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Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics


1.1. Problems of stylistic research


1.2. Stylistics of language and speech


1.3. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics


1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines


1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring


1.6. Stylistic function notion


Practice Section


Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language


2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices


2.2. Different classifications of expressive means


2.2.1. Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system


2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification of expresssive means by G. Leech



2.2.3. I. R. Galperin's classification of expressive means

and stylistic devices


2.2.4. Classification of expressive means and

stylistic devices by Y. M. Skrebnev


Practice Section


Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar


3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi- marked and unmarked structures


3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition


3.3. Morphological stylistics. Stylistic potential of the

parts of speech


3.3.1. The noun and its stylistic potential


3.3.2. The article and its stylistic potential


3.3.3. The stylistic power of the pronoun


3.3.4. The adjective and its stylistic functions


3.3.5. The verb and its stylistic properties


3.3.6. Affixation and its expressiveness


3.4. Stylistic syntax


Practice Section



Chapter 4. The Theory of Functional Styles


4.1. The notion of style in functional stylistics


4.2. Correlation of style, norm and function in the language



4.3. Language varieties: regional, social, occupational .


4.4. An overview of functional style systems


4.5. Distinctive linguistic features of the major functional styles of English


4.5.1. Literary colloquial style


4.5.2. Familiar colloquial style


4.5.3. Publicist (media) style


4.5.4. The style of official documents


4.5.5. Scientific/academic style


Practice Section


Chapter 5. Decoding Stylistics and Its Fundamental Notions .


5.1. Stylistics of the author and of the reader. The notions of


5.2. Essential concepts of decoding stylistic analysis



encoding and decoding

and types of foregrounding

5.2.1. Convergence

5.2.2. Defeated expectancy



5.2.3. Coupling


5.2.4. Semantic field


5.2.5. Semi-marked structures


Practice Section


Glossary for the Course of Stylistics






List of Authors and Publications Quoted



The book suggests the fundamentals of stylistic theory that outline such basic areas of research as expressive resources of the language, stylistic differentiation of vocabulary, varieties of the national language and sociolinguistic and pragmatic factors that determine functional styles.

The second chapter will take a student of English to the beginnings of stylistics in Greek and Roman schools of rhetoric and show how- much modern terminology and classifications of expressive means owe to rhetoric.

An important part of the book is devoted to the new tendencies and schools of stylistics that assimilated advancements in the linguistic science in such trends of the 20" 1 century as functional, decoding and grammatical stylistics.

The material on the wealth of expressive means of English will help a student of philology, a would-be teacher and a reader of literature not only to receive orientation in how to fully decode the message of the work of art and therefore enjoy it all the more but also to improve their own style of expression.

he chapter on functional styles highlights the importance of «time place » m language usage. It tells how the same language differs len used for different purposes on different occasions in communi- ation with different people. It explains why we adopt different uses of

a "


language as we go through our day. A selection of distinctive features of each functional style will help to identify and use it correctly whether you deal with producing or analysing a text of a certain functional type.

Chapters on grammar stylistics and decoding stylistics are intended to introduce the student to the secrets of how a stylistic device works. Modern linguistics may help to identify the nature and algorithm of stylistic effect by showing what kind of semantic change, grammatical transposition or lexical deviation results in various stylistic outcomes.

This book combines theoretical study and practice. Each chapter is supplied with a special section that enables the student and the teacher to revise and process the theoretical part by drawing conclusions and parallels, doing comparison and critical analysis. Another type of prac- tice involves creative tasks on stylistic analysis and interpretation, such as identifying devices in literary texts, explaining their function and the principle of performance, decoding the implications they create.

The knowledge of the theoretical background of stylistic research and the experience of integrating it into one's analytical reading skills will enhance the competence and proficiency of a future teacher of English. Working with literary texts on this level also helps to develop one's cultural scope and aesthetic taste. It will also enrich the student's linguistic and stylistic thesaurus.

The author owes acknowledgements for the kindly assistance in reading and stylistic editing of this work to a colleague from the Shimer College of Chicago, a lecturer in English and American literature S. Sklar.

Chapter 1 The Object of Stylistics

Problems of stylistic research. Stylistics of language and speech. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic coloring. Stylistic function notion.

1.1. Problems of stylistic research

Units of language on different levels are studied by traditional branches of linguistics such as phonetics that deals with speech sounds and intonation; lexicology that treats words, their meaning and vocabulary structure, grammar that analyses forms of words and their function in a sentence which is studied by syntax. These areas of linguistic study are rather clearly defined and av e a long-term tradition of regarding language phenomena from a leve, -oriented point of view. Thus the subject matter and the material under study of these linguistic disciplines are more or less clear-cut.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

It gets more complicated when we talk, about stylistics. Some scholars claim that this is a comparatively new branch of linguistics, which has only a few decades of intense linguistic interest behind it. The term stylistics really came into existence not too long ago. In point of fact the scope of problems and the object of stylistic study go as far back as ancient schools of rhetoric and poetics.

The problem that makes the definition of stylistics a curious one deals both with the object and the material of studies. When we speak of the stylistic value of a text we cannot proceed from the level-biased approach that is so logically described through the hierarchical system of sounds, words and clauses. Not only may each of these linguistic units be charged with a certain stylistic meaning but the interaction of these elements, as well as the structure and composition of the whole text are stylistically pertinent.

Another problem has to do with a whole set of special linguistic means that create what we call «style». Style may be belles-letters or scientific or neutral or low colloquial or archaic or pompous, or a combination of those. Style may also be typical of a certain writer- Shakespearean style, Dickensian style, etc. There is the style of the j press, the style of official documents, the style of social etiquette and even an individual style of a speaker or writerhis idiolect.

