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1) 2) 3) 4)

5.1 5.2 5.3

Demineralization process . Ion exchange materials. Different demineralization systems


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

WAC Exchanger.. SAC Exchanger. Degasser system. WBA Exchanger SBA Exchanger. Mixed Bed...

7) 8)

MONITORING OF DM PLANT OPTIMISATION OF DM PLANT OPERATION. 8.1 selection of regeneration system .. 8.2 selection of layout & resin types. 8.3 atmospheric degasifier. 8.4 outputs based on water quality...............................................................



Water is one of the basic requirements in raising steam. In nature water is available in abundance. Its physical and chemical characteristics vary depending upon the source and strata on which it flows. It picks up mineral salts from the soil, which go in to solution. Water, therefore contains mineral salts in dissolved condition, in varying proportions, composition and degree. It gets polluted further with multifarious organic and inorganic impurities due to disposal of industrial and domestic wastes. Decayed vegetation and microorganism also contribute to contamination. Besides dissolved salts water contains coarse substance in suspended form, constituting of silt and clay matters, generally termed as turbidity. Silicate matters are present in dissolved as well as in colloidal forms, proportion of which varies depending mainly on the following conditions: Temperature Seasonal Conditions Chemical characteristics of the particulate Velocity of the flow

Table 1 lists the major impurities of raw water, classed in three main groups: first, ionic and dissolved, second non-ionic and undissolved and third gaseous. The ionic impurities in the first group are sub divided in to cations and anions. Organic matter and colour appear in both the first two groups, because there are many types: some dissolved and ionic, such as hamates, and others colloidal and non-ionic, such as tannins. Also there may be types of organic matter that are dissolved and non-ionic.

MAJOR IMPURITIES OF WATER: CATIONIC Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Ammonium Iron Manganese ANIONIC Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulphate Chloride Phosphate Silica Organic matter colour NON-IONIC AND UN-DISSOLVED Turbidity, silt, mud, dirt and other suspended matter. Colour Organic matter Colloidal silica Micro-organisms Bacteria Oil Corrosion products (condensate) GASEOUS Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Sulphide Ammonia Methane Oxygen Chlorine

HARDNESS Permanent Hardness: is due to presence of SO4, NO3, Cl of Ca++ & Mg++ Temporary Hardness: is due to presence of HCO3 & CO3 of Ca++ & Mg++ in water Equivalent Mineral Acidity: (E.M.A.):This is the sum of all ions of SO4 + Cl + NO3 in raw water. Alkalinity is of 3 types. 1. 2. 3. Bicarbonate Alkalinity Carbonate Alkalinity hydroxide or caustic Alkalinity

Total Alkalinity = HCO3 + CO3 + OH Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (p Alk) is determined by titration with an acid and the colour change (pink to colorless) takes place at pH of about 8.3. Methyl Orange Alkalinity (M. Alkalinity):- During titration with an acid, the colour change takes place at about pH of 4.3 (Orange to Pink)



Dissolved impurities may be expressed in terms of ions themselves or in terms of their equivalent. The preferred method of expression in water treatment field is in terms of equivalent of Calcium Carbonate abbreviated as CaCo3. CaCo3 is a good common denominator because it has a molecular weight of 100, which facilitates calculations. Moreover in this form of analysis the sum of cations always equal to sum of anions. This method also aids in predicting the comparative analysis after various forms of treatment and analysis at consecutive steps in multi step demineralization. If analysis expressed in terms of ions, it can be converted to the form of expression in terms of equivalent CaCo3 (or as CaCo3 ) by dividing figures by equivalent weight of ions then multiplying by equivalent weight of CaCo3 in terms of CaCo3 it becomes 40 ----- X 50 = 100 ppm as Caco3. 20 (i.e. 50). For example if amount of Calcium in water is 40 ppm as Ca then during expressing it

(Here 20 is equivalent wt. of Ca)

(Equivalent weight of an ion is its molecular weight divided by its valances) Other units of analysis of water are: a) one grain/u.s. gallon b) one grain/imperial gallon c) one milligram/liter Or one gram/m3 [Note 1 U.S. gallon = 8.33 pounds 1 pound = 7000 grams 1 imperial gallon = 10 pounds 1 liter = 1,000,000 mg] = 1 ppm = 17.1 ppm = 14.3 ppm = 1 ppm



MEANS OF TREATMENT Coagulation, setting and filtration.

