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Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-1

Lab 2 - Op Amps
Format This lab will be conducted during your regularly scheduled lab time in a group format. Again, it is strongly recommended that you rotate roles during the lab. You may ask the lab instructor for assistance if needed, but successful completion of the lab it is each individuals responsibility. Report An individual, short report is due at 8:00 AM on the Thursday of the next week of classes after you complete this lab. Introduction As discussed in the class lectures, signal conditioning is most often achieved with active circuit and is, therefore, an essential part of any measurement system. In this lab, you will examine the use of particular types of integrated* circuits, called an operational amplifiers (op-amp), which are used as building blocks for signal conditioning stages. During the course of the lab, you will: 1. Test a single-input, non-inverting voltage amplifying circuit. 2. Use a potentiometer and a DC power supply to create a voltage divider, which will be used as an elemental, variable voltage source. 3. Build and test a voltage-follower, a circuit that amplifies an input signals current without significantly changing its voltage. 4. Design, build and test a difference amplifier, a circuit that will amplify the difference between two signals. In particular, it is a circuit in which neither input necessarily be connected to ground, but references one input to the other. (Ask the laboratory instructor if this is not completely clear as it is an important concept.) 5. Design, build and test a signal inverting amplifier.

* An integrated circuit is one in which active devices, transistors and diodes and many passive devices, resistors and capacitors, are manufactured on single silicon chip which is embedded in a rectangular package with numbered, connection pins running along the sides of the package. Looking down from the top, the numbered pins are read, 1 to n, starting from an indention/mark on the chip package, in a counter clockwise direction.

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-2

2.1 Test a single input, non-inverting op-amp circuit In the first experiment, a 741 operational amplifier (an inverting voltage op amp) using external passive devices (Figure L2-1) has been designed to amplify voltages. A variable voltage supply been connected and enclosed in a black box with externally accessible color coded wires (leads). The gain of the inverting op-amp, shown as a triangle with the numbered pins of its package, is determined by the resistance values R1 and R2. The voltage source in the small black box is to be connected to the input of the inverting op-amp circuit as shown, the yellow lead of the black box going to pin 3 of the 741, and the white and green leads going to the +12 and -12 volts respectively of the power supply. Ri = 56 k Rf = 20 k +12V White Yellow + Ein Black 2 3

+12V 741 +
4 7 6

+ Eout -

-12V Gain = (1+Rf/Ri)

Green Black Box

-12V Figure L2-1. Non-inverting op-amp circuit.

1. Your lab instructor will provide you with the circuit shown in Figure L2-1. Verify the connections of the black box as shown. If there are any differences, notify the laboratory instructor. Refer to the 741 data sheets in your class notes for more detailed information on its pins and their connections. 2. When connecting the 12 volt bipolar power supply to the op-amp do so only after the rest of the circuit has been wired and then checked for proper connections by each laboratory partner. ALWAYS DISCONNECT THE POWER SUPPLY before making or changing any connection on an op-amp circuit. 3. Adjust the black box input voltage, Ein, to within 0.1 volt of the nominal values shown in Table L2-1 below. It is not necessary to get exactly the voltage noted in the table. Measure Ein and Eout with the DMM at the locations shown in Figure L2-1.

Record all voltage readings for inclusion as part of the data for your laboratory
report. 3.2 V -3.2 V Table L2-1: Input Voltages for Lab Exercise 2.1 4.3 V 5.4 V 6.5 V 7.5 V 8.0 V 8.5 V -4.3 V -5.4 V -6.5 V -7.5 V -8.0 V -8.5 V 9.0 V -9.0 V

1.0 V -1.0 V

2.1 V -2.1 V

9.5 V -9.5 V

4. Repeat step #3 with each laboratory partner setting the input voltage and reading data.

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-3

5. After each student has collected two sets of data, remove the resistors Rf and Ri from the board and use the DMM to measure their resistances. These resistance values are used in the formula to compute the expected gain for the op-amp circuit.

