Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49

Bluebook Citation

Bluebook Citation

What is the Bluebook?

The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, 19 th ed.

Review,
Review,

Compiled by the editors of the Columbia Law

h ed. Review, Compiled by the editors of the Columbia Law the Harvard Law Review, the

the Harvard Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania

Law Review, and The Yale Law Journal.

editors of the Columbia Law the Harvard Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, and

Other Legal Citation Formats

ALWD Citation Manual (pronounced all-wood or owl-wood)

Green Book (Texas) California Style Manual APA MLA Bluebook citation format is most frequently used

all-wood or owl-wood) Green Book (Texas) California Style Manual APA MLA Bluebook citation format is most
all-wood or owl-wood) Green Book (Texas) California Style Manual APA MLA Bluebook citation format is most

Purpose of Citation

Identify the document and document part to which the

writer is referring

to find the in deciding
to find the
in deciding

Provide the reader with sufficient information document or document part

Furnish important additional to assist readers whether or not to pursue the reference

Importance of Citations

Judges care about citations and how briefs

are drafted.

could have been drafted in 13, 1998).
could have been
drafted in
13, 1998).

"Plaintiffs’

crayon on the back of a napkin.” Castro v. City of

complaint

Chicago,1998 WL 801814, at *2 (N.D.Ill. Nov.

crayon on the back of a napkin.” Castro v. City of complaint Chicago ,1998 WL 801814,

Bluebook Introduction

For generations, law students, lawyers, scholars,

have relied
have relied

judges, and other legal professionals

on The Bluebook’s unique system of citation in their writing.

have relied judges, and other legal professionals on The Bluebook ’s unique system of citation in
have relied judges, and other legal professionals on The Bluebook ’s unique system of citation in

What is a citation?

Black’s Law Dictionary defines “citation” as:

such as a
such as a

A reference to a legal precedent or authority,

case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position

Often shortened to cite

Types of Legal Sources

Primary Sources:

Constitutions

Cases

Statutes

Regulations

Primary Sources: Constitutions Cases Statutes Regulations Secondary Sources: Books/Treatises Encyclopedias

Secondary Sources:

Books/Treatises

Encyclopedias

Dictionaries

ALR’s

Legal Encyclopedias Practice Guides Periodicals (law review/bar journal articles) Newspapers/Magazines

Internet Sources

Constitutions

See Bluebook Rule 11

Constitutions See Bluebook Rule 11 1.The state (or country) abbreviation; 2.The abbreviation for "Constitution";

1.The state (or country) abbreviation;

2.The abbreviation for "Constitution"; and 3.The section or subdivision you are citing.

Examples:

U.S. Const. art. 1, § 8

Minn. Const. art. I, § 13

Statutes

Statutes Statutes – enacted by legislature (Congress or state legislature) Regulations – enacted by administrative
Statutes Statutes – enacted by legislature (Congress or state legislature) Regulations – enacted by administrative

Statutes enacted by legislature (Congress or state legislature)

Regulations enacted by administrative agencies

Codes a systematic collection or revision of laws, rules, or regulations “Code” can refer to statutes or regulations

Federal Statutes: compiled in the United States Code “U.S.C.” or “U.S. Code”

Federal Regulations: compiled in the Code of Federal Regulations “CFR”

Federal Statutes

1.The title number; 2.The code's abbreviation;

3.The section number of the statute; and

Example:

17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006)
17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006)

4.The year on the spine of the code volume (not the year the statute became effective)

Example: 17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006) 4.The year on the spine of the code volume (not
Example: 17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006) 4.The year on the spine of the code volume (not

Federal Statutes

Year of the code

Section number
Section number

Example:

17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006)

of the code Section number Example: 17 U.S.C. § 1201 (2006) Volume number Note: Many judges

Volume number

Note: Many judges and practitioners now delete the “Year of the Code”

Example:

17 U.S.C. § 1201

USCA and USCS

Where possible, cite the official code and not unofficial codes

possible, cite the official code and not unofficial codes Unofficial versions of the U.S. Code from

Unofficial versions of the U.S. Code from commercial publishers

United States Code Annotated (West)

17 U.S.C.A. § 1201 (West 2000)

United States Code Service (LexisNexis)

17 U.S.C.S. § 1201 (LexisNexis 2004)

State Statutes Varies by state Minnesota: Minn. Stat. § 609.185 (2010) Wisconsin: Wis. Stat. §