Stylistics deals with styles. Different scholars have defined style differently at different times. Out of this variety we shall quote the most representative ones that scan the period from the 50ies to the 90ies of the 20 <л century.

In 1955 the Academician V.V.Vinogradov defined style as «socially recognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality of the ways of using, selecting and combining the means of lingual

1.1. Problems of stylistic research

ourse in the sphere of one national language or another

» /о

73) In 1971 Prof- J- R - Galperin offered his definition of style s a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication.» (36, p. 18).

According to Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev, whose book on stylistics was

published in 1994, «style is what differentiates a group of homogeneous

texts (an individual text) from all other groups (other texts)

can be roughly defined as the peculiarity, the set of specific features

of a text type or of a specific text.» (47, p. 9).

All these definitions point out the systematic and functionally deter- mined character of the notion of style.

The authors of handbooks on German (E. Riesel, M. P. Bran-des), French (Y. S. Stepanov, R. G. Piotrovsky, K. A. Dolinin), English (I. R. Galperin, I. V. Arnold, Y. M. Skrebnev, V. A. Maltsev, V. A. Kukharenko, A. N. Morokhovsky and others) and Russian (M. N. Kozhina, I. B. Golub) stylistics published in our country over the recent decades propose more or less analogous systems of styles based on a broad subdivision of all styles into two classes: literary and colloquial and their varieties. These generally include from three to five functional styles.

Since functional styles will be further specially discussed in a separate chapter at this stage we shall limit ourselves to only three popular viewpoints in English language style classifications.


rof ' LR-Galperin distinguishes 5 groups of functional styles for the written variety of language while Prof. I.V.Amold suggests only two ajor types of styles - colloquial and literary bookish with their «пег division into substyles (see chapter 4.4).

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Prof. Y. M. Skrebnev suggests a most unconventional viewpoint on the number of styles. He maintains that the number of sublanguages and styles is infinite (if we include individual styles, styles mentioned in linguistic literature such as telegraphic, oratorical, reference book, Shakespearean, short story, or the style of literature on electronics, computer language, etc.).

Of course the problem of style definition is not the only one stylistic research deals with.

Stylistics is that branch of linguistics, which studies the principles, and effect of choice and usage of different language elements in rendering thought and emotion under different conditions of communication. Therefore it is concerned with such issues as

1) the aesthetic function of language; 2) expressive means in language; 3) synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea; 4) emotional colouring in language; 5) a system of special devices called stylistic devices; 6) the splitting of the literary language into separate systems called style; 7) the interrelation between language and thought; 8) the individual manner of an author in making use of the language (47, p. 5).

These issues cover the overall scope of stylistic research and can only be representative of stylistics as a discipline of linguistic study taken as a whole. So it should be noted that each of them is concerned with only a limited area of research:


1.1. Problems of stylistic research

The aesthetic function of language is an immanent part of works of artpoetry and imaginative prose but it leaves out works of science, diplomatic or commercial correspondence, technical instructions and many other types of texts.

2 Expressive means of language are mostly employed in types of speech that aim to affect the reader or listener: poetry, fiction, oratory, and informal intercourse but rarely in technical texts or business language.

3. It is due to the possibility of choice, the possibility of using synonymous ways of rendering ideas that styles are formed. With the change of wording a change in meaning (however slight it might be) takes place inevitably.

4. The emotional colouring of words and sentences creates a certain stylistic effect and makes a text either a highly lyrical piece of description or a satirical derision with a different stylistic value. However not all texts eligible for stylistic study are necessarily marked by this quality.

5. No work of art, no text or speech consists of a system of stylistic devices but there's no doubt about the fact that the style of anything is formed by the combination of features peculiar to it, that whatever we say or write, hear or read is not style by itself but has style, it demonstrates stylistic features.

Any national language contains a number of*sublanguages» or microlanguages or varieties of language with their own specific eatures, their own styles. Besides these functional styles that are oted in the norm of the language there exist the so-called «sub- standard» types of speech such as slang, barbarisms, vulgarisms, taboo and so on.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

7. Interrelation between thought and language can be described щ terms of an inseparable whole so when the form is changed a change in content takes place. The author's intent and the forms he uses to render it as well as the reader's interpretation of it is the subject of a special branch of stylisticsdecoding stylistics.

8. We can hardly object to the proposition that style is also above | other things the individual manner of expression of an author in his use of the language. At the same time the individual manner can only appear out of a number of elements provided by the common background and employed and combined in a specific | manner.

Thus speaking of stylistics as a science we have to bear in mind that the object of its research is versatile and multi-dimensional and the study of any of the above-mentioned problems will be a fragmentary description. It's essential that we look at the object of stylistic study in its totality.

1.2. Stylistics of language and speech

One of the fundamental concepts of linguistics is the dichotomy of «language and speech» (langue—parole) introduced by F. de Saussure. According to it language is a system of elementary and complex signs- phonemes, morphemes, words, word combinations, utterances and combinations of utterances. Language as such a system exists m human minds only and linguistic forms or units can be systematise" into paradigms.

1.2. Stylistics of language and speech

language is a mentally organised system of linguistic units. An ъ0 a j speaker never uses it. When we use these units we mix

m in acts of speech. As distinct from language speech is not relv mental phenomenon, not a system but a process of combining these linguistic elements into linear linguistic units that are called syntagmatic.

The result of this process is the linear or syntagmatic combination of vowels and consonants into words, words into word-combinations and sentences and combination of sentences into texts. The word «syntagmatic» is a purely linguistic term meaning a coherent sequence

of words (written, uttered or just remembered).

