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PARACHUTING Parachuting, also known as skydiving, is the action of exiting an aircraft and returning to earth with the aid

of a parachute. It may or may not involve a certain amount of free-fall, a time during which the parachute has not been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity. The history of skydiving starts with Andre-Jacques Garnerin who made successful parachute jumps from a hot-air balloon in 1797. The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1952. Parachuting is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters. A drop zone operator at a sky diving airport operates one or more aircraft that takes groups of skydivers up for a fee. An individual jumper can go up in a light aircraft such as a Cessna C-172 or C-182. In busier drop zones (DZ) larger aircraft may be used such as the Cessna Caravan C208, De Havilland Twin Otter DHC6 or Short Skyvan. A typical jump involves individuals exiting an aircraft (usually an airplane, but sometimes a helicopter or even the gondola of a balloon), at anywhere from 1,000 to 4,000 meters (3,000 to 13,000 feet) altitude. If jumping from a low altitude, the parachute is deployed immediately, however, at higher altitudes, the skydiver may free-fall for a short period of time (about a minute)[1] before activating a parachute to slow the landing down to safe speeds (about 5 to 7 minutes). When the parachute opens (usually the parachute will be fully inflated by 800 meters or 2,600 feet) the jumper can control the direction and speed with toggles on the end of steering lines attached to the trailing edge of the parachute, and can aim for the landing site and come to a relatively gentle stop. All modern sport parachutes are self-inflating "ram-air" wings that provide control of speed and direction similar to the related paragliders. Purists in either sport would note that paragliders have much greater lift and range, but that parachutes are designed to absorb the stresses of deployment at terminal velocity. By manipulating the shape of the body in freefall, a skydiver can generate turns, forward motion, backwards motion, and even lift. When leaving an aircraft, for a few seconds a skydiver continues to travel forward as well as down, due to the momentum created by the plane's speed (known as "forward throw"). The perception of a change from horizontal to vertical flight is known as the "relative wind", or

informally as "being on the hill". In freefall, skydivers generally do not experience a "falling" sensation because the resistance of the air to their body at speeds above about 50 mph (80 km/h) provides some feeling of weight and direction. At normal exit speeds for aircraft (approx 90 mph (140 km/h)) there is little feeling of falling just after exit, but jumping from a balloon or helicopter can create this sensation. Skydivers reach terminal velocity (around 120 mph (190 km/h) for belly to Earth orientations, 150-200 mph (240320 km/h) for head down orientations) and are no longer accelerating towards the ground. At this point the sensation is as of a forceful wind.

Despite the perception of danger, fatalities are rare. However, each year a number of people are hurt or killed parachuting worldwide.[2][3] About 30 skydivers are killed each year in the US; roughly one death for every 100,000 jumps (about 0.001%).[4] In the US and in most of the western world skydivers are required to carry two parachutes. The reserve parachute must be periodically inspected and re-packed (whether used or not) by a certificated parachute rigger (in the US, an FAA certificated parachute rigger). Many skydivers use an automatic activation device (AAD) that opens the reserve parachute at a safe altitude in the event of failing to activate the main canopy themselves. Most skydivers wear a visual altimeter, but increasingly many also use audible altimeters fitted to their helmet. Injuries and fatalities occurring under a fully functional parachute usually happen because the skydiver performed unsafe maneuvers or made an error in judgment while flying their canopy, typically resulting in a high speed impact with the ground or other hazards on the ground.[5] One of the most common sources of injury is a low turn under a highperformance canopy and while swooping. Swooping is the advanced discipline of gliding parallel to the ground during landing.

A military parachutist about to jump above Dakar, Senegal

Changing wind conditions are another risk factor. In conditions of strong winds, and turbulence during hot days the parachutist can be caught in downdrafts close to the ground. Shifting winds can cause a crosswind or downwind landing which have a higher high potential for injury due to the wind speed adding to the landing speed. Another risk factor is that of "canopy collisions", or collisions between two or more skydivers under fully inflated parachutes. Canopy collisions can cause the jumpers' inflated parachutes to entangle with each other, often resulting in a sudden collapse (deflation) of one or more of the involved parachutes. When this occurs, the jumpers often must quickly

