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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology


A thesis on

Product hygiene issues and its impact on consumers buying pattern and product sales: A case study of dairy tetra pack versus open market product
Submitted to: Faculty of Management Sciences In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION (MBA)

Submitted By:

Imran Ahmed ID: 4529


Major Subject: Marketing

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

CERTIFICATE
I am pleased to certify that Mr. Imran Ahmed S/o Mohammad Ajmal has satisfactorily carried out a research work, under my supervision on the topic of Product hygiene issues and its impact on consumers buying pattern and product sales. I further certify that his distinctive original research and his thesis is worthy of presentation to the Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT) for the degree of MBA.

Syed Karamatullah Hussaini Assistant Professor

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

DEDICATION

My Beloved Parents & Respected Teacher

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

PREFACE
I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this research. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Syed Karamat Ullah Hussaini, whos help, stimulating implications and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this report.

I am also thankful to my teacher Ms. Saba Gulzar (Senior Lecturer & Academic Coordinator), who has supported a lot through her timely feedback to be able to finalize my project report. I again want to thank all those who helped me and supported me n getting done my project.

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am gratified to ALLAH, the most beneficial, who gave me the strength and will to overcome the obstacles surfaced during the completion of this thesis. I am heartily thankful to my supervisor, Syed Karamat Ullah Hussaini, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. I feel exceptional warmth and gratitude in extending my appreciation for sincere and benevolent guidance and patronage of the report to my teacher Mr. Uzair Baig and Mr. Zia Uddin to validate questionnaire, developing hypothesis and validation of test result. I am thankful to him for holding me to a high research standard writing and for analyzing and rectifying my mistakes countless times. Also for encouraging me too high when I considered myself to be in vain. Finally, I offer my regards and blessings to my friend Ali T S, Assistant Professor of Aga Khan University, who was always available for her support in a number of ways and gratified to those who supported to collect, enter the data and conducted analyses on SPSS to get the final result. All of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the project. I also would render great thanks to my brothers and sister, all respondents and others who in one way or other co-operated with me over the course of my research. A very special Thanks to my mother, without her supports this thesis was never possible. BY Imran Ahmed ID No. 4529 Department of Marketing, Faculty of Management Sciences, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT) Dated: 05 January, 2012 5

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of participants.....45

Table 2: Milk purchasing behavior according to family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norm and convenience and purchasing behavior...47

Table 3: Milk purchasing behavior according to customers purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack) belonging to different socio-economic behavior.49

Table 4: People behavior regarding proper sanitization of open milk, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygiene according to literacy level.51

Table 5: Purchasing behavior of milk according to family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norm, convenience ....54

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Contents
ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................................... 10 1 CHAPTER #1 .......................................................................................................................... 11

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 11 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Scope of the study........................................................................................................... 12 Objectives........................................................................................................................ 13 Research question........................................................................................................... 13 Hypothesis....................................................................................................................... 14 Hypothesis No. 1...................................................................................................... 14 Hypothesis No. 2...................................................................................................... 14 Hypothesis No. 3...................................................................................................... 14 Hypothesis No. 4...................................................................................................... 15

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 2

CHAPTER #2 .......................................................................................................................... 17

LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................ 17 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Advantages of dairy products: ...................................................................................... 17 Health development and growth................................................................................... 18 Consumers approach ..................................................................................................... 19 Contamination of dairy products ................................................................................. 19 Spreading disease ........................................................................................................... 20 Brand and hygiene issues............................................................................................... 21 Microbial growth in dairy products ............................................................................. 22 Process of pasteurization ............................................................................................... 24 Quality matters in dairy products ................................................................................ 27 Milk purification methods and stages .......................................................................... 28 Microbial quality of dairy product samples ................................................................ 29 Types of consumers: pattern, trends, preferences of buying dairy products ........... 29 Conceptual framework .................................................................................................. 33

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product 2.14 Characteristics of dairy products and emerging consumer trends according to kim model 34 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 3 Food preferences ............................................................................................................ 35 Technology-Driven Ingredients .................................................................................... 36 Consumers behavior and socioeconomic factors......................................................... 38 Dairy products market in Pakistan .............................................................................. 39 Conclusions of literature review ................................................................................... 40

CHAPTER # 3 ......................................................................................................................... 42

METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................... 42 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 Study setting and population......................................................................................... 42 Study design.................................................................................................................... 42 Sample size calculation .................................................................................................. 43 Data collection procedure.............................................................................................. 43 Ethical considerations.................................................................................................... 44

CHAPTER # 4 ......................................................................................................................... 45

RESULTS ........................................................................................................................................ 45 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5 Test- Hypothesis No. 1 ................................................................................................... 46 Test: Hypothesis No. 2 ................................................................................................... 48 Test- Hypothesis No. 3 ................................................................................................... 50 Test- Hypothesis No. 4 ................................................................................................... 53 Strength of the study...................................................................................................... 56 Limitations ...................................................................................................................... 57

CHAPTER # 5 ......................................................................................................................... 58

CONCLUSION OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING............................................................................... 58 5.1 Disapprove hypothesis ................................................................................................... 58 Hypothesis No. 1...................................................................................................... 58 Hypothesis No. 3...................................................................................................... 58 Hypothesis No. 4...................................................................................................... 58

5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.3

Conclusion of the study.................................................................................................. 59 Research limitations/implications................................................................................. 60

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product 6 CHAPTER # 6 ......................................................................................................................... 61

RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY .................................................................................... 61 Appendix.......................................................................................................................................... 63 7 8 Glossary ................................................................................................................................... 67 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 71

Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

ABSTRACT
The main idea of this thesis is to focus on the customers dairy product preferences, knowledge, practices, and hygienic issues among all socioeconomic status & education. The data was collected by using the study design of cross-sectional in 2011 by the trained data collectors. The data was analyzed using SPSS software of version 16. Participants were approximately quarterly belonging to the income group of <16, 000, 16,000 30,000, 31, 000 45000, and >46, 000. There were 68% male and 32% female. About fifty percent of them were graduates and above, and living in the joint family. In univariate analysis, level of income stayed significantly different with purchasing behavior according to social norms. Level of education stayed significant with having knowledge of proper sanitation of open milk at home, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitation, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product at the hygienic level. Type of family stayed significantly different with purchasing behavior according to health issues. This study concludes that in preference of dairy products, demographic characteristics of income, level of education and type of family they are living in matters. This study also identified that social norms and hygienic issues are main reasons of the type of dairy products one selects. This study recommends that to be able to convince the consumers, it is necessary to ensure that education about dairy products is provided to the public, and while advertisements of dairy products are being given it should be ensure that social norms and hygienic issues are covered.

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

1 CHAPTER #1 INTRODUCTION

This thesis is focusing on Product hygiene issues and their impact on consumer buying pattern and product sales: A case study of dairy tetra pack versus open market product. Hygiene refers to the conditions or practices by which people maintain or promote good health by keeping themselves and their surroundings clean. It is one of the silent public health issues, which needs to be addressed by improving consumers awareness about hygiene. Those who maintain hygiene are also very careful in buying eatable goods. Two of the most important dairy products are Milk and yogurt. Milk is one of the most nutritionally valuable food stuff as it contains a large number of vitamins and minerals, which build bones and teeth, and milk also supplies essential fat and proteins.

Dairy products acceptability and preference are a complex and dynamic process influenced by other interrelated factor. In the production of milk and dairy products, microorganisms which are present in the air or on surfaces can cause product contamination with organisms like Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Microbacterium, Staphyllococcus and Bacillus as well as several types of yeasts.

The aim of the study was to discuss the association of income, education status and family structure with the concerned persons and some advocacies steps were to be followed to ensure the consumers maximum use of the hygienic dairy products. Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 11

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1.1 Scope of the study


In Pakistan, there are a number of facilities available with the expansion of technology in the dairy industry, similar to all other industries, dairy products industry is also trying to balance cost saving as well as products to produce more sustainable, competitive and profitable products and also to contribute in maintaining the health of the consumers like milk storage, supply/transportation, processing and pasteurization, as well as packaging. The milk shops and Guawalas have no concern with hygiene and proper handling of the dairy products and their ultimate purpose is to sell out the goods/product to generate their profit/revenue. In the same way tetra pack companies are also reducing the thickness of material and the container size to save on transportation costs and use packaging appealing to todays trendy consumer so that maximum people could afford to gain benefits. Innovative packaging and multiple color schemes dominates the shelves and consumers but due to strong cultural and traditional associations of Pakistanis, they stick with their practices which have been transferred from generation to generation. Pakistan has improved in the overall education status as well as overall economical status that people have moved from daily to monthly income. However, some specific practices of their daily life style have not changed i.e. for food, or dairy product, etc. Dairy product is one of the vital foodstuffs for the growth of the body. Gradually health awareness of Pakistanis has been increased due to the strong role of media. Though there is graduate increase in technology and awareness, yet there is no change observed for product purchasing behavior in our society, even though, people have involved themselves in searching and list making. Awareness and social norms are not the only factors influencing consumers choice/behavior, the availability and convenience of dairy products is also important. As the people are very much concerned about the security and law and order situations, keeping in mind these issues, they prefer whatever may be

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available at their convenience without realizing the harm of the product. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the dairy product preferences of the community.

