 4.1.4}


of

with

this

The

value

R,

is approximately 3%
the first this
glass

the
tube.

resistance

between the
and

absorber

tube

and

cover

Work

by Beekley

Mather [11

supports

result.

4.1.2

Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction

The

useful

gain

per

unit

of

flow length

as

calculated

from
enters

Equation 4.11
the
collector

is ultimately transferred to the fluid.


at

The fluid

temperature

TINC

and

increases in temperature

until

at exit

it is

TqUTC
=

Equation 4.5

can

be

rewritten:

quDdx

qu/Ldx

MCp(Tfx

dx

Tfx)

(4.12)

Dividing
and

through

by dx? finding
for

the limit as dx
gives:

approaches

zero,

substituting Equation 4.11

q^L

dT.

H
"

VL

'

TT

D[('e !eff

"

UlT <Tfx

Ta

^^

48

rearranging

gives:

dTfv

U,

TTd

~~+lt~

Tfx

ite"

E(Ta)e !eff

UL

(4-14)

Equation 4.14 is
which

first

order

nonhomogeneous

differential

equation

is

solved

as

follows:

Tfx
Upon
side

Tc

Tp
of

Assume

Tc

c/\

(4.15)

substitution

Equation 4.15 into Equation 4.14 (with the


set

right

of

the

equation

to zero),

the

following

is

obtained:

UL7Td

(r

--

erx

C,

r*

ftCP
-UL^d

and
-U.Trd

MC

C,

(4.16)

Assume T

and

substitute

into Equation 4.14:

49

U.TTd
-k_

MC P

i [(to) e
MC
P

j
eff

TTd

aJ

--

-L

ttU.

[q LMg

U,L ^- T 1 D
aJ

where

qg

(ra)e Jeff

from Equation 4,7.

Dfil-+Ta

(4-17)

-UL7Td

flc
Now,

Tfx

Cle

q
+ui

f J-+Ta

(4.18)

Boundary Conditions

Tfx
T,

TINC
T0..Tp

at

(4.19)
(collector outlet)

at

Equation 4.18

with

the

above

boundary

condition

substituted

in becomes:

TINC

'

Cl

Of 1

Ta

(4-2)

50

and

rearranging,

Ci^nc

-fL

T ir-\

(4-2D

Substitution rearranging
T
"

of

Equation 4.21

into Equation 4.18

gives

after

:
~Vd
~wr~

fx
_

"

'a
t

5a
U.
_

d
1"

j_
tt
=
_1_

INC

'a

km
-g jl.

(4-22)

uf

tt

which

is

of

the analogous form

of

Equation 7.6.3

of

Duffie

and

Beckman [10].

Collector Heat Removal Factor

It is
useful

convenient

to define

quantity that
gain

relates

the

actual

energy

gain

to the energy

if the

whole

collector were

at

the fluid inlet temperature.

This is known

as

the

collector

heat

removal

factor.

useful
useful

heat
gain

gain

heat

if

whole

collector

is

at

fluid inlet temperature

The

collector

heat

removal

factor

can

be

expressed

as

FR

GCP ^OUTC-^HfJ,
hg-ULT<TINC-Ta

(423)

51

where

mass

flow

rate

per

unit

aperture

area, M/A.

GCpD

Fn

T0UTC

"

TINC

(4.24)
'

Ultt

!a
UL

D d

1
'

TT

^TINC

or

GCpD
Ultt

QUTC

Ta

"

tJT;

a-S-J-l
~d~

Za-LJL
-IT.

INC

UL

TT

d T INC
+^Ai_

(4.25)

UL

tt

or

GC

Pi
UL^

UL !aJ.x UL d
TT

TT

(T0UTC
<TINC
=
"

"

V
(4.26)

which,

from Equation 4.22

with

Tfx
d1

and x

\*

FR

GCP

Ultt

D d

J CP ^
-

(4.27)

Again, this
which

result

is

of

form paralleling that


of

of

flat

plate

is

given

as

Equation 7.7.4

Duffie

and

Beckman [10].

Rewriting

Equation 4.23 gives:

frN

"

UL

(T,INC

Ta'

(4.28)

52

and

Qu

%At

AtFR fog

"

UL

(TINC

"

Ta)J

(4.29)

Collector Efficiency
Collector efficiency is defined divided
as

the

useful

energy

collected

by

the
as

maximum

possible

energy

available.

This

can

be

expressed

follows:

n n

MCP (T0UTC
IDL

"

TINC }

MCP(J0UTC-TINC)
,.
.

iAt
above expression
gives:

(4.30)

Substituting

Equation 4.23 into the

AtFR kg

'

a-j^

UL

<TINC

T.U

(4.31)

which

becomes

!R!_U^A (TINC
I

"

UL

(4.32)
R

or

n n

=
-

|-RUa;e

F (ra)

^ j

UL

^
D

("WI

"

Ta)
F

(4 33) K '

53

Equations 4.29

and

4.33

represent

the KTA tubular


similar

collector

performance equations.

They

are

in form to those derived


of

for flat
are

plate

performance.

The
as

variables

these

equations

now examined

separately

they apply to the tubular

collector.

4.1.3

Effective Insolation, I ff The development


of

this

section

follows that developed is the


of effective

by Beekley
on

and

Mather

[11] [2].
on

ff

insolation
cross

the

aperture

tube, defined

the basis
on

the
cross

aperture

sectional

area, At>

It is based

aperture

sectional

area

in

order

to be

consistent with

the

work

of

Sections 4.1.1
the collector,

and

4.1.2.
can

If I is the insolation in the tilt be


written

plane

of

ff

as:

ieff
where

ri

(4.34)

is defined

as

the

enhancement

factor.

Substituting

Equation 4.34 into Equation 4,33

gives:

fr rcie

uL
can

f iiflc_V.
be
calculated

(4.35)

The

enhancement

factor

for the tubular


made

collection

elements

by

realizing that
and

Ieff

is

up

of

both

directly

intercepted beam

diffuse

radiation

and

backreflected

54

beam

and

diffuse

radiation.

Further, I

lb

Id.

Also,

r.

and

rd

can

be defined

as

follows:

reff
with

Fb lb

Fd !d
axes

(4-36)

the tube centerline

oriented

in

an

east-west direction..

Dividing
qives:

Equation 4.36

and

and

substituting in Equation 4.34

I.
=

I.

rbT +rd
to calculate
examined.

(4-37)

In

order

the beam and diffuse enhancement factors

must

first be

4.1.3.1

Beam Enhancement Factor,

rh
can

The beam

enhancement

factor

be

written

as

[2];

rb

f^n f

(4-38)

where

the first
absorber

part

is the beam
and

radiation

directly

absorbed

by

the

tube

the

second

part

is the beam
angle

radiation

reflected

to the
a

absorber

tube.

The incident
of

relationships

necessary for

complete

understanding

the

work

to follow

can

be found in Appendix 5.

The terms
examined

of

Equation 4.38

are

defined below

and will

each

be

closer:

55

g(2)

shading factor (represents the fact that the


absorber

tube

can

be partially

shaded

from the

sun

by
cos

either adjacent

tubes or its own silver backing),

relates

beam

radiation measured on

on

tilted

surface

to that

measured

the

absorber

tube,
of

reflectance

of

the silver
average

backing
of

the

aperture
reflectance

tube.
over

It is the
the
solar

the spectral

spectrum,

y(2)

the fraction Qf'-the


radiation

aperture

area

over which

beam

is

reflected

to the absorber tube

g(2)

Shading Factor
east-west mounted

From Appendix 5 for


the
angle

tubes, it is

seen

that

can

be both

positive

and

negative.

Therefore, the
cases.

relationship for g(ft) that


with

will

be derived for both

Note

also

glass

absorptance,
part.

reflectance, and transmittance is not dealt

in this

a.)

Case 1

>

The shading factor gfa) is


2
s

equal

to one

when

2 s

2$
not

where

is

an

anqle 3

above which sun.

the

absorber

tube is
seen

fully

exposed

to the

The

angle

2S

can

be

geometrically

in Figure 4.2.
90
0

From the figure:

2S

(4-39)
measured
measured

where:

9 is y is

positive
positive

C.W. from
CCW from
n

ng
(not to be
n
^
.

and

confused

with y(fi))

and

2, 2C s

are

positive

measured

CCW from

Figure 4.2

Shading Angle, 3C

Figure 4.3

Collector Tube Geometric

Angle, y

57

In the figure, the in 2


will
result

sun
a

is

positioned

such

that any increase


one.

in

shading factor

of

less than

The
tube

angle

0 is an

orientation

angle which

depends

on set

the
and a

rotational

orientation.
equal

This

angle was

factory
is is
and

has been found to be


geometric

to

-10.8.

The

angle y

also

angle.

It is found from Figure 4.3


seen

unchangeable,

From the figure, it is

that

y-,

(4.40)

and

Tan"1

Y-,

fa
II*

(4.41)

sin'1

yz

(4.42)

where

L1

y(D/2)2
=

(e)2

(4.43)

for the KTA tubular

collector:

D
e

2"

1/2"

1/2"

58

therefore

Tan

_1

(1/2)

Sin"1

1/4

J7T

(0.5)'

26.6

12.9

39.5'

From Equation 4.39,

n
s

90

(-10.8)

39.5

61.

3C

The shading factor q(fi) is J is the


the
cutoff

equal ^

to

zero

for 2

;>

2 co
at

where

2
co

angle

above which

the tube is

not

exposed

all

to

incoming

beam

radiation.

From Figures 4.2

and

4.3:

"co
and

90

y3

(4.44)

Y3

Tan

_1
j-

e'

where

=0.25

So:

*3

14.

0C

with

2
co

90

(10.8)

14.0

86.

8C

Finally,

g(n)

^5. 5

86.8

(4'45)

59

for

2s

<

<

This

means

that when the absorber tube is partially


a

shaded,

the shading factor is


of

linear function
absorber

indirectly

proportional

to the amount

the

projected

tube

shaded.

In summary, the

following

results

were obtained:

g(2>
g(n).

1 0

for U

61.3

(4.46)

for for

2>

86.8

(4.47)
<
86.8

g(fl)

82585""

61.3

<

(4.45)

b)

Case 2

<

When

2 is

less than

or equal

to zero, there
give rise

are

three tube
of results

orientations

possible which

to three sets
show

for

g(2).

Figures

4.4, 4,5,
as

and

4.6

these three

orientations

which

can

be described

follows:

1.

Figure 4.4
adjacent

represents

shading
backing.

caused

solely

by

the

tube

silver

2,

Figure 4,5
of

represents with

shading

caused

solely
no

by

the tube
effect.

interest

adjacent

tubes

having
of

shading

3.

Figure 4.6
described

represents above.

combination

the two

cases

Looking

at

Figures 4,4,

4,5,

and

4,6, it is

clear

that for

60

Figure 4.4

Tube Orientation 1 Adjacent Tube

Shading By

61

Figure 4.5

Tube Orientation 2 Of Interest

Shading By Tube

62

Figure 4.6

Tube Orientation 3
Combination

Shading By

63

given

tube
above

clearance

S, the

angle

6 determines which

of

the

cases

is

appropriate.

Therefore, the limiting

values

for

6 will

first be determined.

1)

Orientation 1
1

From Figure 4.4, if 0


consideration.

>

0-|>then

orientation

is the

case

under

Note that 0 is
as

positive

measured

CW from

n,.
b

The

ancle
-

0-, is found 1

follows:

From the figure,

S,

0n

(4.48)

when

0-.

The

angle

y was

previously found

and

is

shown

in

Figure 4.3.

Also: Sin

-j-

e1
1rCos ei}
$_

Tan

5j

Tan

(y

8] )

-J-

-p
^t+(x-

(4-49)

Simplification

gives:

Sin Tan

(y

e-j )

e1
-

-3
-g-

(4.50)
Cos

(1

e1 )

Equation 4.50 is a transcendental


number

function

with

an

infinite
there is only

of

roots.

However, in the first

quadrant,

64

one

solution

for

0-|

when

the known

variables

are

substituted

in.

For y

39.5,

9/32",

and

2",

0,

equals

5.6.

2)

Orientation 2

From Figure 4.5, if 0


2 is in
effect.

<

02, then

orientati on

The

angle

02

is found from
as

Figure 4.5 in
From the figure,

similar manner

0-,.

K2
when

Y3
0
=

e2
y3
was

(4.51)
previously found
and shown

02,
in Figure 4.3.

again where

Also:
1-

B Tan

Sin,e2
D

Tan

Cy3

e2)

-j-

y^ 1 ("2

(4-52)
V

which

gives:

Sin
Tan

09
-

(y,

0o)

-c

(4-53)
Cos 02)

Tr

For

y3

14.0,

9/32",

and

2",

the

solution

for

02
3)

in the first

quadrant

is 1.7.

Orientation 3

From Figure 4.6, if


orientation

02

<

<

91

then

3 is in

effect.

For the

actual

collector

orientation,

-10.8.

Therefore,

orientation

represents

the

actual

case.

The

65

relationships

describing

the

results

for g(2)

will

be

derived for
and

orientation

2 while those for orientation 1

can

be found in Appendix 6.

c)

Orientation 2

g(2)

<

1.7

The shading factor g(2) is


where

equal

to 1

when

|2|

<

|2

|
not

|2S|

is the

angle

above which

the absorber tube is

fully
90
-

exposed

to the

sun.

From Figure 4.5,


-

|2
+

|
0.

is

equal

to

90

(y

0)

90

39.5

50.5

The shading factor g(2) is


where

equal

to 0

when

|2|
not

|2

|2

is the
sun.

angle

above which

the tube is

exposed

at

all

to the
-

Again, from Figure 4.5, |2

|
+

is
0.

equal

to 90

K2

90

(y3
=

0)

90

14.0

76.0

Finally,

76'25*56

"

g(2)

when

|2$|

<

|n|

<

|2cq|

This

again

states

that

when

the
a

absorber

tube is partially

shaded,

the shading factor is

linear function
projected

indirectly
tube

proportional

to the

amount

of

the

absorber

shaded.

For 0 =-10.8, the


g(2).
=

above

results

become:

1 0
6^25~

for

|2| |2|

<

39.7

(4.54) (4.55)
<
65.2

g(2)

for

>

65.2

g(2)

1"!

for

39.7

<

|2|

(.4.56)

66

Table 4.1
collectors
at

gives

the shading factors for the KTA tubular

the midpoint of each month.


used

Also indicated

on

the

table is the equation

to calculate

g(^).

Table 4.1

Shading Factors

Month

6
-22.0

2
5.0

g(n)

Eq.

No.

January
February
March

1.00 1.00 1.00

4.46 4.54 4.54


4.54 4.54 4.56 4.54 4.54

April

10.0

1.00 l.QO 0.9.9


5

May
June

17.5

23.0

July
August September

22.5

-3a.

1.00 1.00
1.00

15.0

4.0

4.54 4.54
4.54 4.54

October November
December
1.0

1.00 1.00
1.00

5.5

B=

60

43c

Cos 2

As

was

previously mentioned,
a

cos

fi

relates

beam
the

radiation

measured on

tilted surface to that

measured

on

absorber

tube.

This

modification

is

required

because the

absorber

tube is always

67

oriented

toward the

sun when

not

shaded

(see Figure A5.4).

Since I
Equation
modified

is based

on

aperture

cross

-sectional

area

(see

4.29), the first term

of

Equation 4.38 has to be


term

by

d/D.

This

accounts

for the fact that this tube.

is only

concerned with

the

absorber

Reflectance

This
silver

parameter

has previously been defined


collectors

and

for the
equal

backing
This

of

the KTA tubular

is taken

to

0.94.

result

is from

page

169

of

reference

12.

y(2)

Reflection Factor

As
area

was

previously stated, y(2) is the fraction

of

the

aperture

over which

beam

radiation

is

reflected

to the
rays

absorber

tube.

the absorber tube.

If it is
are

assumed

that the

all

incident

on

the silver the

backing

intercepted

by

absorber

tube, then

expression

is [2]:

*>

cs 6

"

f SST5~
sCa)

(4-57>

The first term


area
over which

of

Equation

4.57,

cos

0, is
on

required

since

the
acts

the beam
aperture

portion

Ib

the tilted

surface

is the

projected

area.

This is the
normal

net collection

area

when viewed

from the

perpendicular

(ns,

Figure 4.2)

of

the

tube bank.

It is

equal

to

At

cos

0.

This first term, however, does


a certain

not

account

for the fact that


to the
absorber

amount of radiation cannot

be

reflected

tube

since

it

will

be

directly intercepted by

the absorber tube

instead.
accounted

Since the directly intercepted


for in Equation 4.38, the
so

amount was

previously

second

term

of

Equation 4.57

is

required

that it is

not

incorporated twice.

In actuality,
silver

not

all

radiation which

is incident
and

on

the

backing

is

reflected

to the absorber tube

indeed,
of

the amount

which

is

not

can

be

substantial

portion

the total.
as:

To

account

for this, Equation 4,57 is

modified

and

rewritten

Y(n)

b (cos 0

^-^
b

(4.58)

In practice, the for the


ranges

parameter

would

be determined by This
would

ray trace
since

of

and

considered,
of the
glass

be done

the

refraction

characteristics

tubes would complicate the


optics

analytical

modeling

of

the

concentrator

necessary for determina


optics

tion

of

b.

However, the
it is

analysis

of

the

concentrator

is greatly

simplified when

assumed

that the direction


cover

of

beam

radiation

is
of

unchanged

by

passage

through the
small

tubes.

Since the thickness

the

cover

tubes is

quite

compared

to the tube
small.

diameters, the

effect of

this

assumption

on

the

result

for b is

Utilizing
the
of
optics

this simplification, the necessary


now
generated.

equations

describing
the geometry

are

Figures

4.7, 4.8,
tube.

and

4.9

show

the

outer

cover

tube

and

the

absorber

The

problem

was

69

Figure 4.7

Reflection

Factor, Parameter b, Part A

70

Figure 4.8

Factor, Parameter b, Part B Limiting Angles


Reflection

71

90-2 Yg-e

Figure 4.9

Reflection Factor, Parameter b, Part B Projected Area Causing Reflection To Absorber Tube

72

separated

into the two

parts

shown

in the figures to further simplify

the derivations.

The first step in the


angle over which

analysis

is to determine the
radiation

range

of

the

the

incoming

beam

falls

on

the

silver

backing.
obviously follows:

For

part

A
0

shown

in Figure 4.7, the lower limit is


the
upper

equal

to

while

limit is

calculated

as

X,
X2

^
X,
cos

(4.59)

(4.60)

x4

X-j

sin

(4.61)

X3 X5

7(0/2?
(X3
+

(x4)2
-

(4.62)

X2)

sin

(4-63)

Finally, the

upper

limit

of

is found to be:

51""'

*U,A

"

90

"

<W>

(4'M)

For

part

shown

in Figure 4.8, the lower limit is

\.t

(4.65)

73

while

the

upper

limit is calculated

as

follows:

T, 1

d/2
sin
e

(4.66)

T2

(e

V
T^
-

sin

(4.67)

T4

(e

cos

(4.68)

=7(D/2)2

T3 T5
T6
Finally,
=

(T2)2

(4.69)

T4
T5

T3

(4-70)

sin

(4.71)

*U,B
As

90

l
"

sin

(d7T}

Tfi

(4-72)

can

be seen, these

limiting

angles

depend

on

the

angle

e.

Having
for
each

the

limiting

values

of

, the

next

step is to

calculate

part

the

amount of

the

projected

area

perpendicular

to the

sun's

rays

over which

beam

radiation

is

reflected

to the

absorber

tube. Note that the


accounted

projected

area

of

the

absorber

tube has been


manner.

for.

For

part

A, this is done in

the

following

74

For the range

\,A

<

*A

*U,A

Y1
Y2

D/2

cos

(4.73)

D/2

sin

(4.74)

Y4
Y5

Y1
e
"

Tan (90

2^

e)

(4.75)

Y2
"

(4-76)

Y6
Y3
Also,

Y4

Y5
cos

(4.77)

|Y6

(90

2VA

e)

(4.78)

Yy
The
amount

D/2

cos

(A

+ e).

X4
over which

(4.79)

of

the

projected

area

beam
from

radiation

is

reflected

to the
of

absorber

tube is

calculated

Equation 4.79 when


to d/2.

the

result

Equation 4.78 is less than

or equal

For

part

B,

similar

approach

is followed from Figure 4.9:

75

D/2 CoS

(4-80)

Z2

D/2 Sin

<FB

(4.81)

Z4 Z5
Z3
and

Z1
Z2

Tan (90

2^B

e)

(4.82)

Z4
(90
-

(4.83)

|Z5

Cos

2y

e)|

(4.84)

Z6
over

D/2 Cos

(B
?
<

e)

T2

(4.85)

the

range

f,

<

fy

fi

Finally, b is
Equations 4.78
to the
absorber
and

calculated

by dividing
which

the

areas

found from is reflected

4.75

over

the beam
projected

radiation

tube

by

the total

area.

Note that the

angle

is actually

equal

to

|e+r|

from Figure A5.4.

Equations 4.59 through 4.85


a
quick method,

are

readily

programmable

providing
angle
e.

for

evaluation

of the

parameter

b for any
;the

This
mohth

was

done

and

the

calculations

performed

for

midpoint

of each

for the

actual

collector

configuration.

The

results

are

given

in Table 4.2.

76
tO

00
to

to

CT to 0

to
**

1^
3-

to
10
LO
*3-

cn

00
to

to

to

to to

O
T3 OJ re
+j I

a
s-

g P

00 CT CO

CM

CO

00
to

CT

00

O
co
1
1

o^

0 CO 0

LO cn

to
rr-~.

LO
l~-

cn cn

CO
CO cn

00 0
3-

*3-

0
cn

to

IO

cn

CNJ co
1

cn

CO

o CU
4->
._

CD

O X)
3
to
+-> '
r

CJ

fj
-=

r->^:

CO

to
r--.

O :=
S_
r-

S-

O
cn cn

00
to
cn

QJ

cn

0 0
LO

CO C\J
<d-

00

0 CM ct CO

LO
l~~-

cn
r~-

LO
r

to CM
LO

00
CO

to

0
<T) CTl

cn CO

=r
^1-

re J"

cn

cn

CO en

51

re,

O CU in DC Xi

T3 OJ
r
^3-

-P

to

<=J-

r^.

ro

d"

CM

O
=*

Ol
r

00
LO

o -, O
SQ.

to

3"

CO CO CM

O 00
CTl

O O O O

,
a-

0
*
*3-

CM
CO to
3"

LO LO

CO

LO

O
LO to

CTl
cn

0 0

CO
LO

to

s-

QJ
-l->

CU
ro
4J

10 JQ
4->

CD

cu
s=t

3
1

E
ro s-

Sro

O CU
r

o
to
^J-

i-

LO

ro O-

S-

o
-p

u ro

-U 4- cu CU CD XI +J C sO 0 to CU <> U X) 0 < s3" D0


-C

CT
* 3"

O O
CO

to CO

CM

o o o o

o o o o

o o o o

o o o o

o o o o

LO

CO
to LO

to
LO

CO

II
0Q

CM

CM co

rc

CO

c o
r

cu
4-4
3-

c<

LO

CO
l^~

to

CO

LO

LO

10

CO
to

LO

CT CT
0

+4

ro
+j

o <u

o cu o
S-

LO

to

to
*3-

CT CO

to

CO 0

co 0

CO 0 00 0

CT
to

CO
r--.

CO CM

O
LO

to

CM

00 0

00

00 0

CO O

CO

0
0
r

cu
cc

CU
p

ro

s-

ea

a.
CM

cu s<E
TJ

+j

in x> =3

II
CD

<J cu
r

S_

r-.

CO
to

to
r-

O
CM

LO
r-

CT
r^.
^3-

LO

"*

4~

cu
4->

CD CU X)
s-

0
^-

0
to

CU
-C

LO

to to

O O
LO

00 CM
^3-

CT
LO

CT
CM to

CT
to
LO

"*

CT
CO

CT
CO

CO
LO

>*

to

CJ

0
V)

CU
DO

'<> U XI

<

< O
1-

5- JC

O- 3:

00
CO
LO

CO
LO

CO
LO

00

CO
LO

00 0
LO
O

CO

CO
CM

CO
CO CM
0

00
00
1

00
CTi

CO 10

0
LO
0 LO

CM
0 LO

CO
0

3-

0
1^

0 LO

O O
3"

O
CM co
1 0

O
co
r

O
LO

LO

0
en
CO
1
0

LO LO

*3-

CM
1
0 O

co
1 0

00
1

1 0
0

1 0

O
CM
CM
1

LO CM
p

LO

O O

LO

O
CO CM

LO

0
10

O
tf"

0 CT
1

O
CO
1"

LO

CM
1

CM
CM

CM

CM

xz 0

>>
ro

re "3

cu
U-

s-

sQ.

CU c

>1
CT 3

+4

Q.

>

re

s:

<

CU

O O

O CU 0

77

Equation 4.58 is now evaluated for the midpoint utilizing the results from Tables 4.1
tabulated below.
and

of

the

months

4.2.

The

results

are

Table 4.3.

Reflection Factors

Month

2.

y_(2i

January
February
March April

5.0

0.48
0.50
0.50 0.32
0.32

May
June

0.34
0.34 0.32 0.50 0.50
1.0

July
August September
October
November

0.49

December

5.5

0.48

=-10.8

0.5 in.

2 in.

Having
r.
can
now

evaluated

all

the

parameters

of

Equation

4.38,
at

be

computed

for the
are

collector

configuration

RIT

Energy House.

The

results

given

below.

78

Table 4.4

Beam Enhancement Factors

Month

gfo)

y(b)

^b
0.70
0.72

January February
March Apri 1

5.0

1.00 1.00 1.00

0.48 0.50

0.50
0.32 0.32

0.73 0.58 0.60 0.64 0.64


0.60

-27.0

1.00
1.00
0.99 1.00 1.00

May
June

0.34
0.34 0.32

July
August
September

1.00 1.00
1.0

0.50 0.50 0.49


0.48

0.73
0.72 0.71

October
November December

1.00 1.00

5.5

0.70

0.5 in.

2 in.

P=

0.94

4.1.3.2

Diffuse Enhancement Factor,

rd

As
of

was

the

case

for the beam component, the diffuse

component

insolation is both directly intercepted


intercepted from
tube.
a
region
reflections

by

each

absorber

tube

and

indirectly
on

off

the

silvered mirrow

surface

the

outer cover

If the
of

apparent

origin

of

the diffuse radiation


would

is localized
reasonable

over

sky

near

the

solar

disk, it

be
use

to treat the diffuse


insolation in
place

component

as

beam

radiation

and

the total

of the

beam insolation in Equation 4.36.

79

If,

at

the

other

extreme,

the diffuse
as might

component

is distributed
on a

uniformly over the sky

dome,

be the

case

cloudy or

hazy day, its


be
calculated

contribution

to the total

insolation

on

the tube

must

separately.

In the

work

that follows this

assumption

is

used.

From Equation 4.36, the

effective

diffuse insolation intercepted

by

the

absorber

tube

is,

'eff.d
Rewriting,

Vd

(4'86)

'd

'

^
amount of

(4.87,

where

--

eff,d

is the

diffuse insolation intercepted


area.

by

the

absorber

tube per

unit

aperture

The quantity,
radiation

Id

is

composed

of

two

components:

diffuse
ground

solar

and

the

solar

radiation

reflected

from the

which

the tilted then the

surface

sees.

If the

ground

reflected

radiation

is diffuse,

expression

for

Id

is [13].

Id
H,
and

Hd

(l^i)

(Hd
and

H) (^)p

(4.88)

where

Hk b

are

the diffuse

beam

components

of

the insolation
ground

me as ured

in the horizontal

plane.

The quantity, p

is the

80

reflectance

and

from Liu and Jordan

[14]

is taken to be 0.2

when

there is

no

snow and

0.7

when

there is

snow cover.

In

order

to calculate
must

Igff

d,

the relationship between

radiation

flux

and

intensity
radiation

first be

established.