StyUstics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts, not with the system of signs or process of speech production as such. But within these texts elements stylistically relevant are studied both syntagmatically and paradigmatically (loosely classifying all stylistic means paradigmatically into tropes and syntagmatically into figures

of speech).

Eventually this brings us to the notions of stylistics of language and stylistics of speech. Their difference lies in the material studied. the stylistics of language analyses permanent or inherent stylistic roperties of language elements while the stylistics of speech studies stylistic properties, which appear in a context, and they are called adherent.

word'' WOrds ' ike тол мач, штудировать, соизволять or English these prevaricate ' comprehend, lass are bookish or archaic and of the^ 6 the ' r inherent Properties. The unexpected use of any ProperT W ° rdS '" 3 modem context wil > be an adherent stylistic

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

So stylistics of language describes and classifies the inherent styli s ti c colouring of language units. Stylistics of speech studies the compost, tion of the utterancethe arrangement, selection and distribution of different words, and their adherent qualities.

1.3. Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics

Literary and linguistic stylistics

According to the type of stylistic research we can distinguish literary stylistics and lingua-stylistics. They have some meeting points or links in that they have common objects of research. Consequently they have certain areas of cross-reference. Both study the common ground of:

1) the literary language from the point of view of its variability; 2) the idiolect (individual speech) of a writer; 3) poetic speech that has its own specific laws.

The points of difference proceed from the different points of analysis. While lingua-stylistics studies

Functional styles (in their development and current state).

The linguistic nature of the expressive means of the language, their systematic character and their functions.

Literary stylistics is focused on

The composition of a work of art.

Types of stylistic research and branches of stylistics

. Various literary genres. ,

The writer's outlook.

Comparative stylistics

Comparative stylistics is connected with the contrastive study of more than one language.

It analyses the stylistic resources not inherent in a separate language but at the crossroads of two languages, or two literatures and is obviously linked to the theory of translation.

Decoding stylistics

A comparatively new branch of stylistics is the decoding stylistics, which can be traced back to the works of L. V. Shcherba, B. A. Larin, M. Riffaterre, R. Jackobson and other scholars of the Prague linguistic circle. A serious contribution into this branch of stylistic study was also made by Prof. I. V. Arnold (3, 4). Each act of speech has the performer, or sender of speech and the recipient. The former does the act of encoding and the latter the act of decoding the information.

J f we analyse the text from the author's (encoding) point of view we should consider the epoch, the historical situation, the personal Political, social and aesthetic views of the author.

' we try to treat the same text from the reader's angle of view max" haVS t0 disre 8 ard ^s background knowledge and get the sitio mUm ltlformation

' sen,e nce arrangement,

etc.). The first approach manifests -valence of the literary analysis. The second is based almost

from the text itself (its vocabulary, compose

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

exclusively on the linguistic analysis. Decoding stylistics is an attempt to harmoniously combine the two methods of stylistic research and enable the scholar to interpret a work of art with a minimum loss of its purport and message.

Functional stylistics

Special mention should be made of functional stylistics which is a branch of lingua-stylistics that investigates functional styles, that is special sublanguages or varieties of the national language such as scientific, colloquial, business, publicist and so on.

However many types of stylistics may exist or spring into existence they will all consider the same source material for stylistic analysis- sounds, words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs and texts. That's why any kind of stylistic research will be based on the level-forming branches that include:

Stylistic lexicology

Stylistic Lexicology studies the semantic structure of the word and the interrelation (or interplay) of the connotative and denotative meanings of the word, as well as the interrelation of the stylistic connotations of the word and the context.

Stylistic Phonetics (or Phonostylistics) is engaged in the study of style- forming phonetic features of the text. It describes the prosodic features of prose and poetry and variants of pronunciation in different types of speech (colloquial or oratory or recital).

1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines

Stylistic grammar

Stylistic Morphology is interested in the stylistic potentials of specific grammatical forms and categories, such as the number of the noun, or the peculiar use of tense forms of the verb, etc.

Stylistic Syntax is one of the oldest branches of stylistic studies that grew out of classical rhetoric. The material in question lends itself readily to analysis and description. Stylistic syntax has to do with the expressive order of words, types of syntactic links (asyndeton, polysyndeton), figures of speech (antithesis, chiasmus, etc.). It also deals with bigger units from paragraph onwards.

1.4. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines

As is obvious from the names of the branches or types of stylistic studies this science is very closely linked to the linguistic disciplines philology students are familiar with: phonetics, lexicology and grammar due to the common study source.

Stylistics interacts with such theoretical discipline as semasiology. This is a branch of linguistics whose area of study is a most complicated and enormous spherethat of meaning. The term semantics is also widely used in linguistics in relation to verbal meanings. Semasiology in its turn is often related to the theory of signs in general and deals with visual as well as verbal meanings.

Meaning is not attached to the level of the word only, or for that matter to one level at all but correlates with all of themmorphemes, words, phrases or texts. This is one of the most challenging areas of

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

research since practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay between different kinds of meaning on different levels. Suffice it to say that there are numerous types of linguistic meanings attached to linguistic units, such as grammatical, lexical, logical, denotative, connotative, emotive, evaluative, expressive and stylistic.

Onomasiology (or onomatology) is the theory of naming dealing with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or phenomenon. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with a transfer of nominal meaning in a text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, etc.)

The theory of functional styles investigates the structure of the national linguistic spacewhat constitutes the literary language, the sublanguages and dialects mentioned more than once already.