1.2 Objectives
1. To measure the association of income and dairy products preference, and hygiene of dairy products among individuals living in urban settings of Karachi, Pakistan. 2. To infer the associations of consumers knowledge and practices of hygiene with types of dairy products among individuals living in urban settings of Karachi Pakistan. 3. To assess the association of consumers socio demographic status and selection of types of Dairy Products (fresh/ tetra pack) in the same population

1.3 Research question


1. What is the association of income and dairy products preference and hygiene of the dairy products? 2. What is the connection of consumers knowledge and practices of hygiene with types of dairy products? 3. What is an association between consumers socio demographic status and selection of types of Dairy Products (fresh/ tetra pack)?

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1.4 Hypothesis
1.4.1 Hypothesis No. 1
Ho: Consumers income and purchase behavior does not dependants on the family norms, awareness/ education or social norms and convenience. H1: Consumers income and purchase behavior is dependants on the family norms,

awareness/ education or social norms and convenience.

1.4.2 Hypothesis No. 2


Ho; Consumers income and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack) does not related to each other. H1; Consumers income and purchasing of types of dairy product (fresh or tetra pack) are related to each other.

1.4.3 Hypothesis No. 3


Ho; Consumers education and level of awareness/ education about sanitation and hygiene [home, types (fresh or tetra pack), hygienic level] does not associated to each other. H1; Consumers education and level of awareness/education about sanitation and hygiene are associated with each other.

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1.4.4 Hypothesis No. 4


Ho; Consumers family structure and practices [value believes of family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization, and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack)] does not dependent on each other

H1; Consumers family structure and practices [value believes of family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization, and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack)] are dependent on each other.

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Pakistan with current estimates is the 4th largest milk producing country in the world with 33 billion liters of milk produced annually. The potential is huge but the sector operates mostly in the informal economy and needs a consistent effort to formalize and be able to contribute better to the national economy. Out of the total milk produced, 97% is in the informal sector (i.e. loose milk consumed in the villages and / or sold in the cities through "Gawallas" in unhygienic conditions and without any quality standards). Promoting healthy pasteurized milk, developing model commercial dairy farms, focusing on breed improvement, facilitating credit financing to dairy farmers and linking the rural area based farmer to the market mechanism. This will improve and formalize the dairy sector.

One often practices hygiene only if they perceived it correctly. This perception of hygiene needed to be understood by studying the phenomena of choices and preference of dairy products (tetra pack and open dairy products).

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2 CHAPTER #2 LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Advantages of dairy products:
Dairy product is considered as a complete food and it contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. Dairy products make important contributions to the human body. Dairy product is benefited by calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients for multiple functions. It helps in developing bones and teeth till adolescent age. While in later early of life it is strengthening the bones and teeth, which results in the physical strength. There are different types, flavors, and colors available of dairy products in market these days, which people mostly like to consume. They know very well that the dairy product and its products are not only nutritional but they also fill the calcium required by our body. Calcium helps in making new tissues in our body and keeps our body strong. According to a report of WHO (World Health Organization)1, we must take a glass of milk every day as it is beneficial for our body or similar amount of any dairy product. As it is full of vitamins and minerals, it helps in securing future growth and diseases. 2,3 These vitamins and minerals keep us energetic. Dairy product is the best way for ladies, especially who are entering the stage of menopause. At this age, most of the ladies face calcium deficiency; its a cause of Osteoporosis. So, at least a glass of milk daily protects them from such diseases. These days, different types of dairy product are available in the market

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that can be easily bought for daily use. But few doctors suggest Tetra pack being better than fresh milk on hygienic grounds. 4 Bone mass peaks around the age of 30, usually remains stable in the 30s, and commonly begins to decline in the 40s that accelerates around the age of 50. Recent research also indicates that adequate calcium intake is one key for achieving optimal blood pressure.5 Dairy products play a major role in physical, psychological and mental development. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body and it is essential for life. Over 99 percent of the whole body is calcium and is found in the teeth and bones. The remainder is present in blood, extra cellular fluids, muscles and other tissues, where it helps regulating the heart beat and blood pressure, sends nerve impulses, helps clot blood, stimulates hormone secretions, and activates enzyme systems. Adequate dietary calcium is essential for building denser, stronger bones in the first three decades of life and for slowing the rate of bone loss in later years. Optimal calcium intake varies according to a persons age, sex, and ethnicity, but the accumulation of bone mineral is achieved in early life. 2, 4

2.2 Health development and growth


The food with carbohydrate is thought to be rich and necessary like cereals, root and tubers which are mainly energy providing food stuff and minor quantity of other nutrients which are not adequate in quantity and quality to enhance the mental stability of our growing youth but only make them mal-nourished and highly vulnerable to diseases due to their low immune-system. 6

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A persons lifestyle depends on the situation and it rotates around available food supply, hygiene and health conditions, Individual nutritional status varies. Substantiation of optimal nutrient well develops the body, ideal weight for body composition (ratio of muscle mass to fit), and height, as well as strengthen muscle development and bone.7 Well nourished people are not only meeting their day-to-day needs but also maintaining essential nutrient reserves for resisting infectious diseases and generally extending their years of normal functioning. It is enough to note that the dietary habits established in childhood persist into the adult life. Furthermore, if the hygiene is not maintained at personal level and home level then with lack of intake of dairy products, the infections occur.8

2.3 Consumers approach


The negative side effects of milk products are due to over consumption of it beyond recommended daily 3 8-oz glasses of milk or similar dairy products. Consumers must be aware of both the pros and cons of taking daily products. Knowledgeable consumers will empower (manufacture or producer) the market, as they decide how much they should rely on dairy products for their nutritional needs and will be more proactive in creating a wellbalanced and nutritious meal. 9

2.4 Contamination of dairy products


Though dairy products are important for the human body, it is very suitable for microbial growth also. At times during milking operations, it gets contaminated from the exterior of the upper and the adjacent areas, dairy utensils, milking machines, the hands of the milkers, from the soil and dust. In this way, bacteria, yeasts and molds get into the dairy Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 19

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product and constitute the normal flora of dairy product. The number of contaminants added from various sources depends on the care taken to avoid contamination. It is necessary to know the types of micro organisms present in dairy product, their control and use for beneficial purposes.10,11,12 Antimicrobial abuse promotes drug resistance by killing all but the most effective bacteria strains. This puts selective pressure on microbial development and helps create superbugs that are immune to attacks by the familiar, economical antibiotics. They also inhibit organisms required in the processing of cultured milk products. Microorganism residues in milk are most often the intake from farm-level practices with regard to nonobservance of withdrawal periods after anti-microbial healing. 13

2.5 Spreading disease


In Europe and North America, more than half of the registered food infections appear to be contracted in the home.14 Infections with rotavirus are often diagnosed in children attending day-care centers and primary schools. Contaminated children take the germs home, where further contamination could take place. There are numerous (infectious) diseases that are related to the home environment for the dairy products if not managed properly. Airborne micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi), mites (in sheets or carpets), and (parts of) insects and beetles might be the cause of respiratory diseases such as asthma.15,16,17 A food allergy is an immune response to proteins resulting in inflammatory symptoms involving the skin, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. Some people think they Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 20

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are allergic to dairy products because they have symptoms of bloating, cramps, flatulence, and diarrhea after consumption of dairy products. This is not an allergic response but is a condition known as lactose mal absorption; these tools can help determine variations in sensory attributes associated with processing variables, geographic region of production, production season, etc., and help resolve numerous other issues important to dairy processors and marketers.7, 18