Referring
area

to Figure

4.10,

the total
as

flux q passing through the

AA

can

be

expressed

TT

TT

J J

IN

sin

sin

3'

sin

d d

3'

(4.89)

where

sin

5ddB'

is the

elemental

area

on

the hemisphere

and

I.,

sin

E,

sin

3'

is the energy
area
AA'

per unit

time passing through the

area AA

from the
of

on

the hemisphere.
and

Carrying
uniform

out

the

integration
distribution

Equation 4.89

assuming

intensity

gives:

ttIn

(4.90)

If
are

however, instead
replaced

of

the limits

of

0 to

tt

for the

angle

31, they

by

61 32

and

32, the integral becomes

q'=/ el
which

/
0

B'dSdB'

IN

sin2C

sin

(4.91)

is

81

AA

*sinsin3
=

y
,
=

Incremental Area(= sindd3 Projection of on AA siny


AA*

sinsin3
on
a

Figure 4.10

Schematic

of

Radiation Flux

Unit Sphere

Figure 4.11

Determination of The Diffuse Enhan


cement

Factor, r^

82

I
q'

TT

^2

-S-

(-C0S3') |
3i

(4.92)

or when

Equation 4.90 is substituted in

q.

(ZC0S.} ,
3i

{4<93)

Equation 4.93
given

represents

the

source of

the

conversion

factors

in Equation 4.88.

Having
expression

the

relationships

of

Equations 4.91
given.

and

4.93,

an

for I be

ff

can

now

be

Referring to Figure 4.11,

ff

can

written

as:

18O-(3-0)
Ieffpd-l!d

f
3-0

rbjS(3')

sin3'd3'

(Hd Vb)PH

/
60.6

r.Lg'ising'dg'

-94>

b,g

The first

portion

of

the

expression

represents

the diffuse tube


while

insolation from the sky done intercepted

by

the

absorber

the

second

part

represents

that

portion

intercepted
on

by

the

absorber

tube from the


portion arise

ground.

The limits of integration


next

the second

since

the

lower tubular

element

in the array

shades

83

the

element

under

consideration

from

portion

of

the

ground

dome.

The lowest tube in the array


would

would

not

be

shaded

in this
This

manner

but

instead be
and

shaded

by

the

collector wall.

effect

is

small

is

neglected

in this

analysis.

The
radiation

expressions

r.
over

and

IV

represent

the

percentage

of

the
either

intensity
absorbed or

the

projected

aperture

area

which

is

directly
factors
causes

Lbackreflected to the
3'

absorber

tube.
of

These
only

are

only functions of
axial

and

not

K.

variation

the

location
change.

where

the backreflected
not affect

radiation

hits the
of

absorber

tube to
which

It does
or

the

percentage

radiation

directly
to
IY

indirectly
r.
D
c
,5

hits the
r.
d
,g

absorber

tube.

The

expressions

used

evaluate

and

are

very

similar

to those

used

to

evaluate

given

by

Equation 4.38.

They

are:

rb,s

rb,g

9(n> d/ + <Wn>

4.95)

where :

yTO0dfe)

b(J

d/D g(.2l)

(4.96)

The differences in
evaluation

values

for

Th^
over

and

Tb^g

result

due to the
angular range.

of

the

expression

its

appropriate

It is
or

seen

that the term


cos

cos

2 is not
present

present

in Equations 4.95

4.96

and

the term

0 is

not

in Equation 4.96.

84

These terms in the previous


measured

work

accounted for the fact that I. b

in the

collector

plane was

different from the beam


plane

radiation

measured on

the projected area and that measured on the


mirrowed

formed

by

the two
of

edges

of

the
are

outer

cover

tube.

In Equation 4.94,
the
radiation

both

these considerations
since the

accounted for since


of

is

uniform and

limits formed

integration

are

for the
edges.

entire

exposed

area

of

the

plane

by

the two mirrowed

The integrals in Equation 4.94


the definition
of an

were evaluated

by utilizing

integral:

N
3-0
.1

Tb,s{B\] rbjS(3')
sin3'd3'

/ J
0

-^

Sln6i
~

(4.97)

rb>g(3')

sin3'd3'

=-^

(4.98)

This
was

approach

was

used

since

the
of a

parameter

b in Equation 4.96
program

previously

calculated

by

use

computer

for

individual

values

of

e.

Considerable
ranges

care must

be taken in

utilizing the
and

correct

angular

in

order

to calculate r.

r.

over

the

range

of

3'.

These

are

given

below

and

are

obtained

from Figure 4.11.

85

Skydome:

<

3'

109.2

30

>

fi;>

19.2

:>

>

Ground dome:

60.6

<

3'

<

70.8

40.2

>

>

30

29.4

>

>

19.2

The relationships for g(fi)


and

are

found from Equations 4.45, 4.46,

4.47

when

2 is positive and from Equations


negative.

4.54, 4.55,

and

4.56

when 2

is

Evaluating
gave

Equations 4.97
result

and

4.98

over

one

degree increments

the

following

for Equation 4.94.

hh

reff,d
and

T"

(--303)

(hh
+

Hh) P.

~S'

&

^'663)

Iefffd
Now, the diffuse
can

Hd(.0.152)

CHd

Hb)p (.0.332)

(4.99)

enhancement

factor for the tubular


when

collectors

be

expressed

by
in.

Equation 4.87

Equations 4.88

and

4.99

are

substituted

Hd(0.152)

pq0.332j)
+

H^o

[0.332]

rd

Hd(0.750 + p J0.250J)

Hfap

?0.250j

(4-100)

86
where

60c

4.1.3.3

Enhancement

factor,

From Equation

4.37,
+

the enhancement factor r

can

be

written:

Vb

rdTd

(4.101)

Equation 4.101

can

be

rewritten

when

Equation 4.99 is

substituted

in

as:

Vb

HdtJ52)

(Hd Tb+Id
must
now

Hb)p (0.332)

(4.102)

In

order

to

calculate

r,

Ib

be

expressed

in terms
on

of

Hb

which

is the beam
surface.

component

of

radiation

measured

horizontal

From Figure

4.12, it follows

that Hb=Hncos

i^

Figure 4.12

Radiation on Horizontal Tilted Surfaces

and

and

Ib

cos

it>

The

ratio

of

radiation on

the tilted surface,


given

Ib, to that
the
angles

on

the horizontal
and

surface, Hb, is

in terms
,

of

it

ih

and

radiation normal

to the

beam, H

by:

I.
%'i-

cos

i.

cos

i.

T^oTiT
The
expression

cf

(4-103

for
cos

cos

i't

is found
same

by

Equations A5.6
with

of

Appendix 5

while

that for
surface

is the

equation

3=0.

That is,

for

tilted

directly

toward the

equator:

K ^b

=
"

cosU-3)cos5s '

cos
cos
,

h
+ h 'x

"V"a"lZ'X cosil 6
cos

sin(il-3)sin6c
~

P4WB

si nil

^x

sin6.

(4-104)

Substituting
gives:

Equations 4.103

and

4.88 into Equation 4.102

rbRbHb+Hd(0.152)+

(Hd
+

+ +

Hb)pq(0.332) Hb)pg(0.25(T)
(4'105j

RbHb
Let the
ratio of

Hd(0.750)

(Hd

diffuse

radiation

to total

radiation

on

the

horizontal
radiation

surface

(Hd/H.

equal

K.

Then the

ratio

of

beam

to total

radiation

on

the horizontal these results,

surface

(Hl/H.)
can

equals

1-K.
as:

Utilizing

Equation 4.105

be

rewritten

K(0.152
r
=

rbRb)

rbRb
+

pg(0.332)

K(0.750

Rb)

Rb

(0.250)

(4.106)

From Equation 4.106 is


variables:

seen

that r is

function

of

the

following

f(K, rb, Rb,

pb)

(4.107)

8!

It is desired to be
to
actual

able

to calculate r for any hour corresponding

data

collection measured

by

the pyranometers
of

at

RIT.
eval

To do this
uated

requires

that the variables

Equation 4.107 be

on

an

hour

by hour basis.

This
of a

would

be extremely tedious
computer.

and

would

be best handled

by

use

digital

As

an

alternative

to this approach, certain constraints are

placed

on

Equation 4.106 to simplify its solution.

The
midpoint

variable

rb

has previously been


It is
month

calculated

for the

of

each month.

seen

from Table 4.4 that it is


except

weak

function
and

of

the

of

interest

between March

and

April

between August
variations

and

September.
parameter

These larger jumps


b
shown

occur

due to the
are
caused

in the

in Table 4.2
are

which

by

the tube
as

optics.

The

results

for b

continuous,

however,

would

be

expected

and

can

be

shown

by

utilizing the
smaller

computer

program with

the

angle

changing in
the
a
results of

increments.

Therefore,
and

use

is is

made

of

Table 4.4 in Equation 4.106


given month.

IV

assumed

constant

for any

The
equal

ground

reflectance

has previously been 0.7 for


no snow cover.

stated

to

0.2 for

snow

cover

and

This

corresponds

to November through March and April

through

October,
a

respectively.

Therefore, this

variable

is

constant

for

given month.

The

parameter

Rb

is

expressed

by

Equation 4.104.
while

The

latitude,

2,,
5

and

the

collector

tilt, 3,
are

are

constants

the

declination,
constant

and

hour angle, hs,

not.

When

rb

is

assumed

89

in
a

month, this is equivalent to saying that 6


month.

is

constant

in
only
the

given

This

assumption will

again

be

used

leaving Rb

function

of

the declination

at

the

midpoint of each month

and

hour angle.
percent

While this
result

assumption

can

result

in

an

error

of

several

in the
of

for

Rb

at

the monthly extremes, its

result

on

the

error

the

value

for r is usually less than 1%.

Care
the
at

must

be taken in evaluating
Equation 4.106

Rb

since

it is desired that
solar

results

of

correspond

to

actual

data taken

RIT.

Since the pyranometers record data based on eastern

standard

time

and

the hour
equation

angle

found in Equation 4.104 is based


must

on

solar

time,

an

relating the two


and

be

used.

This

can

be found from Reference 15

is:

Solar time

Standard Time

4(Lgt

L-,

(4.108)

where

E is the

equation

of

time,

shown

in Figure 4.13,

Lst

/\
c

'0

7
/"\

V
~X
l

-5

^, "7

L_

Z o

X7
i

-15

\/
JFMAMJJASOND

MONTH

Figure

4.13 Equation (Source:

of

Time

Ref

15)

90

is the standard
the longitude
of

meridian

for the local

time zone,

and

L,
west.

is

the location in question,

in degrees

For the
75

eastern

time zone where Rochester is located, for Rochester is 78W.


solar time and

L$t

is

while

Lloc

Utilizing
angles

Equation 4.108
are

and

Figure 4.13, the

hour

determined

corresponding to
These
are
results are

midpoints

of eastern

standard

time hours.
angles

given

in Table 4,5.

Note that the hour

positive

before

solar noon and negative after solar noon.

Having

obtained

the hour angles, h

for the

entire

range

of

daylight hours,
calculations
are

Rb

can

now

be

calculated.

The
I
=

results

of

these

given

in Table 4.6
used

with

43

and

60.

The declination

angles

correspond

to those

given

in Table 4.2.

The

ratio

of

diffuse

radiation

to total
of the

radiation, ratio,

K, has been
of

previously found
total
radiation

[16]
on

to be

function

K.,

the

horizontal surface, Ht, to the


surface, H
and
.

extraterrestrial

radiation

on

horizontal
of

The

correlation was
radiation

based

on measured

values

both total

diffuse

on

horizontal

surface

at

the Toronto Airport

over

the

period

September 1967 through August 1971.

For

each

hour period,
each

the

ratios

K-

and

were

calculated.

Then for
of

interval

in
and

KT

of

0.05, the
average

corresponding
values plotted

values

were

averaged

these

against

the

value

of

KT

for

the
were

midpoint

of

the interval.

In all, 12,704

hourly

periods

used.

The
surface

extraterrestrial

solar

radiation

on

horizontal

for

given

hourly
over

period

was

calculated

by integrating
limits:

the

following

equation

the

proper

hour

angle

91

TABLE EST Hour

4.5

Solar Time

and

Hour Angle Conversions

Jan.
5:08
103

Feb. 5:04
104

March
5:09
102.8

Apri 1
5:18
100.5

May
5:21
99.8

June
5:18
100.5

5:30
am

6:30
am

6:08
88

6:04
89

6:09
87.8

6:18
85.5

6:21
84.8

6:18
85.5

7:30
am

7:08
73

7:04
74

7:09
72.8

7:18
70.5

7:21
69.8

7:18
70.5

8:30
am

8:08
58

8:04
59

8:09
57.8

8:18
55.5

8:21
54.8

8:18
55.5

9:30
am

9:08
43

9:04
44

9:09
42.8

9:18
40.5

9:21
39.8

9:18
40.5

10:30
am

10:08
28

10:04
29

10:09
27.8

10:18
25.5

10:21
24.8

10:18
25.5

11:30
am

11:08
13

11:04
14

11:09
12.8

11:18
10.5

11:21
9.8

11:18
10.5

12:30
pm

12:08

12:04

12:09

12:18

12:21

12:18

1:30
pm

1:08

1:04

1:09

1:18

1:21

1:18

2:30
pm

2:08

2:04

2:09
-32.2

2:18

2:21

2:18

3:30
pm

3:08

3:04

3:09

3:18

3:21

3:18

4:30
pm

4:08

4:04

4:09

4:18

4:21

4:18

5:30
pm

5:08

5:04

5:09

5:18

5:21

5:18

6:30
pm

6:08

6:04

6:09

6:18

6:21

6:18

7:30
pm

7:08

7:04

7:09

7:18

7:21

7:18

92

TABLE 4.5

(continued)
Sept.
5:23
99.3

EST Hour

July
5:12
102

Aug.

Oct.
5:33
96.8

Nov.

Dec.

5:30
am

5:14
101.5

5:33
96.8

5:24
99

6:30
am

6:12
87

6:14
86.5

6:23
84.3

6:33
81.6

6:33
81.6

6:24
84

7:30
am

7:12
72

7:14
71.5

7:23
69.3

7:33
66.8

7:33
66.8

7:24
69

8:30
am

8:12
57

8:14

8:23
54.3

8:33
51.8

8:33
51.8

8:24
54

56.5.
9:14
41.5

9:30
am

9:12
42

9:23
39.3

9:33
36.8

9:33
36.8

9:24
39

10:30
am

10:12
27

10:14
26.5

10:23
24.3

10:33
21.8

10:33
21.8

10:24
24

11:30
am

11:12
12

11:14
11.5

11:23
9.3

11:33
6.8

11:33
6.8

11:24
9

12:30
pm

12:12

12:14

12:23

12:33

12:33

12:24

1:30
pm

1:12

1:14

1:23

1:33

1:33

1:24

2:30
pm

2:12

2:14

2:23

2:33

2:33

2:24

3:30
pm

3:12

3:14

3:23

3:33

3:33

3:24

4:30
pm

4:12

4:14

4:23

4:33

4:33

4:24

5:30
pm

5:12

5:14

5:23

5:33

5:33

5:24

6:30
pm

6:12

6:14

6:23

6:33

6:33

6:24

7:30
pm

7:12

7:14

7:23

7:33

7:33

7:24

93

LO

CJ CD

00

CO CM

en
r--

CO CM
<*

o
1

to

CO CO
LO

d-

r.

LO

CTi

*t

00
CM

to o

Q
CM CM

!i)rZc!!0':i"'-i-^LOc\j
OO^^i-^OOi

COOO

^CMCMCMCMCMCMCMCOcn
^TLOOCOi

+J

rt-CDltLn
i

icocor^iotototorCooI*
_!

j,]

E!J^r5r7oor-

CD
u
ro
4-

+4

Q.

r-cocorv.crjcQ^^^.^g tOO.
r-,-CMCM.-,-,_OC0
O
.-I

<3-ctilooco

CD 00

o cu
+J
r

S_
3

-I

^J

^J

,J

t/0
r

r-

\-

ro
+4

cn

COr-C001LOOtOCOCM>=l-CM ^iPCi^toto^Locooo**
LOr-OOOICTCTCTCTOOLOCO

ro c o c

o
N
i

OOOOOOOOOOO
cor--a-cotocotoocMCTiCT cor^
3 '

s-

o o :c
r

cm r. r-. o co o S 2 fOLOr-.r--cococor-.LOLOi

+4

ro c

ro
p

OOOOOOOOOOO
lOCOCOOOCTi^|->a->=3-OlOCT
r

o
VO

D
ro

o
4->

C.

CD
3 "0
i

re

to cn i r^-Oi r-. * ct lo coior>.r.cooor>-r--.io^j-i

II
00.

Tr
ees

JC
+->

CD
CO
4-

OOOOOOOOOOO
o

o
+4

CT CU o
ro
4-

r-.

CO

Ol

CM

O O
i

OCMCMOOOi
ro
i

CO cn

00
d-

to

CM00 cn o

CO
*d-

Lor^-cocoCTCTicocor^LocM

+J

ro

s3

OOOOOOOOOOO
CMLor^CTOoncMOCTir-.oo^a-

oc tn COCOi
sto
^3-

CT^LOCOLOi

LOCMC0

Q. ct

r~.cncnooooocnco<*
i i

OOOOi

ooo

LOi

Ol

COi

LO

LO

OOLOi

00

>*

CTCOOOOOCTir

CT

r-CT

I
ca

LO3-rJ-COOOCOCOCO*J-3-^o

r^-CMCMLOCOOCOCTiCOCoS
'

XI

r-.CT"*r>-tocoiov}-cnS
i i i i

CD

Lo=i-ocorr-.r-cooLoL^
tOCMCMi

CM

CM

CTCMOCMCOLOCOi

>* i

C ro

rLoooioooCT>LOto
i
iloi

to>!tco5i-io<d-co

LOCOCMCMCMCMCMCOCO

E
ro

E
ro

E
re

E
re

E
ro

E
ro

E
O-

E
o
CO
r

E
O-

E
D-

E
Q.

E
Cl

o DC

o
CO

o
CO

o
CO

o
CO cn

o
CO

o
CO

O
CO

o
CO

O
CO

O
CO

o
CO

oo

CO

CO

CM

CM

94

S E

[coscos6

cos

hc

sin sin6c]

(4.109)

The

variable

is the

solar constant which

is the energy from


area of
surface per

the sun

per

unit

time,

received

on

unit

pendicular

to the radiation, in space,


sun.

at

the

earth's

mean

distance from the 1353 W/m


for the

Its standard

value

has been found to be


correction

2
.

The

variable

E is the eccentricity

factor

solar

constant.

The quantity, S

-E,

is

given

in Figure 4.14.

Figure 4.14

Extraterrestrial

Radiation Variation

(Source:

Ref 17)

The

correlation

was

first
then

made with

values

of

HQ

calculated

as

described
midpoint

above

and

with

values

of

HQ

calculated

at

the

of

the hour.

No

significant

departure in the

results

was

seen.

The
as

correlation

is

shown

graphically in Figure 4.15 as well

the

correlation

equations

defining

the

ranges.

This correlation

95

'K

1.0-

0.249KT
<

KT

0.35

1.557 0.35 <

1.84KT
<

Kj

0.75

0.177 Kj > 0.75


-

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

KT
Figure 4,15

Plot of K Equations

vs

KT

With Correlation

(Source:

Refl6)

96

departs from that

of

Liu

and

Jordan Liu

[18]
and

slightly.

It is based

however,
on

on

hourly

values

while

Jordan's

work

is based

daily

values.

Now, Equation 4.106


]

can

be

rewritten

as

k
r
=

a2

-Vi^r

(4.no)

ka

where

a1

0.152

rbRb,

(4.111)

a2

TbRb

Pg (0.332),
-

(4.112)

a3

0.750

Rb,

and

(4.113)

a4

Rb

(0.250)

(4.114)

The
as
well

values

for a1, a2, a3,

and

are

given

in Table 4.7
given

as

the

extraterrestrial

radiation

HQ

for the

period.

The quantity

HQ

is

calculated

using Figure 4.14,

Equation
midpoint

4.109,
of each

and

the declinations corresponding to the


given

month

in Table 4.2.

HQ

is

given

in

langley's

per

hour.

97

to o tO LO

CO o

to

to CO
a"=1d-

co

lO LO

o
to

o o
cu
c 3

CM

co LO

* 00

si-

cn

r-~

o o to
o

to

00
to

0 0

CT

ID CM LO 00

00 LO LO CO 00
to
r-

CO to LO CO

^1"

CT
LO CO

o!
^ "* LO coco un O CO

o o

CT

o o
o
CO

r^

CO
l-~

o o
<a-

O O LO
to cn * LO LO O

o o to
CT> ^f LO LO to o co o
i

CM O
LO LO

t,

oo r CM CM LO CM
<

co

to 00 CO cm CT CO o

CO O

o o

o o

o o
I

dd
I CTi
i

o
i

dd
I I

o o
I
I

to o CO LO o o

to o lO LO
I

CM CTi
r~ lo

co rto r-~

to co
,_

CM CT
r

* CM

ct
=i-

COLO

oo

r-. r-

CO
to

lo oo

CT CO LO CT

LO

LO Ol CT

to tO CTI
i

>>
10

o o
CM O
LO LO
1

o o LO
CM O
LO LO CO

CM

oo~

dd
i

o
*d-

', o
r-

cn CM

to O O co

LO

O O LO
CO CT
CO
I i

o o co
LO CM CM CT to O

e:

co

_;

f-

CT cn CO CM CM O

oo co
co o CO
r^ co

LO

CO

CT

CT LO O
I

CO

T3
ro

o o

o o

dd
i

o o
i

o o
i
i

o
i

d
i

dd
I I

dd
i

ro

LO O LO LO o o

CO CM
"53-

oo
to

CO LO CTi oo

lo r--

CO CT> o
CO

o o
r-. ct

to LO cn
<a-

vo o

CO
r~

LO O

CT 00 O to
i

CM CM to

CO to

.-_,.
'

co

dd
ro
Q. ct

oo1

oo
LO CO

dd
o

co
r-. ct
.

cn
a-

d
r
d-

oo

d
3"

i-^

CM
LO

^
to
>sa-

Or-

to

^
to

cm o
LO LO
r

<tLO,J
CMC"*

CM

r-

o to

8JS

r-.Q

cm
3-

cm

LO CT oo cm

oo

CM CTi

<d"

to O CT CO

^ m

CM
i

co

CT

dd

dd

dd
i

dd
i

d d
i
i

dd
i i

O O
I
I

dd
i
i

CO

CM LO
co r-

so

CM x: o ro

CM LO co r~. CM
i

LO O

CM to

CM LO
LO CO CMLO
^ "^ *i-

oo to
a-

CM CO
=3-

to
LO

o to o r- co
LO

CT CM

to

LO

*3"

CMLO,^
n
r-

CM LO

CM LO

CO

CM LO
"^ rU"^

u
ro

dd
cm o
i

r-r--

00_
CM O
LO LO
i

CO CM
i

CT

"8
LO
^j-

CM

LO LO

+->

LO LO r-~.

r-

O CO CM O 00
i-^

ID

r-

o o ct r-~

CM

co to

r- o CT r- to LO

CM

00 CO
LO CO

O
co

00 to

00 to

?o oo 00 to
dd
i

cu

dd

d
I

dd
i i

d
i i

o o
I I

dd
i i

E
CD O
CM LO co rCM
i t

CM LO co rCM
i

LO CM CM CTi

cm ri d-

ct
to

r--

o
co co
LO CM LO O
i

CO CO
I

co to
r-- cm

LO

O o

LO
r-

CT LO CT
^a-

O to

CM

LO CT ----^

lo oo
>-o

o
d-

ro 3 i~ XI

O o o
CM O
LO LO
i

o o
CM o LO LO
i

to io

CM

CT
r^

oo o r to LO
LO r-.
LT)

00 CM^o CM CM

3"

cu
r--

r^

r^

CM CO L" * ^ CO CO

LO LO to r-. ct
r

LO

00 00 CM CM LO O
r

>=J-

LO

O o

LO

dd
CM LO
co r-.

dd

CM

o o
ct

ro 3 C
ro
X)

II II CM * re ro o II CM o o
LOLOI
r

CM LO co rCM
i

CM LO
co r-

CO

=!

CO LO

CM

o o
CM O LO LO
i

dd
i

"~.
a-

T'
LO

crt r CO CM co
5d-

CM LO
lo r-.
i

r^

CO CO 00 CO

to

CM CO
1-

CO to

OI^CM
CMCMg
'

ctlo

00LOo
-~g

CO cd

CM O
LO LO
i

LO CM
r

CO CT CM

CM

COO
tO LO ^ lO CO
"

cncvi

LO O

=*-'

r-~

r-.

oo
*

CMLO ^ LO tO

cd
* to
"

dd
n
i

dd

dd

co
i

n
CO

re re

s-

E
ro ro
ro

3 O

ro

o
co

o
CO

o
co

o
co

o
co en

o
co

o
CO

o
CO

oo

to

oo

CM

98

LO * r^ * LO oo

CO
<3"

3"

CM O

to CO to
LO CM

CO CTi
* to

co
cn
=3-

CT LON
LO

00 o "*l^,

r>. cm

lo o LO LO
to
CO

to o

LO LO

co LO

CD

O O
to
<d"

o o
* to

o
*

d
o
r-

to

dd
co *
lo rr

o o
LO
i

CO
CO

oo^ oog
woJ
LO LO
i

o o
co

o o o
r-

"3

LO

3"

O
i

CO O

CM CO

CM

;ct

to o CM

CT

CM O
LO LO
r <3"

CM

to

r- co

o to o o

r^

CM

r^

O O
I I

dd
i

O O
I

o o

CM CO

d-

lo oo r^ ct>

CO CM

CM CM

CM
,_

sj"

tO CT r-

LO00

LO CO

* to

CM
r

do
<3-

CT
r-.
r^

oo*
r^

OO^

O O
CO 00

LO LO

CO
*
i

00 CO

CT

co lo cn CO co o

oo

LOr-

O LO -LO

CM

"sl-g

LO LO

<^ o ,,,
r~

CM O
LO LO
r

"^

r^

dd
i i

d
i

o
i

dd
i i

o o
I

o o

o o

o o

lo
r^

o o

r^ CTi LO VO

r-~
,_

co
r
a-

CM
to CM
r-.

si-

co
LO

LO O LO LO

to o
VO LO

^~io
o o
ex ct
s-

LO O -

00
.

LO oo

CT
LO

CO LO

o o
.

o o

Or5
r~

2
CT

dd
co co
co o

dd
ct to

*to

CO 00 CM

O O LO
CM O
LO lo r^
i

dd
<

o CM lo o
<d-

CO

co
3-

io

o
CM

co

CM

LO

CT cm r~

CM O
LO LO
r

r-

r-

o
+4

dd
i

dd
i
i

o o
I I

d
i

o
i

o o

o o

dd
CM LO
co rCM
i

CJ
ro CO O
+4
3-

o
lo r-~

to

oo co LO CT

CM CJ
s-

CD

LOcq

CMLO^
*

CMLO^
r
__.

CO CT O * CO LO

CO *
r-. r-.
<3-

CM LO co r-.

oo

CT

CM

E
CD
CJ ro

_Jctj _

00
lO LO cn
to
d-

dd
to

dd
CM O
LO LO
r

ro

oo to

"^

oo to

co

co oo St 00 to ir)

oo to

ct r^

K) CTi CO

,*

*3"

OOl1^

J2

CM O
LO LO
i

r-~

r^

dd
i
i

dd
r i
"=1-

dd
CO CO

d
i

o
i

o
I

dd

dd

co

LO 00
r

CO CO

CO CO
i

r^
=*-

LO

r~ co

O
CO

o
r

LO CT

lo o

r- cm
i

UJ
_i

ro 3
S-

r-^i

<-<si;
to cn

CM

CT co

r^ r^

to
r

LO

LO

CM LO co r-. CM
i

CM LO co r-CM
i

CM

CM CM

to

CO
3"

CT
CTi

dd
cm o
LO LO
.

d
i

o
i

CM CO
r

^3-

co

XI

CD

CO CO lO O

CO o LO

,-,

cn co cn
i

CT oo co
>*

00
r^

CM O
LO LO
r*.

co CM

r^ oo

CM

CO LO CM
i

r-.

ct

od
i i i

d
i

dd

d d
CM LO

CO

CO cn to
i

cm r>
-co^_
cm*cmJ

00 to <* CM

i-. en

LOtO^
CM
3"
"3-

00 CO O LO
to co co >*
a-

CM LO co rCM
r

CM LO co r^ CM
i

co rCM
i

ro

r-"cv*
co to

00g

dd
CM O LO LO
i

do
CM O
LO LO
r

dd
<

LO

re

LO LO

LOCOjJ ^

LO tO
r^

00 co >*r CO

ct

to o CM cm rCM CM
I
I

o
r- to

r>-

CM O LO LO
i

r-

r-

r^

lo r>i i

dd

dd

dd

E
3 O
Q.

