ASSIGNMENT ON SOCIAL SECURITY AND LABOUR WELFARE
SUBMITTED TO: Prof. Manvinder Tandon
SUBMITTED BY: LOVLEEN MBA-3(A)
But organized social security measures in statutory form are of only of recent origin. a living wage. Tamil Nadu in 1962. old-age.” [Article 39(a)] (b) “The state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development. Panchayats. different states have different eligibility conditions and provide different levels of benefit. The scheme was designed to pay a monthly benefit to needy people over the age of 70 years who have no relatives liable and able to support them. appeal was made to the neighbors or the guilds. freedom from want and misery. Some have also liberalized the conditions of entitlement contained in the original legislation and some have extended the provisions of the legislation to cover physically handicapped people or widows and deserted women. and security against common risks. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life”….(Article 43) The Government of Uttar Pradesh introduced old-age assistance scheme in 1957.” (Article 41) (c) “The state shall endeavor to secure to all workers. Punjab and Haryana in 1963 and subsequently in most other states. in particular. It is estimated that about 3 million of needy old and disabled people received social assistance benefits from the various states in 1980-81
. The joint Hindu family was the original cell of security cell of security and first line of defense which could cope only with limited misfortunes. However. work. direct its policy towards security: (a) “Right to an adequate means of livelihood. misfortunes and calamities. Upanishads and in other ancient Indian literature. Our constitution guarantees social security in the following words The State shall. References to such guides are found in Rig-Veda. In case of longer calamities. Their main purpose was collective security of life and property. Similar schemes were established in Andhra Pradesh in 1961. disablement and other cases of undeserved wants. sickness. religious and charitable institutions have continued to provide assistance to those who are needy for various common risks. make effective provision for securing public assistance in case of unemployment. industrial or otherwise.Social security in India
In our country social security programmes have been in existence since times of immemorial and joint families. agricultural.
(4) The Maternity Benefit Act.Social Security legislation in India in the industrial field consists of the following enactments: (1) The Workmen’s Compensation Act.providing for medical care and coverage against sickness. the provisions of the Maternity Benefit Act are being administered by the Central Government through the Chief Labor Commissioner (central) and by the State Governments in factories. In the administration of the Employees’ State Insurance Act. 1961. The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act is administered by the Government of India through the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization. In mines and circus industry.duplication and overlapping provisions. plantations and other establishments.the statutory social security schemes in India cater only for a small proportion of the population. the social security legislation of our country suffer from such defects as uneven scope . 1952. (5) The Payment of Gratuity Act.maturity.employment injury.inadequacy of benefits .oil fields and the railways. 1948. whereas medical care under the ESI Act is being administered by the state governments and Union Territory Administrations. As in the case with some other countries. and by the respective State governments and Union Territory Administrations in all other cases.Even all industrial workers are not
. The payment of Gratuity Act is being administered by the Central Government in establishments under its control. (2) The Employees’ State Insurance Act.
The Workmen’s Compensation Act is being administered exclusively by the State Governments/ Union Territory administrations. Cash benefits under the ESI Act are administered by the Central Government through the Employees’ State insurance Corporation (ESIC). the Central Government and State Governments share the responsibility. 1972. 1923. On the whole. major port. and also establishments having branches in more than one state. mines. The study group (195758) appointed by the Government of India has recommended for integration of various social security measures with a unified scheme of administration and contribution.old age and death. (3) The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act.and different administrative authorities for implementation and enforcement .
One of the most striking features of social security is its rapid progress and improvement throughout the world. In spite of certain drawbacks. Extension of coverage. As a mechanism for meeting human needs. A vast majority of labor force in the unorganized and agricultural sector are beyond the benefits of organized social security schemes. it is a rare nation which does not have at least one social security programme in operation. Others are structural as schemes adopt to cope with the changing economic and political environment.reflecting increasing maturity of the schemes and demographic developments. including rapid inflation. carefully designed to meet local needs. social security programmes have achieved near universal acceptance. Nations with widely differing political. Some of the pressures are financial. Priorities need to be established and resources channeled or targeted appropriately. and innovative benefits provision are highlights of recent development. new benefits for less privileged section. and integrated into a national policy committed to providing adequate social protection to the excluded majority. social security schemes can contribute towards social protection if they are adequately supported with resources. there is absence of comprehensive social security policies which can co-ordinate different schemes and ensure that their various objectives are complementary.
PRINCIPAL SOCIAL SECURITY LAWS OF INDIA Objectives Coverage Eligibility
. high unemployment and evolving employment patterns. Even among the newest of the emerging countries and among those with the least economic development. Social security schemes in many countries around the world have come under increasing pressure in recent years. Budgetary pressures may lead to a reappraisal of what can be afforded out of the public purse. economic and social setting have made these programmes available to their people. Further. However. who recognize that the exclusion of ordinary people from modern forms of social protection is undesirable.covered as smaller establishments and those drawing salaries exceeding certain limit are excluded from the benefits of the various social security programmes. higher level of benefits. the problem of limited coverage has become a matter of concern to social security policy-makers.
railways and other establishments metioned in Schedule II of the Act Factories/ establishments to which the law is made applicable by the Govt.1952
To provide compulsory provident fund. minimum wages or Rs. disability dependents and death
Employee's Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. pension and refundable with drawals. depositlinked insurance. and occupational disease
Employees drawing wages nit extending Rs. pension. commercial and other establishments to which the law is extended
The Benefits are payable in respect of work-related injuries to the workers dependants not covered y the ESI Act
Compensation for death. mines. 6500 per month
Provident fund. Factories.
Payment for actual absence upto 12 weeks on average daily wages. disablement. Factories/ establishments employing 20 or more employeees (in scheduled industries). mines plantation. maternity and employment injury
Persons employed in factories.To provide Compensation for workmen in cases Workmen's of industrial Compensation accidents/ Act. maternity. plantations.
Employees drawing pay not exceeding Rs.other establishments notified by the centeral govt.000 per month
Benefits of sickness. 10. 10
Maternity Benefit Act 1961
To provide for maternity protection before and after child birth
There is no wage limit for coverage provided the woman is not covered by the ESI act.1948 To provide for health care and cash benefits in the case of sickness. 1923 occupational diseases resulting in desablement or death Employee's State Insurance Act.
To provide for payment of gratuity on ceasing to hold office
Factories.350000. shops and establishments and also to other establishments to which the law is extended
Five years continuous service is requried for entitlement of gratuity. railway companies. The seasonal employees are entitled to gratuity at a rate of 7 days wages for each season. mines.
15 days wages for every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of 6 month subjects to a maximum of Rs.Payment of Gratuity Act.