2.6 Brand and hygiene issues


Dairy products today are available all over the market and sold within fresh packaging. To gain the maximum market share, company sells the products by having attractive colors, pictures, designs, materials and emphasizing on the hygiene. They are using different sources of packaging which definitely affects a lot of consumer in buying pattern.15 In the field of market, there are benefits of packaging to both consumers and manufacturers, which has strong influence in customers preferences, as consumers get attracted towards brand products. Inappropriate hygiene time again arises from poor handling at the farm, collection centers, during transportation and at retail points. Common sources of bacterial contamination, especially coliforms, are faces (of animal or human origin), personnel, water and containers. A high bacteria count reduces the shelf life of milk and enhances the risk of milk-borne bacterial infections and intoxication if the milk is not properly heated or if thermally injured pathogens recover under suitable temperatures.13

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2.7 Microbial growth in dairy products


Coliforms are a group of bacteria commonly found in the environment, including soil, surface water, vegetation and the intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals. Detection of coliforms is used as a general indicator of sanitary conditions in dairy production and processing environments. Most coliforms do not cause disease, but a small percentage can cause illness in people, especially young children, the elders, and those with weakened immune systems.9 There are a number of bacteria that can damage dairy product quality; microorganisms include a number of psychotropic (cold-loving) bacteria that are capable of growing under refrigeration temperatures. The source of these spoilage bacteria can be the farm environment. Antimicrobial residues in milk were thus considered the most important health risk identified, given that it cannot be dealt with by heat treatment. The numbers of bacteria in milk replicate the temperature of the milk; time onwards since milking and level of hygiene. While total bacterial counts will principally reflect time elapsed since milking and ambient temperature (if milk is not chilled), coliform counts are particularly related with hygiene since they are mainly of fecal origin. High bacteria counts increase the risk of bacterial infection in dairy products directly or through the toxins produced by the bacteria. In this study, the geometric means of total and coliform bacterial colony forming units (cfu) per ml in raw milk from farmer groups (mostly short market chains) were 8,000,000 and 15,000 respectively, 3-5 times lower. However, the lack of a cold chain was the overriding factor contributing to high levels of bacterial growth.13 Pasteurization may not be sufficient to kill these non-pathogenic yet troublesome spoilage microorganisms. This type of evaluation is somewhat subjective, as people differ in their ability to detect off-flavors. In this regard, microbiological analysis can lend more insight Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 22

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into potential quality defects in dairy products. Equipments and pipelines should be properly cleaned otherwise it can contaminate the dairy product and becomes the cause to change the dairy products flavor and shelf life. Dairy product storage warehouses test the whole bacterial level regularly which is also required to check quality standard.19 Microorganisms (collectively called antimicrobials) residues in dairy products contribute to the growth of bacterial resistance; following families of anti-microbial that were screened: -lactams, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and sulphonamides and observed levels were compared to the maximum residue limits (MRLs) recommended by the European Union. Residues of these anti-microbial in milk most often originate from poor milk handling and hygiene at the farm-level. However, unconfirmed reports suggest that some unscrupulous milk market agents may add antibiotics, among other chemicals, to lengthen the shelf life of milk.
13

As part of a large study to assess public health hazards

associated with marketed milk, samples were collected seasonally between January 1999 and January 2000 from raw (unpasteurized) milk consuming households and informal market agents of various cadres. Pasteurized milk samples were also collected from retail points and tested for comparison. All samples were screened for antimicrobial residues using charm AIM-96 and Charm-ROSA (Charm Sciences Inc, USA) tests. The former detects a wide range of anti-microbial, and the latter detects -lactams and tetracyclines specifically, at levels above maximum residue limits (MRLS) recommended by the European Union (EU). The Charm-AIM screening test showed that 9.4% and 5.7% of samples from consumer households and market agents had antimicrobial residues above

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EU MRLS, respectively. They concluded that antimicrobial residues are more likely to have originated at farm-level than because of poor market handling practices.

2.8 Process of pasteurization


Most of the bacteria in fresh milk from a healthy animal are either harmless or beneficial. But, rapid changes in the health of an animal, or the milk handler, or contaminants from polluted water, dirt, manure, vermin, air, cuts, and wounds can make raw milk potentially dangerous. Milk contains pathogenic organisms, derived directly from the animal or from the surroundings. Microorganisms that are harmful and found in milk are Streptococcus cremoris, Pseudomonas sp., Mycobacterium spp, Serratia marcescens, enteric bacteria etc.20 However, pasteurization of milk before use does not kill all the bacteria; there are the survivors (thermodurics), depending on their initial number. Raw milk or related dairy products normally have a varied microflora arising from several sources, such as the exterior surfaces of the animal and the surfaces of milk handling equipment such as milking machines, pipeline, and containers Therefore, dairy product is susceptible to contamination by many pathogenic microorganisms, which results in the infection and threat to consumers health. Additionally, there is the potential that disease of cows such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, typhoid, and listeriosis can be transmitted. 21,22 The average standard plate counts (SPC) for cannot and bulk milk are ~700,000 bacteria/mL and ~100,000 bacteria/mL respectively, depending on the temperature and handling conditions of microbial standards for quality grade. These standards are the maximum allowed and most dairy producers provide milk with concentrations

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considerably below the maximum allowable limits. Another indicator of milk quality is the preliminary incubation count (PI) with a maximum allowed count of 100,000 bacteria/mL on load, storage tank, or individual producer samples, although results of 25,000 bacteria/mL or less are desirable. Dairy product can be classified as a potentially hazardous food if it is not properly processed, handled, or stored.
23

Coliform bacteria are

normally shed in the faces of healthy livestock, including dairy cattle. Thus, poor herd hygiene, contaminated water, unsanitary milking practices and improperly washed and maintained equipment can all lead to elevated coliform counts in raw dairy product. Milk products have the potential to transmit pathogenic (disease- causing) organisms to humans. It is essential that before consuming it should be processed to clear the entire microorganism which can be the cause to produce diseases.10 Pasteurization destroys most disease producing organisms and limits fermentation in milk, by partial or complete sterilization. The pasteurization process heats milk to 161 degrees Fahrenheit (72 C) for 15 seconds, inactivating or killing organisms that grow rapidly in milk. Pasteurization does not destroy organisms that grow slowly or produce spores. 24 Pasteurized milk is defined as milk which has been suddenly cooled after all its particles undergo a process of heating to a certain temperature for a fixed time (72_C for 15 s) in such a manner that to ensure that all pathogenic organisms and most of other microorganisms are destroyed with a minimum effect on its properties. 25,26 Coliforms bacteria are used as indicators of sanitation during the handling and processing of dairy products. The Coliform Count is performed by plating milk samples on Violet Red Bile Agar (VRBA), which is selective for these types of Gram-negative

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bacteria. The plates are incubated at 32oC (89.6oF) for 24 hours after which dark red colonies are counted.9 The coliform organism of the raw dairy product varies depending on the season.27 The regimes of pasteurization killed 100% of the coliform organisms that were present in the raw dairy product. After the thermal treatment, the milk may additionally be contaminated with coli-forms by the containers and the equipment and depends on the conditions of washing and disinfections. Most commonly encountered were the coli-forms of the genera Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Escherichia.24 The milk samples

commercialized without due authorization were found to contain mesophilic microorganisms and TC (68%) above the maximum limits for pasteurized milk and they also found that 18% of the samples tested were contaminated by microorganisms. Further, they identified that Staphylococcus aureus counts were the highest (P<0.05) in LA milk samples compared to the other four sources of milk. In 1996, 50% of the milk samples tested was contaminated by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and only 8.3% of the samples were found to comply with the required legal standards. These results are suggestive of unsatisfactory hygienic and sanitary conditions of the raw milk and impose a great health risk to the consumers, especially when the product is taken without being boiled. There is evidence that a mastitis bacterium may have caused an increase in the milk bacteria count. This seems to hold true more for Streptococcus spp. than for S. aureus, which appears to be shed into the milk in lower numbers. 28, 24

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2.9 Quality matters in dairy products


Sterilization destroys organisms more effectively and the milk i.e. sterilized can be stored at room temperature as per crude milk quality. Un-pasteurization, improper treatment of milk is the cause to generate microorganism to widespread of disease.29 The life of pasteurized milk is dependent on the quality of the raw milk and other ingredients used, and further on how effective is the cleaning and sanitation program. In case if the standard procedure is not being followed, it would result in microbial contamination, growth, and spoilage.24,30,31 Though poor quality raw milk can result in defective products, post-pasteurization contamination with psychotropic spoilage bacteria is most detrimental. In most cases, product contamination is the result of insufficient cleaning and sanitation of the processing equipment and plant environment. There is often one source of bacteria that causes high counts which can also result from a combination of factors like dirty milking equipment, inefficient pasteurization, contamination from the environments, and poor packaging. The Bacillus is spore-forming bacteria and their spores are able to survive even after pasteurization.24 Certain strains of psychotropic spores can grow during cold storage and can be found in milk samples in such large numbers that the milk will be unsuitable for consumption.32 Study proves that out of the number of bacteria in pasteurized milk, psychrophilic, thermoduric, and thermophilic organisms made up 53 %, 39.5 % and 7.5% respectively and most of them belongs to the genera Bacillus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Arthrobacter, Alcaligenes, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas.33