State Statutes

Varies by state

State Statutes Varies by state Minnesota: Minn. Stat. § 609.185 (2010) Wisconsin: Wis. Stat. § 134.98

Minnesota:

Minn. Stat. § 609.185 (2010)

Wisconsin:

Wis. Stat. § 134.98 (2010)

Utah:

Utah Code section 30310.4 (2008) Utah Code Ann. § 573103 (Supp.2010)

Cases: Background

A court opinion is the court’s written statement

explaining its decision in a “case” or “opinion”

often written by an appellate court.

or “opinion” often written by an appellate court. Judicial opinions are printed in bound law reporters

Judicial opinions are printed in bound law reporters or reporters.

or “opinion” often written by an appellate court. Judicial opinions are printed in bound law reporters
or “opinion” often written by an appellate court. Judicial opinions are printed in bound law reporters

Law Reporter

A law reporter (or “law report”) is a published volume of

law reporter (or “law report”) is a published volume of judicial decisions by a particular court

judicial decisions by a particular court or group of courts.

judicial decisions by a particular court or group of courts. Law reports may be either official

Law reports may be either official (published by the

government) or unofficial (published by a private

publisher).

Components of a Citation

Page Number Name of the Reporter Year of the Decision
Page Number
Name of the
Reporter
Year of the
Decision

Brown v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 193 (1934)

Names of the Parties

Volume Number

U.S. Supreme Court Cases

The opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court are published

U.S. 1
U.S. 1

officially in a set of case books called the United States

Reports.

In the citation Morgan v. United States, 304

(1938), “304 U.S. 1” is the abbreviation from the U.S. Reports.

In the citation Morgan v. United States , 304 (1938), “304 U.S. 1” is the abbreviation

Commercial Publishers

Supreme Court cases also appear in:

Lawyers'
Lawyers'

The Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) published by Thomson-West and;

The United States Supreme Court Reports, Edition 2d (L.Ed.) published by Lexis

(S.Ct.) published by Thomson-West and; The United States Supreme Court Reports, Edition 2d (L.Ed.) published by

Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.)

Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.)

United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers' Edition (L.Ed., L.Ed.2d)

United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers' Edition (L.Ed., L.Ed.2d)

What is a parallel citation?

Reference to a case that has been reported in more than one

reporter.

parallel
parallel

Bluebook citation reads: Morgan v. United States, 304 U.S. 1 (1938)

The same reference including parallel citations reads: Morgan v.

United States, 304 U.S. 1, 58 S.Ct. 773, 82 L.Ed. 1129 (1938)

The main citation is to the U.S. Reports (U.S.) and the

citations are to the Supreme Court Reporter (S.Ct.) and to the Lawyer's Edition (L.Ed.)

What is the Federal Reporter?

The Federal Reporter (“F.2d” or “F.3d”) is case law

The Federal Reporter (“F.2d” or “F.3d”) is case law reporter containing opinions from the U.S. courts

reporter containing opinions from the U.S. courts of

appeals and the court of Federal Claims.

Example: Mejdrech v. Met- Coil Systems Corp., 319 F.3d

910 (7th Cir. 2003)

What is the Federal Supplement?

The Federal Supplement Reporter (“F.Supp.” or

The Federal Supplement Reporter (“F.Supp.” or “F.Supp.2d”) is case law reporter containing select

“F.Supp.2d”) is case law reporter containing

select opinions from U.S. District Courts.

Example: Potts v. Dyncorp Intern. LLC, 465 F.Supp.2d 1245 (M.D.Ala. 2006)

State Cases: Regional Reporters

State cases are published in regional reporters. West's National Reporter System is a set of reporters that divides the 50 states and

System is a set of reporters that divides the 50 states and the District of Columbia

the District of Columbia into seven regions:

South Western Reporter (S.W.2d, S.W.3d)

Atlantic Reporter (A.2d)

North Eastern Reporter (N.E.2d)

North Western Reporter (N.W.2d)

Pacific Reporter (P.2d, P.3d)

South Eastern Reporter (S.E.2d)

Southern Reporter (So.2d)

Map of Regional Reporters

Map of Regional Reporters

Minnesota State Cases

Minnesota Supreme Court:

Minnesota State Cases Minnesota Supreme Court: Minnegasco, Inc. v. County of Carver , 447 N.W.2d 878

Minnegasco, Inc. v. County of Carver, 447 N.W.2d 878

(Minn. 1989)

Minnesota Court of Appeals:

Great W. Cas. Co. v. Christenson, 450 N.W.2d 153

(Minn. Ct. App. 1990)

Minnesota State Capitol

Wisconsin State Cases

Wisconsin Supreme Court:

849, 865
849, 865

Aicher v. Wis. Patients Comp., 613 N.W.2d

(Wis. 2000)

Wisconsin Court of Appeals:

Sudgen v. Bock, 641 N.W.2d 693 (Wis. Ct. App. 2002)

Wisconsin Supreme Court

Use lowercase “v.”

