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Ancient Greece, 1900-133 BCE

The First Greek Civilization The Greek City-States Classical Greece The Culture of Classical Greece Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

The First Greek Civilizations

Objectives: 1.Describe the Mycenaean Civilizations 2. Characterize the role models used in the Iliad and Odyssey, which the Greeks used to present values of courage, honor, and excellence

The Impact of Geography

Greece occupies a small area with a mountainous peninsula and numerous islands The mountains and the sea played especially signicant roles in the development of Greek history In additionally, small plains and river valleys Different communities arose according to different regions

The rivalry between the communities led to warfare that devastated Greek society Greece has a long seacoast dotted by bays and inlets that provided many harbors Seafaring people: *Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean, and the *Black Sea

The Minoan Civilization

By 2800 BCE, a Bronze Age civilization emerged, particularly in Crete Called the Minoan civilization, it ourished by 2700 and 1450 Arthur Evans (archaeologist) named it after minos, the legendary king They had enormous and complex structures, particularly at Knossos The Ships of the *Minoans took them to Egypt as well as southern Greece

The centers of Minoan civilization on Crete suffered a sudden and catastrophic collapse c. 1450 BCE Tidal wave triggered by a volcanic eruption destruction was the result of invasion by mainland Greeks known as the *Mycenaeans

The First Greek State: Mycenae The term Mycenaean comes from Mycenaea fortication found by archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann The civilization, part of the IndoEuropean nomads, ourished between 1600 and 1100 BCE The various centers of power probably formed a loose alliance Among the noticeable features of these Mycenaean centers were the tombs where members of the royal families were buried

The Mycenaeans were a warrior people who prided themselves on their heroic deeds Mycenaean monarchies developed as extensive commercial network extensive pottery trade Military conquest of Crete and other Aegean islands *Homer described Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, sacked the city of Troy Mycenaean states fought one another until waves of Greekspeaking invaders came from the north around 1100 BCE

The Greeks in a Dark Age Development of the Dark Age

Historians call the period from approximately 1100 to 750 BCE the Dark Age, because of the scant records Large numbers of Greeks left the mainland and sailed across the Aegean Sea to various islands

Colonies were established along Asia Minor and along *Ionia A revival of trade and economic activity Iron replaced bronze in the construction of weapons In the eighth century, the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet

Homer The Iliad and the Odyssey: two examples of *epic poetry Both served as examples of courage and honor; Homers characters are models of heroism and honor

Objectives: 1.Describe the Mycenaean Civilizations 2. Characterize the role models used in the Iliad and Odyssey, which the Greeks used to present values of courage, honor, and excellence

Greek history was inuenced by Greeces A. rivers and deltas B. mountains and seacoasts C. deserts and plains D. glaciers and forests

Most historians think Minoan civilization was A. invaded and destroyed by Mycenaeans B. destroyed by a tidal wave C. conquered by Rome D. invented by Homer

The teaching of Homer included A. the Phoenician alphabet B. agriculture and trade C. sailing and warfare D. the values of courage, honor, and excellence

During the Dark Age, some Greeks settled A. in Crete B. in the Indian subcontinent C. in Ionia, part of Asia Minor D. in Mycenaea

Two major groups who settled within Greece itself were A. the Aeolians and Dorians B. the Agamemnons and Homers C. the Achilles and Phoenicians D. the Knossos and Evans

The Greek City-States

Objectives: 1.Describe the polis or city-state, which was the central focus of Greek life 2. Explain how the search for farmland and the growth of trade resulted in colonies and the spread of Greek culture and politics

By 750 BCE, the city-state called a *polis became the central focus of Greek life It served as the center of the polis where people could meet for political, social, and religious activities; The main gathering place was a fortied area called an *acropolis Below the acropolis was an *agora, an open area that served as a place where people could assemble

The Polis: Center of Greek Life

Citizens of a polis had rights, but these rights were coupled with responsibilities City-states fought one another for control of land and tradeearly one, with aristocratic cavalry soldiers By 700 BCE, the military system was based on *hoplites, who were heavily armed infantry soldiers forming a *phalanx

Greek Colonies
Each colony became a new polis this new polis was usually independent Thrace, southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, and northern Africa Established colonies along the shores of the Black Sea, *Hellespont, and the *Bosporus The most famous colony was *Byzantiumthe spread of Greek culture and politics