perform emergency procedures (if there is sufficient altitude to do so) to "cut-away" (jettison) from their main canopies and deploy their reserve canopies. Canopy collisions are particularly dangerous when occurring at altitudes too low to allow the jumpers adequate time to safely jettison their main parachutes and fully deploy their reserve parachutes. Equipment failure rarely causes fatalities and injuries. Approximately one in 750 deployments of a main parachute results in a malfunction.[6] Ram-air parachutes typically spin uncontrollably when malfunctioned, and must be jettisoned before deploying the reserve parachute. Reserve parachutes are packed and deployed differently, they are also designed more conservatively and built and tested to more exacting standards so they are more reliable than main parachutes, but the real safety advantage comes from the probability of an unlikely main malfunction multiplied by the even less likely probability of a reserve malfunction. This yields an even smaller probability of a double malfunction although the possibility of a main malfunction that cannot be cutaway causing a reserve malfunction is a very real risk. Parachuting disciplines such as BASE jumping or those that involve equipment such as wing suit flying and sky surfing have a higher risk factor due to the lower mobility of the jumper and the greater risk of entanglement. For this reason these disciplines are generally practiced by experienced jumpers. Depictions in commercial films notably Hollywood action movies usually overstate the dangers of the sport. Often, the characters in such films are shown performing feats that are physically impossible without special effects assistance. In other cases, their practices would cause them to be grounded or shunned at any safety-conscious drop zone or club. USPA member drop zones in the US and Canada are required to have an experienced jumper act as a "safety officer" (in Canada DSO Drop Zone Safety Officer; in the U.S. S&TA Safety and Training Advisor) who is responsible for dealing with the jumpers who violate rules, regulations, or otherwise act in a fashion deemed unsafe by the appointed individual. In many countries, either the local regulations or the liability-conscious prudence of the dropzone owners require that parachutists must have attained the age of majority before engaging in the sport.

Parachuting and weather

Parachuting in poor weather, especially with thunderstorms, high winds, and dust devils can be a dangerous activity. Reputable drop zones will suspend normal operations during inclement weather.

Canopy Collisions

A collision with another canopy is a statistical hazard, and may be avoided by observing simple principles.

Instructor explaining the operation of a parachute to student pilots

Skydiving can be practiced without jumping. Vertical wind tunnels are used to practice for free fall ("indoor skydiving" or "bodyflight"), while virtual reality parachute simulators are used to practice parachute control. Beginning skydivers seeking training have the following options: Static line Instructor-assisted deployment Accelerated freefall Tandem skydiving [edit]

Parachute deployment
At a skydiver's deployment altitude, the individual manually deploys a small pilot-chute which acts as a drogue, catching air and pulling out the main parachute or the main canopy. There are two principal systems in use : the "throw-out", where the skydiver pulls a toggle attached to the top of the pilot-chute stowed in a small pocket outside the main container : and the "pull-out", where the skydiver pulls a small pad attached to the pilot-chute which is stowed inside the container. Throw-out pilot-chute pouches are usually positioned at the bottom of the container the B.O.C. deployment system but older harnesses often have leg-mounted pouches. The latter are safe for flat-flying, but often unsuitable for freestyle or head-down flying. ute which they cannot correct, they pull a "cut-away" handle on the front right-hand side of their harness (on the chest) which will release the main canopy from the harness/container. Once free from the malfunctioning main canopy, the reserve canopy can be activated manually by pulling a second handle on the front left harness. Some containers are fitted with a connecting line from the main to reserve parachutes known as a reserve static line (RSL) which pulls opens the reserve container faster than a manual release could. Whichever method is used, a spring loaded pilotchute then extracts the reserve parachute from the upper half of the container. [edit]

In addition to disciplines for which people train, purchase equipment and get coaching/lessons, the recreational skydiver finds ways to just

have fun. [edit]

Hit and Rock

One example of this is "Hit and Rock", which is a variant of Accuracy landing devised to let people of varying skill levels compete for fun. "Hit and Rock" is originally from POPS (Parachutists Over Phorty Society). See the POPS main site. The object is to land as close as possible to the chair, remove the parachute harness, sprint to the chair, sit fully in the chair and rock back and forth at least one time. The contestant is timed from the moment that feet touch the ground until that first rock is completed. This event is considered a race. [edit]

Tracking is where skydivers take a body position to achieve a high forward speed, flying their body to achieve separation from other jumpers and cover distance over the ground. See Tracking_(freeflying) [edit]

Pond swooping
Pond swooping is a form of competitive parachuting wherein canopy pilots attempt to touch down at a glide across a small body of water, and onto the shore. Events provide lighthearted competition, rating accuracy, speed, distance and style. Points and peer approval are reduced when a participant "chows", or fails to reach shore and sinks into the water.