Literary stylistics will inevitably overlap with areas of literary studies such as the theory of imagery, literary genres, the art of composition, etc.

Decoding stylistics in many ways borders culture studies in the broad sense of that word including the history of art, aesthetic trends and even information theory.

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring

Speaking of the notion of style and stylistic colouring we cannot avoid the problem of the norm and neutrality and stylistic colouring in contrast to it.

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring

Most scholars abroad and in this country giving definitions of style come to the conclusion that style may be defined as deviation from the lingual norm. It means that what is stylistically conspicuous, stylistically relevant or stylistically coloured is a departure from the norm of a given national language. (G. Leech, M. Riffaterre, M. Halliday, R.Jacobson and others).

There are authors who object to the use of the word «norm» for various reasons. Thus Y. M. Skrebnev argues that since we acknowledge the existence of a variety of sublanguages within a national language we should also acknowledge that each of them has a norm of its own. So the sentence «I haven't ever done anything» (or «I don't know anything») as juxtaposed to the sentence «I ain't never done nothing» («I don't know nothing») is not the norm itself but merely conforms to the literary norm.

The second sentence («I ain't never done nothing») most certainly deviates from the literary norm (from standard English) but if fully conforms to the requirements of the uncultivated part of the English speaking population who merely have their own conception of the norm. So Skrebnev claims there are as many norms as there are sublanguages. Each language is subject to its own norm. To reject this would mean admitting abnormality of everything that is not neutral. Only ABC-books and texts for foreigners would be considered «normal». Everything that has style, everything that demonstrates peculiarities of whatever kind would be considered abnormal, including works by Dickens, Twain, O'Henry, Galsworthy and so on (47, pp. 21-22).

For all its challenging and defiant character this argument seems to contain a grain of truth and it does stand to reason that what we


1. The Object of Stylistics

often call «the norm» in terms of stylistics would be more appropriate to call «neutrality».

Since style is the specificity of a sublanguage it is self-evident that non-specific units of it do not participate in the formation of its style; units belonging to all the sublanguages are stylistically neutral. Thus we observe an opposition of stylistically coloured specific elements to stylistically neutral non-specific elements.

The stylistic colouring is nothing but the knowledge where, in what particular type of communication, the unit in question is current. On hearing for instance the above-cited utterance «I don't know nothing» («I ain't never done nothing») we compare it with what we know about standard and non-standard forms of English and this will permit us to pass judgement on what we have heard or read.

Professor Howard M. Mims of Cleveland State University did an accurate study of grammatical deviations found in American English that he terms vernacular (non-standard) variants (44). He made a list of 20 grammatical forms which he calls relatively common and some of them are so frequent in every-day speech that you hardly register them as deviations from the norm, e. g. They ready to go instead of They are ready to go; Joyce has fifty cent in her bank account instead of Joyce has fifty cents in her bank account; My brother, he's a doctor instead of My brother is a doctor, He don't know nothing instead of He doesn't know anything.

The majority of the words are neutral. Stylistically coloured words- bookish, solemn, poetic, official or colloquial, rustic, dialectal, vulgarhave each a kind of label on them showing where the unit was «manufactured», where it generally belongs.

1.5. Stylistic neutrality and stylistic colouring

Within the stylistically coloured words there is another opposition between formal vocabulary and informal vocabulary.

These terms have many synonyms offered by different authors. Roman Jacobson described this opposition as casual and non-casual, other terminologies name them as bookish and colloquial or formal and informal, correct and common.

Stylistically coloured words are limited to specific conditions of communication. If you isolate a stylistically coloured word it will still preserve its label or «trade-mark» and have the flavour of poetic or artistic colouring.

You're sure to recognise words like decease, attire, decline (a proposal) as bookish and distinguish die, clothes, refuse as neutral while such units as snuff it, rags (togs), turn down will immediately strike you as colloquial or informal.

In surveying the units commonly called neutral can we assert that they only denote without connoting? That is not completely true.

If we take stylistically neutral words separately, we may call them neutral without doubt. But occasionally in a certain context, in a specific distribution one of many implicit meanings of a word we normally consider neutral may prevail. Specific distribution may also create unexpected additional colouring of a generally neutral word. Such stylistic connotation is called occasional.

Stylistic connotations may be inherent or adherent. Stylistically coloured words possess inherent stylistic connotations. Stylistically neutral words will have only adherent (occasional) stylistic connota- tions acquired in a certain context.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

A luxury hotel for dogs is to be opened at Lima, Peru a city of 30.000 dogs. The furry guests will have separate hygienic kennels, top medical care and high standard cuisine, including the best bones. (Mailer)

Two examples from this passage demonstrate how both stylistically marked and neutral words may change their colouring due to the context:

cuisine -»inherently formal (bookish, high-flown);


-» adherent connotation in the contextlowered/humorous; -» stylistically neutral; -4 adherent connotation in the contextelevated/humorous.

1.6. Stylistic function notion

Like other linguistic disciplines stylistics deals with the lexical, grammatical, phonetic and phraseological data of the language. However there is a distinctive difference between stylistics and the other linguistic subjects. Stylistics does not study or describe separate linguistic units like phonemes or words or clauses as such. It studies their stylistic/unction. Stylistics is interested in the expressive potential of these units and their interaction in a text.

Stylistics focuses on the expressive properties of linguistic units, their functioning and interaction in conveying ideas and emotions in a certain text or communicative context.

Stylistics interprets the opposition or clash between the contextual meaning of a word and its denotative meaning.

1.6. Stylistic function notion

Accordingly stylistics is first and foremost engaged in the study of connotative meanings.