Tyranny in the CityStates

New groups of rich men arose from these colonies, fostering the rise of tyrants in the 7th and 6th century BCE These tyrants seized powerboth the rich and the peasants were tired of the aristocratic dominance of city-states

Tyrants used hired soldiers and built marketplaces, temples, and walls Tyrants fell out of favor by the 6th century BCE This transition led to the development of *democracy in some places, in others *oligarchy Athens and Sparta are examples of each

They needed more land, but instead of starting new colonies, the Spartans conquered the neighboring Laconians They also conquered their neighboring Messenia Both groups became serfs and made to work for the Spartans, calling them *helots (capture)creating a military state

A Military State

Between 800 and 600 BCE, the lives of Spartans were rigidly organized and tightly controlled Males spent their childhood learning military discipline Husbands lived in barracks while wives lived at home Women had greater freedom of movement and greater power in the household Spartan women reinforced the military structurewith the shield or on it

Government of Sparta
Oligarchy headed by two kingsa group of ve men, known as the *ephors, elected each year and were responsible for the education of the citizens Except for military reasons, Spartans were not allowed to travel abroad; the art of war was the Spartan ideal

Athens had become a unied polis on the peninsula of Attica, by the 7th century Athens had become an oligarchy Near the end of the seventh century BCE, Athens faced political turmoil because of serious economic problems The ruling Athenian aristocracy to its aristocracy, by giving power to *Solon

Solons reforms included the cancelation of land debt, freeing people from slavery These did not solve the political strife, leading to the establishment of a tyranny particularly by Pisistratus, who seized power in 560 BCE; Rebellion emerged, led by *Cleisthenes He created a new council of 500 which supervised the state these reforms led to the foundation for Athenian democracy

Objectives: 1.Describe the polis or city-state, which was the central focus of Greek life 2. Explain how the search for farmland and the growth of trade resulted in colonies and the spread of Greek culture and politics

A Spartan warrior was told to return from war A. with lots of black broth B. before he turned 20 C. to repay his debts D. with his shield or on it

Aristocrats in Athens did all of the following except A. reject Solon B. own the best land C. control political life D. run the oligarchy

The reforms of Cleisthenes A. supported tyranny B. created a dual kingship C. laid the foundations of democracy D. laid the foundations of a palace

The word spartan has come to mean A. highly self-disciplined B. oligarchical C. lover of literature D. democratic

Greek tyrants were A. all oppressive and wicked B. supporters of aristocrats C.rulers who seized power by force D. hired soldiers

Classical Greece

Objectives: 1. Examine the Age of Pericles, when Athens became the center of Greek culture 2. Analyze how the creation of an Athenian empire led to war with Sparta

The Challenge of Persia

As the Greeks spread, they came into contact with the Persian Empire to the east Ionian Greeks led an unsuccessful revolt against *Darius, the Persian ruler Persians responded by attacking Greece at Marathon in 490 BCE; The Persians were defeated Victory, we win After Darius died, *Xerxes became the new monarch and vowed revenge

By the time the Persians invaded again, the Greeks had rebuilt their ships Xerxes led a massive invasion 180,000 troops and thousands of warships The pass of Thermopylae protected by 7,000 Greeks, including 300 SpartansWe ght in the shade

The destruction of Athens and the Battle of Salamis, the nal blow to the Persians

The Growth of the Athenian Empire

After the defeat of the Persians, Athens took leadershipsIn 478 BCE, an alliance called the *Delian League was created to defend against the Persians island of Delos The Delian League liberated all the Greek States in Asia Minor, but moved the treasury to Athens Under *Pericles Athens expanded its new empire abroad*the Age of Pericles

The Age of Pericles

The Athenians became attached to their democratic system*direct democracy, the people participate directly in government decision making Most residents of Athens were not citizens and thus could not vote

The assembly passed all laws, elected public ofcials; ten ofcials known as generals were the overall directors of policy The Athenians also devised the practice of *ostracism from ostrakon Athens became the center of Greek culture, set in motion by Pericles massive rebuilding program

The Great Peloponnesian War

After the defeat of the Persians, two major camps emerged: The Athenian Empire and Sparta; These two centers cause the outbreak of the *Great Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE The Athenians planned to remain behind its citys walls; Sparta and her allies surrounded AthensPlague broke out, putting an end to Athenian resistance after 25 years of war The next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes sought to dominate Greek affairs but *Macedonian power arose at this time