A cross-country jump is a skydive where the participants open their parachutes immediately after jumping, with the intention of covering as much ground under canopy as possible. Usual distance from Jump Run to the dropzone can be as much as several miles.

Camera flying
In camera flying, a camera person jumps with other skydivers and films them. The camera flier often wears specialized equipment, such as a winged jumpsuit to provide a greater range of fall rates, helmet-mounted video and still cameras, mouth operated camera switches, and optical

sights. Some skydivers specialize in camera flying and a few earn fees for filming students on coached jumps or tandem-jumpers, or producing professional footage and photographs for the media. There is always a demand for good camera fliers in the skydiving community, as many of the competitive skydiving disciplines are judged from a video record.

Night jumps
Parachuting is not always restricted to daytime hours; experienced skydivers sometimes perform night jumps. For obvious safety reasons, this requires more equipment than a usual daytime jump and in most jurisdictions requires both an advanced skydiving license (at least a BLicense in the U.S.) and a meeting with the local safety official covering who will be doing what on the load. A lighted altimeter (preferably accompanied with an audible altimeter) is a must. Skydivers performing night jumps often take flashlights up with them so that they can check their canopies have properly deployed. Visibility to other skydivers and other aircraft is also a consideration; FAA regulations require skydivers jumping at night to be wearing a light visible for three miles (5 km) in every direction, and to turn it on once they are under canopy. A chemlight(glowstick) is a good idea on a night jump. Night jumpers should be made aware of the Dark Zone, when landing at night. Above 100 feet jumpers flying their canopy have a good view of the landing zone normally because of reflected ambient light/moon light. Once they get close to the ground, this ambient light source is lost, because of the low angle of reflection. The lower they get, the darker the ground looks. At about 100 feet and below it may seem that they are landing in a black hole. Suddenly it becomes very dark, and the jumper hits the ground soon after. This ground rush should be explained and anticipated for the first time night jumper. [edit]

Stuff jumps
A skydiver sits in a rubber raft steadied by three other jumpers

With the availability of a rear door aircraft and a large, unpopulated space to jump over, 'stuff' jumps become possible. In these jumps the skydivers jump out with some object. Rubber raft jumps are popular, where the jumpers sit in a rubber raft. Cars, bicycles, motorcycles, vacuum cleaners, water tanks and inflatable companions have also been thrown out the back of an aircraft. At a certain height the jumpers break off from the object and deploy their parachutes, leaving it to

smash into the ground at terminal velocity. [edit]

Parachuting organizations
National parachuting associations exist in many countries, many affiliated with the Fdration Aronautique Internationale (FAI), to promote their sport. In most cases, national representative bodies, as well as local dropzone operators, require that participants carry certification, attesting to their training, their level of experience in the sport, and their proven competence. Anyone who cannot produce such bona-fides is treated as a student, requiring close supervision. The primary organization in the United States is the United States Parachute Association (USPA)[2]. This organization awards licenses and ratings for all American skydiving activities based on safety qualifications. The USPA governs safety in the sport of skydiving as this is the organizations sole responsibility and also publishes the Skydivers Information Manual (SIM) and many other resources. In Canada, the Canadian Sport Parachuting Association is the lead organization. In South Africa the sport is managed by the Parachute Association of South Africa, and in the United Kingdom by the British Parachute Association. Within the sport, associations promote safety, technical advances, training-and-certification, competition and other interests of their members. Outside their respective communities, they promote their sport to the public, and often intercede with government regulators. Competitions are organized at regional, national and international levels in most these disciplines. Some of them offer amateur competition. Many of the more photogenic/videogenic variants also enjoy sponsored events with prize money for the winners. The majority of jumpers tend to be non-competitive, enjoying the opportunity to "get some air" with their friends on weekends and holidays. The atmosphere of their gatherings is relaxed, sociable and welcoming to newcomers. Party events, called "boogies" are arranged at local, national and international scale, each year, attracting both young jumpers and their elders Parachutists Over Phorty (POPs), Skydivers Over Sixty (SOS) and even older groups. Notable people associated with the sport include Valery Rozov, a gold medalist from the 1998 X Games, who has had more than 1,500 jumps. Georgia Thompson ("Tiny") Broadwick is one of the first American skydivers, and she made the first freefall.