Record their values for your report and reconnect them in the circuit when done. Outside Lab:
1. Plot measured Eout vs. Ein with all of your data points. 2. Identify the linear region (where all of the data points fit a single straight line) on the plot of experimental data. 3. Calculate the measured gain for each set of data in the linear region E Gexp = out Ein 4. Compare each measured gain to the expected gain formula, where

G theo = 1 +

Rf Ri

by computing a percent error for the theoretical gain at each data point: G exp G theo %Error = 100 G theo 5. Create a 2nd plot with only the data in the linear region. Use Excel to fit a straight line through these points. Compare this curve-fit experimental value of gain to the theoretical gain. 6. Explain reasons the measured op-amp circuit may not have worked exactly as expected.
2.2 Use of a potentiometer and a DC power supply to create an elemental, variable voltage source.

In the second experiment, you will create a variable voltage source using a potentiometer and the bipolar power supply at the lab bench. A potentiometer is a resistor with three terminals coming out of it. The resistance between two of the leads is fixed. The third terminal is called the wiper. The wiper is attached to the resistor at some point between the other two terminals, such that the overall resistance is split into two resistances as shown in Figure L22 below. The wipers point of contact can be changed by turning the dial using a small bladed screwdriver. As this is done, you the ratio of the equivalent top and bottom resistors, Rtop and Rbot, is changed. The sum of the two individual resistance values remains constant; only their the ratio is altered. Correspondingly, as their ratio changes, the output voltage at the wiper, Vout, will change.

Lab 2 - Op Amps
+12V Rtop

Lab 2-4




-12V Figure L2-2: Potentiometer and equivalent circuits.

1. You will be provided with a 100k potentiometer. Insert the potentiometer in your breadboard in such a way that the three terminals are on independent (noncommon) rails. Then use your wire-strippers to make leads and insert them into those three rails. That way you can read the resistance of the potentiometer and apply voltages to it without having to pull it out of the breadboard. 2. Next, determine which terminal of the potentiometer is the wiper. This is accomplished by measuring the resistance across any two of the terminals using a DMM as the potentiometers dial is turned. If a varying resistance is measured, then one of the terminals is the wiper. Once a pair is found that gives a change in resistance, the actual wiper can then be determined by disconnecting one of either of the two DMM leads and reattaching it to the third terminal. If then no variation of resistance is seen, then it will be the lead that was not disconnected; conversely, if a change in resistance occurs due to the reattachment, it will be the reattached lead. 3. 4.

Record the total resistance of the potentiometer across the non-wiper

terminals (it should be close to 100 k).

Carefully measure and record the actual voltages of the +12 and -12 volt

power supplies. 5. Apply the +12 V and -12 V voltages to the non-wiper terminals of the potentiometer. Set the DMM to measure voltage and connect one of its leads to the wiper of the potentiometer and the other to the ground. Then, adjust the potentiometer dial until you can read an output voltage of +5 V as precisely is possible. 6. Disconnect the +12 V and -12 V power supplies. 7.

With the power supplies disconnected, use the DMM to measure Rbot and
Rtop and record their values. Then remove the DMM from the circuit and reconnect the +12 V and -12 V voltages for the next part of the lab.

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-5

Outside Lab:
1. Determine the expected Vout, based on your measurements of the applied voltages, the total potentiometer resistance, Rbot, and Rtop. 2. Discuss reasons for the difference between the expected Vout match and the measured Vout.
2.3 Constructing a voltage follower.

A voltage follower is a modification of the non-inverting amplifier configuration. The voltage gain is 1.0, while the current gain can be quite substantial. A voltage follower is used to buffer that may be effected by loading. (The concept of a buffering circuit is that the input signal is given current gain and isolation, but the output voltage is the same as the input voltage.)
2 3

+12V 741 +
4 7 6




Figure L2-3: Voltage follower schematic. 1. Construct the voltage follower by following the schematic shown in Figure L2-3. 2.