Daily Life in Classical Athens

Slavery was common in the ancient worldmost Athenians owned at least one slave Most Slaves in Athens worked in the elds or in the home as cooks and maids This slavery was not based on race (in part) but culture and wealth (ex. helots)

The Athenian Economy

The Athenian economy was largely based on farming and trade grapes and olives Athens imported 50 to 80 percent of its grain, a basic item in their diet The building of a port at nearby Piraeus helped Athens become the leading trade center of the 5th century

The Family and the Role of Women

The familys primary social function was to produce new citizens Women could not own property beyond personal items and always supervised by a male guardian The womans chief obligation was to bear children, especially male children She did the household work or supervised slaves

Objectives: 1. Examine the Age of Pericles, when Athens became the center of Greek culture 2. Analyze how the creation of an Athenian empire led to war with Sparta

In Athens, by the mid-fth century BCE, every male citizen A. was lower class B. voted on all major issues C. was in the military D. broke pottery

Greek city-colonies in Asia Minor A. welcomed the Persians B. conquered Sparta C. provoked a Persian invasion of Greece D. ransacked Athens

After losing the battle of Thermopylae to the Persians, the Athenians A. abandoned their city B. colonized Ionia C. ed to Italy D. traded wine with Xerxes

In 479 BCE, a large, unied Greek army A. defended the pass B. assisted Ionian cities C. defeated the Persians D. voted its own leaders

During the Age of Pericles, all of the following were true except A. not all residents were citizens B. Athens took over leadership of the Greek world C. ofce holders were were paid D. the Delian League moved to Persia

Culture of Classical Greece

Objectives: 1. Discuss the Greek philosophers and their concern with the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe 2. Summarize the Greek belief that ritualized religion was necessary

Greek Religion

Religion affected every aspect of Greek life Twelve chief gods and goddesses were thought to live on Mount OlympusGreek Pantheon; Zeus, Athena, Apollo, Ares, Aphrodite, Poseidon Greek religion did not have a body of doctrine, nor a focus on morality *Rituals were at the center of the religious practice; prayers and sacrices; Festivals and athletic games

The Greeks also had a great desire to learn the will of the gods *oracles, sacred shrine where a god or goddess revealed the future or some knowledge through a priest or priestess Apollo at Delphi and the story of Socrates

Greek Drama

Drama was created by the Greeks, played out in outdoor theaters *tragedies, often presented in trilogies The best example is *Aeschylus, Oresteiathese plays relate the fate of Agamemnon, the Trojan War, and his return home *Sophocles, Oedipus Rex Greek tragedies dealt with universal themes still relevant today: the nature of good and evil, rights of the individual, nature of divine forces, the nature of human beings

Greek Philosophy
*Philosophythe love of wisdom developed among Greeks as a critical or rational thought system about the nature of the universe *Pythagoras taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers By the 4th century, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle has emergedfathers of classical philosophy

The Sophists were a group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who often argued that it was beyond the reach of the human mind to understand the universe Selling their services, there teachers stressed the importance of rhetoric but denied absolute truth To them, true wisdom consisted of being able to perceive and pursue ones own good

One of the critics of the Sophists was *Socrates, a sculptor philosopher He wrote nothing, Platohis studentcollected his teachings The goal of education was only to improve the individual*Socratic method He questioned authority in an age when debate and challenging authority was distrusted he was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock

Plato or Socrates? A higher world of eternal, unchanging Formsthe ideal Forms make up reality Tree (senses) and Treeness (ideal form) The Republic


Plato established a school in Athens known as the Academy *Aristotle did not accept Platos theory of ideal forms forms are a part of things themselves Treeness is known by examining trees Aristotles interests lay in analyzing and classifying things based on observation and investigation: ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics

The Writing of History

History as we know it was created in the Western world HerodotusHistory of the Persian Wars: conict between the Greeks and the Persians, Greek freedom and Persian despotism *Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian Warnot concerned with divine forces or gods as causal factors in history War and politics were in purely human terms, an activities of human beings

The Classical Ideals of Greek Art Classical Greek art was concerned with expressing eternal ideals: reason, moderation, balance, and harmony Some of the nest examples of Greek classical architecture were built in Athens in the 5th century Parthenon, dedicated to Athena Greek sculptors did not seek to achieve realism, but rather a standard of ideal beauty

Objectives: 1. Discuss the Greek philosophers and their concern with the development of critical or rational thought about the nature of the universe 2. Summarize the Greek belief that ritualized religion was necessary