Drop zones
Main article: Drop zone

In parachuting, a drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land. It is usually situated beside a small airport, often sharing the facility with other general aviation activities. There is generally a landing area designated for parachute landings. Drop zone staff include the DZO (drop zone operator or owner), manifestors, pilots, instructors, coaches, cameramen, packers, riggers and other general staff.

Costs in the sport are not trivial. As new technological advances or performance enhancements are introduced, they tend to drive equipment prices higher. Similarly, the average skydiver carries more equipment than in earlier years, with safety devices (such as an AAD) contributing a significant portion of the cost. A full set of brand-new equipment can easily cost as much as a new motorcycle or half a small car. The market is not large enough to permit the steady lowering of prices that is seen with some other equipment like computers. In many countries, the sport supports a used-equipment market. For beginners that is the preferred way to acquire "gear", and has two advantages because users can: Try types of parachutes (there are many) to learn which style they prefer, before paying the price for new equipment. Acquire a complete system and all the peripheral items in a short time and at reduced cost. Novices generally start with parachutes that are large and docile relative to the jumper's body-weight. As they improve in skill and confidence, they can graduate to smaller, faster, more responsive parachutes. An active jumper might change parachute canopies several times in the space of a few years, while retaining his or her first harness/container and peripheral equipment. Older jumpers, especially those who jump only on weekends in summer, sometimes tend in the other direction, selecting slightly larger, more gentle parachutes that do not demand youthful intensity and reflexes on each jump. They may be adhering to the maxim that: "There are old jumpers and there are bold jumpers, but there are no old, bold jumpers." Most parachuting equipment is ruggedly designed and is enjoyed by several owners before being retired. Purchasers are always advised to have any potential purchases examined by a qualified parachute rigger. A rigger is trained to spot signs of damage or misuse. Riggers also keep track of industry product and safety bulletins, and can therefore determine if a piece of equipment is up-to-date and serviceable.


The world's highest civil tandem skydive jump took place above Denmark.[when?] World's largest formation in free-fall: February 8, 2006 in Udon Thani, Thailand (400 linked persons in freefall). Largest head down formation (vertical formation): July 31, 2009 at Skydive Chicago in Ottawa, Illinois, USA (108 linked skydivers in head to Earth attitude). European record: August 13, 2010, Wloclawek, Poland. Polish skydivers broke a record when 102 people created a formation in the air during the Big Way Camp Euro 2010. The skydive was their fifteenth attempt at breaking the record.[7] World's largest canopy formation: 100, set on November 21, 2007 in Lake Wales, Florida, USA. [3]

Tandem skydiving
Two people about make a tandem jump. The instructor wears a parachute, while the student wears a harness to connect to the instructor.

Tandem skydiving or tandem parachuting refers to a type of skydiving where a student skydiver is connected via a harness to a tandem instructor. The instructor guides the student through the whole jump from exit through freefall, piloting the canopy, and landing. The student needs only minimal instruction before making a tandem jump. This is one of three commonly used training methods for beginning skydivers; the others being static line and Accelerated Freefall (known as Progressive Freefall in Canada). Tandem skydiving is a very popular training method for first time skydivers, but it is more expensive than a static line skydive. It exposes first-time jumpers to skydiving with minimal expectations from the student. The training may consist of many of the activities performed by any skydiving student, for example, how to exit the aircraft, how to do maneuvers in freefall, and how to deploy the main canopy themselves. However, the tandem master remains primarily responsible for safe and timely parachute deployment. Although it is the exception, many have commented that during a tandem skydive they experienced nausea and the feeling of passing out, which starts after the canopy deployement (never occurs during freefall) and goes away immediately after landing. It is believed to be caused primarily by the incorrect adjustment of the tandem harness affecting blood flow (this rarely occurs with a solo harness) and is more likely if the the individual is at the upper end of the weight limit.