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2.10 Milk purification methods and stages


Pasteurization is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all microorganisms in dairy products. Compare with pauperization. Instead, pasteurization aims to achieve a "log reduction" in the number of viable organisms, reducing their number so they are unlikely to cause disease (assuming the pasteurized product is refrigerated and consumed before its expiration date). Pasteurization is a thermal process widely used in the food and dairy industry with the objective of minimizing health hazards from pathogenic microorganisms and to prolong product shelf life. There are several temperature time combinations to pasteurize milk that range from 63C (145F)/30 minutes or 72C (161F)/15 seconds to 100C (212F)/0.01 seconds. The bacteria standards for Grade A pasteurized milk are 20,000 bacteria/mL and <10 coliform/mL (PMO, 2001). Heat may denature milk proteins. 34 This effect is not considered a disadvantage from the nutritional point of view because it only involves changes in the specific arrangement of the case in protein. Pasteurization is typically associated with milk. There are two widely used methods to pasteurize milk: high temperature/short time (HTST), and ultra-high temperature (UHT). HTST is by far the most common method. Milk simply labeled "pasteurized" is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled "ultra-pasteurized" must be treated with the UHT method. HTST involves holding the milk at a temperature of 161.5 degrees

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F (or 72 C) for at least 15 seconds. UHT involves holding the milk at a temperature of 280 degrees F (or 138 C) for at least two seconds. 35

2.11 Microbial quality of dairy product samples


Bacillus cereus is the most important bacteria with respect to the limitation of the shelf life of pasteurized milk. The degree of cleanliness of the purification and pasteurization probably influence the total milk bacteria count as much, if not more than any other factor.24 Due to leakage of sewerage into the drinking water pipes lines, it becomes contaminated with Pseudomonas and use of water from these pipe lines to clean milking equipment or by adding the water in to milk increases Pseudomonas counts.36 Antimicrobial agents in milk are undesirable because they cause hypersensitivity, drug resistance and specific tissue damage in humans. They also inhibit organisms required in the processing of cultured milk products. Milk can get contaminated by E. coli 0157:H7 from cow or human fecal material resulting from unhygienic milk handling. 13

2.12 Types of consumers: pattern, trends, preferences of buying dairy products


In the traditional methods that emerged, judging and grading dairy products normally involved one or two trained experts assigning quality scores on the appearance, flavor and texture of the products based on the presence or absence of predetermined defects. These traditional dairy judging methods have several shortcomings: they cannot predict

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consumer acceptance; their quality assessments are subjective; assigning quantitative scores is difficult; and they do not combine. There are major forces that help the consumers to decide what product he/she needs to buy: these forces are personal motives, thoughts, feelings, attitudes, patterns of behavior; families, cultural background, and the media advertisement. Consumers always try to buy those products that will help them to achieve desired goals and values, and they consider product attributes as a means to an end. According to a descriptive survey conducted using questionnaire at Hazra Pakistan, whereby they examine the relationship of consumer values, needs and behavior in order to efficiently and effectively position and target the market with the purpose to identify those motivational factors and variables that influence the consumer to make the purchase decision and types of personal values, motives, emotions and moods directing them. They showed their result in different ways in which they emphasized those customers buying the products based on three things including health, taste and environment (hygiene). According to the respondents; health consciousness got the highest representing it as the lowest level need in the hierarchy that must be fulfilled through food (milk) before any other need. Consumers ranked taste consciousness second highest after health, and hygiene consciousness at third level. The results of the relative ranking of the three needs within the consumer market indirectly demonstrate the influence of cultural and economic market conditions on shaping consumer needs by prioritizing the importance of needs to be met through milk product. By using co-relation they have shown that there is strong positive co-correlation between customers value with health, taste and hygiene.37 Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 30

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

For the experiential and social needs, researcher identified the value P-0.147, 0.216 shows that taste and environmental perceptions are positively co-related with the consumer behavior.15 They concluded that their study based on finding of this study, it can be concluded that the values-needs-behavior hierarchy model can be applied to a specific buying and utilization manners (i.e., natural food stores). However, it should be noted that the analytical power of needs for behavior was similar in this study as it was in Homer and Kahle's (1988); Shim and Eastlick (1998); Kim et al, (2002); Chryssohidis & Krystallis (2005); Geeroms (2005); Vermier and Verbeke (2007) studies. This indicates that, there are a number of other factors that influence food shopping and consumption behaviors and one might consider that natural food consumers are much more likely to be devoted to their shopping experience than are shoppers of regional malls. However, the primary flow of consumer values-needs-behavior in the food shopping signifies that by developing boarder and promotional mix strategies designed at appealing to consumer values, product attribute can positively influence consumer behavior. Their finding demonstrates that personal values are most significantly associated to the types of needs to be satisfied through milk products. The personal values (internal values) lead the consumers to the health perception which needs to be satisfied through milk product along with their taste consciousness. The role of values in determination of type of consumer needs to be satisfied by milk products was supported by the strong positive regression coefficients and correlation of personal values and health, taste and hygiene (environmental) consciousness needs of consumers and they try to realize their personal values by fulfilling their health consciousness needs of the milk products.

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

According to the analysis the health consciousness (functional needs) was rated highest by the respondents as compare to the other two needs. The consumers are more aware about health consciousness and spend more money and are willing to pay more for the hygienic and quality milk product. They are more interested to gather the information about their product. They are the consumers who have children and senior family members. They rated taste consciousness at second highest level that revealed that they purchased more flavored dairy product, for the purpose of gratification and enjoying the product. Taste consciousness needs are a stronger, more generally common motivator for food purchases than are social needs among the consumers. Their result suggested that consumer trying to satisfy particular type of needs through delicate values as expressed in dairy product purchases. Different values might be achieved throughout consumption of different products or services. Consumers' general buying behavior reflects how consumers generally utilize and prioritize their needs to be satisfied from brand loyal behavior (usually buy the same brands of dairy product), this reflects the behavior of consumers who wanted to fulfill their needs through dairy product purchase decisions.15

The findings indicate that personal and interpersonal values are found to be the main motivators behind the purchase of dairy product. Many different factors contribute to flavor variability. The source of the powder, processing/packaging methods and materials, as well as storage time and conditions, are just a few. The dried dairy ingredient lexicon,

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

linking responsible chemical factors and causal agents, provides common ground for processors and ingredient suppliers to discuss ingredient characteristics.15

2.13 Conceptual framework


This study will follow the conceptual framework based on Kim et al, 2002 shows a hierarchical correlation between the consumers values, needs and behavior. The consumers values work as an independent variable influencing the dependent variable consumer needs and each type of need is dependent upon the combination of three types of consumers values. In the same way, it needs work as an independent variable and consumer behavior is dependent upon the combination of three types of the needs. Thus consumers values influence the needs, which in turn influence the consumer behavior to be met through dairy products.15

Fig.1: Kims conceptual framework Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 33

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

2.14 Characteristics of dairy products and emerging consumer trends according to kim model
Dairy products range from fairly standardized goods, such as milk, butter, and nonfat dry milk powder, to multi variety, multi flavored products, such as specialty cheeses, fermented drinks, and milk protein fractions used in food and beverage items. Some dairy product markets were local or national, while others were global. Products such as fresh milk, yogurt, and cheese were intended for direct consumption. In the choices of food products economic and social environment has third stage, and other influencing features were hygiene, price, availability, brand name of the food product. The social environment, other side also has active influence like urbanization, migration, industrialization education and media. This study was mainly focusing of two dairy products including milk and yogurt. According to the Nairobi study, Nakuru urban and Nakuru rural were 15.6, 3.8 and 0.2litres/hh/month, respectively. Pasteurized milk was purchased in Nairobi, Nakuru urban and Nakuru rural by 78%, 34% and 5% of sample households, respectively. Both raw and pasteurized milk were purchased in larger quantities as income class increased. All households in urban areas and 96% in Nakuru rural reported boiling milk prior to consumption. The key findings here were that raw dairy product is bought by wealthy as well as poor household consumers, and that significant pasteurized dairy product markets

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

are limited to major urban areas, where the informal market has difficulty meeting all demand of the higher socioeconomic consumers.13

2.15 Food preferences


Social and cultural factors are equally important influences on dairy products choice as are availability and economic factors. Dairy products choused by the consumer are also those that are usually preferred and acceptable. Cultures determine the boundaries of an individuals choice and provide a sense of security through familiar dairy products and prescribe which are acceptable. An individuals cultural background, therefore, often dictates a persons taste preferences. Choice of dairy products not only provides nourishment but also serves as a reflection of the symbolic meaning, values and lifestyles of the consumer. It is often found in a specific cultural or ethnic group that traditional dairy products have been still enjoyed by many customers. However preferred food products are often also acceptable in a specific cultural group likewise Punjab province. Dairy-based beverages are increasing in popularity in the beverage sector, in spite of the increased competition from other products such as carbonates beverages and fresh fruit juices. Although the latest trend shows a decline in the consumption of milk products, there is an increase in the fruit juice intake compared to soft drink consumption. One of the reasons is the increase in the consumption of skim milk and decline in the consumption of full cream milk and full cream milk products. This contributes to the importance of the dairy fruit beverage category in the food sector. 38

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Marketing strategies for dairy products also emphasize the functionality of certain products to attract consumers. Milk for drinking is becoming a differentiated product tailored to specific consumer tastes and preferences.