E
D. o
co

E
Q-

O
CO

O
CO
CO

o
CO

o
CO

o
CO

o
CO

oo

CO

99

s-

CM LO co r^ CM
i

CM LO

r^

co r** CM
r

o
i

CM LO

r-*
3"

QJ XI

00 CO
*3"

CT CO CT CO
s-

CO *
CO LO

o r
00
to

o o
CM O LO LO
i

t=
CD CJ CU O
r-.

d
o

CO

CO
CO

CM CO
>* CO id r^

CM CM

LO CO

CT 00 CM CT CT LO LO
*3"

CT LO 00
* CM

CM rCO
r.

*^ i

CM ^

CM O
LO LO
i

o
CM O
LO LO
r-

CO LO

t->

CT CO O CO
CO CO
1 1

to
r

co en
CO LO CM

3-

CM
"3"

3-

00
"=

r-~

CT CM
i

CD 00
a

LO LO
,

^ CO CD LO CD
.

S. ^

o o

o o o

CM
(
1 1

CM LO co rsCM
.
i

CM LO
co r~.

co rto to
CM CM 00
lo r^ CM

LO

O
r

<* LO

CM
.

i
*

CO

cu XI

oo

O ID co co CT CD
i

CO *
LO CM

o o
CM O
LO LO
i

o o o
CM O
LO LO
r^

E
cu > o
r^

o CM CO O LO
to

CM
i

o O
CM
.

r co
r

LO
r.

CM LO O r*. cm
"S3r

LO CT

O
CM
r

d"

r-.CMco
-~s
-

LO

CM r~.
.

CM
'
.

CO CM

LO

3"

oo 00 CO
d-

*3-

r~-

LO CM
CTi CM
r

CM

CT

5-

lo r>-

CT r^ ct LO co co

00 o 1 CM LO CO CO

CM CM J5 "> coco

d-,J

o o

dd
LO o lO LO

to
i

CM
1

to o
tO LO
+->

LO CT

o o
CD

o o

CM CT LO CO
r

O CM O O
>=3-

o o CT LO
CT
r-.
r

co o CM
*3"

o
CJ

o o
CM O
LO LO
i

dd
o
CM o LO LO
i

CM

CM to

CTi
I

cm r-~
r

LO

CTi CM

CT
3r

LO CM CD CM CD
i

r^ cm

CM tO
,

CM ID
*^
"^

00

00
i

CM CO

XI O
CJ

to

CO

CT CT

10

r1
<

r-.

CO CTi CM LO LO
r
r-

CM
I

00 o
>~

CT CO

CM

r-. lo

O LO
LO

s-

O CT
r

co o LO CM LO O
SJ"3"

00 O LO O 00
r r

r-~

CT CM o cor;

o
(J
ro

dd
CO CT lO

"7 7
co r>. CM 00 CO CO

O
1 1

o
1
1

O
1 1 1

d
1

s-

LO O tO LO

cu

CU
XI

o o o o
CM O
LO LO
i

LO LO

00 o
00 o
lo r~. to CM CM CM
LO

CT 00 00
i

co co CM CM
LO
r-.

LO O
3"

CM O
<a-

CO
<d-

CTi CM

CO !t CT CM

lo

LO

CO
LO

CT CM

CTCM^.

E
CD U
c

E
CU
+->

d
i i

d
LO CO
r^
.

LO
*3"

d
* CO

00
LO

d
1^i

<

d
r^.
t

o
LO

ro

Q.

O CO o co
CO

CD oo

I--

o 00 CO o o
1 1

oo
a

LO CO

LO

O CM
*

o
r>~

O CM
"-3"

* o

r-

3-

co

CM LO
3-

co

00

^ CM LO
1-^ *

6 g ^

c.s r-s

o o

o o
1 1

O o
1

o o
1 1

o o
1

o o
1
1

LO O LO LO
=3-

to o LO LO

CM CO
r^

r^ r-.

O o
+->
.
.

o o

CTi CT CO UT)

CM
LO
"3"

LO 00 r-.

to

o o
CM O
LO LO
i

dd
CM O
LO LO
r

to

3
cn

cn

dd
>* r-~
r^
i

LO

dd
oo O
r^
r

00
CO

O CO CT CM LO CT 00 o

d-

CT
o
CO

cm r^ lO CTI

CT LO co o CO o

CM O
a-

LO
LO r~

to O 00

dd
i

CM

dd
LO CTi

CT

d
r

O
=3-

CM

3 ct

r-.

r^

CM

o CM

LO

co o

CO

CM CO r^ cm 00 CO

O
CM

O
<3-

r->
1

CT

CM LO
<d-

00
CT

o
r

d
O

CM

3-CMr-

o o

o o

o o

o o
1 1

o o

O O
1 1

o o
1 1

o o
1
1

ID o lO LO

to o
tO LO

to CO

CO CT
r

O O

o o

CM CO

cm r* CO * to CT

co *

CM ID

00 CO to co CT
LO

CT ID 00 CD
CM CM
LO 00 LO

CO CO

ct r^
LO 00 00

o
LO

lo r

LO 00

>1
r^

O O
CM O LO LO
i

dd
i

00
co

do
o<3-

dd
cj-

co

dd
CO O

CT

66
53"

o O O CO o co co MCO CO o o o
r-. r
^i-

3 "3

r^

CM O CO in lo CO r-

co r^. CM LO o

LO

CO CM to r-. CM
i

lo to LO O CO

CO

CT CO CO CT co o

LO CO LO

o
i

co o

o o

dd

66
i

dd

dd
i

dd
1 1

dd

dd
1 1

s.

E
re

E
ro

E
re

E
ro

E
ro

E
ro

E
ro

E
Q.
*

o
o
CO
I
a

o
CO
. .

o
CO
. .

o
CO
. .

o
CO
a a

o
CO

o
CO
*
r

O
CO
.

oo
UJ

LO

CD

r^

CO

CT

o
r

CM
1

100

scu
-Q

CO 00 o o o r-v CM CM
co CM 00 lo r-

CT
LO

CO CTi LO ID CM O

CT CM
r^
*3" d-

O CM
CO
=j-

E
CD O CD O

CO
>=J-

CO CM CO CM

O O
r^

CM LO co r^ CM
r

CM LO
co r-.

CM O

CM LO co rCM
i

cm io

co CM

r
i

O O CO
to

dd
o
CM o
LO LO
r-

O O O
CM O
LO LO
r

o O
CM O
LO LO
i

*3"

00
r

co

lo r~ CT CTi CD CO

CM O LO LO
i

r-^

r>.

f>.

r--

CM
1

CM CO
1

dd
a-

o o

r^. io

co co
sf- co
i

CM co r^
,

CTi LO
i

cu
XI CM
i

E
CD > o CM 00 CO
r

O o
F "

CM
r-

CT) CO

CO o CM CO CM
d-

r
i

3-

cm r>. CO
. CJ CO CTi LO .

CM LO co r~CM
i

CM LO
CO l-~

CM

CM LO CO 1-^ CM
t

CT

CM CO

O
LO
3"

d
o
r-

o o o
CM O LO LO
r

i
3"

LO

CTi LO =t CO LO CO

CO

dd
CM O
LO LO
i

CO LO co co CM o co
CM CM 1 1

CT CM CO LO LO CM CM
CD CO
1

CM O
LO LO
i

I-*.

r--

dd
CD o CO LO
CT
=J-

dd

o o

r=3"

o
CTi CO LO CO

r-

ct
LO

r^ cd
i
"53-

Ol LO

+4

s-

CM to
r r

CM |-~
r r

CM CTi t--.
p

CO oo o CO LO
r

*3-

to o
CO LO

to o CO LO

o o

o o

o o
o

o CJ

CD XI o
+4

CO

ro

O 00 CT
r^ lo "SI
LO

CM

CM

CT

do
o CM O
LO LO
r

dd
CM O
LO LO
r

d
r-~

10

CJ

s-

CT O LO CM CT to O 00
i

O CT

CT tD 00 CT CM CO
p I r r

LO >*
r

CO
'

CM o

LO LO
p

cd r-.
r r

r-~

r^

o
+-)

O O

O C

o o

u ro

+4

00 CO
cu Xl

*3"

r~ ct

co to

00 o
3"

3"

CTl CM
l

CD

<v,

CM CM CTi CM

O CT
cnf_
r

CM

E
CD O c ro
j=

E
CD
+->

dnN <->
LO
"*
LO r>*3-

*^

lo '
r-.

CD CO LO LO CO 00

to O
tO LO

to o
to LO

CO

o o

o o

do;
CT O o CM CM 2
CO CO
^

dd
i

dd
cm o
LO LO
r

Q.

"3S
<

C0CT 'LO
to co

""> ^ en

<

00 00
CO LO
=J-

, '

CM O
LO LO
r

0)
00
>
f

'

l~~

f-.

dd
i i

o o
I I

dd
i i

dd
i
i

dd

dd

3"

tO co

CO CT CD CTi
+4

oo co CO o ID O oo

CD CM tD CO
LO CO LO
r-~

rr-. co
"*'--

*3-

CM CM r-~ en

CD O CD LO
,

to o
_

LO

. ^ O O

CD LO

to

o o

LO

3
LU
_l

do;
to CO
i

o^S
o co cm o co
<3-

dd
r-. cm
"=3"

CM
co

oog
00 CO
LO CO

dd
co oo
io

dd
LO

CT
3

Ol
1

CO
cn

CO

3-

CM

co o

00 r--

^
*"

CM O

to o CO O *

CM O
LO LO
r

cm o
LO LO
I

r--.

l-

=t

o o
I I

dd
I
I

o o
I I

66

dd
i

dd

dd

CM tO

co o
LO LO OO
r

CO LO LO CO 00 CO o o
r

CD CM CT CM
si-

CM CTi
LO

CTI

CT
CM

r-

CT LO CO LO

CO CM CM
r

to o tD LO

CO o

tO LO

rr

dd
"=3-

dd
00 CO
cm o

CM CO

O O
"=Jr

LO

CT
ro

O O
co r-

CM CM CM

OOLO
005:
CM O
(J

o o

CT
r^

dd
r

CO

3 X)

"53"

CO

O
i

to LO o CO O
i

CO CTi co o

d
CO

CM

to

CM O LO LO LO
r-.

LO

dd
i i

dd

dd

dd

o o

66

dd

5-

E
Q.

E
Q-

E
0.

E
o.

E
D-

E
D-

E
Q.

O ir

O
CO

O
CO

0 CO

0
CO

O
CO
10

0
ro

O CO

00

to

101

In order to
given

use

Table 4.7, the insolation level, Ht,

at

any
radiation

hour is divided by the corresponding


From Figure

extraterrestrial

giving Kj.

4.15, the

proper correlation

curve

is

used

to determine K.
ment

Finally, Equation 4.110 is

used

to find the

enhance

factor r.
I
....

can

then be found

by utilizing

Equation 4.34.

4.1.4

Collector Loss

Coefficient,

UL
collector

The

effectiveness

of a

solar

is determined primarily

by

the amount

of

heat loss by the


the
potential

collector

during

operation.

This
collector

heat loss
and

governs

operating temperature
in
order

of

the

the level

of

insolation

required

for

operation

to be

feasible.
area,
and

The heat loss is the

product

of

the loss coefficient, loss


can

temperature difference.
one of

While the heat loss

be

reduced

by

reducing any
readily

these terms, the loss

coefficient

is the term
and

most

made

smaller

by

application

of

engineering
sealed

scientific

techniques.

In

our

collector,

hermetically
used

tubes

and

spectrally
The

selective

coating have been


section

to

reduce

the loss

coefficient.

analysis

of

this

shows

hqw

the loss

coefficient

can

be

calculated.

From Equation 4.9;

<U

"

"4 (Tfx

Ta>

(4-9)

102

and

QS,

^
=

UL ^^fx
absorber

"

V
surface area.

(4-115)

where Trd

Aa

tube total

So,

Q*

Aa UL ^Tfx

V
of

(4.H6)

The loss coefficient is defined in terms


cross-sectional
area.

the absorber tube

4.1.4.1

Collector Tube Thermal Network

sketch

of

the tubular

element

cross-section

is

shown

in
conduction

Figure 4.16.

Heat flow is
to T,

assumed
l

to be

by

convection

and
'

from temperature T, heat loss is


more

while

from temperature

Tf

to T

the

by

convection

and

radiation.

In Section

2, heat flow is

complicated

due to the

presence of

the

silver mirror over one-half

of the

inside
can

of cover

tube #2.

In

order

to treat this problem, the


and
each part

enclosure

be

separated

into three
with

parts

considered

to be exchanging three
parts

radiant

energy

the remaining two


silvered and

parts.

These
portion

are

cover

tube #1

and

the

unsilvered

of cover

tube #2.
sections

Convective heat transfer


and

will

also

occur

between

the three
network.

hence

must

also

be

considered

in the thermal

Finally, heat loss


and
convection.

occurs

from

cover

tube #2 to ambient

by

radiation

A thermal

network

showing the
noted

situation

described

above

is shown in Figure 4.17.

It is

that the radiative

103

T
a

s^*

Cover Tube #2

Figure 4.16

Loss Coefficient

Tube Cross Section

Figure

4.17 Thermal

Network

Figure 4.18 Simplified Thermal Network

104

resistances

from T

and

T I to T

incorporate the
.

effective

sky

temperature which would be

different from T
a

This

will

be discussed

in

more

detail later.

Reduction
similar

of

the thermal
can

network

shown

in Figure 4.17 to

form

to Equation 4.116

be greatly facilitated by
magnitude

several

simplifications.

First, the
R
and

of

the series

combination

of

convective

resistance

conductive

resistance

R,

will

be very

small

compared

to those
can

of

the

rest

of

the
'

network.

Therefore,
to T*
.

these

resistances

be

neglected

and

Tf
by

set equal

This

assumption

was

later

shown

to be
and

valid

calculating the
result

magnitude

of

the

series

combination

comparing the
and

to the

parallel

combination

of

resistances

R~

Ro.

The

result was

less than 3
portion of

percent

at

flow
can

rate

of

gpm.

Second, the
to be
a

silvered

cover

tube #2
an

be

considered

perfectly reflecting

wall

with

emittance

of zero.

This

allows

Rg

and

Ry

to be treated
no

as

two

series

resistances

unconnected

to T

since

heat

will

be

absorbed

or

radiated

by

the

silver mirror

surface.

Lastly, the
and
unsilvered

convective

heat transfer
cover

rate

between the

silvered

portion

of

tube #2

will

be

small

since

the

magnitudes

of

Tc2
is

and

will

be very
can

close

to

one

another.

Therefore that
thermal

portion

of the network

be

removed.

The

simplified

network

seen

in Figure 4.18.

From Figure 4.18, the following

simplifications

are

made:

105

"l"

"

<hr.fx-cl

"cfX-d*"' "

(4-117)

R2'

'

^T^1

+hr.cl-c2)"'

-118>

R3'

C''2

2R

(4.119)

\'--(\,rt-**\,cZ-^--^^
V
-

<4-120'

(Ve2--.

Vcz'-.'"1

<*J7
can now

<4'121>

Section heat balances


network shown

be done for

each

portion

of

the

in Figure 4.18.

Qfx-cl
where

W Tcl^hr,fx-cl

hc,fx-cl>

<4*122)

Aa a

TTdJc

5cl-c2
where

Acl(Tcl-Tc2^f^

+hr,cl-c2>

<-"3>

A^

TTd'^

106

Qcl-c2'

=Acl(Tcl

-Tc2.)(hc>C^c2')

(4.124)

}c2-a
where

Ac2(Tc2

"

V(hc,c2-a

hr,c2-a>

(4-125>

Hc2

_ "

TtDA

Jc2'-a
where

Ac2'<Tc2'

"

V<hc,c2'-a

hr,c2'-a>

(4-126>

Ac2
For steady

'

Ac2
conditions,

state

Qfx-cl
can

^cl-c2

Qcl-c2'

Qc2-a

^2 '-a

(4*127)

Equation 4.122

be

rewritten

as,

Equations 4.123

and

4.124

can

be

rearranged

and

added

giving,

107

\:1

Aa

/
'

hc,cl-c2'
2

(Tcl
'c,cl-c2
+

Tc2>

(4.129)

^cl^cT Tc7^c7

h
r,cl-c2

Following

similar

approach,

Equations 4.125

and

4.126 become,

1c2
h
c,c2'^a r,c2'-a
+

(Tc2
hc,c2-a
+

Ta) (4.130)

Va Tc2'-Ta

hr,c2-a|

Now, Equations 4.128, 4.129,

and

4.130

can

be

added

giving,

hc,fx-cl

hr,fx-cl

?M ~hc,cl-c2'

1Acl/

hc.cl-c2
2

TcrTc2
Tcrtc2'

nr,cl-c2

'V
^ ]c,c2'-a
c2 +

hr,c2'-a

VTfx
"

"

(4.131)

T.o-T.

,c2-a

hr,c2-aJ

Tc2'-Ta

Comparing

Equation

4.131 to Equation 4.116 gives,

108

'cfx-cl

hr,fx-cl'

IA

VW

hc,cl-c2'
2
-

"

hc
2

c2

TcrTc2
TcrTc2'

hr

,cl

-c2

1-1

Ac2, hc

+,c2'-

hr

(4.132)
-a

V Ta
Tc2'

hc

+
,c2-

h
r
,c2-

"Ta

Finally,

substitution

of

Equations 4.117 through 4.121 into 4.132 give,

UL

A
cl/

(4.133)
1

*A

'c2|

IR7"

<Tc2'-Ta\t
,Tc2"Ta

"T

4.1.4.2

Thermal

Network Resistance Evaluation

In

order

to

evaluate

the

resistances

in Equation 4.133, the

following

simplifying

assumptions

are

used:

1.

all

surfaces

are

gray (all

radiative

properties

are

independent

of wavelength),

2.

surfaces

emit

and

reflect

radiation

in

diffuse

manner

(except

silver mirror

portion

of cover

#2),

109

3.

the surface temperatures

are

uniform as

indicated in

Figure 4.16,
4.
there is negligible absorption
with

of solar

energy

by

the

covers

respect

to the loss coefficient,


are

5.

the

glass

covers

opaque

to radiation

emitted

by

surfaces of the tubular element.

The
radiative itive

radiative

resistance

R2

is

equal

to the inverse
,

of

the

heat trai transfer coefficient, h

For

radiation

between

two

surfaces

[19],
a

hr fx cl r,Tx-ci

Tf
+

2
,

Tf

T
"

2)
(4-134)

J_ a

2a_ IJ_ Acl cl

where

the

shape

factor,

Ff

equals

1.

The
the
and

convective

resistance

R3

is

equal

to the inverse

of

convective

heat transfer coefficient,


the

hc

f x_cl

From Kreith

Kreider
annul

[12],

following
concentric

correlation

is

recommended

for

long

i formed

by

tubes,

\'278

h L

R P

Nu

^7

=0-135(unp;|
<

<4-135>

for

3.5<1og10[A_!f__]

8.00

110

r and

r,

0.25

<

-2-

1 i

<

3.25

R If

1og10|l.36

/p I
hcL

3*> then [20:1

Nu=^

=1

(4.136)

The terms in Equations 4.135

and

4.136

are

defined

as

follows:

annulus

d'

width,

/2

d/2,
of

Kf

thermal

conductivity
mean of

the fluid (evaluated


and

at

arithmetic

Tf
G

),

W/mK

hc
R

hcfx-cr
Raleigh

w/m2K
=

number

P
c

Pr

Prandtl

number,

y/Kf

where

specific

heat, J/kgK,

absolute

viscosity,

N-sec/m
-

2 3
2

Grashof number, p

gBT(Tfx

Tc1 )L

/y

where

fluid density, Kg/m


gravitational

g
.3,

constant,
expansion

9.8
of

2
m/s
inK"

coefficient

of

the fluid

(for ideal gases, temperature, that is

BT

equals

the

reciprocal

of

the

absolute

6T

1/T) (evaluated

at

arithmetic

mean

of

Tfx
to

and

T^).

The

convective

resistances

R4

and

Rg

from

Tcl

Tc2

and

2,

respectively,

are

determined utilizing the same correlations

Ill

as

given

by Equations 4.135
for
eccentric

and

4.136.

Kreith for lack

and

Kreider

recommend

their
at

use

annular areas

of

better
a

correlations

present.

This

method

is equivalent to assuming

cover

tube #2

uniform

temperature

of

Tc2, to find Rg.


and

Again,

since

the temperature

difference between
this assumption

Tc2
be

2,

is small, the

error

introduced

by

will

small.

The

radiative

resistance

between T

c I

-,

and

cd

is

equal ^

to the
0.

inverse
Karlekar
one

of

the

radiative

heat transfer coefficient, h for


an enclosure of

r,cl-c2

From
where

and

Desmond

[21]

three

surfaces

surface

is

perfectly reflecting surface, the heat flow due to


by:

radiation

is

given

Acl^Tcl4
'

Tc24)
+

"

'""

Vcl-c2

1-ed
cl

E1/Fcl-c2^Ac2Fc2-c2'
,

1/AclFcl-c2'J
,

Acl

^2
c2
(4.137)

1/AclFcl-c2

1/Ac2Fc2-c2'

1/AclFcl-c2fc2/
obvious

The

radiative

heat transfer coefficient,


and

hr

ci_c2

is

from

Equation 4.137

is

given

by
(Tcl2

h..

(Tcl

Tc2>

Tc22)
+

r'Cl_C2

^d
^

n/Fc1_c2][l/Ac2Fc2.c2,
,

VAc1Fc1,c2,]
+

^Wcl^

l/Ac2Fc2.c2,

VAclFcl_c21

\Ac2/

/^ c2

c2

(4.138)

To

utilize

Equation

4.138, the

shape

factors F

Fc2_c2,,

and

C I-C2

-,

<,,

must

be found.

From Figure

4.16,

'

Fcl-c2

Fcl-c2'

"

<4-139'

112

Also,

Fc2-c2
The
the
shape

Fc2-cl

Fc2-c2'

(4-14)

factor F
subtended

for diffuse

radiation

[22]
by
the

is

equal

to

angle

by

the hemisphere formed

unsilvered

portion

of cover tube

#2

with

respect

to

centerpoint

of

cover

tube #1

divided
-

by
or

360.

From Figure

4.3, the

angle

is

seen

to be 2(90

y-])

126.80.

Ft 0 cl-c2

^%^=
360

0.352

From Equation 4.139,

Fc1_c2,

0.648

can

be found

by

evaluating the

following

equation,

FC2-C2
where surface cl

Fc2-cl'

'

<4-14"

'

is

an

imaginary

plane

separating

outer

cover

tube

#2 into

semi

-cylinders.

From the reciprocity relationship,

Ac2
where

Fc2-cl'

"

AcV Fcl'-c2

<4'142'

=
,

i_c2

and

"

c2-cl

'

AcT Ac2

D
ttD/2

tt

113

From Equation

4.141,

Fc2_c2

2/tt

0.363.

Fc2-cl

in Ec^uation 4.140

can

likewise be

evaluated

from the

reciprocity relationship,

Ac2 Fc2-cl
and,

Acl Fcl-c2

(4-143)

:c2-cl

=A^Fcl-c2=nli

(0-352)

0.198

Finally, from Equation 4.140,

Fc2-c2,=

"

'363

"

-198

-439

Now, the

second

term in the denominator

of

Equation 4.138

can

be

evaluated,

l0.352;

nd'l

0.439 1,1 tt'D/2 0.352

VD/2-

-rrd

'

0.648;
,

=
,1

1C ]-416

0.439

Trd'

0.643

and

Equation 4.138 becomes:

+T a(Lo + 'c2yv'cl

2
,

rcl

-)(T

+
'

92) 'c2

r,cl-c2

A
+

1-e
~

(4.144)

0.416

(r^)(
c2

Ecl

ec2

The
to

convective

resistances

R-|0

and

R^2

from

Tc2

and

Tc2'

ambient

temperature

Ta

are

equal

to the inverse of the convective

114

heat transfer

coefficients

h^^
a

and

hc
a

c2,_a,

respectively.

To determine these coefficients,


for flow The
across
a

correlation
at uniform

by

Whi taker

[23]
used.

cylindrical

tube

temperature is

correlation

is
a

evaluated

for the convective heat transfer


of

coefficient at

wall

temperature
and

first T
since

and

then T

9.

in

order

to determine

R1Q Tc2

R,2.

Again,

the temperature
error

difference between

and

Tc2, is small, the resulting


will

introduced

by

the assumption

be

small.

The

correlation

is,

Nuave

(0-4

ReV2

*06

Re2/3)Pr0*4

(^)
CO

(4-145^

for

0.67 10
<

<

Pr
<

<

300

Re

100,000

y
and

0.25

<

<

5.2

All

properties

in Equation 4.145
except y

are

evaluated

at

the free

stream

temperature T

which

is

evaluated

at

the surface temperature.

The
of

radiative

resistances

R-,-,

and

R,

are equal

to the inverse
and

the

radiative

heat transfer
radiative

coefficients

hr

c2_a

hr

c2._a.

In the
portion

real

case,
cover

transfer will

occur

between the

unsilvered

of

tube

#2, adjacent
portion

tubes

and

the surroundings

and

also

between the
collector

silvered

of

cover

tube

#2,

adjacent

tubes
as

and

the

backing.

Thus, assuming

all

surfaces

behave

gray

bodies,
evaluation

each

radiative

heat transfer

coefficient

would

be determined

by

115

of a

three

body

enclosure.

much

simpler and worst case approach

would

be to

assume

that the radiation exchange

occurs

between the tube


This

and

the sky about the entire circumference


was
utilized

of cover

tube #2.

procedure

in

reference

1.1

and enables

the heat flow due

to

radiation

to be written

as

(Tc24

r,c2-a
and

Ac2

ec2

"

Tsky4)

(4'146)

Qr,c2'-a

Ac2'

ec2'

a(Tc2'

"

Tsky
of

(4.147)

for the

unsilvered

and

silvered

portion

outer

cover

tube

#2,
accounts

respectively.

is

an

equivalent

sky temperature
at a
uniform

which

for

the fact that the


the
atmosphere

atmosphere

is

not

temperature

and

that

radiates

only in

certain

wavelength

bands.

To

evaluate

the relationship

[24]

Ts|<y
is
used.

0.0552

Ta"*5

(4.148)

Both T

and

are

in degrees Kelvin.
and

The

radiative

heat

transfer

coefficients

hr

c2_a

hr
on

can
c2,_a

now

be

written

from

Equations 4.146

and

4.147 noting that the denominators


are

account

for

the fact that the losses

based

Ta

and

not

Tsk

116

(Tc2'4

c2'

'

hr,c2'-a

(Tc2,

"Q *

Ta)

,, (4*150)

..

4.1.4.3

Evaluation

of

U.

The loss
conditions

coefficient

U.

was

evaluated

for

variety

of

particular

utilizing the temperature T


and

following
-..T

approach.

First,

guesses

were

made

for

cover

2>

and

Tc2'"

Next>

ui

was

calculated

from

Equation 4.133
the heat

the heat loss

calculated

from Equation 4.116.


used

Having

loss,
and

section

heat balances

were

then

to back
were

calculate

T|, T
this

2,

2,.

Equations 4.128, 4.129,


computed and
guessed

and

4.130

used

for

step.

If the

cover

temperatures
and +

agreed

within

convergence

requirements

0.1

C for T

1.0C for
If

and

2>

then the loss


agree within

coefficient

computed was

correct.

they did
were

not

the

specified

limits, T
the

Tc2,

and

Tc2,
until

set equal

to their

new

values

and

procedure

repeated

convergence

was

achieved.