In brief the semantic structure (or the meaning) of a word roughly

consists of its grammatical meaning (noun, verb, adjective) and its

lexical meaning. Lexical meaning can further on be subdivided into denotative (linked to the logical or nominative meaning) and

connotative meanings. Connotative meaning is only connected with extra-linguistic circumstances such as the situation of communication and the participants of communication. Connotative meaning consists

of four components:

1) emotive;

2) evaluative;

3) expressive;

4) stylistic.

A word is always characterised by its denotative meaning but not

necessarily by connotation. The four components may be all present

at once, or in different combinations or they may not be found in the

word at all.

1. Emotive connotations express various feelings or emotions. Emo- tions differ from feelings. Emotions like ./ay, disappointment, pleasure, anger, worry, surprise are more short-lived. Feelings imply a more stable state, or attitude, such as love, hatred, respect, pride, dignity, etc. The emotive component of meaning may be occasional or usual (i.e. inherent and adherent).

It is important to distinguish words with emotive connotations from words, describing or naming emotions and feelings like anger or

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

fear, because the latter are a special vocabulary subgroup whose denotative meanings are emotions. They do not connote the speaker's state of mind or his emotional attitude to the subject of speech.

Thus if a psychiatrist were to say You should be able to control feelings of anger, impatience and disappointment dealing with a child as a piece of advice to young parents the sentence would have no emotive power. It may be considered stylistically neutral.

On the other hand an apparently neutral word like big will become charged with emotive connotation in a mother's proud description of her baby: He is a BIG boy already!

2. The evaluative component charges the word with negative, positive,

ironic or other types of connotation conveying the speaker's attitude in relation to the object of speech. Very often this component is a part of the denotative meaning, which comes to the fore in a specific context.

The verb to sneak means «to move silently and secretly, usu. for a bad purpose» (8). This dictionary definition makes the evaluative component bad quite explicit. Two derivatives a sneak and sneaky have both preserved a derogatory evaluative connotation. But the negative component disappears though in still another derivative sneakers (shoes with a soft sole). It shows that even words of the same root may either have or lack an evaluative component in their inner form.

3. Expressive connotation either increases or decreases the expres

siveness of the message. Many scholars hold that emotive and expressive components cannot be distinguished but Prof. I.A.Arnold

1.6. Stylistic function notion

maintains that emotive connotation always entails expressiveness but not vice versa. To prove her point she comments on the example by A. Hornby and R. Fowler with the word «thing» applied to a girl (4, p. ПЗ).

When the word is used with an emotive adjective like «sweet» it becomes emotive itself: «She was a sweet little thing». But in other sentences like «She was a small thin delicate thing with spectacles», she argues, this is not true and the word «thing» is definitely expressive but not emotive.

Another group of words that help create this expressive effect are the so-called «intensifiers», words like «absolutely, frightfully, really, quite», etc.

4. Finally there is stylistic connotation. A word possesses stylistic connotation if it belongs to a certain functional style or a specific layer of vocabulary (such as archaisms, barbarisms, slang, jargon, etc). Stylistic connotation is usually immediately recognizable.

Yonder, slumber, thence immediately connote poetic or elevated writing.

Words like price index or negotiate assets are indicative of business language.

This detailed and systematic description of the connotative meaning of a word is suggested by the Leningrad school in the works of Prof. I. V. Arnold, Z. Y. Turayeva, and others.

Galperin operates three types of lexical meaning that are stylistically relevantlogical, emotive and nominal. He describes the stylistic

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

colouring of words in terms of the interaction of these types of lexical meaning. Skrebnev maintains that connotations only show to what part of the national language a word belongsone of the sub- languages (functional styles) or the neutral bulk. He only speaks about the stylistic component of the connotative meaning.

Practice Section

1. Comment on the notions of style and sublanguages in the national language.

2. What are the interdisciplinary links of stylistics and other lin- guistic subjects such as phonetics, lexicology, grammar, and semasiology? Provide examples.

How does stylistics differ from them in its subject-matter and fields of study?

3. Give an outline of the stylistic differentiation of the national English vocabulary: neutral, literary, colloquial layers of words; areas of their overlapping. Describe literary and common collo- quial stratums of vocabulary, their stratification.

4. How does stylistic colouring and stylistic neutrality relate to inherent and adherent stylistic connotation?

5. Can you distinguish neutral, formal and informal among the following groups of words.

Practice Section









to talk

to converse

to chat


to chow down

to eat

to dine


to start

to commence

to kick off




mentally ill






to leave

to withdraw

to shoot off



senior citizen

old man









6. What kind of adherent stylistic meaning appears in the otherwise neutral word feeling?

I've got no feeling paying interest, provided that it's reasonable. (Shute)

I've got no feeling against small town life. I rather like it. (Shute)

7. To what stratum of vocabulary do the words in bold type in the following sentences belong stylistically? Provide neutral or colloquial variants for them:

/ expect you've seen my hand often enough coming out with the grub. (Waugh)

She betrayed some embarrassment when she handed Paul the tickets, and a hauteur which subsequently made her feel very foolish. (Cather)

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

I must be off to my digs. (Waugh)

When the old boy popped off he left Philbrick everything, except a few books to Grade. (Waugh)

He looked her over and decided that she was not appropriately dressed and must be a fool to sit downstairs in such togs. (Cather)

It was broken at length by the arrival of Flossie, splendidly attired in magenta and green. (Waugh)

8. Consider the following utterances from the point of view of the grammatical norm. What elements can be labelled as deviations from standard English? How do they comply with the norms of colloquial English according to Mims and Skrebnev?