Innovative manufacturers are capitalizing on the growing consumer awareness of the role that specific components of dairy foods play in human vitality. This strategy has led firms to introduce such products as pro-biotic milks, yogurts, and fermented dairy drinks having health benefits deriving from good bacteria. Firms are also launching multi-flavored milk drinks as a way to attract new consumers, especially young people.

2.16 Technology-Driven Ingredients


The growing awareness of the many roles of specific dairy product components is helping to boost demand for those components as ingredients. The dairy industry is developing technologies to economically and efficiently extract and process these components of dairy product. Within the dairy ingredient complexwhich includes fat, sugar (lactose), and proteinsproteins are the targets of much of the research and development.9

The growth in new markets for dairy product proteins exemplifies the transformation of dairy product from a commodity to a value-added product tailored to meet specific consumer requirements. Dairy product proteins are a major part of functional food product formulations, and their use is expected to grow. The outlook for dairy product protein markets is promising given current demand trends among both food processors and

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

consumers for protein ingredient specificity. For processors and manufacturers, the confirmed functionality of ingredients, not perceived or intangible values, determine market values. Dairy-based ingredients have the potential to evolve into truly global products traded in a world market, and pricing is likely to become highly competitive as this market matures.4

By contrast, in the case of modern dairy products in addition to price, quality and taste it appears that also ingredients and advertising (which are opinion factors) play an important role. It seems, therefore, that for modern products such as milk drinks or desserts consumer often choose extended, prudent decision-making process and tries to gain more information, because the product is new and unknown. 9 The people who are more health conscious spend more money and are willing to pay more for the hygienic and quality milk product. They are more interested to gather the information about their product. They are the people who have children and senior family members. They rated taste consciousness at second highest level that revealed that they purchased more flavored milk, for the purpose of gratification and enjoying the product. Taste consciousness needs are a stronger, more generally common motivator for food purchases than are social needs among the consumers.15 Consumers' dairy product purchase behavior seems to be attributed to the fact that their preferences regarding the products are fulfilled more of their health and taste consciousness needs than their environment needs.

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Consumers' general purchase behavior reflects how consumers generally utilize and prioritize their needs to be satisfied from brand loyal behavior (usually buy the same brands of dairy product), this reflects the behavior of consumers who wanted to fulfill all three types of needs through dairy product purchase decisions.

2.17 Consumers behavior and socioeconomic factors


Most of the consumers using dairy products without passing through a pasteurization process. Main stakeholders in this informal milk marketing system include many smallscale market traders (often referred to as hawkers). While these small-scale milk traders link dairy producers (mainly smallholders) to their consumers in a cost effective, public concern, but without quantified information, that this informal milk marketing may create consumers health issues and risks. It needs to be for a basis to begin to define the trade-offs of the dairy industry and should go for in terms of quality assurance on the one hand and cost and restrictions on traders on the other.13 However, rising per capita income and increasing consciousness is fulfilling the need of dairy products. For promoting the dairy products consumption and creating awareness regarding health and hygiene camps should be introduced. Manufactures have used advertising campaigns to promote the unique selling point and higher consumption of dairy products. Creating the awareness is a part of social responsibility of dairy products company. There are some important factors considered by the consumer for decision making, like Brand image, advertising, and offer plays an important role in purchasing dairy products, sometimes based on the offer the consumer compare with competitor product and select the best one. Product attribute also analyzed by the consumer for

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

deciding a brand. Switching of one product to other company product is mainly based on advertisement, brand name, packaging availability, and price rise, etc. So the companies analyze all these factors and find out the best suitable tools for promoting their dairy products. Consumer is king the statement carries profound truth in it. In these circumstances understanding consumer is a very difficult task because of the technological advancement, innovation, and changes in life style. 10 As per the ideas given by the researchers, there are two factors influencing the consumers such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is difficult to classify consumers by conventional demographic factors and unless their thought process and buying patterns are fully understood, decisions on product designs and packaging, branding and distribution channels are likely to be misplaced, with the inevitability of change looming large over the horizon.

2.18 Dairy products market in Pakistan


Pakistan is the worlds seventh most populous country, with 162.6 (2007) million people. It is growing at a rate of 2.16 per cent per annum. A wide variety of consumer goods are simply not available to the average citizen. However, Pakistan has undergone considerable social and economic change in recent years.37 A strong consumer market is now developing, where more consumers are in a position to purchase a wide variety of consumer goods. The cultural and socio-economic conditions in Pakistan are expected to shape the types of needs to be met through different products and services.

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Consumer behavior has been significantly influenced by the socioeconomic conditions of markets. Consumers per capita income and disposable income should be that much so that budget might be maximized and resources can be utilized in efficient way. Given Pakistans consumers have relatively limited economic resources and limited exposure to western culture, they have less opportunity to learn about symbolic aspects of consumption. It is estimated that the needs to be met through different products will differ among Pakistani consumers. Dairy milk production has a great potential in the live stock sector. There is a need to convert this potential into the strength and comparative advantage of the Pakistan. For this purpose Government and other private institutions plan to conduct research and development to capture and exploit this opportunity not only to meet the local needs but also for earning foreign exchange. There is a need to find out the market trends, needs, demand and motivational factors for successful commercializing of milk and other live stock products. In this context the objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between consumer values and the types of needs to be met through milk products; and to examine the relationships between the types of needs to be met through dairy product and consumer behavior. 37

2.19 Conclusions of literature review


More than half of samples exceed bacterial count but nearly all consumers boil milk before consumption to eliminate any bacterial threat to health. Anti-microbial residues were found in many samples, and since they are not destroyed by pasteurization, they may pose the major long-term public health threat in milk. Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 40

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

This study mainly focus on consideration of the external factors like demographic, social, cultural, price, quality, and product attributes for buying dairy products. This research seeks to propose that the utilization of consumer values, needs and consumer behavior helps to position the product more efficiently and effectively. The market share of any product is highly determined by the purchasing behavior of the consumers. The behaviors of consumers, preference of consumers and consumers health consciousness was analyzed.

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3 CHAPTER # 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study setting and population
At the consumer-level, the study was carried out in metropolitan city of Karachi Pakistan representing three socio economics status (Upper, middle and lower) respondents. Within each stratum, a group of males and a group of females were selected. Participants from the lower socio-economic strata were identified. Lower and middle class men and women were identified with the help of available NGOs, and representatives of upper middle class were identified by the researcher himself. The purposive selection of these a group was made by the support of literature review.

3.2 Study design


In this research a descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to answer the study questions. According to Polit and Beck, 2003 cross-sectional studies were appropriate for describing the status of phenomena at a fixed point in time.39 Moreover, analytical surveys seek to determine the degree of association between a variable and a factor in the population40. Therefore, the above mentioned study design was considered appropriate to conduct this study.

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3.3 Sample size calculation


To calculate sample size for the associated factors unhygienic fresh milk preference of dairy product, we used the percentage of 40% from the available literature,41 with Odds Ratio (OR) of 02, Confidence interval (CI) of 95%, and power of the study as 80%. The required minimum sample size was 44 from three strata, which would be 132. To take care of the refusals we will take the sample of 150.