CONSTIT CHEMICAL DIFFICULTIES CAUSED UENT FORMULA 1. Turbidity None Imparts unsightly expressed in appearance to analytical water. Deposits units in water lines and process equipment. 2. Colour None May cause foaming in Boilers. expressed in Hinders precipation methods analytical such as iron removal and units softening. 3. Hardness Calcium and Chief source of scale in heat Magnesium exchange equipment, boilers, salts pipelines, etc. forms curds with expressed as soap and interferes with dyeing. CaCO3 4. Alkalinity HCO3, CO3 Foaming and carryover of solids and OH with steam. Embitterment of expressed as boiler steel. Bicarbonate and CaCO3 carbonate produce CO2 in steam a source of corrosion in condensate lines. 5.Free H2SO4, HCL, Corrosion Mineral etc. Acid expressed 6.Carbon CO2 Corrosion in water lines Dioxide particularly steam and condensate lines. 7. pH HydrogenPH varies according to acidic or ion alkaline solids in water. Neutral concentration water have a pH of 6.0 8.0 defined as PH = log 1/H 8. Sulphate (SO4) Adds to the solids content of water, but in itself, is not usually significant. Combines with Ca++ to form CaSO4 scale. 9. Chloride Cl Adds to the solids content

Coagulation and filtration, chlorination, Adsorption by activated carbon. Softening, Demineralization, internal boiler water treatment.

Lime & Lime Soda Softening. Acid treatment. Hydrogen Zeolite softening.

Demineralizing. Dealkalization by H ion exchange. Neutralization with alkalies. Aeration, De-aeration, Neutralization with alkalis. pH can be increased by alkalis and decreased by acids.






The purpose of pre treatment is to render raw water fit as influent to a de-mineralizing unit. Pre treatment is done to make water free from suspended, colloidal and organic impurities. Since presence of such impurities adversely affect the de-ionisation effect and the final quality of de-mineralized water, pre-treatment plays a vital role in water treatment. The different process involved in pre-treatment are:a) Settling and Coagulation b) Filtration a) SETTLING & COAGULATION: Used for removal of turbidity and suspended matter. The coarse, heavy particles of suspended matter gets easily removed by settling the water in a tank, but some suspended impurities, such as turbidity, micro-organisms and colour are very finely divided or even in colloidal form, so that they do not settle readily. excessively large, to remove these fine particles. Co-agulation is a process of breaking up of a colloidal solution resulting in the recipitation of the particle of the dispersed phase. It may be spontaneous and brought about by the additions of an electrolyte which is termed as coagulant. Co-agulation, induced by adding chemicals (Coagulants) to the water, agglomerates the finely divided, suspended solids in to masses that settle more readily. This occurs in two ways:

Settling basins would have to be

The particles of turbidity and colour have like electric charges on their surfaces, which keep them apart, because like electric charges repel one another and the coagulant ions selected possess charges opposite to those on the suspended particles, so that they neutralize each other.

The coagulant reacts with the alkalinity of the water to form a gelatinous precipitate, called floc which enmeshes and entraps the finer of the suspended particles. Alum or Aluminum sulphate is the most commonly used coagulant, because it is the lowest in cost and least corrosive to handle. The reactions are shown below:Al2 (SO4)3 + 3 Ca (HCO3)2 = 2Al (OH) 3 + 3CaSO4 + 6CO2


The other coagulates are FeSO4 (Ferrous sulphate) and ferric sulphate (SO4)3} Factors influencing coagulation:


Organic matter, if present in appreciable amounts, inhibits coagulation and narrows the optimal pH range. For the oxidation of organic matter pre chlorination and narrows the optimal pH ranges. For the oxidation of organic matter pre chlorination is desirable, because it broadens the optimal pH range and there by makes the coagulation easier to control.