Sita decided that she would lay down in the dark even if Mrs. Waldvogel came in and bit her. (Erdrich)

Always popular with the boys, he was, even when he was so full he couldn't hardly fight. (Waugh)

he used to earn five pound a night


/ wouldn't sell it not for a hundred quid, I wouldn't. (Waugh)

There was a rapping at the bedroom door. «I'll learn that Luden Sorrels to tomcat.» (Chappel)

9. How does the choice of words in each case contribute to the stylistic character of the following passages? How would you define their functional colouring in terms of technical, poetic, bookish, commercial, dialectal, religious, elevated, colloquial, legal or other style?

Practice Section

Make up lists of words that create this tenor in the texts given below.

Whilst humble pilgrims lodged in hospices, a travelling knight would normally stay with a merchant. (Rutherfurd)

Fo' what you go by dem, eh? W'y not keep to yo'self? Dey don' want you, dey don' care fo'you. H' ain'you got no sense? (Dunbar-Nelson)

They sent me down to the aerodrome next morning in a car. I made a check over the machine, cleaned filters, drained sumps, swept out the cabin, and refuelled. Finally I took off at about ten thirty for the short flight down to Batavia across the Sunda straits, and found the aerodrome and came on to the circuit behind the Constellation of K. L. M. (Shute)

We ask Thee, Lord, the old man cried, to look after this childt. Fa- therless he is. But what does the earthly father matter before Tliee? The childt is Thine, he is Thy childt, Lord, what father has a man but Thee? (Lawrence)

-We are the silver band the Lord bless and keep you, said the stationmaster in one breath, the band that no one could beat whatever but two indeed in the Eisteddfod that for all North Wales was look you.

I see, said the Doctor, I see. That's splendid. Well, will you please go into your tent, the little tent over there.

To march about you would not like us? Suggested the stationmaster, we have a fine flaglook you that embroidered for us was in silks. (Waugh)

The evidence is perfectly clear. The deceased woman was unfaithful to her husband during his absence overseas and gave birth to a child out of wedlock.

Chapter 1. The Object of Stylistics

Her husband seemed to behave with commendable restraint and wrote

The deceased

appears to have been the victim of her own conscience and as the time for the return of her husband drew near she became mentally upset. Fi find that the deceased committed suicide while the balance of her mind\

nothing to her which would have led her to take her life

was temporarily deranged. (Shute)

/ say, I've met an awful good chap called Miles. Regular topper. You\ know, pally. That's what I like about a really decent partyyou meet] such topping fellows. I mean some chaps it takes absolutely years tot know, but a chap like Miles I feel is a pal straight away. (Waugh)

She sang first of the birth of love in the hearts of a boy and a girl. And on the topmost spray of the Rose-tree there blossomed a marvellous rose, petal following petal, as song followed song. Pale was it, at first as the mist that hangs over the riverpale as the feet of the morning. (Wilde) ; He went slowly about the corridors, through the writingrooms, smoking- j rooms, reception-rooms, as though he were exploring the chambers of an enchanted palace, built and peopled for him alone.

When he reached the dining-room he sat down at a table near a window. \

The flowers, the white linen, the many-coloured wine-glasses, the gay \ toilettes of the women, the low popping of corks, the undulating repetitions i of the Blue Danube from the orchestra, all flooded Paul's dream with bewildering radiance. (Cather)

Chapter 2

Expressive Resources of the Language

Expressive means and stylistic devices. Different classifications of expressive means and stylistic devices from antique to modern times.

In my reading of modern French novels I had acquired the habit of underlining ex- pressions, which struck me as aberrant from general usage, and it often happened that the underlined passages taken together seemed to offer a certain consistency. I wondered if it would be possible to establish a common denominator for all or most of these devi- ations, could we find a common spiritual etymon or the psychological root of 'several' individual 'traits of style' in a writer.

Leo Spitzer. Linguistics and Literary History

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices

Expressive means

Expressive means of a language are those linguistic forms and properties that have the potential to make the utterance emphatic or expressive. These can be found on all levelsphonetic, graphical, morphological, lexical or syntactical.

Expressive means and stylistic devices have a lot in common but they are not completely synonymous. All stylistic devices belong to expressive means but not all expressive means are stylistic devices. Phonetic phenomena such as vocal pitch, pauses, logical stress, and drawling, or staccato pronunciation are all expressive without being stylistic devices

Morphological forms like diminutive suffixes may have an expres- sive effect: girlie, piggy, doggy, etc. An unexpected use of the author's nonce words like: He glasnosted his love affair with th :

movie star (People) is another example of morphological expressive means.

Lexical expressive means may be illustrated by a special group о intensifiersawfully, terribly, absolutely, etc. or words that retain thei logical meaning while being used emphatically: // was a very sped e vening/event/gift.

There are also special grammatical forms and syntactical patterns attributing expressiveness, such as: / do know you! I'm really angry with that dog of у ours! That you should deceive me! If only I could help you!

2.1. Expressive means and stylistic devices

Stylistic devices

A stylistic device is a literary model in which semantic and structural features are blended so that it represents a generalised pattern.

Prof. I. R. Galperin calls a stylistic device a generative model when through frequent use a language fact is transformed into a stylistic device. Thus we may say that some expressive means have evolved into stylistic devices which represent a more abstract form or set of forms. A stylistic device combines some general semantic meaning with a cer- tain linguistic form resulting in stylistic effect. It is like an algorithm employed for an expressive purpose. For example, the interplay, in- teraction, or clash of the dictionary and contextual meanings of words will bring about such stylistic devices as metaphor, metonymy or irony.

The nature of the interaction may be affinity (likeness by nature), proximity (nearness in place, time, order, occurrence, relation) or contrast (opposition).