3.4 Data collection procedure


The household members were interviewed based on the inclusion criteria. However, in each family not more than 2 members were interviewed. The questionnaire was prepared in order to cover the information for consumer demographic data, knowledge, attitude and practices about dairy products was collected including the main variable such as perception of having hygienic impact of dairy products on human, consumer preference towards purchasing dairy product like tetra pack or open (fresh), knowledge of importance of dairy product, and how much they were considering hygienic issues when they select the dairy product to consume, and person who is the decision maker to purchase dairy product. Also the pasteurization process of dairy products at home by using traditional methods was evaluated. However, these products have with very sensory characteristics for the growth of microorganism. One hundred and fifty respondents were interviewed based on the schedule to collect data. The question were collected either on yes or no response or multiple responses with pre codes. It includes questions relating to hygiene and health consciousness; of consumer buying pattern, and try to knowing the relationship between hygienic issues in

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dairy product and consumer behavior. The purpose of the present study is to compare that which dairy product considered more hygienic between tetra pack and open (fresh) and what the consumer behavior trends in relation to demographics. The data was collected by self filling questionnaire by the participants. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS software. The data was analyzed by having descriptive statistics such as frequency and Percentage. Furthermore bar chart was presented for the descriptive statistics. Chi-square test of independence was used for the comparison of propositional variables. The inferential statistics was used to determine whether there was significant difference between milk consumption and demographics.

3.5 Ethical considerations


Before data collection the purpose of the study was explained to the participants, the participants were informed about the right to withdraw from the study at any time. The right of confidentiality, privacy, autonomy, and respect were protected throughout the study by using the codes and numbers instead of names.42

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4 CHAPTER # 4 RESULTS
Table 1: Showing the demographic characteristics of participants of Urban Karachi, Pakistan (n= 195) Characteristics n % Family income equal to or below 15000 51 25.9 16000-30000 44 22.3 31000-45000 48 24.4 46000 & above 54 27.4 Gender Male Female Education Below Matric Matric and Inter Graduate and Above Family system joint family Nuclear family Separate / individual 134 63 35 53 109 95 69 33 68.0 32.0 17.8 26.9 55.3 48.2 35.0 16.8

Socio-demographic characteristics are shown in table 1. A total of 197 subjects compromising 134 males and 63 females were interviewed from lower, middle and upper socioeconomic, 51 (25.9%) were from lower socio-economic status, 44 (22.3%) were from lower-middle socio-economic, 48 (24.4%) were from middle-upper socio-economic while

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Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

54 (27.4%) were to be from higher socio-economic strata. Education wise only 35 (17.8%) were below Matric, 53(26.9%) were between Matric and Inter while Graduate and above were 109 (55.3%). However majorly peoples were living in joint family system i.e. 95 (48.25%) as compare to nuclear 69 (35.0%) and separated family system 33 (16.8%).

4.1 Test- Hypothesis No. 1


Ho: Consumers income and purchase behavior does not dependants on the family norms, awareness/ education or social norms and convenience. H1: Consumers income and purchase behavior is dependants on the family norms, awareness/ education or social norms and convenience. This hypothesis was tested to see if there is any association in between consumers income (outcome variables) and purchase behavior according to family norms, awareness/ education, social norms, convenience, (independent variables) in table 2, mentioning the p values of chi square to show if there is significantly difference in both or not.

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Table 2: Demonstrate the milk purchasing behavior according to family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norm and convenience and purchasing behavior among people belonging to lower (n= 51), lower middle (n= 44), upper middle (n=48) and upper socio-economic strata (n= 54) by using chi-square test of independence. Purchase behavior according to Family income of participants in thousands below 15 16-30 31-45 46 & above Family norms Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Awareness Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Health issues Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Social norms Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Convenience Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 8 (15.7%) 17 (33.3%) 10 (19.6%) 9 (17.6%) 7 (13.7%) below 15 6 (11.8%) 5 (9.8%) 14 (27.5%) 15 (29.4%) 11 (21.6%) below 15 23 (45.1%) 16 (31.4%) 3 (5.9%) 7 (13.7%) 2 (3.9%) below 15 2 (3.9%) 7 (13.7%) 11 (21.6%) 8 (15.7%) 23 (45.1%) below 15 9(20.5%) 11(25.0%) 8 (18.2%) 7 (15.9%) 9 (20.5%) 16-30 4 (9.1%) 13 (29.5%) 13 (29.5%) 11 (25.0%) 3 (6.8%) 16-30 19 (43.2%) 9 (20.5%) 6 (13.6%) 6 (13.6%) 4 (9.1%) 16-30 10 (22.7%) 1 (2.3%) 7 (15.9%) 9 (20.5%) 17 (38.6%) 16-30 13 (27.1%) 10 (20.8%) 8 (16.7%) 11 (22.9%) 6 (12.5%) 31-45 7 (14.6%) 8 (16.7%) 14 (29.2%) 12 (25.0%) 7 (14.6%) 31-45 20 (41.7%) 9 (18.8%) 8 (16.7%) 4 (8.3%) 7 (14.6%) 31-45 2 (4.2%) 8 (16.7%) 12 (25%) 14 (29.2%) 12 (25.0%) 31-45 11 (20.4%) 9 (16.7%) 15 (27.8%) 7 (13.0%) 12 (22.2%) 46 & above 9 (16.7%) 16 (29.6%) 11 (20.4%) 10 (18.5%) 8 (14.8%) 46 & above 25 (46.3%) 12 (22.2%) 5 (9.3%) 7 (13.0%) 5 (9.5%) 46 & above 5 (9.3%) 11 (20.4%) 9 (16.7%) 14 (25.9%) 15 (27.8%) 46 & above 47 Pvalue
2

0.59

0.30

0.7

0.016*

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important *P value is significant

12 (23.5%) 8 (15.7%) 12 (23.5%) 11 (21.6%) 8 (15.7%)

7 (15.9%) 9 (20.5%) 8 (18.2%) 11 (25.0%) 9 (20.5%)

6 (12.5%) 11 (22.9%) 7 (14.6%) 8 (16.7%) 16 (33.3%)

8 (14.8%) 6 (11.1%) 13 (24.1%) 15 (27.8%) 12 (22.2%)

0.52

Conclusion: We conclude from this table 2 that dairy products preference of having over all norms of the family, awareness/ education, and convenience in relation to income of the household, but it is dependent on the social norms. This Hypothesis was disapproved. On the other hand it showed that the customers of any income groups are dependent on their social norms in buying preference of dairy products.

4.2 Test: Hypothesis No. 2


Ho; Consumers income and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack) does not related to each other. H1; Consumers income and purchasing of types of dairy product (fresh or tetra pack) are related to each other.

This hypothesis was tested to see if there is any association in between the income of the customers and types of purchasing of dairy products. Table 3, mentioning the p values of chi square to show if there is significantly difference in both or not.

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Table 3: Demonstrate the milk purchasing behavior according to customers purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack) belonging to lower (n= 51), lower middle (n= 44), upper middle (n=48) and upper socio-economic strata (n= 54) by using chi-square test of independence. P-value X2 0.628 below 15 28 (54.9%) 17 (33.3%) 5 (9.8%) 1 (2.0%) 16-30 25 (56.8%) 11 (25.0%) 7 (15.9%) 1 (2.3%) 31-45 24 (50.0%) 13 (27.1%) 10 (20.8%) 1 (2.1%) 46 & above 24 (44.4%) 13 (24.1%) 15 (27.8%) 2 (3.7%)

Purchasing behavior in relation to purchase a dairy product Open Milk, open yogurt Package Milk, open yogurt Package milk and package yogurt Open milk, package yogurt *P value is significant

Conclusion: These tables 2 & 3 showing the family income in relation to purchasing behavior based on family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norms and convenience. Over all most of the variables does not show significant difference among all the family income groups. However for purchasing behavior according to social norm n=12, 26.9 percent of people belonging to middle class purchase a milk on the influential factor of social norm compared to n=2, 3.9 percent of people belonging to lower socioeconomic strata and n=5, 9.3 percent of higher socio-economic strata. Therefore, social norm do have an impact on purchasing behavior of milk. And therefore p-value stayed

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significant (P-value: 0.016). On the other hand the purchasing behavior in terms of types (Open/fresh) of dairy products they use is not dependent on the income of the family.

4.3 Test- Hypothesis No. 3


Ho; Consumers education and level of awareness/ education about sanitation and hygiene [home, types (fresh or tetra pack), hygienic level] does not associated to each other. H1; Consumers education and level of awareness/education about sanitation and hygiene are associated with each other.

This hypothesis was tested to see if there is any association in between consumers education with level of awareness for the sanitation and hygiene (table 4), mentioning the p values of chi square to show if there is significantly difference among them.