If the alkalinity in the water is insufficient to react with the dose of co-agulant, the pH is below the optimal range, and then the alkalinity must be increased by adding an alkali. Lime is the cheapest alkali. For Al2 (SO4)3 optimum pH is from 5.5 to 7.5.

b) Filtration: Filtration is defined as passage of fluid through a porous medium to remove matters held in suspension. In water purification the matter to be removed includes:1. Suspended Silt 2. Clay 3. colloids

Micro Organisms including algae, bacteria and virus. Particle Size, Milli-micron 50,000 5,000 50 1 1,000

The particles to be removed have approximate size as follows:Material Silt Bacteria Viruses Colloids




DEMINERALIZATION PROCESS & SYSTEMS: The process of demineralization water by ion exchange comprises of:

Conversion of salts to their corresponding acids by hydrogen cat-ion exchanger. Removal of acids by anion exchangers. The two exchangers are normally in series. Normally cat-ion precedes the anion exchanger ION EXCHANGE MATERIALS:


Major ion exchange materials are synthetic resins made by the polymerization of various organic compounds. Most frequently used compounds are:1. Styrene 2. Die vinyl Benzene

The long chained co-polymer formed from these compounds contains a major proportion of styrene (80-92%) and a minor portion of divinely Benzene (820%). Divinyl Benzene acts as a cross link to hold the polymer chains together.

To make strong acid cation exchanger polymer is treated with concentrated sulphuric acid, which attaches SO3H to the hydro carbon network, to make most anion exchanger resin the matrix is chloromethylated and animated.

The resin when dry shrinks so that chains come very close together and the bead cannot be readily penetrated by the ions, but when placed in water, it takes on water and swells, so that the chains spread apart and permits the diffusion of the ions.

The degree of swelling depends on the degree of cross linking, i.e. the number of cross links. The greater the no. of cross links, less the moisture holding capacity and the swelling.

From the kinetic point of view, for a steady exchange reaction it will be desirable to have as low as a degree of cross linkage as possible, but this


would result in a high degree of swelling and an accompanying gelatinous structure having poor hydraulics properties. The design of commercial ion exchange resin is therefore involves a choice of cross linking that represents a compromise between kinetic and hydraulic performance. Cation exchanger of the hydrogen type are either strongly acidic or weekly acidic. Strongly acidic resins contain the sulfonic acidic functional group SO3H where as weekly acidic resins contain carboxylic acidic group COOH. Similarly there are weekly basic anion exchanger resins and strongly basic anion exchanger resins. Strongly basic anion exchangers are again of two types, type I and type II. Type I resins have less exchange capacity, but more stability than type II. Type I have quaternary ammonium functional group. with an ethanol group. The week base anion exchangers have polyamine functional groups containing primary amine NH2, secondary amine NHR and tertiary amines NR2. 5.3 DIFFERENT DEMINERALISATION SYSTEM: Various system combinations are available. Selection of particular system depends on quality of raw water available and the requirement of end product. The various demineralization systems have been shown below. Different Demineralization System Demineralization System 1. SA-WB 2. SA-WB-D Application Typical Effluent Remarks Type II has modified quaternary ammonium functional group where one of the methyl groups is replaced

SiO2 + CO2 are no Conductivity 10-30 Low equipment and limitation micro mhos/cm. SiO2 regenerate cost. un-changed No limitation of SiO2 Conductivity 10-20 Low regenerate cost. but CO2 removal is micro mhos/cm required

3. SA-SB 4. SA-D-SB 5. SA-WB-D-SB

Low alkalinity raw water. SiO2 removal required. High alkalinity of raw water. SiO2 removal required. Higher alkalinity, SO4 and Cl in raw water. SiO2 removal required. High hardness, alkalinity, sulphate and chloride. SiO2 removal required. High alkalinity, high Na in raw water, high purity treated water required. Low solids raw water high purity of treated water required. High alkalinity and dissolved solid raw water. High purity treated water. High alkalinity & dissolved solid raw water. Ultra pure water required.

Conductivity micro mhos/cm. = 0.02-0.1 Conductivity micro mhos/cm. = 0.02 0.1 Conductivity micro mhos/cm. = 0.02-0.1

5-15 Low equipment cost SiO2 high chemical cost. 5-15 Low chemical cost. SiO2 5-15 Low chemical with SiO2 high equipment cost.


Conductivity 5-15 Lowest chemical cost micro mhos/cm. SiO2 high equipment cost. = 0.02-0.1 Conductivity 1-5 Low chemical cost, micro mhos/cm. SiO2 high equipment cost. = 0.01-0.05 Conductivity 1.0 micro mhos/cm SiO2 = 0.01 0.05 Conductivity 1.0 micro mhos/cm SiO2 = 0.01 0.05 Low equipment cost, high chemical cost Lower chemical cost, higher equipment cost.