Use the lowercase “v.” in case citation

“v.” Use the lowercase “v.” in case citation Correct: Smith v. Jones Incorrect: Smith vs. Jones

Correct: Smith v. Jones

Incorrect: Smith vs. Jones Incorrect: Smith V. Jones

Party Names

Do not include first names of parties,

Party Names Do not include first names of parties, unless they are the name of a

unless they are the name of a corporation:

Cite as: Smith v. Jones Do not cite as: John Smith v. Paul Jones

Cite as: Baker v. John Smith Inc.

Party Names

If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant, use only

If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant, use only the first party on each

the first party on each side.

Correct: Bush v. Gore

Incorrect: George W. Bush and Richard Cheney,

Petitioners v. Albert Gore, Jr., et al.

each side. Correct: Bush v. Gore Incorrect: George W. Bush and Richard Cheney, Petitioners v. Albert

Case Names

Use italics (not underlines)

Case Names Use italics (not underlines ) Correct: Bush v. Gore Incorrect: Bush vs. Gore Incorrect:

Correct: Bush v. Gore Incorrect: Bush vs. Gore

Incorrect: Bush v. Gore

Dates

Generally, include only the year of the decision.

(N.D.Ill. Nov.
(N.D.Ill. Nov.

Example (reported case):

Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000)

If the case is unpublished, include the month, day, and year.

Example (unreported case):

Castro v. City of Chicago,1998 WL 801814 13, 1998).

United States United any W. U.S., Use “United States” when the United States is a

United States

United any W. U.S.,
United
any
W. U.S.,

Use “United States” when the United States is a party

Do not use “U.S.” or “United States of America”

“United States” is never abbreviated when the

States is a party in a case name. However, it may be

abbreviated as part of another party’s name, like

other word in T.11. In textual sentences, “U.S.” may be

used as an adjective, but it should never be used as a

noun.

Example: United States v. Church of Scientology

973 F.2d 715 (9th Cir. 1992).

Short Cite: Consecutive Citations

Give the long cite when a case is first cited in a

Citations Give the long cite when a case is first cited in a document. On references

document. On references to the same case

immediately following that case (or “consecutive

same case immediately following that case (or “consecutive citations”) use the short cite format with “Id.”

citations”) use the short cite format with “Id.”

citations”) use the short cite format with “Id.” Full cite: McDonald v. Eubanks , 731 S.W.2d

Full cite: McDonald v. Eubanks, 731 S.W.2d 769, 770 (Ark. 1987).

McDonald v. Eubanks , 731 S.W.2d 769, 770 (Ark. 1987). Short cite still citing page 770:

Short cite still citing page 770: Id.

Short cite now citing page 771: Id. at 771.

Using “Id.”

If the same citation immediately follows the previous cite (consecutive citations), use “Id.”

the previous
the previous

If the same citation immediately follows

cite (consecutive citations) but on a different page, use “Id. at [page number]”

Example (same page): Id. Example (page 97): Id. at 97.

Short Cite: Non-consecutive Citations

If the long cite has been previously given but the cite does not immediately follow the cite (e.g. new cites

cite does not immediately follow the cite (e.g. new cites are given), use the short cite

are given), use the short cite format for non-

consecutive citations.

Long Cite (first reference in document):

“The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places.” Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82 (1965).

Short Cite (non-consecutive citation):

“The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places.” Katz, 375 U.S. at 82.

What is a pinpoint citation?

a case or article
a case or article

A pinpoint citation is the page on which a quotation or relevant

passage appears, as opposed to the page on which

begins.

For example, the number 217 refers to the page number in the

pinpoint citation for Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186, 217 (1962)

Also called jump cite; pincite

McConnell v. Federal Election Commission, 540

U.S. 93 (2003) is a U.S. Supreme Court case 300 pages in length. Imagine trying to find a quote in a 300 page case without a pinpoint cite. Aaaargh!

Pincite

More examples:

not places.” 82.
not places.”
82.

Long cite: “The Fourth Amendment protects people, Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82 (1965).