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Table 4: Demonstrate the people behavior regarding proper sanitization of open milk, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygiene according to people their literacy level like having education below Matric (n=35) or Matric and inter (n=53) or with the degree on of graduation and above (n= 109) by using chi-square test

Proper sanitization of open milk at home below Matric Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in hygienic level Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree 7 (20.0%) 4 (11.4%) 12 (34.3%) 12 (34.3%) 10 (18.9%) 18 (34.0%) 23 (43.45) 2 (3.8%) 7 (6.4%) 28 (25.75) 55 (50.5%) 19 (17.4%) 14 (40.0%) 9 (25.7%) 6 (17.1%) 6 (17.1%) 6 (11.3%) 38 (71.7%) 6 (11.3%) 3 (5.7%) 45 (41.3%) 45 (41.3%) 18 (16.5%) 1 (0.9%) 18 (51.4%) 11(31.4%) 4(11.4%) 2(5.7%) Education Matric and Inter 12 (22.6%) 36 (67.9%) 4 (7.5%) 1 (1.9%) Graduate and Above 26 (23.9%) 63 (57.8%) 13 (11.9%) 7 (6.4%)

P- value 2

.018*

.000*

.000*

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Conclusion: This table is concluding that education/awareness in relation to proper sanitization of open milk at home, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygiene level is significantly difference. Over all, most of the variables have shown the significant difference in relation to education. Indicating that n=18, 51.4 (%) percent participants having literacy level below Matric have strongly agree on the fact that proper sanitization of open milk at home could be done at home as compared to n=12, 22.6 percent of participant with literacy level of Matric and Inter and n=26, 23.95 (%) percent of participant with higher level education. And therefore p-value stayed significant (p-value: 0.018). While n=45, 41.3 percent participants with higher education feel that tetra pack dairy products are more sanitized then the open dairy product with the significant value of (P-value: 0.000) along with that n=14, 40.0 percent with education below Matric also agree on the detail as compared to the n=12, 22.6 percent of the people with literacy level of Matric and inter. Also n=7, participants with education below Matric feels that open diary product can match the hygienic level of tetra pack dairy products with the significant value of (P-value: 0.000) as compare to n=10, with Matric and inter and n=7, participants with higher degree. Therefore, we can say that literacy levels do have an impact regarding sanitization and hygienic of open milk compared to tetra packed milk. This shows that this hypothesis was disapprove.

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4.4

Test- Hypothesis No. 4

Ho; Consumers family structure and practices [value believes of family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization, and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack)] does not dependent on each other

H1; Consumers family structure and practices [value believes of family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization, and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack)] are dependent on each other.

This hypothesis was tested to see if there is any association in between consumers family structure and practices (value belief) (family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack) in table 5, mentioning the p values of chi square to show if there is significantly difference.

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Table 5: Demonstrate the purchasing behavior of milk according to family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norm, convenience and people behavior in relation to purchase a dairy product proper sanitization of open milk, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygiene among people belonging to joint family (n= 95), nuclear family (n= 69) or living as separate/individual (n=33) by using chisquare test

Purchase behavior according to Family norms Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Awareness Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Health issues Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important

Family system/structure Joint family 17 (17.9%) 27 (28.4%) 18 (18.9%) 14 (14.7%) 19 (20.0%) Joint family 14 (14.7%) 17 (17.9%) 29 (30.5%) 23 (24.2%) 12 (12.6%) Joint family 48 (50.5%) 22 (23.2%) 10 (10.5%) 10 (10.5%) 5 (5.3%) Nuclear family 19 (27.5%) 13 (18.8%) 14 (20.3%) 14 (20.3%) 9 (13.0%) Nuclear family 9 (13.0%) 19 (27.5%) 14 (20.3%) 17 (24.6%) 10 (14.5%) Nuclear family 27 (39.1%) 16 (23.2%) 12 (17.4%) 6 (8.7%) 8 (11.6%) Separated/in dividual 5 (15.2%) 7 (21.2%) 9 (27.3%) 6 (18.2%) 6 (18.2%) Separated/in dividual 3 (9.1%) 6 (18.2%) 9 (27.3%) 8 (24.2%) 7 (21.2%) Separated/in dividual 12 (36.4%) 8 (24.2%) 0 (.0%) 8 (24.2%) 5 (15.2%)

P- value 2 0.563

0.720

.042*

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Social norms Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Convenience Most important Very important Neutral important Average important Least important Purchasing behavior in relation to purchase a dairy product Open milk, open yogurt Package milk, open yogurt Package milk and package yogurt Open milk, package yogurt Proper sanitization of open milk at home Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree Comparison of tetra Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529

Joint family 4 (4.2%) 15 (15.8%) 20 (21.1%) 23 (24.2%) 33 (34.7%) Joint family 17 (17.9%) 14 (14.7%) 16 (16.8%) 24 (25.3%) 24 (25.3%) Joint family 51 (53.7%) 28 (29.5%) 15 (15.8%) 1 (1.1%) Joint family 32 (33.7%) 51 (53.7%) 8 (8.4%) 4 (4.2%) Joint family 32 (33.7%) 43 (45.3%) 14 (14.7%) 6 (6.3%) Joint family

Nuclear family 9 (13.0%) 6 (8.7%) 16 (23.2%) 17 (24.6%) 21 (30.4%) Nuclear family 9 (13.0%) 14 (20.3%) 12 (17.4%) 15 (21.7%) 19 (27.5%) Nuclear family 37 (53.6%) 13 (18.8%) 17 (24.6%) 2 (2.9%) Nuclear family 16 (23.2%) 40 (58.0%) 7 (10.1%) 6 (8.7%) Nuclear family 23 (33.3%) 30 (43.5%) 15 (21.7%) 1 (1.4%) Nuclear family

Separated/in dividual 6 (18.2%) 6 (18.2%) 3 (9.1%) 5 (15.2%) 13 (39.4%) Separated/in dividual 7 (21.2%) 6 (18.2%) 12 (36.4%) 6 (18.2%) 2 (6.1%) Separated/in dividual 13 (39.4%) 13 (34.9%) 5 (15.2%) 2 (6.1%) Separated/in dividual 8 (24.2%) 19 (57.6%) 6 (18.2%) 0 (0%) Separated/in dividual 10 (30.3%) 19 (57.6%) 1 (3.0%) 3 (9.1%) Separated/in

.140

.135

.161

.256

.152

.760 55

Consumers buying pattern of dairy product

pack with dairy product in hygienic level Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

dividual 14 (14.7%) 21 (22.1%) 42 (44.2%) 18 (18.9%) 8 (11.6%) 19 (25.7%) 33 (47.8%) 9 (13.0%) 2 (6.1%) 10 (30.3%) 14 (45.5%) 6 (18.2%)

Conclusion: This table concludes that the family system/structure in relation to purchasing behavior based on family norms, education/awareness, health issues, social norms and convenience was over all not significant. Over among all of the variables does not show significant difference among all the family structure group i.e. joint family, nuclear family, separated or individual. however, only one purchasing behavior according to health issues has shown the significant difference among all family norms (P-value: 0.042) detailing that only n=48, 50.5 percent of the people living in joint family consider purchasing behavior according to the health issue most important as compare to the n=27, 39.1 percent of the people living in nuclear family and n=12, 36.4 percent of people living as separate/individual while family structure in relation to proper sanitization of open milk at home, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygienic level showed to be insignificant.

4.5 Strength of the study


It was a difficult task to accumulate different research study material that was relevant to the findings and to gather all the information that is presented here which was never available in terms of associations of dairy mild preferences and socioeconomic demographic variables. Imran Ahmed | ID # 4529 56

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This paper is about the wide literature that is available on effective qualitative research study and provides detailed guidelines to the use of the different methods and their implication as well as information about their limitations.

4.6 Limitations
This study is restricted to gather information from urban areas only as it was a difficult task to collect it from rural areas. An urban area has a higher and literate population as compared to the other places surrounding this area. Therefore, it was a huge limitation to the study and data collection. It was a difficult task to set an interview time with the respondents, because it was needed from each respondent separately. Once the appointment was fixed, the next difficulty was to approach them for getting the questionnaires filled due to the fact that they had so many queries about the questionnaire and about the study, besides some of them even refused to answer as they were not willing to participate. However, out of 200 people, 150 accepted to answer and so filled the questionnaires which gave us 75% of acceptance rate strength. Time limit was another serious issue, as to collect the data that I had to visit three different SES groups and also had to visit household, shops and offices which were at times clashing with the appointment from another respondent. This hypothesis was also disapproved.