Test your voltage follower by using the black box voltage source to provide
inputs to the voltage follower. Use the DMM to measure three different Vin values and their corresponding Vout values. Record the results for the laboratory report.

Outside of lab:
1. Discuss how well the voltage follower worked. *********************************************************************
2.4 Design and construction of a dual-input summing amplifier.

For this part of the lab, you are to design and construct a dual input summing amplifier. The schematic for this system is shown in Figure L2-4 below. As you can see in that figure, you will be usin the variable voltage source and the voltage follower that you constructed in 2.2 and 2.3 above. Use the same black box voltage source that was used in exercise #2.1 to provide the input voltage Vin. The potentiometer is connected to a voltage follower to buffer the signal so that the potentiometer acts like an ideal voltage divider. A plot of desired output voltage Vout vs. input voltage Vin is shown below in Figure L2-5.

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-6

+12V White Yellow + Vin Black R1 R2

2 3

R3 +12V 741 +
4 7 6

Green -12V +12V

+ Vout -

2 3

+12V 741 +
4 7 6

Note: R1=R2

-12V to +12V (offset)

-12V -12V

Figure L2-4. Summing op-amp circuit gain and offset.

15 Output Eout (volts) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Input E in (volts)

Figure L2-5. Desired input/output relationship Vout/Vin. Note that the input/output is a linear one. The mathematical relationship between Vout and Vin is usually described as
y = m x + b E out = m Ein + b

In instrumentation and control, this same relationship is usually described as

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-7

Vout = gain Vin + offset The gain (or slope, m) is set by the resistors R1 and R3 in Figure L2-4. The offset (b) is set by the turning the screw (ore wiper) on the potentiometer/voltage divider circuit. Procedure: 1. Determine the needed gain from the slope of the desired input/output curve (Figure L2-3). Select and install resistors R1 and R3 to get this gain. Use the same resistor value for resistors R1 and R2. 2. Set the input at an easy point for measurement an input value Vin that gives a desired output value Vout of 0 volts is a good choice. 3. Adjust the screw on the offset potentiometer until the output voltage Vout = 0 volts. 4. Test and record several other input voltage / output voltage combinations to see if the summing circuit works as desired. 5. Record all resistor values and the voltage setting on the offset potentiometer. Outside Lab: 1. Plot measured Vout vs. Vin with all of your data points. 2. Draw a schematic similar to the one shown in Figure L2-4 that shows the resistor values selected and the voltage setting on the offset potentiometer. ***************************************************************************
2.5 Test a Single Input, Inverting Op-amp Circuit The last part of this laboratory is to design, build and test a single input, inverting op-amp circuit with a gain that is assigned by the laboratory teaching assistant. The amplifier will be used to increase the signal level of a triangle wave signal from a function generator. An outline sketch of the measurement system for this exercise is shown below in Figure L2-6.
Function Generator Breadboard with your circuit 50 Oscilloscope

Channel A

Figure L2-4. Inverting Op-Amp Test. Table L2-6

Channel B

Input Signal Amplitudes (Peak-to-Peak) for Lab Exercise 2.3 1.0 volts 2.0 volts 3.0 volts 4.0 volts

Lab 2 - Op Amps

Lab 2-8

5.0 volts

6.0 volts

8.0 volts

10.0 volts

1. Set the function generator on a frequency of approximately 1000 Hz. 2. Set the peak-to-peak amplitude of the triangle wave to approximately (0.1 volt) the values given in Table L2-3 above. 3. The signal output by the function generator will be the input to the op-amp circuit, and can be measured simultaneously with the oscilloscope. 4. 5.

Measure and record the output peak-to-peak amplitude from the op-amp circuit for
each of the values in Table L2-3. Tabulate these results in your report. Discuss any differences between the input and output signals of the amplifier and why the differences exists.

Observe the shape of the output waveform closely for each input value.


Save the data from VirtualScope and include at least two Excel plots in your
report: one plot where the amplified output triangle wave is shaped exactly like the input, and one plot where the amplified output triangle wave is not shaped at all like the input.