Short cite (consecutive): “The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places.” Id. at 82.

Short cite (non-consecutive): “The Fourth Amendment protects

people, not places.” Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. at

The first page of the opinion is on page 76 and the page where the quotation appears is on page 82.

More Examples: Cases

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit:

Cases U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit: Kennedy v. Nat'l Juvenile Det. Ass'n ,

Kennedy v. Nat'l Juvenile Det. Ass'n, 187 F.3d 690 (7th

Cir. 1999)

U.S. District Court, District of Minnesota:

Haghighi v. Russian-American Broad. Co., 945 F. Supp. 1233 (D. Minn. 1996)

U.S. District Court in Minneapolis

Unpublished Cases

Cases published in law reporters are “reported” or “published” cases.

law reporters are “reported” or “published” cases. Unpublished cases may also appear on court websites or
law reporters are “reported” or “published” cases. Unpublished cases may also appear on court websites or

Unpublished cases may also appear on court websites or Westlaw and Lexis, the leading online legal research services.

and Lexis, the leading online legal research services. Courts may have local rules that prohibit attorneys

Courts may have local rules that prohibit attorneys from citing unpublished cases.

leading online legal research services. Courts may have local rules that prohibit attorneys from citing unpublished

Abbreviations

Be sure to use proper abbreviations in the Bluebook

Be sure to use proper abbreviations in the Bluebook Case names (Table T6) Example: Association =

Case names (Table T6) Example: Association = Assn.

Court names in citing cases (Table T7) Example: Probate Court = Prob. Ct.

Geographical terms in citing cases (Table T10) Example: Minnesota = Minn.

Periodicals (Table T13) Example: Wall Street Journal = Wall St. J.

More Abbreviations in Case Names

Check Table 6 for common abbreviations in case names

Names Check Table 6 for common abbreviations in case names Association = Ass’n Committee = Comm.

Association = Ass’n Committee = Comm. Corporation = Corp.

University = Univ.

Example: Jones v. Univ. of Minn.

Law Review Articles

1.The authors' name full as it appears in the article;

and & Tech. 41
and
& Tech. 41

2.The title of the article or headline (italicized);

3.Volume number of the law review; 4.The abbreviated name of the law review; 5.The page number of the article's first page;

6.The law review's year of publication.

Example:

Dan L. Burk & Julie E. Cohen, Fair Use Infrastructure for

Rights Management Systems, 15 Harv. J.L.

(2001)

Other Secondary Sources

Legal Encyclopedia:

2 Am. Jur. 2d Administrative Law § 416

Developments
Developments

American Law Report (ALR) Annotation:

Mitchell J. Waldman, When Will Federal Court of Appeals Review Issue

Raised by Party for First Time on Appeal Where Legal

After Trial Affect Issue, 76 A.L.R. Fed. 522 (1986)

Review Issue Raised by Party for First Time on Appeal Where Legal After Trial Affect Issue,

Newspaper Articles

Include author, title, name of publication, date, and page

Include author, title, name of publication, date, and page Example: Steven Greenhouse, Democrats Drop Key Part

Example:

author, title, name of publication, date, and page Example: Steven Greenhouse, Democrats Drop Key Part of

Steven Greenhouse, Democrats Drop Key Part of Bill to

Assist Unions, N.Y. Times, July 17, 2009, at A1

Internet Resources

Follow Rule 18.2.2 when citing material online sources Where possible, cite the printed source

and 4) URL (Aug. 9,
and 4) URL
(Aug. 9,

Provide: 1) Author's name; 2) Title; 3) Date of publication;

Do not simply provide the URL

Example:

Emily Bazelon, In Defense of the New Judicial Activists, Slate

2010), http://www.slate.com/id/2263347/.

the URL Example: Emily Bazelon, In Defense of the New Judicial Activists , Slate 2010), http://www.slate.com/id/2263347/.

When in Doubt?

See how the source is cited in a recent law review article

See how the source is cited in a recent law review article or recent case from

or recent case from the U.S. Supreme Court or state

supreme court

Used by legal practitioners

Think of purposes of citation:

Direct reader to a particular source Adds credibility to legal arguments Direct and persuasive authority

Web Resources

http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/ Introduction to Legal Citation; Lots of Examples

Introduction to Legal Citation; Lots of Examples http://www.legalbluebook.com/ Official Bluebook Site (online

Official Bluebook Site (online subscription available and FAQs)

Georgetown Law Library