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5 CHAPTER # 5 CONCLUSION OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING


5.1 Disapprove hypothesis
5.1.1 Hypothesis No. 1
Ho; Consumers income and purchase behavior does not dependant on the family norms, awareness/ education or social norms and convenience.

5.1.2 Hypothesis No. 3


Ho; Consumers education and level of awareness/education about sanitation and hygiene [home, types (fresh or tetra pack), hygienic level] does not associated to each other.

5.1.3 Hypothesis No. 4


Ho; Consumers family structure and practices [value believes of family norms, awareness/ education, health issues/ hygiene, convenience, sanitization, and purchasing of types of dairy products (fresh or tetra pack)] does not dependent on each other.

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5.2 Conclusion of the study

This study concludes that preferences of customers are unique in nature. It has been shown in the literature that customers preferences of dairy products are improving with the understanding of hygiene, sanitation, education and income. At times the social norms and traditional practices become so strong that preferences are adherent to it. Our study had shown that family, awareness/ education, and convenience in relation to income of the household, has no effect, but it is the social norms of the family matters. Furthermore, the purchasing behavior in terms of types (Open/fresh) of dairy products in relation to income of the family also does not make any differences. Also education/awareness in relation to proper sanitization of open milk at home, comparison of tetra pack with dairy product in sanitization and in hygiene level, customers had the clear understanding that the sanitation can be done at home level easily. Moreover, the highly educated families felt that tetra pack dairy products are more sanitized then the open dairy product. Furthermore, purchasing behavior is dependent on the awareness and concern of health issues was significant difference among any type of family (P-value: 0.042).

In brief, level of income, education and type of family an individual belongs to have different preference of dairy products. This study also identified that social norms and hygiene issues are main reasons for the selection of type of dairy products, in the forms of open milk, tetra pack and mix ways.

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5.3 Research limitations/implications


The interview method is time consuming and can result in complex data to be analyzed. However, by sticking the analysis to descriptive and uni-variate level, we were able to handle this limitation.

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6 CHAPTER # 6 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY

1) This study recommends that to be able to convince the consumers that it is necessary to ensure that dairy products over education is provided to the public, and while advertisements of dairy products are being given they should ensure that social norms and hygienic issues should be covered. i) There is a need that media should also play their role, to motivate people to buy the clean and safe milk by providing awareness to them. ii) Advertisements of dairy products are being given should ensure that social norms and hygiene issues should be advertized in such a way that traditional people realize the importance of the tetra pack dairy products. 2) From the perspective of industry, there is a need to lessen the cost of the tetra pack. As most of the cost is due to products package leading to the increase of cost. If it is lessened, all the economic strata can be the customers. Further, there is a need to take measures to lessen the cost of the fuel in relation with the costs of capital investments, achieving greater sustainability and delivering innovative, competitive packaging.

3) Moreover, increase in the use of the concept of stretch wrapped pallets and ceaseless palletizing should also be promoted.

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4) The dairy sector does not have specific institution or custodian which collects, collates and analyses dairy related data that can be used to inform investors, policy makers and other industry stakeholders, which our study has collected. However, there is a need to monitor and evaluate the industry related data to maintain quality, attract customers and enhance of the individual health.

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Appendix

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Questionnaire

1. Approximately family income: _______ 1) below 15000 2) 16000-30000 3) 31000-45000 4) 46000 & above

2. Gender 1) Male 2) Female

3. Education 1) Below Matric 2) Matric and Inter 3) Graduate and above

4. Family system/structure 1) Joint family 2) Nuclear family (a family unit that consists of father, mother and their children) 3) Separate /individual

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5. Prioritized the options given below with reference to your purchase behavior of dairy product between 1 to 5, keeping one is the most important and 5 is the least important? Family norms Education/ awareness Health issues Social norms Convenience

6. What is your purchasing behavior to purchase a dairy product, please select the best option? 1) Open Milk, Open Yogurt 2) Package Milk, Open Yogurt 3) Package Milk, Package Yogurt 4) Open Milk, Package Yogurt

7. Do you feel that proper sanitization (germs/bacterial killing through boiling of milk) of open milk can be done at homes? 1 Strongly Agreed 2 Agreed 3 Disagreed 4 Strongly Disagreed

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8. Do you feel that tetra-pack dairy products are more sanitized then open dairy products? 1 Strongly Agreed 2 Agreed 3 Disagreed 4 Strongly Disagreed

9. Do you feel that open milk shops can match the hygienic level available with companies promoting packaged dairy product? 1 Strongly Agreed 2 Agreed 3 Disagreed 4 Strongly Disagreed

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7 Glossary
Product Hygiene Product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort43 Hygiene refers to the set of practices perceived by a community to be associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. While in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations, what is considered hygienic or not can vary between different cultures, genders and etarian groups. Impact A result or change of something.44 The "consumer" is the one who consumes the goods and services produced. As such, consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation because in the absence of the effective demand that emanates from them, the economy virtually collapses.44 A type of plasticized cardboard carton for milk and other drinks, folded from a single sheet into a box shape. 45 An unrestricted market with free access by and competition of buyers and sellers.45 Bacteria are widely distributed in soil, water, and air, and on or in the tissues of plants and animals. Formerly included in the plant kingdom, they are now classified separately (as prokaryotes). They play a vital role in global ecology, as the chemical changes they bring about include those of organic decay and nitrogen fixation. Much modern biochemical knowledge has been gained from the study of bacteria, as they grow easily and reproduce rapidly in laboratory cultures. 45 Is the presence of a minor and unwanted flora/ microorganisms46 Able to be maintained at a certain rate or level: sustainable of hygiene
47

Consumers

Tetra Pack

Open Market

Microorganisms

Contamin ation Sustainable

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Competitive Pasteurization

Relating to or characterized by competition: a competitive sport45 The act or process of heating a beverage or other food, such as milk or beer, to a specific temperature for a specific period of time in order to kill microorganisms that could cause disease, spoilage, or undesired fermentation.48 Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. 49 Conditions relating to public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal.50 The ceasing of menstruation. The period in a womans life (typically between the ages of 45 and 50) when menstruation ceases.51 A medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D52 A regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific48 A substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.53 The organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins. Organs include the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.54 A hollow container used to give shape to molten or hot liquid material (such as wax or metal) when it cools and hardens.55

Knowledge

Sanitation

Menopause

Osteoporosis

Hormone

Enzyme

Immune System

Molds

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Normal Flora Airborne Diseases

The mixture of bacteria normally found at specific body sites.56 Transported by air56 A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury57 It is relating to the bacilli that commonly inhabit the intestines of humans and other vertebrates, especially the colobacillus.58 The state of being intoxicated, especially by alcohol: signs of intoxication59 Relating to or denoting drugs that affect a persons mental state60 Any member of a class of natural or semi synthetic antibiotics whose characteristic feature is a strained, four-member -lactam ring (see lactam). They include the penicillins and many of the cephalosporins.
45

Coliform

Intoxication

Psychotropic -lactams

Tetracyclines

Any of a large group of antibiotics with a molecular structure containing four rings.61 Any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics (e.g., streptomycin, gentamicin) derived from various species of Streptomyces or produced synthetically; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. 45 Any of a class of antibiotics containing a lactone ring, of which the first and best known is erythromycin45 A bacterium of a genus that occurs in soil and detritus, including a number that are pathogens of plants or animals45

Amino glycoside

Macrolides

Pseudomonas

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Mycobacterium

A bacterium of a group that includes the causative agents of leprosy and tuberculosis45 The type species of the genus Serratia; a species found in water and soil and milk and foods and insects; can cause infections of the endocardium and blood and wounds and urinary tract and respiratory tract; has been tested as a bio weapon45 A rod-shaped bacterium that produces lactic acid from the fermentation of carbohydrates62 A genus of soil bacteria comprising cellulolytic forms that resemble and are often considered to be members of cynobacteria45 A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of uncertain affiliation, found in the intestines of vertebrates and as part of the normal skin flora, and occasionally the cause of opportunistic infections. A. faecalis causes nosocomial septicemia, arising from contaminated hemodialysis or intravenous fluid, in 45 immunocompromised patients A genus of schizomycetes usually found in water, some being pathogenic for fish, amphibians, reptiles, and humans. 45

Serratia Marcescens

Lactobacillus

Arthrobacter

Alcaligenes

Aeromonas

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IrTY_rzNUEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA11&dq=Stora+DE.+Pharmacologie+BP.+Editions+Porph yre%3B+2005.&ots=YPNmUoeHMd&sig=bSnmtW_SzA3iRlaZjDCITLuFBA#v=onepage&q&f=false

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