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Bio-microelectrical mechanical systems (BioMEMS) and Nanobiotechnology

Dr. Shalini Prasad Electrical and Computer Engineering Biomedical Microdevices and Nanotechnology Laboratory sprasad@pdx.edu
ECE 510

http://www.ece.pdx.edu/~prasads
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Fact or Fiction
Requires advanced knowledge of biologyFALSE Cannot perform well in class without prerequisites in processing-FALSE Application oriented and targeted towards current industry applications- TRUE

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Course Outline 1. Introduction to Bio-MEMS and Nanobiotechnology


2. Silicon Microfabrication 3. Soft Fabrication Techniques 4. Polymer Materials and Microfluidics 5. Sensor Principles 6. Detection and Measurement Methods 7. Drug delivery systems 8. Micro-Total Analysis Systems (TAS) / Emerging Applications 9. Nanotechnology Applications
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Courtesy: S.S. Saliterman

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Course Outcomes
Ability to analyze and implement microfabrication of silicon, glass and polymer devices Ability to apply concepts of microfluidics and electrokinetics to micro and nano devices Ability to develop sensors, actuators and drug delivery systems Ability to analyze the concepts relating to micro total analysis systems and lab on a chip devices Ability to implement the concepts of detection and measurement systems. Ability of integrating nanotechnology with sensing and delivery systems
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Resources
1. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, The science of miniaturization Marc. J. Madou, CRC Press, 2nd Ed ISBN: 0-8493-0826-7 2. Bionanotechnology: Lessons from Nature David. S. Goodsell Wiley-Liss (1st Ed, 2004) ISBN: 047141719X 3. Springer Handbook on Nanotechnology Bharat Bushan, Springer; 1st Ed 2004 ISBN: 3540012184 4. Nanomedicine Vol 1: Basic Capabilities Landes Bioscience (1999) ISBN: 15 70596808 5. Silicon VLSI Technology - Fundamentals, Practice and Modeling Plummer, Deal and Griffin( 2000), Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0130850373 6. Microsystem Engineering of Lab-on-a-chip Devices O. Geschke, H. Klank, and P. Telleman, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Edition, 2004, ISBN: 3527307338 7. Microsystem Technology in Chemistry and Life Sciences A. Manz, H. Becker, Springer, 1999, ISBN: 3540655557. Class notes and Handouts 8. Fundamentals of Bio-MEMS and Medical Microdevices S.S. Saliterman, Wiley Interscience,2006, ISBN: 0819459779. Nanobiotechnology Edited by: C.M. Niemeyer and C.A. Mirkin, Wiley-VCH, ISBN: 3-527-30658-7 Journal Papers: Literature Survey: MEMS/Biotechnology/Nanotechnology Journals

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Contact Information
Instructor: Dr. Prasad Office: FAB 160-11 Office hours: Th and F 1-2 pm Email: sprasad@pdx.edu

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Assessment
Presentation 40% Selection of a research topic preparation of the research report, and oral presentation 1 and 2 Mid term 30% Final Exam: 30%

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Class Schedule
Week 1 (Apr. 2-8)
Introduction to BioMEMS and Nanobiotechnology Silicon Microfabrication

Week 2 (Apr. 9-15)


Silicon Microfabrication Soft Fabrication Techniques

Week 3 (Apr. 16-22)


Polymer materials and Microfluidics

Week 4 (Apr. 23-29)


Polymer Materials and Microfluidics Sensor Principles

Week 5 (Apr. 30-May 6)


Midterm Pre-presentation
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Class Schedule
Week 6 (May 8-14)
Sensor Principles Detection and Measurement Methods

Week 7 (May 15-21)


Drug delivery systems Micro-Total Analysis Systems (TAS)

Week 8 (May 22-28)


Emerging Applications Nanotechnology Applications

Week 9 (May 29-June 4)


Based on academic calendar May 28th University closed Review

Week 10 (Jun. 5-11)


Final presentations Final Exam ECE 510 Lecture1
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Research Topic
Choose one from 4 listed Email by Wednesday Topic-Broad Identify one specific application Identify current state of the technology Identify the problems Propose a possible solution for the application
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Research Topic- Example


MEMS based devices
MEMS Actuator Comb actuator Control flow in systems Different types of control Electrostatic control

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Presentations
Two-One 10 minute and another 20 minute Short- Back ground summary for identification of applications Long-Comprehensive Research Report- Based on Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics , look at URL for sample. Report max length: 1500words There needs to be a solution proposed Plagiarism will automatically result in a F for the report Look at PSU policy on plagiarism
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Exam Policy
No make up exam will be administered In case of an emergency you will have to provide documented proof for a re-exam Exam is closed book

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Micro Realm

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Nano Realm

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Moores Law
The number of components (e.g., transistors) on a chip roughly doubles every 18 months.