The

surface

emissivities

values

used

for

the

calculations

are

e3 a

0.07

Ecl

ec2

c2'

*88

4.1.4.1

Loss Coefficient Results

The loss
extremes

coefficient

U.
at

was

calculated

for two

ambient

temperature

(-20C
used

and

40C)

wind

velocity of 10

mph

(4.47m/s).
speed

This

speed

was

since

it is approximately the

average

wind

in

Rochester.

117

The

results

are

given

in Table 4.8

and

plotted

in Figure 4.19

T. a
Absorber Temperature

-20C

40C

(C)

UL

W/m2C

U,

W/m2C

4.055 4.512 4.981 5.541


5.846

25
50

4.458
5.097
5.637

75 100

Table 4.8

Collector Loss Coefficient,

U,

Also
area

shown

is the loss

coefficient

referenced

to the aperture
coefficient

(U.Trd/D).

From Figure 4.19 it is


with

seen

that the loss

increases gradually
collector

increasing
a
modest

operating temperatures.
can

If the

is

operated

at

temperature gain, U.
range.

be treated

as

constant

over

this temperature
can

Thus linear theory in heat


work.

balance

equations

be

used.

U,

has been treated this way in my

4.1.5

Effective transmittance-absorptance product,

(xa)e.

The

effective

transmittance absorptance-product is the percentage

of radiation which

is transmitted through the


tube.

cover

system and

absorbed

by

the
of

absorber

In

order

to

calculate

its value, the For

transmittance

the

cover

system

can

first be determined.

JL18

ijgure

4.19.

Collector loss Coefficient,

-U,

;
CT"!

_1_

1. j! I

r.-zrzi -7 4-:H
::~ .

-.--

"

"l

119

partially transparent surfaces,


and

the

sum of

absorptance,

reflectance

transmittance must be unity.


absorptance,

Transmittance, like
wavelength,
angle
of

reflectance

and

is

function

of

incidence

of

the

incoming

radiation,

the refractive

index,

n,

and

the
n

extinction

coefficients,

K,

of

the material.

Strictly
solar

speaking,

and

are

functions

of wavelength

but for

most

energy

applications

can

be

assumed

to be independent

of wavelength.

For
mittance

flat

plate

cover

system,

the determination

of

the trans
as outlined

of

the cover system is a straightforward


of

procedure

in Chapter 6 from
medium

Duffie
a

and

Beckman.

For

nonpolarized

radiation

passing

with

refractive

index

n-,,to

medium

with

refractive

index n2, the

reflectance

is

given

by

Fresnel

as

[25],

Sin
Sin2

tan2

(02
(e2

9-|)
tan2

(92

6^
0-,)

(4.151)

6-|)

(e2
incidence

where

0,

and

02

are

the

angles

of

and

refraction

of

the

incoming

radiation.

The two terms in the brackets


of

represent

the

reflection

for

each

the two the

components

of

polarization

and

hence
the to

Equation 4.151
average
of

gives

reflective

nonpolarized

radiation

as

the two

components.

Snell's Law

relates

9-j

and

02

the indices

of refraction.

It is:

'1

sin
sin

0,

(4.152)
1

Knowing n-,

n2,

and

0]

G2

and

p can easily be calculated.

120

In
must

order

to calculate the transmittance

of

cover

system,

it

be

remembered

that

there

are

two interfaces
shown

per

cover

present.

Neglecting
mittance

absorptance,
a single

it

can

be easily

[25]

that the trans

of

cover

is:

Tr,l=H^
For
a multicover

(4.153)

system, a similar analysis

gives:

Vn

l +\2nP-1)p

(4-154)

For

angles

less than
can

about

40,

the average reflectance as

calculated

by

Equation 4.151

be

used

above,

for

greater

angles,

each

component

must

be

considered

separately.

The transmittance
media

of

radiation

through

partially transparent

is

also

limited is ;

by

absorption.

From

Beer's law, the transmittance

due to

absorption

e'KL

(4.155)

where

L is the

actual

path

length

of

the

radiation

through the

medium, and K

is the

absorption

coefficient.

Finally, for

approximately

equal

to one,

r
a

(4.156)

121

which

is

always

satisfied

in

solar

energy applications.

The transmittance-absorptance product for


can

flat

plate

system

be

calculated

when

it is

realized

that multiple

reflections

can

occur

due to the fact the


reference

absorber

plate

is

not a

perfect absorber.

From

()

i 1

_7?i

d-a)

(4.157)

where

(xa)

is the transmittance-absorptance product,


a

is the
of

transmittance of the cover system,


plate and

is the
cover

absorptance

the

cover

p^

is the It
can

reflection

of

the

plate

for incident-diffuse
reflection of

radiation.

be
an

estimated

by

using the
of

specular

the

cover

system

at

incidence

angle

60.

When the
of

cover

system

consists

of cylindrical

tubes, the

calculation

(xa)e

becomes
over

more

complicated

because the
of

reflection

losses
single

must

be integrated

different
strike

angles

incidence.

At any

solar

elevation angle,

rays

the

cylindrical
(0

surface

at all

angles

from

normal

incidence to grazing
a
single
cylindrical

to 90).
will

Because

of

this,

reflection

losses for flat


and
plate

tube

be nearly twice those


are
normal

of

[26].
of

For example, if the


refraction

collectors

to the sun,
of

the index

of glass

1.52, the
while

reflectance

the flat

plate would

be 0.043 (Equation 4.151)


a

that

of

the

cylinder would

be 0.07 corresponding to 0.87 [26].

transmittance of 0.92

(Equation 4.153)
flat
plate

and

However,

while

the transmittance

of a

will

122

increase
mittance

as

the angular elevation


remain

of

sun

changes, the

cylinder

trans
value

will

essentially
at

constant.

This

means

that the
the time

for the transmittance for


the
a

solar

noon

is independent
the

of

of year

tubular element.

However,

when

daily

angular motion of
a

sun

is considered, the
as

reflection

losses for

cylinder will

increase increases becomes


angle

the angle between the sun's rays and the tube

normal

(angle i, Figure A5.3).

The

angle

at which

this
of

change

substantial

is approximately
geometry
at

60

[27].

Evaluation

the

i for the
and

collector

Energy

House utilizing Equations


of

A5.6
and

A5.7
p.m.

of

Appendix 5
not

revealed

that between the hours

8:30
of

a.m.

3:30

it did

exceed

60.
on

Since the
collector

greatest

portion

usable

solar

energy is incident
at

the

during
60

this time, the


will

value

for the transmittance


analysis.

angles

of

less than

be
a

used

throughout the

When calculating the transmittance,


realized

simpli

fication

results

when

it is
the

that the
over

analysis

need

be

made

for

only that
the

portion

of

cover

system

which

--

is

measured.

Since
normal

incoming

radiation

which

comprises

is predominantly
angles

near

incidence (i.e. that


not

radiation

at

near

grazing
not

to the tube
absorbed

will

be

part

of

ff

since

it is generally

directly
of

or

backreflected to the
system can

absorber

tube), the transmittance

the
of

cover

be

approximated

by

calculating the transmittance


radiation

two
a

cover

flat

plate

system with

at

normal

incidence.

For

reflectance of

0.0434
system

per

single

air-glass

interface, the transmittance

of a

two

cover

is from Equation 4.154;


can

x^2

0.85.
=

The transmit

tance due to
and

absorptance

be
cm.

calculated

knowing

that K
xa

0.0878
=

2(0.056 in)

0.2845

From Equation 4.155,

0.98.

The

overall

transmittance from Equation

4.156, is

equal

to 0.83.

Finally,

123

the

effective

transmittance-absorptance
a
=

product can

be

calculated

from

Equation 4.157 where

0.95

and

pd

0.24

with

the

result

being

(xa)e

0.80.

One

additional

point which

should

be

considered

is that

significant

portion

of

the reflected light from individual

tubes

will

be

captured

by

adjacent

tubes.
reflected

This is

not

the
can

case

for

flat
lost.
on

plate

collector

as

all

radiation

be

considered

The

actual

percentage

that is

captured

by

adjacent

tubes depends
calculation

the tube spacing this


value

and

the position of the sun.


effect would

While
give

exact

of

would

be difficult, its
above.

higher

value

for

(xa)e
the

than
value

given

As the

experimental

work

of

Section 5
above.

will

show,

for

(xa)e

is indeed higher than that

given

4.2

Tank Analysis

4.2.1

Energy

Storage

Capacity
finite

The energy

storage

of

water

storage

unit

operating

over

temperature difference is

given

by;

V"scp,sat
.

(4-158)

where Cl

is the total heat capacity


range

of

the tank operating


water.

over

temperature

of AT with

M$

kilograms of

124

For

nonstratified

tank

with

both

solar and

auxiliary energy

input,

an

energy balance

gives

the

following

result;

^p^tSF
where

Qtran
of

Qaux

"

"

(UA)(Ts

"

(4-159)

QJRAN
is the

is the
rate

rate

heat
of

addition

to the tank from the collector,

QAUX
the

of addition

auxiliary energy to the tank, L is


usage and

removal

of

energy from the tank due to

(UA)(TS
to be

Tn^p)
work

is the loss

of

energy has

of

the tank to the this level

surroundings.

Previous

by

Klein

[28]

shown

of representation

sufficient

to accurately
system under

predict

system

performance.

He has found for


a

particular

study that the

effect

of

using
the

thermal

stratification

model

was

to increase the fraction

of

water

heating

load

supplied

by

solar

energy

by

3%.

Thus,

use

of a

nonstratified

model

results

in

slightly
there is

conservative

estimates

of

system

performance.

In addition,
tank
used.
model.

computational

benefit in using

nonstratified

Based

on

these considerations, the


can
now

nonstratified

model

is
tank

Equation 4.159
water

be

applied

to both the
removed.

preheat

and

the hot

tank

with

nonappli cable

terms

From Figure 3.1, it is

seen

that energy from the KTA

collectors

is transferred to the
amount of

preheat

tank through a heat


can

exchanger.

The

energy transferred

be

written

as;

QTRA*
when

=
*

Cp CT0UTC
are

"

TINC>

(4*160)

the

pipe

losses

neglected.

The

collector

outlet

temperature

125

TOUTC
on

iS fUnd utilizin9 Equations 4.29


collectors.

and

4.30 previously

given

for the

The collector inlet temperature

TTMr INC

depends

several

factors

including

the amount of surface available for


of

heat transfer, the thermal


amount of

conducitivity

the tube material, the


the convective heat

scaling

on

the heat exchanger,

and

transfer coefficients on the inside and outside surface of the heat


exchanger.

If the

overall

heat transfer coefficient


to be
a

of

the heat

exchanger

coefficient

is

assumed

constant, then the temperature

difference from basic heat

exchanger relationships

[29]

is found from:

T0UTC UUIC
OUTC

"

TINC 1NC_
IWH

-(UhA)/(ft
=

-,

pc

"

(4.161)

where

A is the
rate

area

of

the heat

exchanger and

M C
the

is the heat
right

capacity

of

the

collector.

Evaluation

of

side

of

Equation 4.161

will

be done experimentally in Section 5.3.

For the
of

preheat

tank, Q
written

is
MU A

equal

to

zero while

the

removal

energy,

can

be

as:

QPRE
and

"

*LCP.S(TIWH
are

"

(4.162)

where

TT1,U IWH
of

T,,

the fluid temperatures at the discharge


respectively.

and

CW

inlet

the

preheat

tank,

For the hot

water

tank,
when

QTRAN
TJWH
of

is

equal

to

zero

while

QAUX

is

equal

to 16,200 kJ/hr The

is less than 140F


can

(60C) (See
as:

Section 3.1.).

removal

energy

be

written

126

QHOT

\ Cp,S (TOWH

"

TIWH}

(4.163)

The

environmental

loss term

remains

to be examined.

4.2.2

Tank Loss Coefficient

The tank loss coefficient U in Equation 4.159


experimentally for both the In
order

can

be found
tank.

preheat

tank

and

the hot
of

water

to
of

perform

the analysis,

the solution

Equation 4.159
For QTDAW,
I KAN

in terms

the storage temperature T~ must be obtained.


^

QAUX,

and

equal

to zero, Equation 4.159 becomes:

(MSCp,S>

-dT=-UA(Ts-W

(4-164

where

from Figure 3.14


at

T^g
and

is

measured

at

location T7
hot

and

Ts

is
tank to
preheat

measured

locations T5
The
right

T9 for the
side

preheat and

water

respectively.

hand
to

of

Equation 4.164 is

equal

CYnST
and as:

where T<.

is TIW

and

Ql-muu

where

Ts

is Tq,,,, for the


can

hot

water

tank,

respectively.

Equation 4.164

be

rewritten

p,S

where

B=

UA

Mc;cn : S p,S

127

Solution

of

Equation 4.165

gives:

TS
where

(TS,I
T$
at

Bt
"

W
=

TAMB
can

(4'166)

time t

0.

Equation 4.166

be

rewritten

as:

'S I

V 'S,I
"

e"Bt

(4.167)

AMB

The quantity 1/B is the time

constant

for the tank

under

consideration.

It is the time

required

for the tank temperature to


and

drop 63.2%
the
ambient

of

the

initial difference between the tank temperature

temperature.

128

5.

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

Several

tests

were

performed

utilizing the

system

described
described the
collector

in Section 3 for the


in Section 4.
effective

purpose of

evaluating the

parameters

For the collector, the loss coefficient, U,

transmittance-absorptance product

(xa)e,

and

the

heat

removal

factor

FR

were

evaluated.

For the

preheat and

hot

water

tank, the loss


exchanger,

coefficients

were

evaluated

while

for the the heat


found.
Test

the loss
and

coefficient-area

product

U A

was

descriptions

results

are

given

in this

section.

5.1

Collector Parameters

From Equation 4.29, the

collector

performance

is

given

by:

V"

W(Wf

"

ul

^ <Tiric

rrd

"

VI

(4.29)

with

the

collector

efficiency from Equation

4.35,

FR |(xa)e

17

ll

*d

INC

uL

-p

1J
4.27;

'(4.35)

The heat

removal

factor is

given

by

Equation

"L

G C

GCo P
Ultt

n D

rR

(4.27)

129

5.1.1

Test #1

UL

and

FR
insolation, Equation 4.29
can

For the
as,

case of

no

be

rewritten

QU-AtFRUL^(TINC-V
Solving for FRU.
gives:

Frul

u ~Qu

(5e2)
"

~D~

^TINC

VAt
to energy lost

where

in this

case

is

equal

by

the

collector.

It is

expressible

as:

% =-*Cp (T0UTC
giving;

"

TINC>

(5*3)

MC (TnnT" OUT,
p
19. (j U INC D
-

"

l"TMr)
1 A

INC.

R L

(5>4)

V Mt

when

substituted

into Equation 5.2.


side of

By

operating the
can

collector

at night,

the
can

right

Equation 5.4

be easily determined.
given

FR

and

U,

then be

calculated

utilizing Equation 4.27

above.

Following
temperatures

instrumentation
at

procedures

outlined

in Section 3.3

were measured

locations

T3, T4,

and

T6 indicated in

130

Figure 3.14 corresponding to T


in Equation 5.4.

IN(?

and

Ta,
was

respectively
performed
at

Flow

measurement
same

giving M

the
at

location indicated by the


three
shown minute

figure.

Measurements

were

made

intervals.

In order to verify the


was

analytic

results

in Figure 4.19, the test Water


was

performed

both

during

the
summer while

summer and winter.

the transfer fluid in the


used

propylene

glycol

antifreeze was

in the

winter.

A time

vs.

temperature
the

profile

of

the

summer

test is

shown

in Figure 5.1
of

while

winter results

are

shown

in Figure 5.2.
response.

Observation
a
short

each

figure

shows

initial unsteady
characteristics

After

period

of

time, these
condition

disappeared.

The initial unsteady


at

is due to two factors.


collection

First,

the

outset

of

each

test, the tubular


ambient

elements

were

approximately
of

equal

to the

temperature.
was

Since the temperature


a

the fluid entering


amount of

the

elements

higher than ambient,


collection

certain

time
a new

was

necessary for the tubular


equilibrium

elements

to

achieve

temperature.

Also, the fluid itself


on

was

at

different

temperature levels
a

depending
come

its location in the


mixed

system and as

result,

it had to

to

fully

condition

before steady
effects

state

conditions

could

be

observed.

From Figure 5.1, these


while

become
period

negligible

in

about

15

minutes

from Figure 5.2,


are observed.

longer
With

of

time

elapses

before steady

conditions

these

considerations

in mind, the data


the form
of

was

reduced

for 15

minute

intervals
results

following
given

Equations 5.4 and 4.27.

The final
at

are

in Table 5.1.

The fluid temperature T WM


of

the

water meter was

taken as the
given

average

Tl

and

T3
are

shown

in Figure 3.14.
of water

The fluid

properties

for the

summer

run

those

ZZTTZZZ ztz-t::

ri3:

~zziz
zzzzztz

rrFp

gure

5. 1

1fnST-tee4l50t'JT4ffle

Crimen tal

^ ^empera^tirje:Trbf Her
on

Cal culati

lof

a:

;SuJnmer

FR

and

-i-

--

zzzrzi

zzczz

L^"~

--25-

''^f-^:-r'

1"

..

1
...

r zzzrzzz zzzzAzzzzhz
".ZZ^ZZ

:J.,T-

-132

--"-4-- -'^
,

---

._j

.:".." -..-

1.1'.-"."!-!".!

".'";.;;";

;.~-~

-*

'

:-i

:F-iaure 5.2

-GeTlector

Time Vs Temperature Profile


of

Experimental Calculation

FR

and

TIME-irEST-^p^-

"^M^l:

z-rr.

^33

.L

..

...

:-fr

Figure 5.2 -Continued

"ttfffi

while

for the

winter

run

they

are

for propylene

glycol

antifreeze.

Time 6:45

FRUL(W/m2K)
7:00 7:15 7:30 7:45 7:36
pm.

UL(W/m2<

JK)

FR
0.83
0.95

19.08 6.09
5.45

23.01
6.42

7:00
7:15

pm.

pm.

5.71

0.95

7:30
7:21

pm.

4.98 5.17

5.20
5.41

0.96
0.96

pm.

Date

of

Test:

October 1, 1979
water

Transfer fluid:

Table 5.1

Date Reduction for

U,

and

FR.

Run 1

Time

FRUL(W/m2,

SK)

UL(W/m2oK)

!a
.76

8:45
9:00
9:15 9:45

9:00 9:15 9:30

pm.

18.38
6.78
5.84

36.63 7.16
6.11

pm.

.95

pm.

.96

10:00
10:15 10:30 10:45

pm.

5.60 5.57
5.55 5.45

5.88
5.85 5.84 5.79

.95

10:00
10:15

pm.

.95

pm.

.95

10:30

pm.

.95

Date

of

Test:

February 29, 1980


Propylene Glycol Antifreeze (Solar Winter

Transfer Fluid:

Ban)

Table 5.1

Data Reduction for

u*L

and

FR

Run 2

135

5.1.2

Test #1

Results

The

results

of

both the
are

summer

and

winter

runs

are

shown

in

Figure 5.3. As
can

Also

shown

the analytic

results

previously found.
are
about

be

seen

in the figure, the


experimental

analytical

results

20-25% lower than the


primarily due to
work

results.

This difference is
analytic

not

considering the header losses in the


While this term
experimental
could

previously described.
appears

be analytically
that this is
good correlation of

defined, it
not

from the

results

necessary.

From Figure 5.3, it is data is


achieved

seen

that

experimental

winter

by

using the
with

same equation

form

as

was

used

to describe the

analytic

results

only

change

in the intercept.
curve.

Only

one

point

clearly does

not

conform

to the
represents

However, this is
-

understandable

in that this
conditions

point

data from 9:15

9:30

pm.

and

steady

state

were

still

being

established.

Thus,
one

no

effort was

made

to further

analyze

these losses.

Only

experimental

data

point

is for

shown

for

summer.

From Figure 5.1, steady


of

conditions

only In

existed

short period

time resulting in limited data.


would

order

to

get additional

data,

the test the


an

have had to be

extended

for

long

period

of

time since

collector

inlet temperature
curve

changed

very

slowly.

Rather than this, This is


shown

extrapolated

fit through the

point was

made.

in Figure 5.3.

Another
and

smaller cause of

the difference between the analytic

experimental

results

is that the RTD's measuring


actual

TINC
and

and

TqUTC
outlet

were

located approximately three feet from the


collectors.

inlet

and

of

the

This

was

unavoidable

as

the inlet

outlet

piping

136
_.. .

2: 1-

-zzizz.

"~z
-

122:1

)-

-I

iTrrf^j-

1
-Collector

^E^urje.5^

-Experimental

Loss Coefficient,

-U,

i^OO.

A
0

^xpemfflCTt^^e^^ts

ExtrapoTated^su1! ts
Z=L

H-

-i

aaiQ
EEO

Whzr.-A

25

50

'+:...].

"zTS

TOO

ABSORBER TEMPERATURE ,-7.P-C

mm=*.

137

diverged
shown

and

converged

from

one

pipe

to two

and

back to

one

as

schematically in Figure 3.1.


and

The

entire

three feet

of

pipe

at

the inlet

outlet

of

the collectors

was

insulated.

The heat
and

removal

factor
given

FR

is easily found from Equation 4.27

Figure 5.3

and

is

in Section 7.1.1.

5.1.3

Test #2

(xa)e
transmittance-absorptance
when

The

effective

product can

be

determined from Equation 4.29


are negligible.

the losses from the


can

collector

For this case, Equation 4.29

be

rewritten

as:

%
or

AtFR ^e leff
of

(5*5)

simplifying in terms

(xa)p:

I 1 (.TaL
e

-^

p-j

(5 61 (5.6J

Veff

Since the

collector

efficiency n

equals

VAt
-

138

and

-y-1-

!eff

the final

result

is:

(xa)e

y3_
R1

(5.7)

Equation 5.7 describes the behavior


collector

of

the collectors to Ta. the

when

the

inlet temperature T
conditions

is
was

equal

While

under

normal

operating
,

this

not

case with

Tj^q being

larger than T
procedure.

it

was

achieved

for this test by the


resistance

following
in Figure 3.1
water

First the from the


went

electric

tank

shown

was

removed

service water

loop

such

that city
was

leaving
by dis

the preheat tank

directly

to

supply.

This

achieved

connecting the
the

recirculation

pump

(Pump 2,

Figure 3.1)

and

activating

2-way

electric water valve

(VI) by
then

the #3
allowed

controller

manual

override

switch.

City

water was

to flow through the


globe valve

preheat

tank at a
right of

controlled

rate

by

means

of a

located
rate

to the
was

the mixing

valve

shown

in Figure 3.1.
removed

This flow

adjusted

during
gave

the test
rise

such

that the heat

from the
equal

heat
the

exchanger

to

collector

inlet temperature

to

outdoor

ambient

temperature.

Again, following instrumentation


were measured

procedures
at

described in Section 3.3.1, temperatures


and

locations T3, T4,


,

T6 indicated in Figure 3.14 corresponding


respectively.

to T

T OUTC

and

INC
at

Flow

measurement

was

performed

the location
on a

shown

in the
was

same

figure.

In addition, the insolation


an

rate

tilted

surface

measured

by

Eppley Black
chart

and

White

pyranometer and

recorded

by

Gould 110 strip

recorder as

described in Section 3.3.3.


also measured

Insolation on a horizontal

surface was

by

pyranometer

but

recorded

by

Science Associates strip

chart recorder.

139

The test

was

performed on

September 27, 1979


and

with

data
pm.

being
and

taken at 3 minute intervals between 10:45 am.

1:00

between 2:00

pm.

and

3:00

pm.

Eastern Standard Time.

The

climatic

conditions were

bright

sunshine except near the end of the test experienced.

when

some

light

cloudiness was

The

collect

time

vs.

temperature profile is
tilt plane
of

shown

in Figure 5.4.

Insolation

values

on

the
also

the collector integrated over 15 minute intervals


of

are

indicated.
of

Reduction

the data
shown

was

carried out

following

the form
reduction

Equation 5.7.
performed

This is
15

in Table 5.2.
The

Again, this
enhancement

was

over

minute

intervals.

factor r

was

calculated

following

the procedure

outlined

in Section 4.1.3.

5.1.4

Test #2

Results

From Table 14,


not

the

average

value

of

(xa)e
since

is

.90.

This does
conditions

include the final three time

periods

unsteady
results

occurred

during
not

this time.

Examination

of

the

shows

that
expected

(xa)
since

did
the

vary substantially

during
rays

the test.
and

This

was

angle
60

between the

sun's

the tube

normal

was

always

less than

during

the test.

5.1.5

Test #3

Normal

Running
the

Condition

As

final

check

of

parameters

found in the first two


collectors
were

tests,
under

third test was


conditions

completed.

The

operated

normal

resulting in data that

was

reduced

in

-J.

40

u;.:2^i-

-Figure

5.4

-Collector

7-hne s Temperature Profile Experimental Calculation of (to)

i:ii-:--^-

142

5.4'

Figure

Continued
^e^..?_g_.

9-^Sre^Q

12:00
4H-

2^_

12:15

._

12:30

^L2: 45..

1:00
_i:pdr

-2-

I:

~-4
-2T
_rEp
~H-

-;.--

a,

^43

2-42rr-^'-!--

-2212222T..

'

"

-;
21222
-Figure

-z". .

'r

5J4.

"

..

...

-.,_...-

-Continued

|_

I
:
-

22-22232

...

zz

r.

.!-._

222222
-,

LO

c TD
(O
!-

144

4->
>r-

CD
+->

co
C7> ra

Xi LO C c o 3 CJ

s-

>
ro
_^CU

CM CTi

cn

CM cn

o cn

cn

cn

cn

cn

co

co

oo

oo

co co

oo co

O
cn

cu

CO a:

CD

cn

cn

cn

cn

CD cn

ID

CD

CD

cn

cn

cn

cn

CD cn

CD cn

CD
cn

CD cn

co
CD

CM
CD

S>
OJ
p

SCT1.C

c
ro

CM CD

co CD

CO
LO

CO
CD

co
CD

CD
r^

CD
r-^

CD
r~-

CD
r~-

LO

CD

CD

CD

CD CD

CD CO

CJ
=s

T3

ro
4->

ra CM

<
3 cr

CO

CO CD

CM
LD

o
CD

O
CD

O
CD

O
ID

cn
LD

cn
ID
LD

o
CD

CO
LD

CD

CM
LD

CU
p

Xl
ro

c
i

cn
r--.

E
LD

cn
r-

O
CD
[-*

ID

CD
r-.

O CO
r-~

r~>

o
CTi
r~-

o
cn
r^

LD

cn
r^

cn
r^

CO
r-~

O CO
r~-

ID
*3-

O
CO

o o
LD

o
LD
>*
t>

CD

CD

r-^

CM s-

QJ
Xl
5=

S-

CO
+J

01
4-1

a.

ro

CO
C/0

S
a

?.
,

r.
,

?
.

?.
.

?.
CM

r.
CM

?.
CM

?
CM
p

4->

3
p

to

0)
+J

+-

^ZrZ'Z'Zrr-r
in
,

CMCMCMC0

sI
M-

co
i+-

O CO

LDOLOOLDOLDOLD

LO

^Op-CO^-Op-CO^OL

cu

4->

ra

ra

s1

145

accordance

with

Equation 4.29.
a.m.

The test

was

performed

from

10:00 to 11:00
Data
was

Eastern Standard Time


same manner as

on

September 11, 1979.

collected

in the

has been previously described, temperature


profile
of

Water

was

the transfer fluid.

A time

vs.

the collector and ambient temperatures is given in Figure 5.5.

Reduction

of

the data is shown in Table 5.3.

Results

The
shown

results

of

this test

as

well

as

the first two


were

are

plotted

in Figure 5.6.
value

The two

curves

drawn

as

follows.

First, the intercept


and

FD(xa) eT k

was

obtained

from Test #2

plotted.