Tandem skydiving requires equipment with several differences from normal sport skydiving rigs. All modern tandem skydiving systems use a drogue parachute, which is deployed shortly after leaving the plane in order to decrease the skydivers' terminal velocity. This is necessary for proper parachute deployment, lengthening the duration of the skydive, and allowing the skydivers to fall at the same speed as videographers. Tandem skydiving systems also use larger main parachutes (360 square feet and larger) to support the additional weight of two passengers. The FAA requires tandem parachute rigs to be equipped with a main and reserve parachute, as well as an automatic activation device (AAD), a safety device that automatically deploys the reserve parachute if it detects that the skydivers are still at freefall speed below a certain altitude.[1]

Instructor certification
Most countries have varying laws or regulations regarding who may skydive with a passenger or student. In the United States, the FAA requires every potential instructor to have at least 3 years of experience skydiving, 500 skydives, and a master parachute license issued by an FAA-recognized organization (for the USPA, this is equivalent to a D license). Instructors are also required to pass a certification course given by the manufacturer of the tandem parachute system to be jumped.[1] The USPA also requires potential instructors to possess a current FAA Class III Medical Certificate, and complete a USPA Tandem Instructor Rating Course.[2]

Air racing
Air racing
A pair of Sport Class racers passing the finish pylon at the Reno Air Races

Air racing is a motorsport that involves small aircraft.

The first ever air race was held in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1908. The participants piloted the only 4 airships in the U.S. around a course located at Forest Park. 2 of the pilots went off-course due to strong

winds, and the other 2 successfully completed the course, and divided the $5,000 prize.[citation needed] The first event in heavier-than-air air racing history was held on May 23, 1909 - the Prix de Lagatinerie, held at the Port-Aviation airport south of Paris, France. Four pilots entered the race, two actually started and nobody completed the full race distance. Lon Delagrange, who covered more than half of the ten 1.2-kilometre laps was declared the winner.[citation needed] Some other minor events were held before the August 22-29 1909 Grand Week of the Champagne at Reims, France. This was the first major international air race, drawing many of the most important plane makers and pilots of the era, as well as celebrities and royalty. The premier event the Gordon Bennett Trophy was won by Glenn Curtiss, who beat second place finisher Louis Blriot by five seconds. Curtiss was named "Champion Air Racer of the World". This event was held yearly at different locations. On October 19, 1919, the Army Transcontinental Air Race began (cf. 1919 Air Service Transcontinental Recruiting Convoy.) In 1934, the MacRobertson Air Race from England to Australia took place with the winning de Havilland Comet flown by C. W. A. Scott and Tom Campbell Black. Between 1913 and 1931 the Schneider Trophy seaplane race was run, which was significant in advancing aeroplane design, particularly in the fields of aerodynamics and engine design, and would show its results in the best fighters of World War II. In 1921, the United States instituted the National Air Meets, which became the National Air Races in 1924. In 1929, the Women's Air Derby became a part of the National Air Races circuit. The National Air Races lasted until 1949. The Cleveland Air Races was another important event. That year, pilot Bill Odom suffered a crash during a race, killing himself and two other people in a nearby house. In 1947, an All-Woman Transcontinental Air Race (AWTAR) dubbed the "Powder Puff Derby" was established, running until 1977. In 1964, Bill Stead, a Nevada rancher, pilot, and unlimited hydroplane racing champion, organized the first Reno Air Races at a small dirt strip called the Sky Ranch, located between Sparks, Nevada, and Pyramid Lake. The National Championship Air Races were soon moved to the Reno Stead Airport and have been held there every September since 1966. The five-day event attracts around 200,000 people, and includes racing around courses marked out by pylons for six classes of aircraft: Unlimited, Formula One, Sport Biplane, AT-6, Sport and Jet. It also features civil airshow acts, military flight demonstrations, and a large static aircraft display. Other promoters have run pylon racing events across the USA and Canada, including races in Las Vegas, NV in 1965,

Lancaster, CA in 1965 and 1966, Mojave, California in 1970-71, and 1973-79; at Cape May, NJ in 1971, San Diego, CA in 1971, Miami, FL in 1973 and 1979, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan in 1984; Hamilton, CA, in 1988; at Dallas, TX in 1990, in Denver, CO in 1990 and 1992, in Kansas City in 1993, in Phoenix, Arizona in 1994 and 1995; and in Tunica, Mississippi in 2005. Numerous other venues across the United States, Canada, and Mexico have also hosted events featuring the smaller Formula One and Biplane classes. In 1970, American Formula One racing was exported to Europe (Great Britain, and then to France), where almost as many races have been held as in the U.S.A. Also in 1970, the California 1000 Air Race started at the Mojave Airport with an 66 lap unlimited air race that featured a Douglas DC-7 with one aircraft completing the circuit.[1]