Figure reproduced from Moore's 1965 Electronics Magazine article, shows his findings. This trend suggested that processing power would rise exponentially and at a fast rate, leading to a computing revolution.
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From ICs to MEMS and NEMS

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Electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences The micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices. MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip.
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Definition of MEMS

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MEMS Market

MEMS market: The MEMS market is expanding quickly, and expected to triple within 4 years. When much of the MEMS market so far has come from the automotive industry, experts see the share of Bio-MEMS as emerging market with a market share currently around 16%

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Total MEMS Revenue 2001-2006: Lecture1 source: In-Stat/MDR

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What are Bio-MEMS?


BioMEMS-or biomedical microelectromechanical systems, has emerged as a subset of MEMS devices From the engineering perspective, micro- (and even nano-) technology is rapidly becoming the engineering of the future. From the application perspective BioMEMS devices span a wide range of important questions in environment, healthcare and defense
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Fabrication
Traditional MEMS based fabrication techniques incorporated with micro-fluidic physics, surface science of silicon, glass polymer and ceramics Surface modification for biocompatibility top down vs bottom-up Packaging constraints
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Structure
Bio/Nano Devices have at least one dimension in the nm to micron scale In-vitro systems vs In-vivo systems Smart systems or Lab-on-a-chip systems Open ended sensors and actuators, closed loop systems-autoregulation Miniaturization-lower manufacturing costs, reproducibility, small sample size, high throughput , precise control and reagent use
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BioMEMS- Processes and Applications

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Silicon Microfabrication

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Silicon Wafer Microfabrication

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Courtesy: Saliterman, BioMEMS and Medical Micro devices Spie publications

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Soft Micro fabrication Methods

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Microarray Chip Fabrication

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Courtesy: Affeymetrix

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Microfluidics and Transport Processes

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Micro fluidic Devices

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Transport Processes

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Micro needles and Micro pipettes

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Courtesy: Micronit

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Electrokinetics

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Sensors

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Specialized Sensors

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Micro Total Analysis Systems (TAS) and Lab-on-a-chip Devices (LOC)

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Detection Schemes

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Measurement Systems

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Use of Nanotechnology
Nanomaterial: Improved surface area to volume Control over electrical, physical, mechanical and chemical properties Integration o f top down to bottom up fabrication Extremely controlled systems on a chip
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Future Technologies

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Environmental Applications
Water Monitoring

Commercial prototypes for novel ultrasensitive and reliable biosensors for the detection and monitoring of phosphate and nitrate in water and sediment samples, as well as sulfite in wine, beverage and food samples. Develop a simple stick-type probe (similar to a pH electrode), which can readily be used in-field, in the laboratory, and also in industry.

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Healthcare Applications
GeneChip

Courtesy: Affymetrix

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DNA Probe Array

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Drug delivery Systems

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Drug Delivery Chip

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Tissue Engineering

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Minimally Invasive Techniques

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Military Applications
Food Monitoring

Biosensors are being pursued by the military as field-portable, real-time instruments to detect and identify pathogenic microorganisms from complex food materials A number of detection technologies are being investigated and validated with food matrices to include electrochemiluminescence, electrochemical, fluorescence, and chemiluminescence based systems.
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Military Applications
Air Monitoring

It operates on the technology of ion mobility spectrometers, photo ionization detectors, semiconductor gas sensors and electrochemical cells
The AIRSENSE Gas-Detector-Array GDA2 is a battery-operated, hand-held measuring instrument designed for the detection and identification within seconds of hazardous agents such as Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs).
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Biocompatibility and ISO 10993 Biological Evaluations

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