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Using examples,(hypothetical or otherwise)illustrate the importance of employee motivation and appraisal as part of the planning for a major company

involving and implementing change in their workforce, with reference to classical and scientific schools of management.


Table of Contents
1.0 Introdution2 2.0 Recruitment.2 3.0 Selection.4 4.0 Motivation5 4.1 Taylors scientific motivation theory6 4.2 Maslows hierarchy of needs7

4.3 Change in workforce .9 4.4 Performance appraisal...10 5.0 Conclusion11 6.0 References11

Summary The aim of the assignment has been to know the development of human resources in organization, the importance of people, use of human resources to achieve the objectives of organization, and recruitment and selection of employee. After this organization gives training to employee in forms of short courses, instruction at the workforce. The other factor has been the development of staff within organization while working. Employer accesses the work of employee through performance appraisal for the reason of to help the employee develop ones potential. Initially writers wrote on leadership, motivation, labour, slowly -slowly managers recognised the importance of their views and picked ideas up into practice of their work in the 20th century. Taylor developed scientific theory in which pay has been base for getting best performance from employees. The human relationships school reflects the influence of sociologists and psychologists on the development of the management theory. Business organization was seen not as impersonal formal structures but as social systems in which psychological and emotional factors have a significance influence on the productivity. Good human relationships, employee consultations, democratic leadership, motivated employee and work group or team have been played important role in influencing performance.

1.0 Introduction Tesco has been Britains largest retailer with over 2,200 stores. It has been also the worlds third largest grocery retailer and has diversified into banking, insurance and other areas. Tesco has expanded through providing other retail services and by adapting to the needs of consumers. As the company has grown so its workforce has been increased. Tesco now has approximately 280,000 employees in the UK and over 460,000 worldwide. To serve its widening markets it needs flexible and well-trained staff. It recognises that better knowledge, skills and job satisfaction of employees are all vital to its continued growth. That is why it recruits new employees time to time.

2.0 Recruitment Recruitment has been the process of identifying the need for a new employee, defining the job, attracting candidates and selecting those best suited for the job for Tesco. Tesco has been great place to work for people because Tesco believes giving everyone respect and equal opportunities .Tesco needs people (human resources) who have following virtues:

Passionate Focusing Driven Committed Willing Determined Motivated Adaptable and Flexible Devoted

passtionate about retail On the customer and striving to understand them better than anyone. To achieve results through determination and commitment. To treating people in a fair and consistent way. To roll their sleeves up to get things done. To respond energetically to customer feeedback To work in partnership with others to achieve individual and team objectives To thrive in a 24/7 business To seeking feedback on performance and investing time in their own development

Tesco needs staff in across a wide range of both store-based and non-store jobs: In stores, it needs checkout staff, stock handlers, supervisors as well as many specialists, such as pharmacists and bakers. Its distribution depots require people skilled in stock management and logistics. Head office provides the infrastructure to run Tesco efficiently. Roles here include human resources, legal services, property management, marketing, and accounting and information technology.

Tesco aims to employ people who reflect the diverse nature of society and value people and ones contribution, irrespective of age, sex, disability, sexual orientation, race, color, religion or ethnic origin. Tesco also try and make sure everyone can work in a way that suits ones circumstances. Tesco supports flexible working, offering part-time roles and encouraging job-sharing opportunities and shift swapping where possible. Tesco seeks to fill many vacancies from within the company. It recognises the importance of motivating its staff to progress ones career with the company. Tesco practises what it calls talent planning. This encourages people to work ones way through and up the organisation. Recruitment comprises attracting the right standard of applicants to apply for vacancies. Tesco advertises jobs in different ways. The process varies depending on the Job available. Tesco advertises the post internally on its intranet for two weeks. For external recruitment, Tesco advertises vacancies via the Tesco website or through vacancy boards in stores. Applications are made online for managerial positions.

The chosen applicants have an interview followed by attendance at an assessment centre for the final stage of the selection process. People interested in store-based jobs with Tesco, can approach stores with ones CV or register though Jobcentre Plus. The store prepares a waiting list of people applying in this way and calls one in as jobs become available. For harder-to-fill or more specialist jobs, such as bakers and pharmacists, Tesco advertises externally:

Through its website and offline media Through television and radio

By placing advertisements on Google or in magazines such as The Appointment Journal.

Tesco may seek the most cost-effective way of attracting the right applicants. It has been expensive to advertise on television and radio, and in some magazines, but sometimes this has been necessary to ensure the right type of people get to learn about the vacancies. Tesco makes it easy for applicants to find out about available jobs and has a simple application process. By accessing the Tesco website, an applicant can find out about local jobs, management posts and head office positions. The website has an online application form for people to submit directly.