Air racing in England: the Red Bull Air Race heat held at Kemble airfield, Gloucestershire. The aircraft fly singly, and have to pass between pairs of pylons

Red Bull has created a series called the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in which competitors fly singularly through a series of air gates, between which they must perform a prescribed maneuvers. Usually held over water near large cities, the sport has attracted large crowds and brought substantial media interest in air racing for the first time in decades. A recent air racing competition to enter the sport is the Aero GP (, based in Europe, which has held at least one air race per year since 2005, including 2 grand prix in 2008. Aero GP air racing is based on the classic format of multiple planes racing together and against each other in a tight pylon circuit. Aero GP air races are broadcast on television in hundreds of millions of homes worldwide, establishing the events as credible fixtures in the air racing world. A new and alternative kind of air race has been developed within a recent motorized flying discipline known as Paramotoring. Following in the footsteps of other popular air races the event is called Parabatix Sky Racers ( On Saturday 4th September 2010 in an airfield in Montauban, Southern France, the sky was buzzing and spectators roaring as Parabatix organiser Pascal Campbell-Jones and his team of paramotor pilots put on an incredible aerial extravaganza. Paramotors are the motorbikes of the sky, using two-stroke engines and paraglider wings. Their pilots arent hidden away in cockpits, and spectators can see their every movements, from leaning into steeply banked turns, to grabbing balls or swooping across water at speed, their feet kicking spray into the air. The slower flying speeds and agility of the machines means all this can take place in a smaller area, putting the audience closer to the action. The latest development in air racing is the Sky Challenge Air Race -

officially launched at the Oshkosh air show in the United States in July 2011. The Sky Challenge Air race uses a patented virtual course to allow true head to head air races in city centres - and also puts sponsor logos into the course as interactive virtual objects. The interactive course allows millions of virtual pilots to join the action on the internet with the top entrants racing against the actual pilots live on stage at each Sky Challenge event. The Sky Challenge Air Race is distributed to a massive global TV audience and is in talks with a number of host cities on a global basis. The Sky Challenge patent covers not just air races but all forms of sport. Primary Description Seaplane, later all Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Fie ld

Class Schneider Trophy Pulitzer Prize Trophy Thompson Trophy Women's Air Derby Bendix Trophy

First Race 1913, 1981 (revived) 1920 1929 1929 1931

Course Triangle Pylon Pylon Transcontinen tal Transcontinen tal


Fdration Aron Internationale

National Aeronau

Historical Championships Classes

Restricting aircraft to a specific type or design creates a competition that focuses on pilot skill. Air racing events such as the Reno air races, incorporate multiple classes or aircraft. These may be defined by the race organizer, or by a sanctioned group. Some air races are limited to a single class.[2] Class T-6 Air Racing Biplane Air Racing Formula One Air Racing Formula V Air Racing Sport Class Racing First Race 1946 1964 1970 1972 1998 Primary Description

T-6 Texan, Harvard, and SNJ powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp REngine 360 cubic inch engines, mostly Pitts Specials, speeds in excess of 25 200 cubic inch engines 1600cc Volkswagen Engine Experimental Piston Powered Aircraft.

Notable air racers

Peter Besenyei

Louis Bleriot Jacqueline Cochran Glenn Curtiss Jimmy Doolittle Kevin Eldredge Steve Hinton Skip Holm Benny Howard Jimmy Leeward Tony LeVier Paul Mantz Blanche Noyes Jon Sharp Lyle Shelton Drake Solomon Roscoe Turner Steve Wittman

Still active air races

Red Bull Air Race World Championship Reno Air Races Aero GP Sky Challenge Air Race

Cultural depictions
Set in the 1930s, the movie Porco Rosso briefly touches on the early days of air racing. "The Rocketeer" comic books feature air racing prominently as the story is set during the 1930s. The 1965 film Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines depicts a 10,000-prize air race between London and Paris. The film takes place in 1910 and utilizes many authentic reproductions of airplanes from that era.