8. MB 9. SA-D-SB-MB-MB


Conductivity 0.5 Lower chemical cost, micro mhos/cm SiO2 higher equipment cost. = 0.01 0.02

KEY SA SB WB WA D MB Strong acid Cation Exchanger Strong Base Anion Exchanger Weak Base Anion Exchanger Weak acid Cation Exchanger Degasser Mixed Bed




A typical DM plant consists of cation, degasser and anion exchangers: Introducing weak acid cation exchanger and weak base anion along with typical demineralization chain and regenerating strong and weak exchangers by same acid/caustic increase the efficiency of plant. Also having mixed bed for polishing ex-anion water improves the quality of D.M. water to great extent. OVERVIEW OF DM PLANT
Degasser tower

Raw water inlet

Pressure filter

Weak Acid cation

Strong Acid cation

Degasser tank

DM Water storage tank Weak Ba se Anion Strong Ba se anion Mixed Bed DM water supply to unit

Degasser usually provided in between cation exchangers and anion exchangers to remove carbon dioxide that decipates during ion exchange in cation exchangers. The operating principles of weak acid cation exchanger (WAC), strong acid cation exchanger (SAC), Degasser, Weak Base Anion Exchanger (NBA), Strong Base Anion Exchanger (SBA) and mixed bed (MB) are discussed in following paragraphs. 6.1 WEAK ACID CATION EXCHANGERS:

Weak acid cation exchanger mainly removes Calcium & Magnesium alkalinity from raw water. For simplicity cation resin is represented by H2R and equation for the service cycle of WAC can be written as


Ca -R + H2CO3 Mg H2O + CO2

Strong acid cation exchanger removes sulfates, chloride, nitrates and sodium salts. The equation for service cycle of strong acid cation can be written as Ca Mg So4 Cl2 NO3 HCO3 CO3 SO4 Cl2 NO3 Ca + H2R Mg -R H2So4 + HCl HNO3


+ H 2R

NaR +

H2C03 H2So4 HCl HNO3


H2O + CO2.

Process of exchanging salts in cation exchange continues till resin looses its capacity to convert salts into corresponding acids. After this the resin to be regenerated by using hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid. During regeneration resin will regain its capacity to exchange salts after which it can again remove salts from water. The equation for regeneration cycle can be written as follows: Ca Mg Na Ca Mg Na

+ HCl




Ca Mg Na

+ H2So4

Ca Mg Na



Note: Strong Acid Cation Resin can also remove alkaline salts of Calcium & Magnesium. However as WAC is precedes SAC, there wont be any load of alkaline salts on SAC. When Weak Acid Cation and Strong acid cation are in series regeneration is done in through fare system. Acid after regenerating strong acid cation exchanger passes through weak acid cation exchanger. Ion leakage and end points of exhaustion phase: During re-generation with down flow of acid the top of bed is more completely converted to the hydrogen form than the bottom, but unless uneconomical amounts of excess acid are employed, the bottom usually contains a band of sodium at the end of re-generation. As the next service run starts, the cations in the influent are exchanged for the hydrogen ions in the top of the bed, releasing the sodium as cation leakage into the effluent. As the run progresses, this sodium cation leakage decreases, because the sodium band at the bottom is gradually consumed. The cations in the water are converted to their corresponding acids. But the conversion is not complete. The difference between the total mineral acidity (corresponding to the sulphates and chlorides in the influent) and the free mineral acidity in the effluent is equal to the cation leakage. At the end of the exhaustion run, at the break through, the FMA drops, and when the resulting increased cation leakage reaches the allowable limit, the unit is regenerated. Normally conductivity is compared during the run. The conductivity ratio is normally constant during the run. At the exhaustion the conductivity ratio changes indicating the exhaustion. Cation leakage is important because it affects the purity of the demineralizer effluent. A strong base anion exchanger can remove only the acidity, not the sodium. It coverts the


sodium salts to sodium hydroxide, which creates a high conductivity and pH value in the effluent. Therefore for a low conductivity of dematerialized water cation leakage (Na) must be reduced. The several methods adopted area:1. Air Mixing of resin Regeneration. 2. Counter flow re-generation.