It is
for

equal

to 0.60 from Table 5.2.


obtained

Next, the loss

coefficient

summer

and winter was

from Figure 5.3.


a value

value

of

5.94 W/m C
used

was

used

for

winter while

of

5.68
ambient

2 W/m C

was

for

summer.

These

values

correspond

to

an

temperature temperature
were

of

-2.2C

and

23.3C,

respectively.

An

absorber

of

40C

was

used

in both

cases.

The loss

coefficients

computed

by

linear interpolation
were

of

the experimental

results.

The loss

coefficient values

then

multiplied

by

Trd/D

giving the

slope of the

efficiency
value with

curve.

The

curves

were

then drawn through


results

the

intercept

the

proper

slope.

Finally, the
with

from test #3 efficiency

were

plotted.

Good

correlation

the

summer

curve

is

noted.

-146

Figure 5.5.

.Normal

Collector Time Vs Temperature Profile Operating Conditions

147

c_>
o

N
r-^

CC
r>-

CO o
co

?f

ra

CM

CM

o o

o CO o o

ez

TD
C

o o

rrj

g
O o

ez

CO

co
*3-

co
3-

00

CT

u 3 xs

CO
or.
ra
+J

ra

Q
I

cn
ro
p

cn
LD

B
LD

cu
CO CM
CD CD OO
>3-

CO
CD

^f

d-

XI
ra

CD

CO S-

-3

d) XI

i-

E
ai
4->

cu
4->

Cj.

E
ea LD

E
fO

E
ra LD
*3"

E
ra

0) 00

-o

O
CO

o o
r-

r"*

-pj

3
r

co

O
1

O
1

O
'

CU
4->

C|-

'

00
Lp-

S0)
<+-

O o o
ID

o
CO

LD
^3-

L0

CO
4->

c
ra

ra

s~
1

148

-2 ':.
-

!.

;-

.-

'

I
-

'
.2

M
t

:
-

1
;
. _

->-

cu >
S.3

2-2222
" .

'

<J

1
---

**r

<4-

22222J2
_,

S-

o
i-

4J

'

JU

'

A0N3I3Iddl^01031100

1-

149

5.2

Tank Parameters

5.2.1

Test Description

The tank loss coefficients

are

calculated

by

reducing

experimental

data according to Equation 5.8;

TAMB TS,I TAMB


TS
"

-Bt

"

(5.8)

where

UA

p,S

Two tests
and

were

performed

for both the 120


tank.
a

gallon

preheat

tank

the 40

gallon

hot
and

water

The first test

was

approximately
constant

7 hours in length
to be made.

enabled

prediction
B"

for the time

Since the
than 7

values

of

were

found to be
much

sub

stantially
duration

greater

hours,

second

test of a
all

greater

was

performed.

This insured that


Both tests

initial nonsteady
as

conditions

were

eliminated.

were

performed

follows.
the system.
at

First,
This

the two tanks

were

isolated from the


globe

remainder

of

was

done

by
pipe

manually closing the

valves

located

the
water

supply
pipe

water

leaving
preheat

the hot
tank.

water

tank

and

at

the city
was

entering the

Next, the #3
circulate

controller

manually

activated

allowing the

water

to

between the two tanks.


to the hot
water

During

this time auxiliary heat


of

was

supplied

tank thus

raising the temperature

the 160

gallons

of water

in both tanks.

150

Once both tanks surrounding

reached

temperature substantially

above

the

ambient

temperature, the #3

controller was manually

turned off and the two tanks depressurized


at

by bleeder

valves

located
was

the

top

of each

tank.

In addition, auxiliary heat input


thermistors labeled TMDPH1
and

eliminated.

The two
were

control

TMDH
These

in Figure 3.1

now

removed

from the top


T9
shown

of each

tank.

locations
state

correspond

to T8

and

in Figure 3.14.

Two

solid

sensors

were

now

calibrated

as

indicated in Appendix 3
tank temperatures were

and

then inserted into the tanks.

Finally,

recorded

by

the eight

channel

analog

recorder

giving time

vs.

temperature data.

5.2.2

Test Results

For the
shown

preheat

tank, the
while

experimental

data

of

test #1
shown

is in

in Figure 5.7

the data in

reduced

form is
to the

Figure 5.8.
tank
storage

In both figures,
temperature
which

TIWH
is

corresponds

preheat

equal

to the hot
preheat

water

tank inlet

temperature

(TT.,u)
curve

for a

nonstratified

tank.
squares

The data in
with

Figure 5.8 is
constant

fit

by

themethod

of

least

the time

found to be 162 hours.

For the hot


given

water

tank, the corresponding


and

experimental

data is
to

in Figures 5.9
water

5.10.

In both figures,

TQWH
tank.

corresponds

the hot
water

tank

storage

temperature which is equal

to the supply

temperature for a

nonstratified

hot

water

The data is
equal

again

fit

by

the

method

of

least

squares

with

the time

constant

to 74 hours,

E7-

';
2

ll'l
__:.
-2..ii

<]

151

f'

';:i

ij Ii'!
ill!
,,|,

z
i'

1,.

rtiTF
:l| h;l
;
ii:

iliP'l
1;

ITT

f
ii

il
-

-iii'l
i-

ijii

iii

ii

!i!i

11 i

1-

j :i;j

ii
~

;l nil
lii Itifit 2!

'

il

m'i

iiji \-\\
2j!

vi!

\i
I!
>

% 2r

: '12

22 1;

!|| ii :!ii!i:
:!

'!i

lil!

31 ji
ii+i

-22.2

i{..-.f...K

Ill

ir \ki i.
TTTT
;::. i

22

^ il!

i'i

tit"
m

ill!
<:!i
.2

Mi !i if1
ill!
ill'1!;:

-"^f=

C.
---21:
-----

n2 2;i

|
'

m 1:
''Il

:!!|
-

=!
-ii

) ; 1 2!

::'i ','.'.

.J
ro
4->

22;

iiii!ij '(;;
iij!
22
,|.:

cn
'

i:ii ':''] Uli


2
1

iiii
;;]'

--:^

<
1

LU

>

oo
__

0
a:

CU

:||;::2

.OFiiii

;.

rj "3

E
p

s-

1:1:
r-r-T

;jl 12; J2

Q
=t

ZD O
OO

cu D.

2. 2j!
..:;

l:;!:
2
:

Iiii

::z
: :

^^

^a-

:, :

tTTT
I

i!l!

or
LU LU

co 1

::.

T'
2i:

s:
_l

5T O SI
o: LU

4-

o
sO-

P1
1
. .2.

,.2

:2
22
'

';

.ill

LU

III

CJ
l-H

n:
I

2:

,12

'

;;:i

>
LU

:;l:

22
'

00
_i

:,.

!:::

UJ

=>

ii-i"!: :l:j
1:2

CO
*n

<
2j

:::

>
1 1

OO

cu
s3
+J

4->

LO

--,
22:

O
c_>
^ V

>-

Il

;:..

:.:,
',''.'

2:i
OO cc

0
r

LU
_J

a: ZD

r>

O
00
>-

O
CsZ
LU

'.:ii;i
'.''

car

0
Q
UJ
_J

O
: :
.....

0
00
CO

ra S-

QJ
1

2:
II

21
>-

cu
a.
1
1

_i

E
<]J
h-

'
'

cn
r^.
i

>
I
1

_i

_l

0
UJ or: ro
00
>=f

CO

rj
u_

=i 4-

12;
CO

*^^.
CO
^~

O
^^

=> Z.

0
LU 0; r>
00

-^

t.

O
c o
p

r:

CO
4->

j
r

t-

|l

>

0
0

CJ
0
r

T
jl

i.
O
r^

r^

ID
.

UJ

22
^

>*

2:
ct:
LU

<C
LU
2"

ra

3
4->

'-}'
.

+->

22

|2

iiii

^L.
=1

ra
r

ra

cu
sz

:'!;',
.12

i|2
ih

'"

3 u
r

i!:i

'22

i'ii
"

"..:
.r

CO
t

z: 0
1 1

cT

LU Oi

cu

i-iii
'

;!2

il;!
'

ZJ
r

00
1

ct

S- ro Q- O

22

'
.

':,>

21!

!':'

If!
.III

2:
-

cc
-'-CM

Oi LU
1

CJ
C_)
0
.

O?

7T.
=t
.

Li.

<*

z:
i

u_

UJ
1

iiiiliili7

2:
:' 2 2
21:

', i JiiJ
ill,:!.
!-

LD
r:

O
O
*3-

CM
3-

0
LU

LD
"d-

cn CM
.

r-

0;
11

"*

d:

o:

cn

CM II
_l

<:
CJ

rs
h-

ct
1

Oi
s-

i:

2,1
22!^

ijii
:i.:

2!.

II
I
1
*

r~

3
CI

22.22
''.,'.

11
CD

< S
ct
1
1 1

Q.
p 1

!!
,

x: -^
1

z. UJ

o: LU D.

^-~

LU
1H

s:
1 1

OL
\-

s:
LU
H-

CO
>

Ur-

! '. '.'.'.', '....


r.
-!"''

:.::

00

ct

1
-

~2
.

..

|-

irj :: ':
2'

22

;i::

..-..;

1
72
9

j.

2 2 2i! :'\

t:2!

ill;

22

::;

--1,-,

fc
i

>2

/rti>

iiii

::fe;;::

hHiii11!

ill!

IS n

!?i !ils;
2U_
,

''ii

Iiii 5a 32 id ( 3 ) 3 an 1\*U3diV\I31
ii;i

Ul jiilili

rn~:i

i "L

!
'

'I""
...2 ...

"
.

'::::;:-

153

'

J
1

j"

/
1
CD
-:

'

' .

i'

iiii i'1!

cn

'i'i

:-2-:;2--~

"'-

:'r
-

CO ct
I

*-^

LU

OO

CJ
cn

ff

--;

Z3
2.-.2_2ii
.

n Q
ca:
-~-

=>

0
00

ro
+J

C dl

E
i

s0) O-

4
1

-~:

"

-;-.|

:j|j

*f cn 1

cn

LU
1

LU

2:
_i

2: 0
2"

LU

O
1 1

cn LU

zc.
\

>

UJ

CO
_l

cu
4-

j
___ ;

LU
I

ZJ
CO

=C

> oo
cn cn
r^
1

2:
K1

o
S-

00
-.

O
"^

o.

Q
1
r-

>-

cu

-h

i
1.2
....

O
O

LU
_l

J
....

-x

_1

rr zn

CM
CO
^ .

<
CJ OO
_1

ZD

O
00
>-

CJ
cn LU
p-

O Q

--j
LO

O
co

o
p

II >
1 1

LU
_l _l

CO
>-

_l

cu S3
4J

CD
r-

i
.,..

ZD U_
^^ CJ
0

Q
LU cn Z3 O0

CO

o
CO -\

O
*\

ZJ ^

O
LU or:

>

CJ
0

ro

o
r

5- Z3

2T O
CM

0
r-~

ct
LU

OJ
Q.4-

CM ID

ZD 00
=r

2:
cn LU

"

LU
2"

F
CU
f

o c o
p

21
>

;,

ct
a-

ZL O
1 1

LU

=t

DC

sCD
+J

4-5

ro
^

ro

!2'|

CO

3
n 2:
1

=3
r

CD

ct

7.T--2-J
i

21
or CJ
0

3
-r->

O
r

ct cn LU 0.

2:
Or

u_

O ro :c CJ

o
CJ
o
f

ID

2:
u. 0
LU
cn LU
r

2:
1

CM
.

st

r~~

*
1

CD

cn
1

cn

LD

cn
LD

cn ct

=5
y-

c3"

II n
*

II
_l

zc
cj

<
cn LU Q_

2:
1
1

cu
3
rji

=t CO

0. LU
1
1

ZC
-*

22
i i

2:
=c
r

2!
1 1 I

cn
1

o
I

U_
1

s
LU
h-

CO

00

2:
=t

r-

'

cj.,
(J2.

c>.
--U32.

op

2 :C1)':
-ID

.-'U>_-

:pj zu i-zd-it >

*?

j ej3m.
!
-L:J-

immWMT

_..-.

155

The

experimental

data for the


reduced

preheat tank

for test #2 is

shown

in Figure 5.11 5.13


and

and

in

form in Figure 5.12.

Likewise Figures

5.14

show

the data for the hot water tank.

In both cases,

the experiment

ran

for approximately 66 hours. for


each

From test #2, the

loss

coefficients

tank are found to be:

preheat

tank

1.099 W/m2oK

U hot

water

tank

1.157 W/m2K

5.3

Heat Exchanger Loss Coefficient-Area Product

In
product

order

to

calculate

the heat
must

exchanger

loss

coefficient-area

OVA, Equation 4.161

be
,

evaluated.

This
and

can

be done

experimentally
the left hand

by
side

measuring
of

T.)Tr

TT,,

and

TIWH

calculating
can

the equation.

The quantity ILA


and

then be
of

found

knowing

the

mass

flow

rate

1*1

the

specific

heat C
in

the
to

collector

fluid.
the

During
preheat

test

#2,

which was

performed

order

find This 3.14.


equal

(xa)
was

tank temperature
an

TIW[,

was

also measured.

done

by

utilizing

RTD in location T5
give

shown

in Figure

Results from that test


to
.5.

value

of

(TouTC"TINc)/(rOUTC"TIWhll
and

This
the

value

was

calculated

between 2:00
to
.066

2:30

pm.

Substituting
heat C for U.A
equal

mass

flow
x

rate

equal

kg/s

and

the specific
give

to 4.1793

10

J/kgK into Equation 4.161 While this that for


result

result

equal

to 191.2 W/K.
can

is

function

of

temperature, it

be

shown*

variations

of

fTouTC"TINC/(rOUTC"TlWH|

*See Appendix 7.

156
O

TEMPERATURE
IDi

(
CO

C
O
00

LD

CJ
0
*3-

CJ
o

CD

LD O IT.
'

2.
o_

cn
r^

CJ
0

LD

^-

LD

o
=J-

LD

O o
LD

d-

en
r^

CM
^
r~

cn II
i i
r>
p

II
_l

n
CO

CM
.

car

-.
. ^~

2: LU
*-*

>L.
ct

3
i i

i.
ct

l
i

u.

:~

=J-J

.1

--.: _2-j=^i

hsSS^isETr
'

.2?

M
=

;"

z~

'r,^y-

.22

=T=-iT.-=Zi--

'

222-2
.

_.--._

227

i
22
:
:
--

LrL~

2.5H- 2-

-j'r-2..

2222

.2

2.22 SE i

r=S-.--^2

---

2\
-

g::===FJ=-,
::j;
.z.-;

:-2

E=
-

"O

KXt

>

;
;-

-=222.1 2-22
-=---. r

2
-

i
j ?

=-_

-:H :
-

ill:
-.Z

::-..:

!-

"2.-1
-

-2";

2
:-

OO cn

ZD

'

'

i.

<->

LD

LO

CD

~T
:

;,;;-;

152.

158

Figure 5.13

Hot Water Temperature Vs Time Profile Test 2 Experimental Calculation of U


-

--55
-50

-45
-40

5
m
_

-35

r
0
^S

30

-l-

'T
IS 10

dt

T-

5F^
41

45

19

T
50

T0WH,I TAMB TFINAL


=

55-5C

19*5C
=

33*75C

TIME:

5:00 PM
-

11/21/79

11:50 TIME

AM

11/24/79

HOURS

159

160

of

between

.4

and

.6,

the the

ratio

of

heat
only
are

collected

to the

maximum

amount

collectable

by

collector

varies

by

8%.

Since this
work.

is the case, the

results

given

above

used

in later

161

6.

TRNSYS DESCRIPTION

6.1

General Description

As has been previously demonstrated (Sections 3


domestic hot
of a
number water

and

4),

the

'

system at

RIT is

modular

in nature, i.e. it
which can

consists

of

identifiable
or

interacting

components

be

either

mathematically
common

empirically defined.

This

characteristic

is very

to

solar

energy systems, hence,

simulation models

for these
the
system

systems

can

be formulated This

by

connecting

models

of each

of

components.

modular approach

is

used

in the

general

transient

system simulation

program

TRNSYS.

In the TRNSYS program,

solar

energy

system

components

are

described

by individual
Table 6.1, for

FORTRAN
a

subroutines.

These subroutines, listed in


available

comprise

library
If
a

of

equipment models

to the user

system simulation.

particular

component

is

not

available

in the

library,
complex,
as

the
as

user

can

supply his

own.

These

subroutines

may be

fairly

the

case

for the
constant

multinode

storage

tank or

quite

simple

is the

case

for

flow

rate

pump.

For

some

hardware,

analytical

modeling is impractical to
a

as

a mathematical

model

may be very difficult In addition,


piece
of

develop
user

or expensive

to

use

in

lengthy

simulation.

may

want

to

simulate

system

that includes a

particular

hardware for

which

he has

measured

performance

data.

In these cases, the


obtained

component model

may be empirically defined


theoretical

by

relations

from

curve-fitting

either

or measured

performance

characteristics.
air

An

example

of

such

an

empirical

model

is the TYNSYS

absorption

conditioner subroutine

(TYPE 7).

162

TABLE 6.1

TRNSYS

Library

Version 7.3

Collector

Uses Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equations for


collector

performance.
all

Mode 1:

collector parameters constant.

are

assumed

Mode 2:

as

loss coefficient is calculated function of conditions.


transmission is
of of angle.
calculated

Mode 3:

cover

as

function

Mode 4:

combination

Modes 2

and

3.

Differential

Controller
3

Outputs 0 or 1 depending input signals.


Fixed flow
N-section
rate

upon

difference in two

Pump
Liquid Storage Tank
Heat Exchanger

pump (on
of

or

off).

model

liquid thermal

storage

tank.

Counter,

parallel

or

cross-flow

heat

exchanger.

6 7

Auxiliary

Heater

On-off heater

with

set

temperature

and

deadband.

Space Load and Air Conditioner

Simple house load calculated by energy per unit time per unit temperature difference method with built-in absorption air conditioner and

cooling tower.
Three-Stage Room Thermostat

For

use air

in controlling combined conditioning systems.


cards
.

heating

and

Card Reader

Reads data from


weather

or mass

storage

(usually
unit

data)
of

10 11

Packed Bed Energy Storage Tank

N-section Flow

model

packed

bed thermal storage

Tee, Flow Mixer,


Damper

controllers

for

air or water.

12

Space

Heating

Loald

Simple energy per unit time per unit temperature difference load, with parallel auxiliary. Mode 1: Mode 2:
Mode 3:
series
no no
auxiliary.

auxiliary.

Mode 4:

auxiliary

with

thermal lag.

163

TABLE 6.1

TRNSYS

Library

Version 7.3

(contd.)

13

Relief Valve

"Dumps"

energy to

maintain

temperature below

specified maximum.

14

Time Dependent Forcing Functions

Permits time varying data to be introduced into


simulation

(usually

periodic).

15

Algebraic Operations
Solar Radiation Processor

Permits

algebraic operation

using Reverse Polish

notation.

16

Estimates beam
of on

and

any horizontal

orientation

diffuse radiation on surface from total radiation


surface.

17 18 19

Wall
Roof

Components that can be which include the


and

used

to

model

buildings,
capacity

effects

of

thermal
etc.

infiltration, fenestration,
Basement
Water
or air source

Room Heat

20

Pump

using

manufacturer's

performance

data. 21 Liquid CollectorStorage Subsystem


Combined performance of a flat plat solar collector, a heat exchanger, a liquid storage tank, a
relief

valve, a controller and pumps.


except a

22

Air CollectorStorage Subsystem


Domestic Water Heating Subsystem

Analogous to TYPE 21
solar
collector

flat

plate

air

is

used.

23

Common reoccuring subsystem consisting of a preheat tank that supplies solar preheated water to an auxiliary heater.
Integrates any quantity with respect to time (not used to solve differential equations).

24

Integrator

25 26

Printer Plotter

Prints desired information in Plots information in line

easy-to-read

format.

printer.

164

6.2

System Model Construction

Once
step is to

all

of

the components
system

of a

system are available,

the next

construct a

information flow diagram.


of

An information
of

flow diagram is among the


with

schematic

representation

the flow

information

system

components.

Each

component

is

represented

by

box

arrows

directed in

and arrows

directed

out.

Arrows directed into


component while

the box
arrows

represent

information

required

to describe the
calculated

out of

the box

represent

information

by

the

algebraic

or

differential

equations

describing
system

the component.

This diagram is The


system

shown

in Figure 6.1 for the in Figure 6.2 is


exchanger

shown

in Figure 6.2.
of

represented

analogous

to that

Figure 3.1
preheat

except

that the heat

is

modeled

separate

from the
a

tank.

This

was

done

since

heat

exchanger within

tank

was

not

available

in the

current

TRNSYS library.
well

By

properly

defining

the heat exchanger


system

parameters

as

as

the heat

exchanger

pump parameters, the


of

performance

of

Figure 6.2 is identical

to that

Figure 3.1.

More

will

be

said

concerning this in Section 7.1.3.

Not included in the


system
since

TRNSYS
seldom

model

is the

recirculation

portion

of

the

it is

was

in

operation.

As is
given

seen

in Figure 6.1,
number

each

component

identified

by

user

unit

and

TRNSYS
model

specified

type

number.

These identifiers
implementation.
terms
of

are

used

in constructing the
units

for

computer

The inputs to

11, 12, 13,


unit

and

14

are

given

in

two

numbers.

The first is the


and

number of

the component

from

where

the information is coming


the information
at

the

second

number

is the
component.

position of

the

output of

the

particular

165

LTI

CNJ

CC o.
1

UJ
_J

Q.
>-

m
r r

1
_l

=i

CNJ

_i

'X

z
ID

"?it:

^r

_n

P-,

Oi

l-H

l-\
/
V

D
ro S-

"TT
<C
.

<c

cn
o

ro
a

o
3C
cr
LU

o
IT C
UJ c*
o-

^:

2
o
cr
LO LU
1

LU

cr
ex:
TT
(

d.

(Nl CT
O" r-

=C

CNJ <c
C^
>-

Q LU

=>

CD
K"

n
>r

LU'O"

CNJ
LU

CC

"Us

Z
<->

2
IE Z
LU LU

4->

ro

cr
r-

E
>-

S-

LO

v
UJ

Z
LU

O
<.
o

d
cr

^^ "2:
e:
!-

z <C =!
ho-

ll-

<c
o-

or:
Io-

-.
o-

=J

-1
o-

CU
LO

Jl

CT
44-

4-

4-

01.

a-

Ul

CD

S3
CD
<c

o
cr

zr

"3-

o-cr

o
nr
cr

III

d:

(X
-

?
DO"

o>-

">
UJ

n UJ
or
>-

LU
l

I-

P-O

z cr: Q_
1

CNJ

DC

< o

<

5
(_J

z
1

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO CO

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO CO

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO CO

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO CO

170

+->

dl
LU

w
LU

ro

WW

00
>-

00

(W
CJ z
r

CJ
C_)
r

+j

ro

h-

E
CD
x:

o
oo

E
cu
p

i/>

>>
oo

LD CD

S3 CJ)

17:

7.

OPERATION OF THE TRNSYS SYSTEM

In
system,
of

order

to perform

computer

simulation

of

the
of

solar water

heating
components

the parameters
system

describing

the performance

the

various

the

have to be defined.
as
well

In addition, the
the
climatological

nature

of

the domestic
system

hot

water

requirements

as

input to the
to
give

must

be

specified.

It is the

purpose

of

this

section

these

quantities.

7.1

Parameter Definitions

7.1.1

Tubular Collector

The tubular

collector

performance

is

given

by Equation 4.29:

"u
where:

Vr K>. 'eff
A+
=

"

UL

TT

(TINC

"

Ta>l

<4-29>

total

projected

aperture

area

of

the

collector

system, m

2
factor (Equation

FD K
(tcx)
e

collector

heat

removal

4.27)
of

effective
collector

transmittance-absorptance

product

the

effective

insolation
of

on

the

aperture

tube defined
area,

eff

on

the basis

the

aperture

cross

sectional

kJ/m2hr (Equation U
=

4.34)
coefficient

overall

heat transfer

between the

absorber

and

surroundings,

W/m C
of

inlet temperature
useful

the collector, C

energy gain, kJ/hr

172

Since this
plate

equation

is slightly different from the

standard

flat
that

performance

equation, the parameters

are modified

such

the flat

plate

equation

is

usable.

This is done

as

follows.

Projected Aperture Area For


of

flat

plate

collector,

the area is the

net absorber

area

the collector.

However, for the tubular collector, A. is

equal

to:

At At

(No.

of

Collectors)(^|f||i)(5yf*)(2

in. width)

(2) (40) (57) (2)

9120

in2

5.883

m2

Obviously, this does Therefore, the

not

include the
aperture

area

between

each

collector

tube.

projected

area

for the tubular

collector

is

less than the total

panel

area.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Two


valves were
used

for U.

for the

simulation

corresponding to
obtained

January

and

June

climatic

conditions.

These

valves were

from Figure 5.3


equal

and

as

previously stated in Section

5.1.1,

are

to:

U.

=5.94

W/m2oC

(January

Ambient temperature

of

-2.2C)

U,

5.68 W/m2oC

(June

Ambient temperature

of

23.3C)

173

In

order

to

use

these

valves

in the computer simulation, they had


ttcI/D

to be

multiplied

by

the quantity
and

seen

in Equation 4.29. in
units
of

Performing
gives:

this multiplication

putting the

results

kJ/HRm2oC

Jp UL jp UL

4.665 W/m2oC

16.795 kJ/hrm2C

(January)

4.461 W/m2oC

16.060 kJ/hfm2C

(June)

The

units

are

used

to

maintain

consistency in the

program.

Collector Heat Removal Factor From Equation 4.27,


o

FR
of

was

easily determined.
propylene

Using

value

of

C
at

of

3.446
and

10

J/kgK for the


the

glycol

antifreeze misture

40C
was

value

volumetric

flow

rate

equal

to 1.0 gal/min,

it

found to be:

FR

0.94

(January)

FR
The
values

0.95

(June)

of

C
r

and

the

mass

density for the


from the

propylene

glycol

antifreeze

mixture were

obtained

vendor.

Effective Transmittance-Absorptance Product

The This

value

of

(ra)ewas found
used

experimentally.

Its

value

is

.90.

result was

in both the

summer

and winter

simulation.

174

7.1.2

Flat Plate Collector

Nonselective

and

Selective Surface
other
collector

In addition to the tubular collectors, two


configurations were

simulated.

One is
second

flat
a

plate

collector with

nonselective

surface while

the

is

flat

plate

collector with

selective

surface.

The

various

operating
to

parameters

describing
available

their behavior were chosen so


commercial

as

correspond

to readily

collectors.
collectors.

This The

was

done

by

surveying

manufacturer's

data

for many
include
collector

parameters

found

in

this

manner

the

transmittance. absorptance

produce

(xa),

the

loss

coefficient

U.

and

the

collector

efficiency
net

factor,

F'.
area,

The remaining
fluid

parameters

required

such

as

the

absorber

specific

heat,

and

fluid flow

rate were

chosen

so

as

to

correspond

to the operating
the
parameters

conditions

for the existing


computer

system.

summary

of

used

in the

simulation

for

all

three collector types is

in Table 7.1.

7.1

.3

Heat Exchanger

As

was

previously
spearate

stated

in Section 6.2, the heat


preheat

exchanger

is

modeled

from the

tank

since

heat

exchanger

within

tank is

not

available

in the TRNSYS
representation

version

used

for the
exchanger

analysis.

To insure that this


the
actual

of

the heat
an

simulates

system,
shown

it is necessary to insert This pump

additional

pump in the

model

as

in Figure 6.2.

enables

the fluid

heated in the heat


the
preheat

exchanger

by

the

collector

fluid to be transferred to
pump is
activated

tank.

This pump
the

as well

as

the

collector

by

the

controller when

collector

outlet

temperature

TQUTC

is

sufficiently

greater

than the

preheat

tank

water

temperature TIWH-

175
cu

>
p

+J

CJ cu

"ai
m

CZ

CD
r-~.