3.0 Selection Selection involves choosing the most suitable people from those that apply for a vacancy, whilst keeping to employment laws and regulations. Screening candidates is a very important part of the selection process. This ensures that those selected for interview have the best fit with the job requirements. In the first stages of screening, Tesco selectors will look carefully at each applicants curriculum vitae (CV). The CV summarises the candidates education and job history to date. A wellwritten and positive CV helps Tesco to assess whether an applicant matches the person specification for the job. The company also provides a job type match tool on its careers web page. People interested in working for Tesco can see where one might fit in before applying.

The process Tesco use to select the external management candidate has following stages: Vacancies on Tesco website and nation press

Screening of applicants CV to find out the best for Tesco

Successful candidate invited to interview

Successful candidate from screening attend assessment centre

Unsuccessful sent letter

Successful candidate called for second interview

Successful candidate sent offer letter and contract

A candidate who passes screening attends an assessment centre. The assessment centres take place in store and are run by managers. Tesco help to provide consistency in the selection process. Applicants have been given various exercises, including team-working activities or problem solving exercises. These involve examples of problems one might have to deal with at work. Candidates approved by the internal assessment centres then have an interview. Line managers for the job on offer take part in the interview to make sure that the candidate fits the job requirements.

After successful candidate joined Tesco cares its staff through motivation. Motivated staff works for growth. So it has been essential for Tesco to motivate employee to work in full potential. Tesco uses many ways to increase motivation of staff for its long term strategy.

4.0 Motivation

Motivation has been just like encouragement to worker to put more effort into doing something. Well-motivate staff may have been felt fulfilled and pleased in workplace. Next motivated worker can produce good results and improved performance in quality. Motivated individuals have been

influenced by many factors. Initially everyone has basic needs, such as food, shelter, clothing, which can pay provide. The other motivated factors comprises Appreciation of hard work A sense of achievement Responsibility and empowerment Opportunity for achievement A sense of challenge and enjoyment

A motivated workforce may work harder and achieve greater returns in less time, therefore reducing labor costs. It requires less supervision and making a greater effect on the customer. Motivated employees have greater concentration on work and do fewer mistakes. Employees have been loyal to the company and less absent. Unmotivated staff may be opposite, being dissatisfied with its role in work environment.

Tesco business depends on two group employees and customers. Tesco wants employees to work in teams, trust and respect each other, listen to customers, support and say thank you. Employee would share the knowledge and experience with each other. Tesco wants good culture for staff and employees. Good culture of respect and pleasing may motivate employee to work and customer makes long term relation with Tesco. Tesco motivate employee by many factors:

Flexible working Free or reduced rate health benefits Discount gym memberships Competitve salary Staff discount Company share option

4.1 Taylors Scientfic motivational theory Frederick Taylor, engineer who published the concept of scientfic motivation theory in 1971 in his book The principles of Sceintfic management . According to Taylors research, money has been main motivator for worker. In the early years of the car assembly industry, work on a

production line had been based on producing quantity and been repetitive. Workers had been paid piece rate, that had been, paid for every item produced. This approach of paying workers by results had been decent for the business. The outcome had been big production but gave little opportunity, encouragement or time for staff to think for themselves or be creative in what they did. This limited peoples development and ones use within the company. Taylors theory has been based on following elements: Division of work Application of logic to the management Payment by results Full management control over workshop Reduction in unit costs

Tescos Employee Reward Programme has been similarity to Taylors theory. Its financial reward packages have been one motivating factor. However, there are factors other than money which motivate people in both personal and working lives. Tesco goes far beyond Taylor and gives more than just simple pay increases. It supports the varied lifestyles of individual employees through relevant and targeted benefits. Many non-financial factors can and do motivate employees to improve the performance. One such factor may be the desire to serve people; others may be to improve personal skills or achieve promotion. Tesco provides following reward and benefits to its employee.

Tesco rewards Free share after one year service Save as you earn share available in high rate of interest account Pension scheme providing equal contribution from the company Employee discount card Christmas or pay slip vouchers Private health care Gym membership Holiday discounts Contract free phone with O2

Employees have been further motivated if one feel content in ones work. This often happens when employer generates a good working environment where employees touch valued, generally through increased communication and being asked for views. Employee motivation has been also likely to be higher if the organisation invests in its staff through training and development. In turn this enhances knowledge, skills and sense of job satisfaction. Tesco invests heavily in training and development so its employee can get on further through UK apprenticeships, practical experience on shop floor, degree programmes.

4.2 Maslows hierarchy of needs Hierarchy of Needs model has been developed by Abraham Maslow in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil needs. This he represented as a triangle. The most basic needs have been at bottom.