In de-mineralization process carbon dioxide generated by dissociation of carbonic acid at cation outlet water. H2CO3 H2O + CO2

The CO2 generated if not removed increases load on SBA resin. So degassers or Decarborators are placed in cation & anion. Degassers usually made of acid proof materials (wood or rubber lined steel) as it have to handle acidic water of cation exchangers. (Redwood or cypresses are usually preferred woods). Typical degasser as shown; air blown at the bottom and rises counter current to the downward trickling water. The spray pipes or trays divide water into droplets or thin films exposing new surfaces to gas phase. Tray also serves to agitate the water by splashing thus allow dissolved gases to leave water readily. Agitation overcome tendency of water to retain gas bubbles through surface tension and viscosity. Height of the tray stack or Rasching ring proportional to amount of influent CO2. Decarborators are designed with flow rates that range from 20 to 30 gal/min/sq.foot areas (1 to 1.5 m3/min/m2). The height of Rasching ring varies from 5 to 15 ft.


Sectional view of degasser tower




Weak base anion exchangers can remove only the highly dissociated acids (like H2So4, HNO3, HCl) from the effluent of cation exchanger. They can not remove weakly dissociated carbonic acid from alkalinity or silica acid from the silica content in the water. Exhaustion reaction represented by equation. H2SO4 2 HCl 2HNO3 SO4 (NO3)2 2R Na

+ 2ROH


The regenerates of weak base anion resins may be NaOH, Na2CO3 or NH3 Some typical application of WBA exchanger are mirror silvering, processing of ceramics, deproofing or cutting of alcohol in distilleries, plating, glass manufacture and automobile pointing. 6.5 STRONG BASE ANION EXCHANGER This removes weakly dissociated and the strongly dissociated acids. The reaction of strong base anion exchangers given in following equation:

H2SO4 2HCl 2H2CO3

+ 2ROH

SO4 Cl2 (Co3)2

2R + 2H2O

Regeneration of Anion exchanger usually did by caustic soda. If weak base anion exchanger & strong base anion exchanger are in series regeneration done in thoroughfare system. Caustic soda after regenerating strong base anion exchanger passes through weak base anion exchanger. Following equation represents regeneration equation. SO4 Cl2 (NO3)2 SiO3 CO3 Na2SO4 2NaCl 2 Na (NO3)2 Na2SiO3 Na2CO3

-2R +

2 NaOH

2 ROH +





In mixed bed both strong cation and strong anion exchangers are in same shell, rather in separate shells. They are mixed together by compressed air after regeneration. Cation and anion particles being next to each other constitute a series of two bed pairs of beads. Prior to regeneration the two resins are separated by backwashing. Due to density difference between two types of beads, the two types of resins separate completely and settle one above the other (cation in the bottom and anion at the top). A screened interface pipe system, located between two resins, collects regenerate effluent. Acid usually follows upward and caustic soda downward. Cation Regeneration usually proceeds anion, but two may be simultaneously also. The advantage of sequential regeneration is that the Calcium cations dissipated from the cation resins before carbonate ions from Anion resins, formation of Calcium Carbonate precipitates is avoided thus avoiding fouling of interface screening. A downward blocking flow of water proceeds from top while acid flows upward. Both blocking water as well as effluent acid escape through interface collector. The blocking flow avoids expansion of bed and also prevents acid from entering anion bed above interface. An upward blocking flow of water or acid proceeds from bottom while caustic soda flows downward, so that later does not enter cation resin. Usually mixed bed used for polishing and follows a two bed pair.



REMEDIES Check by analysis Check Check Give treatment for de-fouling Regular running Check and ensure uniform distribution of bed Give prolonged backwash Check /replace the resin Check and makeup the level Check and regenerate Check and regenerate Check and regenerate Again remix the resin by air and rinse. Check and rectify. Check feed water analysis. Note changes in Na / TC and Silica / TA ratios. Use more chemicals accordingly. Check Rinse it to satisfactory quantity. Adjust the unit flow between minimum and maximum flow rate. Check and ensure uniform distribution in bed. Same as 1 (d ). Check the resin and replace. Give extended backwash after exhaustion of bed. Give extended air mixing. Give extended final rinse. Check and rectify.