O
I

CO
'

>* cn
'

"=3-

CD LO cn CO
**

LD
ID
-oo

3-

O
CM

r-~

CM
CO LD

CD

CO

CD
ro

CO

CJ

a>

cu
oo
i

CO
r-

CO

cu
-u

co

co

LD Ol

LO LO ld CO

LO
=i-

>=j-

1^.

ra
</)

O cn

CM

CO

LD

iai
-i->

cu

ro

E
ra

sra

D_
C7>

CU
c
ra

c 3

E
Q.
CT)

c
p

i
ra s-

QJ Q.

O
s-

CO

o
4->

CJ
0

CJ
o

CO

CJ

CJ

S-C

CM

CM

CU

E
ssz

E
SZ

c
sxz
*.

o C7>
.s<r.

CM

E
CM
CJ>
-^

o
CJ
sro Xl ^z

"^v^ "O
^r:

o
^:
,
.

cn ^
LD <*

E
CO

Ol

CO
^33"

CM

3
JD

CO o
en
LD ID
.

co

CO
ID
r

N CU

CO
LD
>=i-

en

ai

CU

ID

CD

cn

CM

CO

+->

ca

ra

o
cj

>>

CU
c

cu

CU
4->
*

i
o
s_
*

cu

a
H
^^

QQ.

E
ro SrO

H
.

s
CO LD

C_>

<
co

co

D_

CM

LD

r^

cn

176

The heat exchanger


exchanger modeled

model

available

is

zero capacitance sensible


or crossflow mode,
of

heat

in the parallel, counter,

or as

constant effectiveness

device

which

is independent

the

system

configuration.

The
of

constant effectiveness mode was

chosen

since

the

heat capacitance
constant.

the collector fluid


shown

during

operation

is essentially
effectiveness

For the heat exchanger


as:

in Figure 6.2, the

can

be expressed

'UTC
T0UTC

"

TlN
-TIHE
modeled as

(7.1)

However,

since

the preheat tank is

unstratified, the
preheat tank water

heat exchanger temperature temperature

TJHE

is

equal

to the

TIWH
T
-

and

the effectiveness

can

be

written

as:

-(UhA)/(C
-

f E

OUTC

T
'

n
_

)c
P

'INC
IWH

-,

'OUTC
from Equation 4.161.

(7.2)

,,

9n

It is

obvious

that the effectiveness found to that


given

experimentally in Section 5.3 is

equal

by

Equation 7.2.
when

However,
is

value

of

=
.5

cannot

be

used

directly

in TRNSYS

it
of

remembered

that this

value was

found experimentally for the


collector whereas normal

case

water

as

the transfer fluid in the


propylene
glycol

winter

operation

is

performed with

antifreeze

as

the transfer fluid.


values of

The

effectiveness

is

calculated

for this

case

using the

UhA found
antifreeze.

experimentally

and

the heat capacity of the


are
substituted

propylene

glycol

When these

values

into Equation 7.2, the effectiveness


used

E is found to be
simulations
since

.56.

This
use

value was

for both

summer

and

winter

the

of water as

transfer fluid was only


exclusively.

temporary

with

the

propylene glycol

antifreeze

now used

177

Two further

points

are

of

interest to

note

before considering

the tank parameters.

The first is that

even though the effectiveness

increases
glycol

as

result of

switching to
of

transfer fluid

of

propylene

antifreeze, the amount

heat transferred
set of values
of

across

the heat
and

exchanger

decreases for
can

given

TQUTC, TJWH,
consider

UhA.

This

be

shown

quite

easily.

For example,

the

following

case.

Given:

UhA

191.2 W/K

T0UTC
TIWH
(MCI
P
=

40C

10C

C2

285.5 W/K

(water

at

40C, 1 gpm)

From Equation 7.2, E

=
.49

and

TjN~

25C.

Also, from Equation 4.160,


antifreeze

QTRaN

4,181 W.

Now, if
becomes

propylene

glycol

is

substituted

for water,
collector
=

(MC )

equal

to 235.5 W/K

and

=
.56.

The

inlet temperature

TINC

is

now

found to be 23C

and

QTRAN

3'928 w"

The

second

point

is that TRNSYS

calculates

QJRAN

based

on

that branch

of

the heat

exchanger which

has the

smallest

specific

heat/mass
side

flow

rate

product.

Thus it
of

was

important to specify the


glycol antifreeze.

collector

specific

Iheat

as

that

the

propylene

Since the
given

cold

side

represents

water

from the

preheat

tank, it

was

value

of

specific

heat

equal

to that

of water.

178

7.1.4

Preheat

and

Hot Water Tank

Several parameters
model of

are

required

by TRNSYS

for the

mathematical

the preheat

and

hot

water

tank.

These include the following:

tank volume
tank height
specific

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.

heat

of

fluid

fluid

density
coefficient

loss

between tank
of

and

environment

ambient

temperature

surrounding

air.

In addition, the auxiliary energy input


of

and

setpoint

temperature
values used

the thermostat is
parameters

required

for the hot

water

tank.

The

for these
are

are

given

in Table 7.2.
and

The loss

coefficients

used

one-half

those

as

found in Section 5.2


additional

represent

the existing

tanks

with

2 inches

of

insulation.

7.2

Load Requirements

As is
modeled

shown

in Figure 6.1, the domestic hot


a

water

demand is
This

by

use

of

type 14 time depend

forcing

function.

routine

allows

periodic

time varying data

(in this case, load


Although
of

requirements)

to be introduced into the


water

simulation.

domestic hot
variation

demand is
to
a

subject

to

high degree

from

day

day

and

from house to house, it is impractical

to

use

anything but

repetitive

daily
a

profile

in

simulation.

Inputed

by

use

of

this

routine

is

normalized

daily

mass

flow

rate

179

TABLE 7.2

Tank Parameters

Preheat Tank
.454

Hot Water Tank


.151

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Volume, (m )
Height, (m)
Fluid Specific Heat, Fluid Density,
(kg/m3

1.626

1.181
4.178**

(kJ/kgC)
)

4.178**

994.6**

994.6**

Tank Loss Coefficient , u

1.978***

2.082**

(kJ/hnri C) Surrounding Air Temperature tamb(c)


7. 8.

69.8

69.8

Auxiliary Energy Input,


Thermostat Setpoint Temperature,

16,200*

60*

(C)

See Section 3.1


Water Temperature
of

**

40C
with
2"

***

Corresponds to existing tanks

of added

insulation.

profile

developed

by

Rand Corporation

Survey

for

"typical
normalized

residence

(Figure 7.1) [30].


flow
rate profile

Then

by

multiplying this

daily
values

mass

by

the total

daily demand,
was

instantaneous
manner

of

hot

water

are

obtained.

The data
of

input in this demand.

to

allow

flexibility in the
total

magnitude

hot

water

In this

work,

daily

demand
gallons

of

300

kg

was

used.

This
for
a

corresponds

to approximately 20

per

day

per

person

family

of

four.

7.3

Climatological Climatological

Input Data
data is input to the
simulation

by

use

of

the

card

reader

shown

in Figures 6.1

and

6.2.

As in indicated in

Lll
-;---

T
-

J
.....:

1:1:7 4

J:-7
-

-'-72

i-7777
2. 2: 2 2 !
.

Jim
I-

7.-2

J2217
(_
_ .

!7" .

'

r-v.r?!-2J--?7..
\~.z~~.
zrz-

i
i
1
-

1:
.
.1

: 1
-

i j

' -

27 r :-".7 7

7.7.

1 :

:.

:::'..
._

....,__

!_._._
!
i
. .

; 2-222)

-p---'-

777777477

7"

|
'

T""::"'r3.:::....(
'

:
_ _

2
.

2:

2_

-2^ .

I??'!
-

;
j

..:;
. -

-|
1
...

.::24l.l7 .X_2

.?

2:
n
..,

.7,
-

....

-.-...:

2 :2.-7j : x :
"

727
:

"

'

j"

2
" .

J7

2 717.2
: :
-

?7^?77
1. :,: ::.77
17~

! :::
''' }':'-"

7 7??.
i
.274-77 ,

:
-

X
.

2.

_.

j....

4
4-

2.2X2 22

227:
,

2:

XX

2 2: ;i.
*

2:

in

27

:--.

22.72-

22

;
"

:_7:

11

] 72 7

2 --:::.
-

i
-

XJ_
,

_^-.-^..H

2:.:::.::.2r

2XX1 4 1.2:

2.:.
..

:77:i.:::

:-3fxE-

2777477:7

..27111

777.

7
i
-

X.X
7:

-2-27-2^

:??7:?iE 7f.~~.l_ 7:77777?


4.
.

J
r^"^

7227 :;:.,.:..,::::

'

1771-

7.77X47 27
.,

jOJ
-

c
. .,-

02:222
------;
'

272l47.27.-7

if^
'

-4-

2*!22:

22

O
c

222222

7272X77-722

777^

'T~

....

,..

L-

.:::

1
.j .

.
\"

11^2^'

rirrl-. xxn
'

".H1::-^
1-11?
.X7?

77??177?7

7777 7
777"

:.

X ; 77

3
":j;;
_;

2_

j_
.::::.

77

2-_L>^

^
^fc^
mm.xi_
>-. j~
"
-,.IT_

;.h*

77

?H
7x-m77-:

72?X2:

?7

::*->
;t~

01

BO

i
.":::

'-2. :

KB

C
' -

tx
1C5--

2?7ife
1772^71.?2
j

-----

n. r

122722771
-

_,__

'..--fxr.
.22

O :-272S 2 .
O

7-72277
-T-

-mix 1:

7X7
-,-.+-

-ii--i
.

!?77?imj
-21724x77

-TTiT??:.?

2722.1 :

:._.

7:7.74 ::x
7.7:??
un-

n
r |
._j_-

Ai.
-

2
-

1
: ::. 7271271277 2747.:
t

P-.7 .,
mik_71 E
-

^_

i
_

I"

"

'

"

--

T?"?:? zz 722 : : 2.

0)
0

._,_

: ~7\\

tro

|
.. -7

777?

IZTz^zzi:
+---.

~zl
-

._i.i

1
--24-:277 7-

ItU 72 2772

1-27711.

_:~7:4777?

<C__

EL

7727_ 7 2:
::.:.2?^>.

_/
7d-F:

Xl

77.7X..1 "I "77117:


-

777imd]m7:722
2727.
7.;77717~

4.7772
<D
-ta
-

7772227:??-

7?:7t7 77?:
.77:7.12:22

''[-- ':

L_l

.T???-?:?

:
'" 771777L111?-

777.7
-

F
r-

7-7-22
-

E
"

:
.j

.
z:

:-E\
:2: ". '7'_7
.

'zzzW:
.:

777 7:
"--

477.7 i

Tl?]???:
" ~3'-~

727774
---2:
-, d-

.7:

"22421 F?

:.:.;::

.2

-r

-----

^:7??
.:

271171771 22.1777 ::
:.---.

::
.

yni
jt-:

_:t-~ '

'-

27"7:iT=E 722 2 : : :
.-.

777-7>,-:
_-_.

ZZZTLZZZZ.

277X 227.77 221:2

717

4.:-

: 7:

C TTHiiti:
iTmi?.:?
111177711:

Q.

77.2.7:222:

Tf

>s
-1
-

7.2

-=\~---

Q
mxrx

2
.
71"

^72 77??
S.
. -

777?

77: 7

17177

._

7?7?i:i?i?
C1
:'--

..

_.

;
r

1.77T

.27

....

XX2X7 77: : 2

1:7:77

77

IK. 2

'..7L:77.7T TT?^??. 77-77277777-,


77772

1(_ ^TTT?^*

Z-77T:77

21-

._

xxxl
. .

xxxtTx

"7 7?

i
t??i-:ti7:

XT)

-j-22:

^r^^T>
7:-:

7:242:2:

22.24777:7;
-

?7I"7.7 7 7 ]
'

,---

cu
25.

22217J7H77

mi.

177.77 2 77.
"T"~"T~""

3
-i
,-

'.". '.

"xSiTE:. ^TXE
77:7?777?

71-

77.7: : "7

rxrirxd

"r.
:222XiX-72 mix::.:.
7-4117
7'

xnixm

'":

dxiTTl? 77x7^?
1:7.1. 272
-im: .2

^
---)

777? -: -72222:

:--:
:7:?7?7

J-. .

!..._.
77727722277 :??-??7:7

IM

-2

-~

27772: 2T27 7 7272 7772 222 2:227


2777-

72E72222 222

.77227271:

..-y:::::: .1;

7111 7277
....

::i 22-

7?7.7777-7i:
777:77:2:

?7?7i?7?
2122^77 :

'-I-:::
-V.:

1
.

i
'

"

-..

i-mXim

:d 7.7:

77277
-i

nri 7

-7
-*-

ir'

2E

|7:7

:::ixxi 7:774:1m

1----- ~

-.-2

2
-

r27
-

.....J
. _ . ---!---

~~rz :: ;
.....

7 :_ :

.777X7.

4
--1? -

TS3
2-

:77777 ;-???7?

21)

E:r:::
-L.

72227:22:

: xxjixx
--r^

-7-2-7.1-1

r?_di7:? 7772:4777.2

x-iii-::

77 772:2
rr.x. y :
-._, .

-.-;-.-.

"7 72-

7^6

7;777:7 7??7?2l7 "7d:m7x


. .

;
.72_: ~1~^ . . ...

:.:::::

77777 222 : :

""

:
-

"1

:272: 7227:
-..._

"HI
1

4
77 717722

ST|
--

7
771:
r

: 727 77272

77 :**-.

Jg
,

:g

-J

-----

,
_
~^-i-

1 ":
.X .

xm
.:::

2
.
.

27772

-4
''---?

~" -77H: -21XX -

:?7:7?;? -73

-777-

22:12:2:1
:-:j:re

::
--

7:H

:t7X-:^j
-

>

4--

^---

itEmX

^??e
s^cy
-ii

77:27777:2:
'
__..!.

ii?7?7?
2211'

:??

j:
.,

7.7?
_

;-

2
-

;;?;j??? 22:14::-:
~j :~ "

--I

_J

:_

;,..

EHd-"-4*
77777::
7

-^6

eit 33U3_j
-

::x-tX7d
--i--...,2X -.7

-^-

g2f

E3222
:_
_221

7 2x2-2

2T2?

77.7 :.:

S221
12^X21- zzzzzzz
221-2-id -r

1221: 222 2
-'--

ill?: :..

77?;
._

7711X
rxx:
;-

"2 '-':

12

S.uar

181

Figure 6.1, input data


on a

required

includes month, day, hour, insolation


ambient temperature.

tilted surface,
simulations

and

outside

Insolation data
of

for the
of

performed

was

taken from the


mounted

results

three

years

data

acquisition

from the
to avoid

pyranometers

on

the RIT

Engineering
an

building.

In

order

inputing

three

years

of

data

on

hour
were

by

hour basis,
for the

an

alternate method was

employed.

Two

simulations

performed

each

collector

configuration;

one

using June insolation The data


years
used

data
June
that

and

other

using

January

insolation data.
months

for

and

January
closely

were

for those

of

the three
average;

available

most

matched

the three

year

averages

in this

context

meaning monthly
were

daily

averages.

The
an

results

of

the two
performance

simulations

then

averaged

to the

give

average

yearly

efficiency

which

is defined
solar

as

percentage

of

domestic hot

water

load
while

being

met

by

energy.

For January, data from 1978


was
used.

was

used

for June, data from 1977


using both flat
plate

Since

simulations

were

performed

and

tubular collectors,

two

sets

of

insolation data had to be input.


simulation

The first

was

for the flat


measured

plate

and

represented

insolation data as
was

by

the

tilted
and

pyranometer.

The
an

second

for the tubular


effective

collector

simulation

hence

required

input

of

the

insolation,
the

Ieff

as

given

by

Equation 4.34.

This data

was

obtained

following

procedure

given

in Section 4.1.3.
obtained

Finally, the

outside

ambient

temperature data was


office

from the Rochester National Weather Service This data is


three hour

for the

two

months.

directly input to the


A listing
of a

program

and

represents

averages.

portion

of

the

climatological

data is

given

in Figure 7.2.

This data

shown

is

182

modified

for

use

in

tubular collector simulation.


right

Each

column

represents,
effective

from left to
and

respectively:
ambient

month,

day, hour,

insolation,

outside

temperature.

Month
1.0

Day
18.0
lb.O

Hour
1.0
2.0

eff

.0

1,0

i.o l.u i.o 1.0 1.0 1.0


I.o 1.0

ie.o ib.o

3.0
4.0 5.0 6.0 b.O 9.0 10,0
u.o 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 21,0 22.0 23.0 24.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10,0 11.0 12.0 13.0

2 2
.0

25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0


25.0

lb.o 18.0 lb.O 18.0


lb.O

.0

23.0 23.0
23.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
24.0

1.6
4.5

18.0
lb.O

1.0 1.0 1.0 i.o i.o 1.0


i.o

18.0 lb.O lb.o


lb.o 18.0

7.2 9.9 10. 8 8.1


5.6 2.4
.5

lb.o

1.0
1.0

18.0
18.0

2
.0 .0

1.0
1.0 1.0

18.0 18.0 18.0

1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0 1.0 1,0

18.0
19.0 19,0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0
19.0

.0

2
.o .0

1.0 1,0 1.0


1.0

2
.o .o

24.0 24.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 22.0 22.0 22.0

19.0

2l8 21.0
21.0 23.0 23.0

1.0
1.0 1.0 1.0

19.0 19.0
19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19,0 19.0 19.0

2.4 5.4
12.5

H.l
11.4

23.0
26.6 26.0 26.0
28.0

1.0
1.0

14.0
lb.O

8.7 5.4

1.0
1,0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1,0

16.0
17.0 18.0 19.0

Ul
'l
8
S '9.
.0

19.0 19.0
19,0

19.0 19.0 20.0

20.0 21.0 22,0 23.0 24.0

28,0 28,0 26.0 28,0 28.0

2
.o

26.0 26.0 26,0 25.0

Figure 7.2

January

Climatological

Data

(Day

18

and

19)

183

8.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

In hot

order

to determine the

feasibility
must

of

solar

energy
an

domestic

water

systems

today, they

be

examined

from

economic

standpoint.

While it is clearly

evident

that these systems


apparent

work

in the scientific sense, economically


The purpose to
perform

it is

not

clearly
various

if they

are

competitive with

the

conventional

alternatives.

of

this section is to present

an

approach

currently

used

[31]

this analysis.

Actual

application

of

the technique is

performed

in Section 9.

8.1

Economics of Solar

Energy Heating

The
solar

most

commonly
systems

accepted

method

used

today to
cost

evaluate

energy

is known
costs

as

the life cycle


reduced

method.

In
of

this

method

all

future

are

to the
would

common

basis

present

worth,

that is, the amount

of

money that

have to be invested

today
to

to insure that the necessary funds


all

are

available

in the future
besides fuel

meet

of the expenses.
payments

Included in these

expenses

costs

are

mortgage

for the equipment, property taxes,


costs.

income

taxes,
the

and

insurance

and

maintenance

The

present worth of

costs

of each alternative,
and

both

solar

and

nonsolar,

would

be

determined
cost
would

that

alternative

which

has the lowest


of each

present worth

be

selected.

The
a

cash

flows
value

alternative must

be

discounted discount

since

money has

time
as

due to inflation
tax
return

and

market

rate

which

is defined

the

after

on

the best

alternative

investment.

18 4

While in the

most

general

case each

alternative would

be

evaluated

in the A

manner

described above, it is obvious that this


which would

need

not

be done.

simpler

approach

generate

the
on

same

information (i.e.
concept
of solar

which

system

is

most

economical) is based

the

savings.

Clearly
common

stated,

it is only necessary to
solar and

evaluate

costs

that

are

not

to both the
and

nonsolar

system.

For instance,

in both
tank as
common

solar

nonsolar

domestic hot
of the

water

system, a hot water

well

as

good

portion

service water

plumbing is
of

to both
with

systems.

In this case, the


would

present worth

the

costs

involved
and would

these

components

be the

same

for
In

each

system

cancel

each

other

out

in

comparison.

equation

form,

the

solar

savings

are

[31]:

Solar

savings

Fuel

savings

Extra
-

mortgage

payment

Extra insurance

Extra
-

maintenance

Extra property tax Tax


savings

Operating

cost

(8.1)

The

income

tax

savings

for

residence

are:

Tax

savings

Tax Tax

rate

[Extra interest

Extra property

tax]

credits

(8.2)

In

order

to

evaluate

Equations

(8.1)

and

(8.2), it is first necessary


particular

to be

able

to
can

predict

future

costs

in any
may be
of

year.

Two
change

situations

occur.

First,

costs

anticipated

to

in

regular

manner

through the

period

the

analysis.

The

most

185

common

assumption

is that the
rate

costs

of

Equations
This

(8.1)

and

(8.2)
rise

inflate
to

or

deflate

at

fixed

per year.

situation

gives

simplified

inflation-discount functions

which

facilitate the
year

various

calculations

by eliminating detailed
an

year

by
in

calculations.

Second,

the

costs

may vary in
performed

irregular
a year

manner

which

case

the

calculations

have to be

on

by

year

basis
are

and

then discounted back


too

to the present.
simplified

If, however, these


can

costs

not

irregular,

then

methods

be

applied.

If the

costs

are

regularly varying, then Equations

(8.1)

and

(8.2)

can

be

written

symbolically in

one

equation

as:

CT

FLcf

(^
+

E0)

(ACca+Cci)

JEmp

Ept'

Ein

Em

(ACca

Cci)(t)

Ki

Ept

+(ACca

Cci)(tc)

(8.3)

where:

A C

is the

collector

area,

is the
ca

solar

system

area

dependent

cost

per

unit

collector

area,

$/m

2
independent cost,

C C

is the is the

solar

system

area

$
under

ci solar
savings

of

the

particular

system

study for the life

of

the

system.

Cr

-f

is the first

year

fuel

cost

per

unit

of

delivered heat,

$/GJ

186

Ef

is

an

economic

factor

which accounts rate

for fuel

inflation

rate and market

discount

Ein Ei
Em

is

an

economic

and market

factor which discount rate

accounts

for insurance

rate

is

an

economic
and

rate

market

factor which accounts for discount rate


factor
cost which

mortgage

interest

is

an

econom"ic

accounts

for inflation
rate

rate

of maintenance

and market

discount
for

Emp
EQ
E
p

is

an

econorrn'c

mortgage

factor which interest rate, and factor


cost
which

accounts
market

downpayment,
rate

discount

is

an

economic
of

accounts

rate

operating

and

market

for inflation discount rate

is an economic factor which accounts for property tax rate and market discount rate is the fraction
system
of annual

heat load

provided

by the

solar

is the annual heating load of the building or domestic hot water heater including hot water tank losses, GJ/year is the
effective

t t
r\~

income tax
rate

rate

of the

owner

is the tax

credit

available

is the efficiency of the

solar

backup

furnace

The

economic

factor

Ef

is the

sum of

annual

compounded

inflation
worth

factors discounted annually to


of the sum of an annuity over a
a

present

worth.

The

present

lifetime
at
a

of

N years,
rate,

inflated be

at

constant

rate

and

discounted

constant

can

written

as:

P/X

(N, i, d)

(1+d)
(l+d)N

'

(1+i)
(d-i)

for d f 1

(8.4)

187

and

P/X

(N, i, d)

N/(.l+i)

for d

(8.5)

where:

P X

is the present is the first

value of an

annuity

over

years

year

cost

d
i N

is the discount is the is the


general

rate

inflation
analysis

rate

years

of

or

life

of

the

system

The
P/X

notation

(N, i, d)
values of

after

P/X indicates that the


and

value

of

refers

to

N, i,
and

d,

placed

in the

appropriate

terms of Equations
written as:

(8.4)

(8.5),

The

economic

factor

Ef

can

be

Ef
The
more

P/X

(N, if, d)

(8.6)

economic

factors Ein,
than E-. and

Em, EQ,
be

and

t
as

are

only slightly

complicated

can

written

follows:

E1n

Cin

P/X

(N, i, d)

(8.7)

Em

Cm

P/X

(N' U d)

C8'8)

188

E0

CQ
=

P/X

(N, i, d)

(8.9)

Ept
where:

Cpt

P/X

(N' U d)

(8J0)

C
C
m

is the is the

extra

insurance

cost

as

fraction
a

of

the investment
of

extra

maintenance

cost

as

fraction

the investment
cost of

is the extra operating cost as a fraction of the the energy supplied by the solar collector
.

is the

extra

property tax

cost

as

fraction

of

the investment

The
and can

economic

factors E..
as:

and

are more

complicated

be

expressed

JP/X (Nm,o,d)

P/X
"

(Nm,im,d) (Nm, im
o)

E*i

(1_J)

1P/X 1

(Nm,o,iJ mm

P/X

, mm1

{8-11}

and

P/X (Nm,o,df!

EmP
where

-j)

Vx(N"o,im)r

(8-l2)

J
H
m

is the downpayment is the term


of

as

fraction

of

the investment

the

mortgage

This
solar

completes

the

general

approach

used

in evaluating different

energy

systems.

For

given

solar

energy system, Equation 8.3

189

is

used

to calculate the solar savings.


solar

The

system

giving the
solar systems

highest

savings

is the

most

economical.

If

all

give rise

to negative solar savings, then the conventional


more

system

used

in the comparison is

economical.

8.2

Economic Analysis Parameters

To
must

utilize

the

result of

Section 8.1, the here to


give

parameters of

Equation 8.3
used

be known.

It is the

purpose

the

parameter values

in the economic analysis


obtained

of

Section 9.
on

Most

of

the

parameters

were

from the workshop

manual

Technical, Economic

and

Legal

Considerations for Evaluating Solar Heating Buildings for Lenders,

Appraisers, Insurers,

and

Tax Consultants.
of

The

manual

was

prepared

by
at

Solar

Energy Applications Laboratory


of

Colorado State
and

University
by
the U.S.
obtained

Fort Collins, Colorado in March


of

1979

sponsored

Department from
a

Energy.
conducted

In addition,

current

fuel

costs

were

study

by

Michael Lints

of

the RIT Department of


area

Mechanical Engineering.
area

Collector costs, both

dependent
information

and

independent,

are

evaluated

from

manufacturers

on

various

equipment and

are

broken into the two


manual given

categories

following
costs are

the

approach

outlined

in the

above.

Labor

included in these

costs.

Table 8.1

summarizes

these values.

190

TABLE

8.1

Economic Analysis Parameters

Parameter

Value

1. 2. 3. 4.

Annual
Term Down

mortgage

interest rate, i
H
of

10% 20
years

of mortgage, payment

(as fraction
rate

investment), J
of

20%

Property
C
.

tax

(as fraction
not

investment),
for first 15 years)
+ x

(by

N.Y.S. law,

required

1.33%

Effective income tax bracket (state


state

federal

federal), t

46%
.5%

6.
7.
8.

Insurance tax
Maintenance

rate

(as fraction

of

investment), C. in
of

cost

rate

(as fraction

investment)
supplied

,C

.5%

Operating
energy,

cost

as

fraction

of solar

CQ
inflation
rate

1%
per year,

9.

General

16%

10. Fuel inflation 11. Discount


rate

rate

per

year,

i.
on

20%
best
alternate

(after tax

return

investment), d
12. Term 13. State
of
economic

18%
analysis,

20

years

and

federal

tax credit,

tQ

55% (15%

state)

(40%

federal)

14.

Electric cost, Cr
gas

13.88 $/GJ

(5^/KWHR)
(40</therm)
(72tf/therm)

15. Natural

cost,

cf

3.79 $/GJ 6.82 $/GJ

16. Oil cost, Cr 17. Electric furnace


efficiency,

nf

100%

18. Natural

gas

furnace efficiency,

nf

65%
65%

19. Oil furnace efficiency,

nf

191

TABLE 8.1

Contd.

20. Tubular 21. Flat


area

collector area

dependent costs, C ca
and selective surface

224$ /nf
o

plite

nonselective

dependent costs,

C, ca

240$/m 200$/m

(two covers) (one


cover)

22. Tubular, flat


selective

plate

nonselective and

surface area

independent, C

2000$
25.13 GJ/year
m2

23.

Energy load, L

24. Collector area, A

6.7

192

9.