Respectively there is metaphor based on the principle of affinity, metonymy based on proximity and irony based on opposition.

The evolution of a stylistic device such as metaphor could be seen from four examples that demonstrate this linguistic mechanism (interplay of dictionary and contextual meaning based on the principle of affinity):

1. My new dress is as pink as this flower: comparison (ground for comparisonthe colour of the flower).

2. Her cheeks were as red as a tulip: simile (ground for similecolour/beauty/health/freshness)

3. She is a real flower: metaphor (ground for metaphorfrail/

fragrant/tender/beautifu 1/helpless


Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

My love is a red, red rose: metaphor (ground for metaphorpassionate/beautiful/strong

4. Ruby lips, hair of gold, snow-white skin: trite metaphors so frequently employed that they hardly have any stylistic power left because metaphor dies of overuse. Such metaphors are aiso called hackneyed or even dead.

A famous literary example of an author's defiance against immoderate \ use of trite metaphors is W. Shakespeare's Sonnet 130

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun; Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;

If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.

I have seen roses damasked, red and white,

But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delight

Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

I love to hear her speak, yet well I know

That music hath a far more pleasing sound;

I grant I never saw a goddess go;

My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare.

The more unexpected, the less predictable is the ground for com- parison the more expressive is the metaphor which in this case got a special name of genuine or authentic metaphor. Associations sug- gested by the genuine metaphor are varied, not limited to any definite number and stimulated by the individual experience or imagination.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

In spite of the belief that rhetoric is an outmoded discipline it is in rhetoric that we find most of the terms contemporary stylistics generally employs as its metalanguage. Rhetoric is the initial source of information about metaphor, metonymy, epithet, antithesis, chi- asmus, anaphora and many more. The classical rhetoric gave us still widely used terms of tropes and figures of speech.

That is why before looking into the new stylistic theories and findings it's good to look back and see what's been there for centuries. The problems of language in antique times became a concern of scholars because of the necessity to comment on literature and poetry. This necessity was caused by the fact that mythology and lyrical poetry was the study material on which the youth was brought up, taught to read and write and generally educated. Analysis of literary texts helped to transfer into the sphere of oratorical art the first philosophical notions and concepts.

The first linguistic theory called sophistry appeared in the fifth century В. С Oration played a paramount role in the social and political life of Greece so the art of rhetoric developed into a school.

Antique tradition ascribes some of the fundamental rhetorical no- tions to the Greek philosopher Gorgius (483-375 В. С). Together with another scholar named Trasimachus they created the first school of rhetoric whose principles were later developed by Aristotle (384-322 В. С.) in his books «Rhetoric» and «Poetics».

Aristotle differentiated literary language and colloquial language. This first theory of style included 3 subdivisions:

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

the choice of words;

word combinations;


1. The choice of words included lexical expressive means such as foreign words, archaisms, neologisms, poetic words, nonce words and metaphor.

2. Word combinations involved 3 things:

a) order of words;

b) word-combinations;

c) rhythm and period (in rhetoric, a complete sentence).

3. Figures of speech. This part included only 3 devices used by the antique authors always in the same order.

a) antithesis;

b) assonance of colons;

c) equality of colons.


colon in rhetoric means one of the sections of a rhythmical period


Greek chorus consisting of a sequence of 2 to 6 feet.

Later contributions by other authors were made into the art of speaking and writing so that the most complete and well developed antique system, that came down to us is called the Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system. It divided all expressive means into 3 large groups:

Tropes, Rhythm (Figures of Speech) and Types of Speech.

A condensed description of this system gives one an idea how much

we owe the antique tradition in modern stylistic studies.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

2.2.1- Hellenistic Roman rhetoric system


1. Metaphorthe application of a word (phrase) to an object (concept) it doesn't literally denote to suggest comparison with another object or concept.

E. g. A mighty Fortress is our God.

2. Puzzle (Riddle)a statement that requires thinking over a con- fusing or difficult problem that needs to be solved.

3. Synecdochethe mention of a part for the whole.

E. g. A fleet of 50 sail, (ships)

4. Metonymysubstitution of one word for another on the basis of real connection.

E.g. Crown for sovereign; Homer for Homer's poems; wealth for rich people.

5. Catachresismisuse of a word due to the false folk etymology or wrong application of a term in a sense that does not belong to the word.

E. g. Alibi for excuse; mental for weak-minded; mutual for common; disinterested for uninterested.

A later term for it is malapropism that became current due to Mrs. Malaprop, a character from R. Sheridan's The Rivals (1775). This sort of misuse is mostly based on similarity in sound.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

E. g. That young violinist is certainly a child progeny (instead of



Epitheta word or phrase used to describe someone or some-1 thing with a purpose to praise or blame.


g. ft was a lovely, summery evening.

7. Periphrasisputting things in a round about way in order to] bring out some important feature or explain more clearly the idea or situation described.

E.g. Igot an Arab boy

thirty bob, at which he was highly delighted. (Shute)

and paid him twenty rupees a month, about

8. Hyperboleuse of exaggerated terms for emphasis.

E. g. A 1000 apologies; to wait an eternity; he is stronger than a lion.

9. Antonomasiause of a proper name to express a general idea or conversely a common name for a proper one.

E. g. The fron Lady; a Solomon; Don Juan.

Figures of Speech that create Rhythm

These expressive means were divided into 4 large groups:

Figures that create rhythm by means of addition 1. Doubling

(reduplication, repetition) of words and sounds.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

E. g. Tip-top, helter-skelter, wishy-washy; oh, the dreary, dreary moorland.

2. Epenalepsis (polysyndeton) conjunctions: use of several con junctions.

E. g. He thought, and thought, and thought; f hadn't realized until then how small the houses were, how small and mean the shops. (Shute)

3. Anaphora: repetition of a word or words at the beginning of two or more clauses, sentences or verses.

E.g. No tree, no shrub, no blade of grass, not a bird or beast, not even a fish that was not owned!

