SUBMITTED TO: Prof. Manvinder Tandon


religious and charitable institutions have continued to provide assistance to those who are needy for various common risks. agricultural. appeal was made to the neighbors or the guilds. work. freedom from want and misery.” [Article 39(a)] (b) “The state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development. In case of longer calamities. The scheme was designed to pay a monthly benefit to needy people over the age of 70 years who have no relatives liable and able to support them. in particular.(Article 43) The Government of Uttar Pradesh introduced old-age assistance scheme in 1957. Our constitution guarantees social security in the following words The State shall. Their main purpose was collective security of life and property. a living wage. direct its policy towards security: (a) “Right to an adequate means of livelihood. Tamil Nadu in 1962.Social security in India In our country social security programmes have been in existence since times of immemorial and joint families. Panchayats. The joint Hindu family was the original cell of security cell of security and first line of defense which could cope only with limited misfortunes. It is estimated that about 3 million of needy old and disabled people received social assistance benefits from the various states in 1980-81 . References to such guides are found in Rig-Veda. Some have also liberalized the conditions of entitlement contained in the original legislation and some have extended the provisions of the legislation to cover physically handicapped people or widows and deserted women. misfortunes and calamities. industrial or otherwise. Upanishads and in other ancient Indian literature. and security against common risks. Punjab and Haryana in 1963 and subsequently in most other states. But organized social security measures in statutory form are of only of recent origin. Similar schemes were established in Andhra Pradesh in 1961.” (Article 41) (c) “The state shall endeavor to secure to all workers. old-age. disablement and other cases of undeserved wants. However. sickness. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life”…. make effective provision for securing public assistance in case of unemployment. different states have different eligibility conditions and provide different levels of benefit.

the Central Government and State Governments share the responsibility. (5) The Payment of Gratuity Act. As in the case with some other countries. Cash benefits under the ESI Act are administered by the Central Government through the Employees’ State insurance Corporation (ESIC). the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act are being administered by the Central Government through the Chief Labor Commissioner (central) and by the State Governments in factories. mines. 1948.providing for medical care and coverage against sickness. (2) The Employees’ State Insurance Act. plantations and other establishments.inadequacy of benefits . The study group (195758) appointed by the Government of India has recommended for integration of various social security measures with a unified scheme of administration and contribution.Even all industrial workers are not .old age and death. In the administration of the Employees’ State Insurance Act. (4) The Maternity Benefit Act. 1972. and by the respective State governments and Union Territory Administrations in all other cases.duplication and overlapping provisions. whereas medical care under the ESI Act is being administered by the state governments and Union Territory Administrations.maturity.oil fields and the railways. On the whole. The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act is administered by the Government of India through the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization. and also establishments having branches in more than one state. The Workmen’s Compensation Act is being administered exclusively by the State Governments/ Union Territory administrations. 1923. major port.employment injury. the social security legislation of our country suffer from such defects as uneven scope . 1952.and different administrative authorities for implementation and enforcement .Social Security legislation in India in the industrial field consists of the following enactments: (1) The Workmen’s Compensation Act.the statutory social security schemes in India cater only for a small proportion of the population. In mines and circus industry. (3) The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. The payment of Gratuity Act is being administered by the Central Government in establishments under its control. 1961.

who recognize that the exclusion of ordinary people from modern forms of social protection is undesirable. higher level of benefits. Even among the newest of the emerging countries and among those with the least economic development. Extension of coverage. economic and social setting have made these programmes available to their people. there is absence of comprehensive social security policies which can co-ordinate different schemes and ensure that their various objectives are complementary. Nations with widely differing political. carefully designed to meet local needs. and innovative benefits provision are highlights of recent development. new benefits for less privileged section. high unemployment and evolving employment patterns. Priorities need to be established and resources channeled or targeted appropriately. it is a rare nation which does not have at least one social security programme in operation. As a mechanism for meeting human needs. the problem of limited coverage has become a matter of concern to social security policy-makers. However. Social security schemes in many countries around the world have come under increasing pressure in recent years. Laws PRINCIPAL SOCIAL SECURITY LAWS OF INDIA Objectives Coverage Eligibility Benefits . and integrated into a national policy committed to providing adequate social protection to the excluded majority. social security programmes have achieved near universal acceptance. Others are structural as schemes adopt to cope with the changing economic and political environment. Budgetary pressures may lead to a reappraisal of what can be afforded out of the public purse. Some of the pressures are financial. Conclusion One of the most striking features of social security is its rapid progress and improvement throughout the world. In spite of certain drawbacks. A vast majority of labor force in the unorganized and agricultural sector are beyond the benefits of organized social security schemes. Further. including rapid inflation.covered as smaller establishments and those drawing salaries exceeding certain limit are excluded from the benefits of the various social security programmes.reflecting increasing maturity of the schemes and demographic developments. social security schemes can contribute towards social protection if they are adequately supported with resources.

6500 per month Provident fund.000 per month Benefits of sickness. Employees drawing pay not exceeding Rs. disablement. 10 . maternity and employment injury Persons employed in factories. Factories/ establishments employing 20 or more employeees (in scheduled industries). minimum wages or Rs. railways and other establishments metioned in Schedule II of the Act Factories/ establishments to which the law is made applicable by the Govt. and occupational disease Employees drawing wages nit extending Rs. mines plantation. depositlinked insurance.1948 To provide for health care and cash benefits in the case of sickness. plantations. 10. commercial and other establishments to which the law is extended The Benefits are payable in respect of work-related injuries to the workers dependants not covered y the ESI Act Compensation for death. Factories. Payment for actual absence upto 12 weeks on average daily wages. 1923 occupational diseases resulting in desablement or death Employee's State Insurance Act.To provide Compensation for workmen in cases Workmen's of industrial Compensation accidents/ Act. pension. mines.1952 To provide compulsory provident fund. disability dependents and death Employee's Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. Maternity Benefit Act 1961 To provide for maternity protection before and after child birth There is no wage limit for coverage provided the woman is not covered by the ESI act. maternity.other establishments notified by the centeral govt. pension and refundable with drawals.

mines. shops and establishments and also to other establishments to which the law is extended Five years continuous service is requried for entitlement of gratuity. The seasonal employees are entitled to gratuity at a rate of 7 days wages for each season.350000. . 15 days wages for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of 6 month subjects to a maximum of Rs. railway companies.1972 To provide for payment of gratuity on ceasing to hold office Factories. plantations.Payment of Gratuity Act.

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