DESCRIPTION OF RESULTS

9.1

Results

of

Storage/Hot Water Tank Study

From the experimental


of

work

of

Section 5.2, the loss

coefficients

the storage and hot


and

water

tanks in their delivered


respectively.

condition

were

2 found to be 1.1
to
of
an

1.2 W/m K,
of

These

values

correspond

insulation

valve

R5.

This

result

corresponds

to the findings

the second

year

of

New England Electric's


the 40
gallon

solar water

heating

test

program.

Considering

hot

water

tank, the

continuous

heat loss in this


represents

condition

amounts

to approximately 90
water

watts.

This

10%

of

the total domestic hot


a

load
of

when

80
a

gallons

per

day

are

delivered from
of

city temperature

10C to
on

service

water

temperature

60C.

Upgrading

the insulation
of

the hot

water

tank from R5 to RIO


an

by

adding 2 inches

insulation

will

result

in

annual

savings

of

apprximately $20 assuming the


natural gas

cost

of

electricity
and

to be 5<t/kWhr.

For

the

savings

would

be $8.40

for

oil

$15.10 assuming energy

costs

as

shown

in Table 8.1.

9.2

Simulation Results

Following
yearly
water

the

procedure

outlined

in Section 7.3, the


solar

system

average

performance

efficiency

was

found for the


tubular
plate

domestic hot In addition,


nonselective

system

at

RIT utilizing the K.T.A.


configuration with

collectors.

the

same

system

flat

selective

and

surface

collectors

was

simulated.

Results
plate

indicated that the


selective

most

efficient

configuration

was

the flat

surface

collector

system

at

36% followed

by

the flat

plate

nonselective

surface

collector

193

system at

34%.

The tubular
at

collector

system

configuration

was

the least efficient


system configuration
of

25%.

The

poor

performance

of

the tubular

collector

is the

result

of

the lower

collector

efficiency
col

the tubular collectors.


a

This is

caused

by

lower

effective

lection area,

larger loss coefficient,

and

tube

optics

which

further

limit insolation from reaching the

collector

absorber

tubes.

A companion
year

study

[32]

which

simulated

the
an

system

for

an

entire

utilizing climatological data input


plate selective surface

on

hour

by hour basis

showed

the flat
an

collector

system

configuration

to have

efficiency

of

42%.
with

Thus, the
the more

simplified

procedure

given

in Section 7.3

correlates well

extensive

simulation.

Of the

configurations

simulated

in the study indicated, the


selective
surface

most

efficient was
35

obtained

using

flat

plate

collector

tilted

from the horizontal


of

toward the
system was

south

and

having

one

cover

plate.

The efficiency

this

found to be 47%.

9.3

Solar System Economic Analysis Results

Following
parameters

the

procedure

outlined

in Section 8.1

and

utilizing the
of

given

in Section 8.2,
system

present worth

analysis

the K.T.A.
was

tubular
also

collector

configuration

was

performed.

An

analysis

done for the flat

plate

selective

surface collector

configuration

with

two covers and also for the

optimum

configuration

of

the

companion

study previously cited.


considering
gas,
and

For

each

system,

the

analysis

was

performed

the auxiliary heat

being

supplied

by

electricity,
with

natural

oil.

Also,

each

calculation was

performed

and without

194

tax credits

considered.

The

results

are

given

in Table 9.1

TABLE 9.1

Economic Analysis Results Present Worth, $

Solar Savings

Auxiliary Energy

Fuel

Electric

Natural

Gas

Oil

System

With Tax Credits

Without With Without With Tax Tax Tax Tax Credits Credits Credits Credits
-725

Without Tax Credits


-1135

1. 2.

Tubular Collector System Flat Plate Selective 2


=

1200 1950

200
508

-1725

790

-37

-1480

1347

-638

Surface. N Tilt Angle 3.

60

Flat Plate Selective Surface. N 1 35 Tilt Angle


=

2750

912

870

-968

1965

127

From Table 9.1 choosing


a collector

several

conclusions

can

be drawn.

First,

when

type for a D.H.W.


one
should not

application

in Rochester

and

the surrounding region,

choose

tubular collector,

but

flat

plate

selective

surface

collector.

In

all

cases,
system

the
configuration

solar

savings

present worth

for the tubular


selective

collector

is less than that


configurations.

of

flat

plate

surface

collector

system

Also, the importance


It is
uses most

of

the fuel

type

used

to generate
a solar

auxiliary heat is obvious.


system

beneficial

to install

if the hot
natural

water

tank

electricity followed
of

by

oil

and

finally

gas.

The
a

contribution

tax

credits

to the economic
system can also

benefit of

installing
It is
not

solar-assisted

domestic hot
of

water

be

seen.

advisable to

install any

the

systems

studied

if

195

tax

credits

are

not

available and

the hot

water

tank

uses

natural

gas

for auxiliary heat.

196

10.

CONCLUSIONS

Based
can

on

the

work

completed

in this study, the

following

conclusions

be

made:

1.

The tubular
compared

collectors

analyzed

showed

inferior

performance

to both nonselective
of

and

selective

surface

flat

plate

collectors

equivalent

area.

2.

The

poor

performance

of

the tubular collectors is due to


of

(i)

poor

optical

characteristics

the

collector

tubes
the

resulting in

reduced

effective

aperture

and

(ii)

fact that the tubes

are

not

evacuated.

3.

Evacuation
performance

of

the tubular

collectors

would

result

in
the

system

that is slightly better than that


surface

of

system

using

selective

flat

plate

collectors.

4.

The life
solar

cycle

cost

analysis

indicates that
if
one
uses

supplemental

heating is

cost

effective

electric

resistance

or

oil

for domestic

water

heating.

5.

If

natural

gas

is

used

to heat

water

for domestic use,


cost

conversion

to

solar

heating is

only marginally

effective.

6.

The
on

cost

effectiveness

of

the

systems

studied

are

dependent
and

the availability tax credits,

of

tax

credits.

Without

state

federal

supplemental

solar

heating is

only

197

marginally cost effective when one uses electric resistance

for domestic
uses

water

use

and

not

cost

effective when

one

oil

or

natural

gas.

7.

Substantial

energy
of

savings

can

be

realized

by

upgrading the
water

insulation
similar

delivered hot
one

water

tanks.

For hot
can

tanks

to the
2"

of

this study, losses

be

cut

in half

by

adding

of

insulation.

Recommendations

1.

Replace the tubular

collectors

with

selective

surface

flat

plate

collectors.

2.

Insulate the hot


(2"

water

tank and the preheat tank


cut

of

insulation

will

the losses in half in both

cases).

3.

In future is
and

experimental

work,
were

the

sole

use

of

RTD devices
repeatable

recommended.

They

found to be
state

more

accurate

than the

solid

devices.

They

also

are

easier

to

calibrate.

4. A study
load

should

be

undertaken

to determine the optimum

usage

profile

which

results

in the highest

system

yearly

efficiency.

CD
O) CO

Q_

CO

199

REFERENCES

1.

Workshop Manual

on

Technical, Economic

and

Legal Considerations

for Evaluating Solar Heated Buildings For

Lenders, Appraisers,
Solar

Insurers,

and

Tax Consultants

prepared

by

Energy

Applications

Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.


Sponsored

by

the U.S.

Department

of

Energy. Pl.l, March 1979.

2.

Mather, G.R., Beekley, D.C., "Performance


Collector

of

An Evacuated Tubular
of

Using Non-Imaging Reflectors",


2,
p.

Proceedings

Sharing

the Sun Conference, Vol.

64, 1976.
Solar

3.

Cobble, M.H., Smith, P.R., "Optimal Overall Efficiency for


Radiation Collector Electrical

Utilizing
of

Two Fluid Rankine Cycle to Generate


Science Annual Technical

Power", Inst,

Environmental

Meeting,

pp.

308-313, 1976.

4.

Besant, R.W., Winn, B.C., "Cost Effective Solar Heating


with

of

Houses

Seasonal

Storage

of

Energy", Joint Conference

of

the International

Solar Energy Society, Vol.

4,

pp.

409.-424, 1976.

5.

Doeblin, E.O., Measurement Systems

^Application

and

Design,

McGraw-Hill,

Inc., New York,

p.

532, 1975.
Flat-Plate Solar
p.

6.

Hottel, H.C., Woertz, B.B., "Performance


Heat Collectors", ASME Transactions, Vol.

of

64,

91, 1942.

7.

"Evaluation Hottel, H.C., Whillier, A.,

of

Flat-Plate Collector
of

Performance", Transactions

of

the Conference on the Use


of

Solar

Energy, Vol. 2, Part 1,

p.

74, University

Arizona Press, 1958.

8.

Bliss, R.W., "The


Useful
x

Derivation of Serveral
of

'Plate-Efficiency
Collectors",

Factors'

in the Design

Flat-Plate Solar-Heat
p.

Solar-

Energy, Vol. 3, No. 4,

55, 1959.

200

9.

Whillier, A., "Design Factors Influencing Collector Performance",


Low Temperature Engineering Applications
New York'. 1967.
of

Solar Energy, ASHRAE,

10.

Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley,


New York, Chap.

7, 1974.

11.

Beekley, D.C. Mather, G.R.'; "Analysis


a

and

Experimental Tests

of

High Performance, Evacuated Tubular Collector", DOE/NASA CR-1 50874

1979.

12.

Kreith, F., Kreider, J.F., Principles


Hill, Inc. New York,
p.

of

Solar Engineering,

McGraw=

59,

1978.

13.

Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley,


New York,
p.

54, 1974.

14.

Liu, B.Y.H., Jordan, R.C., "A Rational Procedure For Predicting the
Long-Term Average Performance of Flat-Plate Solar Energy, Vol.

Solar-Energy Collectors",

7, No, 2,

p.

53, 1963.

15.

Duffie,

J. A.,
p.

Beckman, W.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley,


19, 1974.

New York,

16.

Orgill, J.F., Hollands, K.G.T., "Correlation Equation for Hourly


Diffuse Radiation
p.
on

Horizontal

Surface", Solar Energy } Vol. 19,

357, 1977.

17.

Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes. Wiley,


New York,
p.

9, 1974.
Characteristic

18.

Liu, B.Y.H., Jordan, R.C., "The Interrelationship


Distribution of

and

Direct, Diffuse

and

Total

Radiation", Solar Energy,

Vol.

4, No. 3,

p.

1, I960.

201

19.

Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W.A.,vSo1ar Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley,


New York,
p.

77, 1974.

20.

Lobo, P.C., Kluppel, R.P., de Araujo, S.R., "Performance


An Annular Cylindrical Solar Collector", Heliotechnique
Development Proc.
of

of and

Int. Conf., Dhahram, Saudi Arabia, Nov. 2-6,


.,

1975, Publ. by Dev. Anal


1976.

Assoc.

Cambridge, Mass., Vol. 1,

p.

233,

21.

Karlekar, B.V., Desmond, R.M., Engineering Heat Transfer, West

Publishing Co.,
22.

New York,

p.

237, 1977,

Siegel, R., Howell, J.R., Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill


Inc.
,

New

York, 1972.

23.

Karlekar, B.V., Desmond, R.M., Engineering

Heat

Transfer, West

Publishing Co.,
24.

New

York,

p.

402,1977,

Swinbank, W,C, "Long-Wave Radiation From Clear Skies", Quart. J.


Roy. Meterol.

Soc, Vol. 89, 1963.

25.

Duffie, J, A. Beckman, W.A.


New York,
p.

Solar

Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley,

133,1974.

26.

Speyer, E., "Solar-Energy Collection


ASME Transactions, J. Engr.

with

Evacuated Tubes",
p.

Power, Vol. 86,

270, 1965.

27.

Mather, G.R., Beekley, D.C., "Long-Term Average Performance


the Sunpack Tubular Collector".

of

28.

Klein, S.A.

"A Design Procedure for Solar Heating Systems",


of

Ph.D. Thesis, University

Wisconsin, Madison, 1976.

202

29,

Duffie, J. A., Beckman, W.A., Solar Energy Thermal Processes, Wiley


New York,
pp.

134-135, 1974.

30.

Mutch, J.J., "Residential Water Heating, Fuel Consumption, Economics,


and

Public Policy", RAND Report R1498,

(1974).

31.

Beckman, W.A., Ulein, S.A., Duffie, J. A., Solar Heating Design

by
32.

the F-Chart

Method, Wiley, New York, 1977.

Wojciechowski, P.H., Nye, A.H., Jurusik, D., Wendt, P., "Cost/Benefit


Analysis
of

Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Rochester, New York",


of

Department

Mechanical Engineering, Rochester Institute

of

Technology,

Rochester, New York, December 1980.

33.

Benedict, R.P., Fundamentals

of

Temperature, Pressure,
p.

and

Flow

Measurements, Wiley, New York,

158, 1977.

34.

Hill, J.H., Streed, E.R., Kelley, G.E., Geist, J.C., Kusuda, T.,
"Development
and

of

Proposed Standards

for-

Testing

Solar Collectors

Thermal

Storage

Devices", NBS Technical Note 899, February,

p,

145, 1976.

35.

Wylie, C.R., Advanced Engineering Mathematics, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,


New York,
p.

508, 1978.

36.

Benedict, R.P., Fundamentals

of

Temperature, Pressure,
p.

and

Flow

Measurements, Wiley, New York,

198, 1977.

37.

Kreith, F., Kreider, J.F., Principles

of

Solar

Engineering, Mc-Graw

Hill, Inc., New York,

p.

58, 1978.

203

APPENDIX 1

SOLAR WATER HEATING CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure Al.l
control

is

schematic

of

the
a

solar water

heating
the

system

logic

while

Figure A1.2 is

photograph

of

control

panel

located in the
figures along
the system,

northwest corner of
with

the basement
shows

at

Energy

House.

These

Figure 3.1,
referenced

which

the sensors locations in

will

be

in

-the

explanation

that is to follow.

This

will

be indicated

by

parenthesis

with

the

proper

figure

number

inside, for

example, see Figure Al.l

will

be indicated by:

(Al.l).

As previously described, there


used

are

three differential
system.

controllers

to operate the

solar water

heating

Controller #1
storage

senses

the temperature

of

the

collector

and

preheat

tank

via

sensors

TMDSP

and

TMDPH1

(3.1),

respectively.

When

the

collector

temperature becomes significantly

greater

than the preheat


energizes

tank temperature relay Kl


of

(typically
This

7C greater), the
causes

controller

(Al.l, Al,2),

the
and

Normally

Open

(N.O.)

contacts

Kl

in the 24 VAC
TDK1
,

circuit

to

close

initialize the time delay


operation.

relay,

which

then begins its


a set

timing

Relay K5 is

also

energized

through

of

N.O.

Kl

contacts

and

the

Normally Closed (N.C.)


and

TDK!

contacts.

With K5 energized, relay K4 is de-energized N.O.


of and

the pump,

PI, is

turned on through the Kl


persists

K4 N.C.

contacts.

This #2
until

condition

independent

the state of
open).

controller

TDK1

times

out

(TDK! N.C.

contacts

204

TP1-3

TP1-1
-3

TP1-2

TPl-6,9,12,15

TS

Hot ^0
VAC-

A Neutral
>

120 VAC

|t

24 VAC

CD
Controller

1-^
Controller

Kl

>Controller

K2

&

K3

Notes

1. designates pin n of the indicated relay. 2. The purpose of K4 is to eliminate the interruption
of pump power during controller crossover. P & B CHB-38-30003 1-180 sec. time delay 3. TDK1 P & B KHU-17012-12V 4PDT K1,K2,K3 P & B KAP-11A-120V DPDT K4,K5 4. Relay contacts are always shown in the de-energized the state that they would be in if no power
-

state;

ie,

was

applied

to the

panel.

Figure Al.l

Solar Water Schematic

Heating System Control Logic

205

<D
SZ3
CD

206

Controller #2
of

senses

the temperature

of

the inlet

and

outlet

the collection loop-to-preheat tank heat exchanger


and

via

sensors

TMDHXI

TMDHXO,

respectively.

Shortly
warm

after

controller

#1 has

initialized the has


the
reached

collection

loop, the

fluid from the

collector

the heat

exchanger.

Since this fluid is


will

warmer

than
and

water

in the

preheat

tank, heat transfer

take

place

consequently the temperature of the heat


will

exchanger outlet

(TMDHXO)

be lower than the heat

exchanger

inlet (TMDHXI).

When this
>

temperature difference becomes


controller

significant

(typically

4C),
period

#2

energizes

K2.

This is to

occur within

the time
close

set

by

TDK!.*

When K2 is energized, its N.O.


since

contacts

but

cause

no

action

the N.C.
see

K5

contacts

are

open

(K5 is
the

energized

during

the time

interval,

above.

At this

point

controller

can

be thought to have

"prepared"

for the

timing

out of

TDK1

When TDK1
which
causes

times out,

its N.C.

contacts

open

causing K5 to de-energize K4
contacts open
and

K4 to

re-energize.

When the N.C.


of

the

N.C.

K5

contacts

close,

the

control

pump PI

has been transferred from

controller

#1

to

controller

#2.

When the temperature difference between the inlet the heat


exchanger

and

outlet of

(TMDHXI
turn
off

TMDHXO) becomes low (typically de-energizing K2


and

<

1.5C) turning

controller

#2

will

consequently
reoccur

off

pump PI. to

The initialization
operation.

sequence must

now

for the

system

restart

There is

significant

time

lag (r 1

min). due to the thermal


seems

capacitance

of the system.

housing

pfpe

The primary fittings.

contributor

to be brass sensor

207

Note that
required

controller

#1

should

shut off

before
as

controller

#2

as

to

re-initialize.

The reasoning is

follows.

After the
sensed

pump has

operated

for

few minutes, the temperature


close

being

by

TMDPH1

(preheat tank temperature) is \/ery


sensed

to the temperature

being

by TMDHXO (heat

exchanger outlet

temperature).
the heat
system.

The

collector

temperature obviously

must

drop before

exchanger

inlet temperature drops due to the time


should ensure

lag

in the
off

This

that

controller

#1

will

shut

before

controller

#2

shuts

off.

Also
#1

higher temperature difference is

needed

to

keep

controller

on

(typically

3C).

Controller #3
hot
water

senses

the temperature
sensors

of

the preheat tank

and

the

heater tank
perheat

via

TMDPH2

and

TMDH,

respectively.

When the
the hot

tank temperature becomes significantly

greater

than

water

heater tank temperature


relay K3.

(typically

4C greater), the
K3
contacts

controller

energizes

The closing of the N.O.

begins
P2
and

water

circulation

between the two tanks


shut

by

energizing pump
the temperature

valve

VI.

The

controller will

off when

difference becomes

small

(typically

2C).

The capability to easily


controllers

simulate

and/or

override

each

of

the
and

has been included to


The
manual

allow

for

simple

experimentation

system

debugging.
center right

override/automatic

switches

are

located
are

in the

portion

of

the

control

panel.

The

switches

labeled 1, 2,

and

3 for their
on

respective

controllers

and

each

has

three positions;
off

(left)

simulates

the

controller-on

state,

(center)
the

simulates

the

control

ler-off state,

auto

(right)

allows

controller

to

operate

automatically

by

using its temperature

208

sensors.

Note that

manual

operation

of

the

collection

loop

pump

can

be

accomplished

by

using only the #2

switch.

209

APPENDIX

Charging

the Solar

Energy Collection Loop

The
water

solar

energy collection
operation only)
or

loop
a

can

either

be

operated

with

(summer

non-freezing transfer fluid


this
appendix

(summer
suitable

or winter).

The

purpose

of

is to describe
or a

procedures

to charge the

loop

with

either water

non-freezing transfer fluid.

Water

1.

Drain the

system entirely.

This
system

can

be done

by

first

draining

the largest

portion

of

the

through the shot feeder valves


and

No.

and

No.
at

(see Figure A2.1.)


perheat

by finally

removing

the plug

the inlet of the

tank heat

exchanger

(see

Figure A2.2).

2.

Close

valves

and

and

reinstall

the

preheat

tank heat

exchanger

inlet

plug.

3.

Open the
to

valves

from the city

water

line
as

and

allow

the
the

system

pressurize

to approximately 20 psig

read

by

pressure

gage

at

the

circulation

pump discharge (see Figure A2.1).

4.

Bleed the
garage

valve

located
allow air

at

the

top

of

the

collectors

on

the

roof

to

to

escape

fromthehigh point of the

system.

210
Shot Feeder Inlet

Figure A2.1.

Solar Energy Collection Loop Shot Feeder and

Supportive

Piping

211

alfeJM'J'

212

5.

Close

valve

and

valve

at

either

side of

the heat

exchanger

(see Figure A2.2).

6.

Remove the plug


heat
with

on

the discharge
allow

side

of

the

preheat

tank

exchanger and

the

air

to

escape.

Fill
plug.

this opening

water

(see Figure A2.2).

Replace the

Open

valves

and

8.

7.

Start the for

closed

loop

circulation

pump

by

means

of

the

on

setting

controller

#2 located

on

the

control

board (see Appendix 1).

8.

Repeat step 4

until

no

air

comes

out

of

the

system.

9.

Shut off

controller

#2.

10.

Repeat step 3 if the pump is less than 20

pressure

gage

at

the discharge

of

the

psig.

The

system

is

now

charged

with

water.

Non-freezing Transfer Fluid


1.
Same
as

step 1

for

water.

2.

Reinstall

the

preheat

tank heat

exchanger

inlet

plug.

Close

valve

2.

(See Figure A2.1.)


4 to 6

3.

Connect hose 1

(Figure A2,3) from


and

valve

valve

(Figures A2.1

A2.2).

213

214

4.

Open

valves

and

6.

5.

Connect hose 2 (Figure


to the inlet
of

A2.3) from

valve

9 (Figure

A2.2)

the shot feeder

(Figure A2.1).

6.

Open

valve

and

close

valve

8.

7.

Fill the

shot

feeder

with

fluid

until

it is full.

8.

With
while

an

assistant,

place

controller

#2 in the

on

position

feeding

fluid into the


made

shot

feeder.

Continue

until

replacement

fluid is

up entirely by that from hose 2.


gallon while

The

shot

feeder holds approximately 1


gallons.

the

system

holds approximately 6

9.

With
same

an

assistant

again,
valve

shut

controller

#2

off and

at

the

time,

close

9.

10.

Close

valve

10 (Figure 3,7).

on

the

expansion

tank.

11. Start

controller

#2

and

feed approximately 6
of 12 gallons,

gallons

of

fluid into

the system for a total

12, While performing step 11, have


at

an

assistant

bleed the

valve

the

expansion

tank

(Figure 3.7).

13.

Stop

controller

#2.

215

14. Drain the

shot

feeder, hose 1,

and

hose 2 into

suitable

containers.

15. Close

valve

(valve 8 is closed, step 6).

16.

Repeat step 6

as

outlined

for

water except

using the

non-freezing transfer flud.

17.

Utilizing
expansion

the pump tank

shown

in Figure A2.3,
recorded

pressurize

the

until

20 psig is

at

the pump

discharge

pressure

gage.

18. Open

valve

10.

The fluid
sight

should

rise

approximately

halfway

up the

glass,

19..

Start

controller

#2.

20. Repeat step 4

as

outlined

for

water.

21. Stop

controller

#2.

22.

If the

pressure

gage

at

the pump discharge is less than

20 psig,

repeat

step 17.

This

completes

the charging

procedure

for the non-freezing transfer

fluid.

216

APPENDIX 3

Temperature Measurement

RTD Construction

and

Installation

Figure A3.1
RTD sensor,
of
1/8"

shows

assistance thermometer element,


parts.

complete

and
1/4"

installation
outer

The RTE
walled

housing

was

constructed

and

diameter thin
the

brass tubing.
section of

The RTE
tubing.
soldered

(0.100"

diamter) is located in
cap
1/8"

1/8"

diameter

The

end

was

machined

out

of

1/8"

diameter brass
to
1/4"

rod

and

to the
of
1/4"

diameter tubing.
rod

The

1/8"

bushing

was

machined

out

diameter brass

and

attached

by

soldering.

The

housing
and sub

was

checked

for leaks by subjecting it to approximately 40 psig


water.

merging it in

Soldered the
element

wire

connections

with

heat

shrink

preceded

the installation

of

in the brass housing.


and sealed
with

Finally, the

housing

was

backfilled

with

sand

epoxy.

s
Figure A3.1

RTD Details

and

Installation

217

Installation
thread N.P.T.

was

achieved

by mounting

the RTD's in 1/8 N674-70 0

male

brass compression fittings This


allowed

with

rings

used

in

place of

brass ferrules.
removed without

the RTD's to be easily

installed

and

damaging

them.

It

was

found that
secured

tightening
RTD's.

the compression fittings hand tight adequately


were

the

The compression fittings


plugs
which were

located in specially
in
a

machined

brass

in turn

soldered

tee fitting.

Finally

the tee's were located in appropriate


shown

positions

in the

system as

in Figure 3.14.
except

This installation description is


No.

valid

for

all

RTD locations

5.

Here, the RTD


with

was

mounted

in

compression

fitting
fitting
was

as

described

above

the difference
copper

being
on

that the
a

compression

was

then attached to
preheat

tube

mounted

flange
as

which

bolted to the

tank.
shown

This is the

same

position

occupied

by

the thermistor TMDPH2


controller

in Figure 3.1
the

which

is

used

in
was

conjunction

with

#3 to
of

activate

recirculation

loop.

It

removed

for

certain

aspects

the

experimental

work.

RTD Calibration

The

following

procedure

was

used

to

calibrate

the RTD's:

1.

Establish ice
established

point

temperature
a
quart

Ice

point temperature was

by freezing
while

of

deionized
quantity

water

almost

to
water

solid

block
center

leaving

small

of

unfrozen

in the

of

the block into


variations

which

the RTD's

were

inserted.
affect

Atmospheric

pressure

from 28.5 to 31

in Hg

the

ice

point

temperature

by less

than 0.001F

[33].

218

2.

Using
RTD.

the fluke digital

thermometer, R

was

measured

for

each

A time

of

80

seconds

(8 time constants)
As
noted

was

allowed

for
work

the readings to stabilize.


was

before, all

calibration

performed with

each

RTD in its experimental

configuration.

3.

Establish accuracy

of

mercury in bulb thermometer total

A Fisher
with

Scientific
a
range of

Company #1 5-043A
1 C to 51 C
means and

immersion thermometer
was
used.

0.1 C divisions

Total

immersion

that the thermometer indicates the

correct

temperature

when

just that

portion

of

the thermometer containing

the liquid is thermometer


and

exposed

to the temperature
checked

being

measured.

The temperature

used

was

by
of

measuring the ice 0.00C.

point

indicated

temperature
not

The

smallest

scale

division

of

the thermometer is

to

exceed

2-1/2 times the

specified

precision

[34].

Therefore, the thermometer is

precise

to

0.04C.

4.

Obtain
model

eleven

additional

resistance/temperature

readings

2300
of

environmental

test chamber located in the physics


was
used

section

the

science

building

to this step.
a

It
of

was

made

by

Delta Design,
x

Incorporated

and

has

test

volume

10.5
with

liters (20.3

25.4
an

20.3

cm).

A 140 CFM

centrifugal

blower

baffling

provides

evenly distributed
chamber.

vertical

air

flow

pattern

throughout the test

Dual

20 fl Nichrome
liquid
and

elements

provides

heating
to

capability up to 315C

while

nitrogen

provides

cooling

-184C.

The resetability is
+

0.1 5C

control

deviation from
center

setpoint

is

0.05C.

The five RTD's

were

placed

in the

of

of

test

chamber

attached

to the thermometer
end
measured

stem such

that

all

the

RTD's

and

the thermometer

the

same

temperature.

Five

219

resistance

readings

were

taken

at each

temperature setting
was allowed

as

well

as

the thermometer temperature.


oven

Adequate time
were

between
oven

settings

to insure that the RTD's

measuring the
probe

temperature.
minutes.

The time

constant

in

air

for the RTD


of
parts

is 2.9

Table A3. 1

gives

the

results

and

4 described

above.

5.

Find
was

constants

a-,

a2

for

each

RTD

The data

generated

in step 4

fit to the

quadratic

R0

(1

3]T +

a2r)

(A3.1)

by utilizing the
minimizing the

method

of

least
squares

squares.