Basic needs have been essential for each worker in each organization. These include food, water, warmth, accommodation, and clothing. Once these needs have been met then worker may think about safety and security. This includes physical security at work. It may also include safe working practices, job security, and financial security. Social needs worker finds out work life happy then one can want to be socializing one by making, enjoying time with relatives or friends. So social needs comprise group of friends, colleagues. Self-esteem needs include the rewards from a workplace. It might include a benefits package in the organization. Selffullment has been about ones full potential. This would involve something challenging. Tesco meets basic needs through competitive monthly pay and place of work through providing facilities like restaurants, lockers for keeping personal belongings. It gives security to employee by making contract of job, pensions, and sickness schemes. Apart from it, Tesco provide option to join union so that employee can feel sense of belonging. It also ensures health and safety at work. Tesco runs regular safety communications and activities in stores and depots to raise awareness of health and safety issues. For example, in Poland, this year Tesco launched a contest to find the safest stores, engaging staff to improve safety and hygiene standards. The judges looked at the number of accident-free days and activities in stores aimed at preventing accidents. Tesco offers social needs through introducing team or group at work. Tesco evolves culture of trust and respect of each other at store between employees as well as customers. Staff feels social needs fulfilled in such environment. Self -esteem has been evolved in 360 feedbacks, personal assessment by managers, peers. Tesco brings self-actualization through training and development which inculcates new skills and talents within employees. It gives opportunity for promotion, careers progression through Tescos Talent planning meetings. 4.3 change in work force Individual such as administrators and customer assistants to directors take different types of decisions according to level of responsibility in Tesco. Each comes with its own responsibilities and timescales. These will influence the most appropriate leadership style for a particular piece of work or for a given project or audience.

Tesco managers have responsibilities for front of house (customer-facing) staff as well as behind the scenes employees, such as office staff. Before making a decision, the manager will consider the task in hand, the individuals involved and who would affect customers. Various internal and external factors may also affect the choice of leadership style used. Internal factors include the levels of skill that employees have. Large teams may have members with varying levels of skill. This may require the manager to adopt a more directive style, providing clear communication so that everyone knows what to do to achieve goals and tasks. On the other hand, team leaders may take a more consultative approach with other managers of equal standing in order to get their co-operation for a project. External factors may arise when dealing with customers. For example, MR a may need to use a persuasive style to convince a customer to accept a replacement product for an item that is temporarily out of stock.

Some factors have been to the level of responsibility the person has or covers: analysing and decision making managing performance managing change gaining commitment

Tesco leaders need to be inspirational, creative and innovative, ready to embrace change and with a long-term vision for achievement. Effective leaders manage by example and in doing so, develop their teams. Tesco encourages all its managers to lead by example. It requires leaders who can motivate, problem solve and build great teams. Tesco employs people in a wide range of roles and provides a career structure which allows employees to progress through the organisation. Tescos process of 360-degree feedback allows its employees to reflect on one own progress and improve. Even if someone starts as working in store filling shelves can progress through the organisation into positions of authority and responsibility. 4.4 Performance appraisal Performance appraisals have been essential for the effective management and evaluation of staff. Appraisals help develop individuals, improve organizational performance, and feed into

business planning. Formal performance appraisals are generally conducted annually for all staff in the organization. Each staff member has been appraised by line manager. Directors have been appraised by the CEO, who has been appraised by the chairman or company owners, depending on the size and structure of the organization. Annual performance appraisals enable management and monitoring of standards, agreeing expectations and objectives, and delegation of responsibilities and tasks. Staff performance appraisals also establish individual training needs and enable organizational training needs analysis and planning. Performance appraisals helps organizational for annual pay and grading reviews which commonly also coincide with the business planning for the next trading year. Performance appraisals are important for staff motivation, attitude and behaviour development, communicating and aligning individual and organizational aims, and fostering positive relationships between management and staff. All staff has an annual performance review and work towards a personal development plan, with objectives set at the beginning of the year. They also have a career discussion with their line manager. This is then fed into Tesco's talent-spotting process, where all senior managers within the team will sit down to plan any moves within teams or departments. At a conference last year, Leahy said one in 10 staff was being targeted for training and promotion. There is also the TWIST (Tesco Week in Store Together) programme, where senior management regularly go out on to the shop or departmental floor to find out what impact their policies are having. Tesco uses a balanced scorecard approach to management through its 'Steering Wheel' programme. Managers monitor customers, operations, staff and finances using a traffic light system to denote meeting targets and finding problems.

5.0 Conclusion To epitome one can say that Tesco cares about two things one has been customer and second been its staff. Tesco knows business success depends on customer and staff so it generates good environment where both should respect and treat each other how to one likes to be treated. Both support growth of Tesco. It has been essential to keep employee motivated for better results in organization. Tesco gives competitive pay than others with extra benefits which help employee to be motivated and encourages one for excellent performance.

Tesco gives every candidate opportunity for working for Tesco although one had been dropped off from study. It has also different training and development programs which has been motivator factors for employees. In addition, it encourages diversity among its staff without discriminating candidate on sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, race, color, religion or ethnic origin. Tesco brings change in workforce through inculcating virtues of leader ship styles, problem analysing and solving, managing change, performance, and gaining commitment. Tesco measures employee performance for growth of business.

6.0 References Bruce. R. Jewell (1996) Business Studies 3rd Edition. Addison Wesley Longman limited