S. NO.


CAUSES a. Increase in ionic load b. Flow integrator/indicator defective c. Less amount of regenerant chemical used for regeneration d. Resin fouled e. Plant being used intermittently f. Channeling in resin bed g. h. i. a. b. c. d. Resin dirty Resin deteriorated Resin quantity become less Cation exhausted Anion exhausted Mixed bed exhausted Resin in mixed bed not in mixed state e. Some valves particularly back wash inlet valves passing f. Sodium slip from cation high

Decrease in capacity between two regenerations

Treated water quality not as specified

g. Silica slip from anion high h. Unit idle i. Unit is not sufficiently rinsed j. Excessive low flow rate k. Channeling of resin bed l. Resin fouled m. Resin deteriorated a. Resin not separated during back wash b. Air mixing not proper c. Final rinse not proper d. Some valves may be leaking and contaminating the treated water

Mixed bed quality not good


High residual CO2 from b. Improper air flow to degasser degasser

a. Due to choked suction filter of Check and clean filter. degassed air blower Check blower discharge valve / damper / speed of blower and it's discharge pressure. Check and take blower in line.

c. Degasser blower not in operation


Flooding in Degasser

a. Very high air flow rate b. a. b. c. d. e. a.

Unit rinse takes long time

Flow rate too low 7


c. d. e.

a. 8 Pressure drop across bed increasing b. c. d. a. b. c. a. b. c.

9 10

Resin bed being lost Ejector not working

Reduce air flow rate by adjusting V/V Packed tower choked due to dust Open, check, clean or replace or broken packing material packing. Flow rate too low Check and increase flow rate. Backwash inlet valves not holding Check and rectify. Anion resin organically fouled Give alkaline brine treatment. Mixed Bed air mix not satisfactory Carryout air mixing again. Faulty design, Check/rectify. Acid or alkali pockets formed in Temporarily give longer backwash unit and rinse again. Choked valves or suction strainer Check and rectify of pump Check water level in respective Cavitations in pump tanks. Low inlet pressure Check water pressure. Distribution or collector system Check and clean choked Resin trap at outlet unit choked Check and clean Control valves shut due to low off Increase off take. take. Defective valves Check and rectify / replace. Give extended backwash with open Packing of resin bed due to fines of manhole, scrap fines from top of resin bed Collecting system choked Check and repeat backwash. Pressure gauge defective Check and rectify / replace. Due to excessive backwash Check inlet pressure and flow rate pressure or flow. and reduce it if necessary. Examine the system for any Faulty collection system breakage. Inlet strainer damaged Check and replace. Low power water pressure Check and adjust. Air lock in the unit Backwash and release air entrapped in unit. Choked or defective valves Examine and rectify

d. Ejector nozzle may be choked e. Too much back Pressure from unit Incorrect reading from b. Dirty glass or float rotameters. Improper reading from flow recorder integrator f. Bulge in rubber linking of pipeline a. Choked orifice or impulse line

Check and clean. Check for choking of regenerant distribution / collecting system. Passing of inlet and outlet valves. Check and rectify. Check and clean Check and clean



a. Choked impulse line or orifice Check and clean b. DP transmitter requires re Re calibrate calibration c. Leakage in signal tube between Check and repair transmitter and panel Check instrument air pressure and take remedial measure d. Low air pressure for D. P. transmitter or recorder a. Improper contact between Check the contact and rectify. electrodes and control cabling. b. Short circuiting of electrodes due Clean and dry contacts of to moisture , dirt etc moisture and dirt. c. Improper working controllers of level Check and repair.



Level electrodes system for measuring and dilution tank not functioning properly Leakage from acid injection or unloading transfer pumps

a. Improper adjustment mechanical seal


Check and adjust.



Corrosion in a. Low concentration of H2SO4 concentrate d acid tanks b. Lining of HCl tank / pipe line and lines damaged. a. Defective solenoid valves. Improper opening b. Leaking in air line to solenoid closing of valve to respective control valve. pneumatical c. Improper contact of micro ly operated switches giving false indication on valves panel.

Check silica gel breather in acid storage tank and replace silica gel charge if necessary. Rectify. Check and rectify. Check and rectify. Check and rectify.




DM plant operation can be optimized by Proper selection of Regeneration system. Selection of layout & resin type. Using atmospheric degasser. Output based on water quality.