The other peoples, Greeks considered religion A. unnecessary B. important only for men C. necessary to the well-being of the state D. to be based on doctrine

Greeks used rituals to A. encourage the gods to be generous B. nd a route to China C. elect kings D. show the power of humans

Greek tragedies examined all of these topics except A. good and evil B. individual rights C. human nature D. criticism of intellectuals

The sixth-century philosopher Pythagoras taught that A. truth was to be found in music and numbers B. there was a higher world of Ideal Forms C. we should classify things by observation D. war and politics were purely human

Herodotus wrote what is considered A. the rst novel B. the rst tragedy C.the rst comedy D. the rst real history in Western civilziation

Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Objectives: 1. Analyze how, under Alexander, Macedonians and Greeks conquered the Persian Empire 2. Characterize Hellenistic cities

The Threat of Macedonia

The Greeks viewed their northern neighbors, the Macedonians, as barbarians; They were a rural people organized in groups, not city-states *Macedonia, by the 5th century, emerged as a powerful kingdom In 359 BCE, *Philip II came to the throne, he built a powerful army wanting to unite all of Greece under Macedonia, defeating Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea Philip quickly gained control of all Greece and planned an invasion of Persia

Alexander the Great

*Alexander the Great was 20 when his father was assassinated, becoming the king of Macedonia Alexander, motivated by the desire for glory and empire, executed Philip IIs plans for invasion

Alexanders Conquests
Although weakened, Alexander entered Asia Minor with an army of 37 thousand Macedonians and Greeks Alexander had freed the Ionian Greek cities of western Asia Minor from the Persians He built *Alexandria as the Greek capital of Egypt after its conquest

In 331 BCE, Alexander turned east and fought the decisive battle with the Persians at Gaugamela Over the next three years, Alexander moved east and northeast, as far as modern Pakistan though he attempted to conquer Indus River

The Legacy of Alexander

Alexander ultimately died, exhausted from wounds, fever, and too much alcohol He was a great military leader, a master of strategy and tactics, but also beneted from his fathers plans Alexander sought to imitate Achilles he extended Greek and Macedonian rule over a vast area Alexanders successors tried to imitate him, using force and the claim of divinity; others created monarchies following new patterns

The Hellenistic Kingdoms

Greek language, architecture, literature, and art spread throughout Southwest Asia and the Near East From Alexander, a *Hellenistic Era was created The united empire that Alexander created fell apart after his death leading to the creation of four kingdoms: Macedonia, Syria, the kingdom of *Pergamum, and Egypt Alexanders dream was to fuse the Macedonians, Greeks, and Persians

Alexandria became home to poets, writers, philosophers, and scientists The library in Alexandria became the largest in ancient times, with more than 5 thousand scrolls Museum

Hellenistic Culture

Architecture, Sculpture, and Literature

Both Hellenistic kings and rich citizens patronized sculptorsthousands of statues were created produced an enormous quantity of literature Appolonius of Rhodes wrote the epic poem called ArgonauticaJason and the Golden Fleece

Considerable advances in the sciences Astronomy and mathematics Aristarchus of Samosdeveloped the theory that the sun is at the center of the universe and the earth rotates around *Eratosthenesdetermined that Earth was round and calculated it almost exactly as it is *Euclid, Elements a textbook on plane geometry *Archimedes of Syracusegeometry of spheres and cylinders, Pi



Athens remained the center of Philosophy in the Hellenistic world *Epicureanism, established a school in Athens arguing that human beings were free to follow selfinterest as a basic motivating force *Stoicism, created by Zeno, was also concerned with how to nd happiness To them, happiness could be found only when people gained inner peace by living in harmony but embraced politics

Objectives: 1. Analyze how, under Alexander, Macedonians and Greeks conquered the Persian Empire 2. Characterize Hellenistic cities

Epicureanism taught all of the following except A. pleasure means physical satisfaction B. pleasure is freedom from worry C. freedom comes from a mind at rest D. happiness is the goal of life

Stoicism taught that A. self-interest should drive people B. friendship is an idea C. inner peace comes from following Gods will D. public service is evil

Archimedes is associated with all of the following except A. geometry of spheres B. value of pi C. specic gravity D. Earths circumference

After Alexanders death, all of the following happened except A. four Hellenistic kingdoms emerged B. his united empire continued C. Greeks and Macedonian became the ruling class D. non-Greek government ofcials learned Greek

Alexanders empire extended as far east as A.Pakistan B. Babylon C. Japan D. Rome