This is

achieved

by
actual

sum

of

the

of

the deviations

of

the

data from the

quadratic

expression.

Performing
the

the

math

and

utilizing Cramer's Rule

[35]

gives

following

results:

al

'1

(A3. 2)

a2

(A3. 3)

where

sCr^)

V(V

roe(tt }
(A3. 4)

220

cu S3

en

r-.

d-

LOLDOvJLOcriocrioo

o
5D.

ggoovJoo<^-LnLf5Lor^coo^

OJ >
1

Li_
4-

O
LO

oooocn^i-oooc\jaiLnr--.<\j cnr--^i-OLOLOc\jLnooocoro
o-icnocMro<^-LnLOLOr--.cOCTi
Ol
a>

C_>
r-

o
c

ro
s_
+->

aj
+j

CO
,r"

u
ra
5_

LO

OJ
cooooor^coi rlt> o co co o coLnc>jcyi^-Loo>^-r~air-~.cM

CT CD U e ro
+->

CT

i
i

P03-LOLniOLOC0CT
i i i i i i p t

OlOi

OJ XI

VI
I

o
sa.

CO

OJ
cn
r-

oo

cm

>

s*(\|!*onoi<j

rLncMCToo^j-ooor--cOLDi

CD
s+J

cm

CTCTOi CTOr
i

OO^J-LnLOlOLOOOCT
i I I

ro
s-

cu
Q.
ai

r~.OOOOLDCMCOVOOO<d-Oi

LD

5^-r

oOLf)OOLDcnroLf)cor>~

CT
ro

CT

CT

CO*d-3-LOLOCOCO
i i i i >

cnooi

<
ai
c_>
o

ro
szs

ro sCD a.

o o
o

CNJ

o
LO

O
CO

m
LO

cn cn Is-

o CO CO
ro

CM
LD

CO

C0
3-

LD

o
oo

o
ro

>3-

E
QJ

cm

LO CM

o
cn

cn

cn

cn oo

ro

00
=3-

=11=

O
ID

r-

CM
i

CO

Ol

in

OJ

221

R0(Y)

KTiRi)
Wi\)

Roz(Ti)
(A3. 5)

RoE(Ti3)

V(Ti^

and

RoE(Ti2)
J
=

V(Ji3)
(A3. 6)

w3)

V(Ti4)

with

free index ranging from 1


gives

to 12.
a, and

Application

of

Equations A3. 2 through A3. 6


RTD's.

a2

for the five

These

are

given

in Table A3. 2.

Table A3. 2

RTD Constants

a-j

and

a2

RTD Probe #

R, v

99.47

.003965

-6.4545x10

-7

99.77

.003969

-6.6040x10

-7

99.83

.003965

-6.1391x10

-7

99.93

.003971

-7.3126x10

-7

99.97

.003969

-6.9547x10

222

6.

Determine T

f(R) from

part

From the

quadratic

equation,

-ai/a2

(RQ-RKRoa2)

(A3. 7)

From this expression, measurement


converted

of

R is then readily

to its

actual

temperature.

This

completes

RTD

calibration

Uncertainty in RTD Measurement

Uncertainty is introduced in

the

calibration

procedure

by

the

fact that there is uncertainty in the These


uncertainties can

measured

value

of

temperature.
causes:

be

quantified

as

due to the

following

a)

Thermometer

precision

equal

to

0.04C (from
to

part

3 above)

b)
c)

Setpoint deviation

on

oven

equal

0.05C
reading.

Uncertainty in fluke digital


+

thermometer
of

Assuming
0.03C

0.01 fi precision,

application

A3. 7

gives

precision.

If
with

one

assumes

that these

uncertainties

are

each

expressed

the

same

odds, then the

overall

uncertainty

having

the

same odds

is [36J:

2
[1.0.04)2

(0.05)2

WR WR

(0.03) ]

0.07C

223

where

WR
As
a

is the

overall

uncertainty.

check

on

the

results

of

the

above

procedure, the five


an

RTD's

were

placed

along

with

the thermometer in The


results

isolated box

and

allowed

to come to steady state.


calculated

show a maximum

difference
of

between the These

temperature

and measured

temperature

0.07C.

results

are

given

in Table A3. 3.

Table A3. 3

RTD Temperature Check

RTD Probe #

Tcal(C)

Tmeans(C)

Difference(C)

1
2
3 4

108.51
108.85 108.91

23.01
23.02

23.05 23.05
23.05 23.05

.04

.03

23.02 22.98 23.00

.03

109.01 109.06

.07

23.05

.05

Finally, the data


the RTD's is
still
shown

used

to

calculate

the time
and

constants

for

in Figures A3. 2, A3. 3,


air.

A3. 4 for moving water,


were

water,

and

still

The time
and

constants

calculated

based

on

first-order

model

of

the RTD

its

surroundings.

-4
.

-2

-i-

"

...

'-

-277427

727 4-

TTTT

21

-7-T-

".--

...

_.

99^
:

xxj:!;:

.7x??:|7

77:1':j
'1

2???.

] 72777;

.2.

'

-|
J
.

xj7.
. . ..

. .

77
__.i2-.::.4 -.--x:

7xx?7? m772?i7:

:....!?:;

'

i
'

J,
"

P^7]
.77

!7777xj'

:
' "

:
X2

;
:
:

j '.'.'.
.__. . -J-

7
:

,.|

--j
?" . ._

'.

;
)

j
1
. .

..i\:^

7J71.7'

774??
j

1
::--;-77-

'1
m
--,-

1^
~zxzz
.

-_-\

-^

.1

|.
-1
.1 .

_7.

...

:
>

'

-^
,

rrr: i

_1-^

)j-:+:.;_
.

^j
+J

!-----1:
.

;
-

1
.--

i
-

1
.

y
1

2774.

....

f
. .. .

:_:.:
.

"

: 227.22__

j.

-7X7-

1
'

j
1

ImTr11"1-/;
;
,

/.1

277 22X7 7?
, ,
..
_^-i

i.ii
'

,1

:_

^
7/

'--'

777?j7???
X4_|2X7X

x???:?.
1
. __

?7?7. 77.2 2 2?7XJ227?


;
.
"

i
...

Tmixx?
{

7277I7777
1
,

XX.
:

.T__4-

'

'

2_7_

""

[.".
---

*-

2-7.2

E^?
-72X
..

.J

....

x77H22.

:
ro

.XX.

_'

'1,2
-"x-h-

h 4
-ii-

4^
ju'

/|.....
"--

7~~-

~77 4

77.7
ZZz\zz-~;

J_

1
XT??

-:
L272T

-J

J-...J

t-tU
.c

2X2
72..2X

XX

1:

7:

mx

-XX47|_

~~rr

^r=

-^ ^4^
-

777? 2
.

C7___

2-j__i_

K-o J
....

O
t/1
1-'
.^.

:
. -:

X.27..
u..
!-

1__.7_

-20J
777?-

+.

Cn

7-

2<|--4-

77X XI.

p-

./

:m;x

777?
.7

2x4
27. 772
'

77.7.1
-

K-

i zztn
_

77X2 XXX
._,__

X Xt9\
_XX7i.X-2

-2

"274X7
. -,

'

2X.
'

___.:

-->-

:tt
~ ' ~

7 717777

7CS

272X 22
. _.r.

---'-

m^x 7X7X7 2. 22227


_..

XT7X 27X77 77X77X7 2 2277 2X2X

h-

-.->.

^
1
4

---

!
.

j
7 7x7

!
xx
;-?;--

f1
,
_....

7]

J
U
-t
*
. .

.,

T777"7:_

:x74?:x ?7?7.77?m?1 ?7:7?m?


,
. .

-2-

2 2

2
*

1
j
-

2m2422X

iiii i-rii
x-.m:--

.7:72 .:::.:r-.::

-222X22/

XX :..
1
.

_77

2722

_L?
... __.

^
2t J
" _

7:

.77777:77:.:

xxx

''~~

7xq.7x?
1

.mx

77m m?xx:7.
:7

7j :.'.-:
_>

.7774/77

....

yZ

777?2xx
-

1
X2.7.tXXX jTrTrt:?:;:
L

/
/
-72^7.

27X2.

zz-z-

ttI?!????
.._.^

"?77x?7?? 7??X7 :
-:?x.
.

: :

>
-7.X22.. '

i
222X42777

Z1^7j7:"Z 1
-

7X
-7
-

___4

y
r

t
-

2 27X7_
^

_^z-x

....

X2X727X7
--+

7mm"

X22X :.x:mx27 72 XX2 27


'

??7?7 ::m
b:

:7XX2227
.

.j

:7:."^.::iz
_^+

rx__
:

"in.
:

...

"...

2X

2X2..

227X2722/
,

.....

3
_._

\
+
.

'
.

x.

777?4??7

2.
177 X

........

zzzrzzyf- :.x

\
J

-227717X.2X

2j2

1 1 1
1

; :7777

mx?:? :^/:z

;77722x7
2x2227m

77 XXX. 2: XXX. X7X

m?EE7 X7.X1.X 7X
__.m

72XXX77

7. 7|X

777?7m7

..

j
1

4442-2

777 72? 7
XX

x:7j7x7

7:?x7??

/
XT? 7X777

-_._.-

x??xx

XT 2777? :

-2

xx1???:

TxTmx? zz~rir ;
.
.

<

4.

1
-1
,

77X2
..

j 7X72

,|

22X4 XX.

!-

1 7X27

-X

----

ZE50

^-?P?
-J

i
-4

227X7L2X7X

.XXXXXX

zrz

/
i
1

\
222X177722
XX 2

722272 77 7. 277 7272X:

72224X:

L^-r-

-xj

)
2

'

L-XTj
-

.2X-2;
._2_

777717?:?:

:....

,
,

.7/4

XXX2X77X X7X7XX

...

-1

7x7'-;
:

'

774
-m
.:

^4
.2222

X77f. J

7X2?

jxm

:r,
1 2
"

Imxj

c
J

'

72-r
1

22X51

'.xlTtJ
..

u5

"4
--i

*1
-

4r^

72

-i-1

; I t !
'

:3<
777 m 222X
" _,

;)

3cinn

flO.
' 1
'T~^

2T1-

i. :
-

---

zj
2222

j i 1

2._

]
-

7^

272X
i

'

X
2X7X

X227J

-1

"r

X._7j

226

227

Solid State Calibration

The calibration follows:

of

the

solid

state sensors was

achieved

as

Determine the

zero

temperature Care

and

span

required

for
that the
range

the solid state

sensor.

must

be taken

such

analog board
of

output

is between 0
The

and

15V for the


setpoints

temperatures
anywhere

experienced.

zero

can

be

set

between from
a

-25C

and

+75C while the span

setting
to
of

ranges

minimum of

40C (15V/40C

375 mv/C)

maximum

limited only

by

the temperature

capabilities

the

device, i.e. the


of

maximum would

be 125 C (upper
zero

temperature limit
=

device)
100

(-25C) (lowest

setting)

150C (15V/150C

mv/C).

2.

Make

all

connections

as

shown

in Figure A3. 5.

Note that for

the analog

signal

conditioning board has


state sensors.

provision

up to

eight

solid

3.

Set DMM to
to
'Gnd'

'DC, 'Volts', '20V.


red

connect

black

(-)

lead

test point and


point

(+)

lead to the

appropriate

signal

output

(output corresponding to input

solid

state

device

occupies).

4.

Establish zero point temperature and place solid state


sensor

with

thermometer in bath. mercury in bulb


since

A thermos

is

recommended

its time

constant

is

much

larger than

228

229

that

of

the

solid

state

sensor.

Allow DMM reading


constants

to stabilize.

period

of

55 seconds (nine time


that the
value.

in still water)

will

assure

output

is less than

0.01% in

error

from the

actual

5.

Set

'zero'

trim

pot

until

DMM

reads

0 V.

6.

Establish
Place

span

temperature
sensor with

by

use

of

thermos.

solid

state

thermometer in bath.

Allow

readings

to

stabilize.

From thermometer reading,

calculate

DMM setting (span required, step 1, times


reading).

thermometer

7.

Set

'span'

trim

pot

until

DMM

reads

value

calculated

in step 6.

This

completes

the

solid

state

sensor

calibration.

Figures

A3. 6

and

A3. 7
solid

are

the data
sensor

used

to

calculate

the time
still

constants

for the
The time

state

in moving
as

water

and

water,

respectively.

constants

were

calculated

previously described for the RTD's.

Uncertainty in Solid State Temperature Measurements

Uncertainty in

temperature

measurement

using the

solid

state

devices is due to the

following

causes:

1.

Thermometer

precision

equal

to

0.04C.

230

231

232

2.

DMM uncertainty equal to 0.04% reading plus

one

digit.

From Section 5.2, the DMM


zero

will

read

2.400 V

at

60C for for the


to to an

setpoint of 0C and a 4.00


water

MV/0.1C

span

hot

tank.
+

The DMM uncertainty is

equal

(0.0004)(2.400)
uncertainty
of +

0.001 0.05C.

0.002V.

This is

equal

3.

Analog
of

recorder

uncertainty

of

0.25 div.

For

setting
of

0.5C/div for the hot


0.13C is found.

water

tank,

an

uncertainty

Parts 2
work of

and

above

represent

the

worst case

for the

experimental

Section 5.2.

The

overall

uncertainty is

[36]

1/2

WR WR
where

[(0.04)2

(0.05)2

(0.13)2

0.14C

WR

is

again

the

overall

uncertainty.

233

APPENDIX 4

Water Meter Calibration

Calibration Procedure

The
the

positive

displacement Badger
water system

water meter was

calibrated

using

constant

head The

located inthe Mechanical is described


as

Engineering

power

lab.

procedure

used

follows:

The

water

meter was

mounted

in the
was

constant

head tank discharge

piping.

A dial thermometer

inserted in the discharge


and
power

coupling.

The TL170C switch, digital counter,


position.

supply

was

in monitoring

2.

The

constant

head tank

was

filled
to
was

with

water

at

68F (20C)*.

Water
tests

was

continuously that
a

allowed

enter

the tank

during

all

so

constant

head

always

maintained.

3,

It

was

determined that the


rates

calibration

would

be

performed

for flow
adjusted

between 0,8
of a

gpm

and

5,0

gpm.

Flow

rate was

by

means

globe

valve

such

that calibration

increments of

0.5

gpm were

obtained.

4.

At
the

each

calibration

setting,

three tests were performed for

purpose

of

repeatability.

?Calibration

was

done

at

one

temperature.

According
section

the calibration curve

generated

in this

is

valid

to specifications, up to 200 F

(93C). Since the water meter location is after the heat exchanger, it is improbable that fluid temperatures will reach this level.

234

5.

For

each

test, 100.0
the time flow

pounds

of water were

collected.

Knowing

required

and

the

water

temperature,
was
compared

the actual

rate was

calculated.

This

to the digital
gave a

counter

reading divided

by

time

which

calibration

point.

6.

This data
This

was

then

plotted

resulting in Figure A4.1.


To
utilize

completes

calibration.

the curve,
minutes

the

digital

counter was

operated

for three

and

the

resultant

pulse

total

divided
rate

by
in

three
gpm.

minutes.

Figure

A4.1 then

gave

the flow

Flow Measurement Uncertainty

Uncertainty is introduced by

the

following factors:

1.
2.

Reference Digital

gpm

reading reading

used

for calibration,
calibration.

pulse

during

The
the

reference

gpm

reading

used

for

calibration

is

calculated

from

following

equation;

reference

gpm

w(7.479)
p)f'jt

,fl/I n (A4.1J

where

weight

of water collected,
of water at

pounds,

p(T)

density

temperature, T, lb/ft
the water,
minutes.

3
,

time

required

to

collect

235

! !

xH?.:

j 7 7x777: XX
?::::???

Xx:

^7777!

m-

'-:

3fx:ir

...

)r7.4g|i2X

MTER METER NUMBER 1456023


...

o CO

Closed Loop Calibration Curve 7/10/79


Cold Water 68F

COUNTS/MIN

236

The

following

errors

can

be

assigned

to the parameters in the

above equation:

T (+
w

1.0C)

(+ 0.5 lb)

(+1.0

second

1/60 minute)

p(.T)

(+ 0.02

lb/ft3)

To is

calculate

the

overall

uncertainty,

the

following

equation

[36 ]

used:

2
V2

1/2
+
V2

wr
where

i< V

w-v

WR
W

uncertainty

of

result,

uncertainty of

density, 0.02 lb/ft3,

Wt
W,, w

uncertainty of time, 1/60 minute,


uncertainty of the
weight

of water,

0.5 lb.

The

partials

shown

in Equation A4.2

can

be

evaluated

from

Equation A4.1

as

follows:

of

-7.479W
'

3F

-7.479.W

8F

7.479
p(T)t

9p

9t

8w

(A4.3, A4.4,
A4.5)

p(T)2t

From

observation

of Equations

A4.3, A4.4,
the

and

A4.5, it is

obvious

that as p(T) and t

get

smaller,

overall

uncertainty

will

rise.

237

Therefore,
at

as

a worst case

analysis,

assume

5.0

gpm

flow

rate

176F

(80C)

fluid temperature.
,

With
a

equal

to 100 lbs
of

and

p(T)

=60.81

lb/ft

this

results

in
of

nominal

2.46

minutes

from Equation A4.1.

Substitution

these

values

into Equations A4.3,


gives

A4.4,

and

A4.5

and

subsequently into Equation A4.2

the

following

results:

WR
or

0.042

gpm

with

the

reference

gpm

5.0gpm

expressed

in

percentage,

gpm +

0.84%.

The digital
fluid.
the

pulse

counter

results

in 1

pulse

per

0.0125
in
a

gallon

of

If

an

error

of +

pulse

is

assumed

possible

test, then

maximum

error

in

gallon

per

minute

is

0.0125 2 46

n not; t 0.005
L

nm

gpm

or

again

expressed

as

percentage,

gpm +

0,10%.

1/2
"

The
or

overall

uncertainty is
reading.

equal

to

[0.0422

0.0052]
gpm and

'0423

gpm

0.85%

of

the

For

flow

rate

between 0.8
gpm and +

2 gpm,

this

corresponds

to

an

uncertainty of + 0.007

0.017 gpm,

respectively.

238

APPENDIX 5

Incident Angle

Relationship

In

order

to perform the analysis

outlined

in Section 4.1,
collector surface

expressions

for the incident

angle

on

tubular
are

are

required.

For completeness, two


orientation

cases

examined

in this
orientation.

section, north-south tube

and

east-west

tube
an

However, the KTA tubular

collectors

are

oriented

in

east-west

fashion, thus the


case

relevant

results

of

this section are those for

2.

Case 1

North-South Tube Orientation

Figure A5.1
at a

shows

collector

tube in a
I.
as

north-south

orientation

tilt angle,

and

latitude,

The

sun

is

at

declination,

and

hour angle, h
the

Defining i
rays

the angle between a line


outer
normal

colli near with

sun's

and

the

to the tube
a

lying in
with

the

plane

formed

by

the tube

centerline

and

line

colli near

the

sun's

rays,

it

can

be

expressed

as

[12]:

cos

=<1

[sin(8-)cos6

cosh

cos(B-)sin6

>

A5.1)

Also, from Figure A5.1


It is the
angle

ii is defined as the
south

projected

incident

angle.

between the the


outer

facing

tube

normal

(in the

northern

hemisphere)

and

normal

to the tube
col

lying
with

in the

plane

formed

by

the tube

centerline

and

line

linear

the sun's
as:

rays.

This

angle

is

shown

in Figure A5.2.

This is

expressed

239

Figure A5.1

North-South Tube Orientation

Figure A5.2

Section

A-A, Projected Incident


il

Angle,

240

cos(-B)cos6ccoshc

Cos il

sinU-B)sin6 ?
+ cos(-)sin6

zyrjj

(A5.2)

[sin(3-)cos6

cosh

The
the
the

numerator

of

Equation A5.2

represents

the
a

expression

for
with

cosine

of

the incident angle,


and

i', between
tube

line

colli near

sun's

rays

the

south

facing
plate

normal.

This is the

same

expression

as

that for a flat

collector

since

its

outer

normal

is the is be
as

same

as

the

south

facing

tube

normal

[37].

The denominator
can

defined in Equation A5.1.


when

Equation A5.2

be

shown

to

correct

Figure A5.1
are

is

examined.

From the figure, the

following

expressions

found:

cos

f ni

(A5-3)

cosi'=^

(A5-4)

cos

il-^
^X
gives:

<A5-5)

but from Equation A5.2,


Equations

cos

il

and

substituting in

A5.3, A5.4,

and

A5.5

ns/n

(ns/ni)/n/ni

ns/n

which

are

equal

241

Case 2

East-West Tube Orientation

Figure A5.3
while

shows

collector

tube in

an

east-west

orientation

Figure A5.4 is
i

Section A-A indicated in Figure A5.3. The remaining


angles are

The
defined

angle

is

as

defined for Case 1.

as

follows:

1.

il is the

projected

incident
normal

angle.

It is the

angle

between
northern

the

south

facing
and

(ns)

of

the tube bank (in

hemisphere)
in the
plane

the

outer

normal

(n)

to the tube
and

lying
line
It is

formed
the

by

the tube
rays

centerline

collinear

with

sun's

(see Figure A5.4).


CCW from
ng.

defined

as

positive

when

measured

2.

e is the

angle

between the

south

facing

normal

(ng)

of

the tube bank

(in

northern

hemisphere)
formed

and

the tube

normal

(n')

perpendicular

to

plane

by

the two
as

mirrow-glass

interfaces

(see Figure A5.4).


CW from
ns-

It is defined

positive

when measured

3.

is the

angle

between a line
south

collinear

with

the

sun's

rays

(n-)
(in

and

the

facing

normal

(ns)

of

the tube bank

northern

hemisphere) (see Figure A5.3).

The

angle

it

is

expressed

[37]

as:

cos

it

cosU-eJcosfigCosh^
il is

sin(-8)sin6s

(A5.6)

while

the

angle

242

Figure A5.3

East-West Tube Orientation

Figure A5. 4

Section A-A, Projected Incident Angle, il

243

cos

ii

cos

U-

6) cos 6

sin(-g)sin6s
the hour angle h

(A5.7)
is
equal

since

il is equal

to

it

when

to

zero.

The

angle

il is shown positive in Figure A5.4 but it can be


can

negative

also.

This

be

seen

when

Equation A5.7 is

rewritten

as:

cos

il

cosU-B-6

(A5.8)

or

il

-6-Ss

(A5.9)

244

APPENDIX 6

Additional

Shading

Factor Relationships

The shading factor for


case

relationships

for

orientations

and

2 {il

<

0)

will

be

given

here.

Orientation 1

>

5.6

The

parameter

g{il)

when

|ft|_|ft I.

From Figure A6.1,

|nc

is found

as

follows.

First,

|fisl

90

(A6.1)

with

?=Y5+Y4-e

(A6.2)

The

angles

y.

and

y5

are

found

next.

tan"1

Y5

(f-f)

(A6.3)

tan"1

Y4

(^-)

(A6.4)

Also:

(D

S)

sine

(A6.5)

245

Figure A6 1
.

Tube Orientation 1

Geometric Layout

246

and

(D

S)

cose

D/2

(A6.6)

Finally,

1-2
where e

(9

(f+e) )

1/2

(A6.7)

is

as

previously

shown

in Figure 4.3.
results of

\il

can

now

be
and

evaluated

by first finding

the

Equations A6.5,
and

A6.6,
A6.4.

A6.7

and

substituting these back into Equations A6.3


are

These

results

in turn

substituted

into Equation A6.2

and

finally \il

found from Equation A6.1.

The is
shown

parameter

g[il)

when

|fi|>|n
be easily

|.

The

angle

\ii
The

\
procedure

on

Figure A6.1
same

and

can

calculated.

is exactly the

as

that
of

used

to determine

\il

except

in Equation A6.2

Y^ is

subtracted

instead

added.

|ficol

=90-5

(A6.8)

and

Y5

Y4

(A6.9)

247

Yg

and

y4

are

determined using Equations A6.3 through A6.7.

|M
In addition, g(n)
=

I
co'

\ii\
r^-,

j^

'

"

when

In I
s

<

Inl

<

In

c0.

si

Finally, summarizing for

orientation

(0

>

5.6):

g(n)

for ii

<

|n

(A6.10)

g(n)

=0

for n ^

|n

(A6.ll)

9(fi)

I "col

|nsl

for

]^

<

Ko\

(A6-12^

where

\il

and

\il

are

determined from Equations A6.1

and

A6.8,

respectively.

Orientation 3

1.7
-

<

<

5.6

The

parameter

g(n)
as

when

|n|

<

\il |.

\il

can

be

calculated

in the
Figure

same

manner

was

done for
-

orientation

2 (see Section 4.1.3.1).


=

From
6.

4.5,

|n

equals

90

90

(y

6)

90

41

.2

48.8

Also,
shown above

g(n) when

|n|

>

|coland

lficol
A6.9.

is

calculated

exactly

as

is

in Equation A6.8

|nrJ
Finally,
g(n)
=

"

lnl
|fl

for

|n$|

<

|n|

<

|ncQ|

248

This

result

neglects

the fact that the


of

absorber

tube shading is

caused

by

both the tube

interest

and

the adjacent tube as

\il\

increases.
are
close

However, the resulting


together
compared

error

is

small

since

the tubes
edges

to the distance from the shading

to the

absorber

tube.

Equations
orientation

A6.10, A6.ll,
3
except

and

A6.12

represent

the same results for


as

|n (and |n

are

calculated

described

above.

249

APPENDIX 7

Evaluation of Heat Exchanger

Performance

The description based


this
on

of

the

preheat

heat

exchanger

to follow is

steady
a

state

conditions.

As

was

mentioned

in Section 4,

provides

sufficient

description
of

of

system

performance.

Figure A7.1
tank.

is

schematic

only the

collectors

and

the preheat

The

amount

of

energy

collected

can

be

written

from

Equation 4.29

of

Section 4

as:

U.TTd

AtFR[(Ta)eIeff

V
can

(TINC
be

"

VJ

(A7-])

In addition, the energy

collected

written:

%
Defining

Cp tT0UTC
exchanger

"

TINC)

(A7.2]

the heat

effectiveness

as:

j0UTC
'OUTC

'

^INC
IWH

"

(A7.3)

the energy transferred

QT

can

be

written:

^T
For steady

fl

Cp (T0UTC

"

TIWH^

(A7-4)

conditions:

QT

Qu

(A7.5)

250

Also,

TINC
and

T0UTC

"

FTC

(A7.6)

Tt.m, IWH

"

'OUTC

EM C

(A7.7)

Substituting

Equation A7.7 into Equation A7.6

and

setting

QT

Qu

gives:

INC

'IWH

X
M C

(1

Ex
'

(A7.8)

Rewriting

Equation A7.1

with

Equation A7.8

substituted

in

gives:

U.Trd

%
which

AtFR (xa)eIeff
simplified

TIWH

"

Ta

Cn L

(A7.9)

when

becomes

Q "U

W>e
-,
_L_

"

\t (TIWH

"

^_
MTD

U.

TTd

AtFR
The energy

\LzJ\ L E J
be
a
maximum when

(A7.10)

collected

will

which

results

in the

smallest

value

of

the denominator.

Denoted this

amount as

Qmax

9ives:

Ieff(xa)d
^max

UL^-

(TIWH

Ta)

(A7.ll)

AtFR

251

Thus

when

INC

IWH'

The

ratio

of

the energy

collected

to the

maximum amount of

energy

collectable

is:

-1

1
Mnax

i1

(A7.12)

Equation A7.12

can

be

plotted

for different

values

of

E.

This is
values

done in Figure A7.2.


of

From the figure, it is


the
variation

seen

that for

greater

than

.2,

in heat

collected

divided

by

the

maximum

amount

collectable

is only 20%.
change

In particular, for

variations

of

E between

.4

and

.6,

this

is only 8%.
a small

Thus, failure to
system
performance

evaluate

E accurately

results

in only

overall

error.

'OUTC

-/"Vw

Preheat Tank

Schematic Fiqure A7.1 Collector, Preheat

252

-Figure

A7.2

fiatio

of

Amount Collectable

Collected Energy to Maximum