8.1 SELECTION OF REGENERATION SYSTEM: Regeneration system of cation / anion exchanger is normally two types based on regenerate flow. When the flow of acid / caustic are in the same direction on the service flow the Regeneration system is known as cocurrent regeneration. And when the flow of acid / caustic are in opposite direction of service flow it is known as counter current regeneration. Counter current regeneration have following advantages. Reduced chemical consumption Improved water quality and Less waste volumes

Cation / Anion exchangers which are regenerated by counter-current regeneration system give more output when compared to the exchangers that are regenerated by Co-current. This is illustrated in tables below


STRONG ACID CATION RESIN Operating capacity verses Regeneration level: (Na = 40 %, Alkalinity = 50 %) Regeneration level (Kg of HCl / M3 of resin 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Exchange Capacity Kg CaCO3 / M3 of Resin Co Current Counter Current 46 55.2 51 59.5 55 63.36 58.5 66.72 61.5 69.12 64 71.52 66.5 73.44 68.5 75.36 STRONG BASE ANION RESIN Operating capacity verses Regeneration level : (SO4 = 25 %, CO2 = 20 %, Silica = 25 %) Regeneration level (Kg of NaOH / M3 of resin 40 50 60 70 8 100 120 Exchange Capacity Kg CaCO3 / M3 of Resin Co Current Counter Current 26.2 30.2 27.6 32.2 29.4 34.0 31.3 35.4 33.6 36.8 36.3 38.2 38.2 39.1

Counter-current regeneration systems provide a water quality of better than 2 S/cm and residual silica of 0.020 to 0.050 mg/l as SiO2. Depending upon water composition and regeneration conditions, the specific conductivity could be as low as 0.2 S/cm. The normal counter-current endpoint is 4 S/cm conductivity.


A maximum endpoint value of 0.3 mg/1 SiO2 above the average leakage should not be exceeded in order to avoid a high contamination of the polishing resin layer and unacceptably high silica leakage during subsequent cycles. Silica leakage can be minimized by operating the plant at silica break rather than conductivity end point. This secures the lowest silica leakage, but at the expense of a 5 10 % throughput reduction. 8.2 SELECTION OF LAYOUT & RESIN TYPES: The plant configuration will depend on the feed water composition, the water quality required and the economics of operation. The following general guidelines are given to help in configuration and resin selection.

[SAC] [WBA]: This combination of strong acid cation [SAC] and weak base anion [WBA] resins is used to obtain partially deionized water without removal of CO2 and SiO2.


[SAC] [SBA]: The combination of strong acid cation and strong base anion [SBA] is preferred for treating low mineralized water or for small size plants. [SAC] [WBA] [SBA] : This combination of strong acid cation with weak base and strong base anions is proven to be an excellent choice for larger plants as it provides an optimum balance between investment and running cost. It is well suited to treat waters with low alkalinity, when the FMA (Cl + NO3 + SO4) is typically > 60% of the total anions. The normal end-point for a WBA resin corresponds to the chloride breakthrough, which means that the downstream SBA resin is only removing the carbon dioxide and silica ions. This situation generally leads to a big discrepancy between WBA (large) and SBA (low) volumes.



[WAC] [SAC] [SBA]: The use of a weak acid cation [WAC] in front of a strong anion is preferred with feed waters containing a high proportion of temporary hardness (>60%) and low FMA. The normal end-point for a WAC resin is 10% alkalinity leak. In this condition, the down-stream SAC resin should remove the permanent hardness and the monovalent cations. This situation generally leads to a big discrepancy between WAC (large). This is the ideal combination for high hardness, high alkalinity and high FMA water, as well as large size plants. Again the cation and anion combinations can be in single or separate vessels.


[WAC] [SAC] [WBA] [SBA]: This is the ideal combination for high hardness, high alkalinity & high FMA water, as well as large size plants. Again the Cation & Anion combination can be single or separate vessel.

8.3 ATMOSPHERIC DEGASIFIER: The decision to install an atmospheric degasifier is based principally on economical considerations. Removing carbon dioxide before it reaches the anion resins will reduce NaOH chemical consumption stoichiometrically and this should be balanced against the cost of the degasifier. Generally the economical balance is not in favor of a degasifier for small plants (up to about 10 m3/h or 50 gpm). For larger plants, if the total CO2 is greater than 80100 mg/1 (ppm), the pay-back time for a degasifier should be short. For very large plants, the limit can be reduced to 50 mg/l CO2. 8.4 OUTPUT BASED ON WATER QUALITY: Output of DM plant is depending on water quality, if water quality vary output will also changed accordingly. So regular monitoring of raw water quality is required and accordingly output may be calculated. Some time conductivity of anion remains high since initial stage of service run. This may due to either CaSO4 precipitation on SAC, Organic fouling & silica deposit on anion resin.