4. Enjambment: running on of one thought into the next line, couplet or stanza without breaking the syntactical pattern.

E.g. fn Ocean's wide domains Half buried in the sands Lie skeletons in chains With shackled feet and hands.


5. Asyndeton: omission of conjunction.

E.g. He provided the poor with jobs, with opportunity, with self-respect.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Figures based on compression

1. Zeugma (syllepsis): a figure by which a verb, adjective or other part of speech, relating to one noun is referred to another.

E. g. He lost his hat and his temper, with weeping eyes and hearts.

2. Chiasmusa reversal in the order of words in one of two parallel phrases.

E. g. He went to the country, to the town went she.

3. Ellipsisomission of words needed to complete the construction or the sense.

E.g. Tomorrow at 1.30; The ringleader was hanged and his followers imprisoned.

Figures based on assonance or accord

1. Equality of colonsused to have a power to segment and arrange.

2. Proportions and harmony of colons.

Figures based on opposition

1. Antithesischoice or arrangement of words that emphasises a contrast.

E. g. Crafty men contemn studies, simple men admire them, wise men use them; Give me liberty or give me death.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

2. Paradiastolathe lengthening of a syllable regularly short (in Greek poetry).

3. Anastrophea term of rhetoric, meaning, the upsetting for effect of the normal order of words (inversion in contemporary terms).

E. g. Me he restored, him he hanged.

Types of speech

Ancient authors distinguished speech for practical and aesthetic purposes. Rhetoric dealt with the latter which was supposed to answer certain requirements, such as a definite choice of words, their assonance, deviation from ordinary vocabulary and employment of special stratums like poetic diction, neologisms and archaisms, onomatopoeia as well as appellation to tropes. One of the most important devices to create a necessary high-flown or dramatic effect was an elaborate rhythmical arrangement of eloquent speech that involved the obligatory use of the so-called figures or schemes. The quality of rhetoric as an art of speech was measured in terms of skilful combination, convergence, abundance or absence of these devices. Respectively all kinds of speech were labelled and repre- sented in a kind of hierarchy including the following types: elevated:

flowery /florid/ exquisite; poetic; normal; dry; scanty; hackneyed; tasteless.

Attempts to analyse and determine the style-forming features of prose also began in ancient times. Demetrius of Alexandria who lived in Greece in the 3d century ВС was an Athenian orator, statesman and Philosopher. He used the ideas of such earlier theorists as Aristotle

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

and characterized styles by rhetoric of purpose that required certain grammatical constructions.

The Plain Style, he said, is simple, using many active verbs and keeping its subjects (nouns) spare. Its purposes include lucidity, clarity, familiarity, and the necessity to get its work done crisply and well. So this style uses few difficult compounds, coinages or qualifications (such as epithets or modifiers). It avoids harsh sounds, or odd orders. It employs helpful connective terms and clear clauses with firm endings. In every way it tries to be natural, following the order of events themselves with moderation and repetition as in dialogue.

The Eloquent Style in contrast changes the natural order of events to effect control over them and give the narration expressive power rather than sequential account. So this style may be called passive in contrast to active.

As strong assumptions are made subjects are tremendously amplified without the activity of predication because inherent qualities rather than new relations are stressed. Sentences are lengthy, rounded, well balanced, with a great deal of elaborately connected material. Words can be unusual, coined; meanings can be implied, oblique, and symbolic. Sounds can fill the mouth, perhaps, harshly.

Two centuries later a Greek rhetorician and historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus who lived in Rome in the 1*' century ВС characterized one of the Greek orators in such a way: «His harmony is natural, stately, spacious, articulated by pauses rather than strongly polished and joined by connectives; naturally off-balance, not rounded and symmetrical.» (43, p. 123).

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Dionyssius wrote over twenty books, most famous of which are «On Imitation», «Commentaries on the Ancient Orators» and «On the Arrangement of Words». The latter is the only surviving ancient study of principles of word order and euphony.

For the Romans a recommended proportion for language units in verse was two nouns and two adjectives to one verb, which they called «the golden line».

Gradually the choices of certain stylistic features in different combi- nations settled into three typesplain, middle and high.

Nowadays there exist dozens of classifications of expressive means of a language and all of them involve to a great measure the same elements. They differ often only in terminology and criteria of classification.

Three of the modern classifications of expressive means in the English language that are commonly recognized and used in teaching stylistics today will be discussed further in brief.

They have been offered by G. Leech, I. R Galperin and У. M. Skreb- nev.

2.2.2. Stylistic theory and classification of expresssive means by G. Leech

One of the first linguists who tried «to modernize» traditional rhetoric system was a British scholar G. Leech. In 1967 his contribution into stylistic theory in the book «Essays on Style a "d Language» was published in London (39). Paying tribute to l he descriptive linguistics popular at the time he tried to show

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

how linguistic theory could be accommodated to the task ofj describing such rhetorical figures as metaphor, parallelism, allit-l eration, personification and others in the present-day study ofj literature.

Proceeding from the popular definition of literature as the creative use of language Leech claims that this can be equated with the use of deviant forms of language. According to his theory the] first principle with which a linguist should approach literature isj the degree of generality of statement about language. There are] two particularly important ways in which the description of language entails generalization. In the first place language operates by what may be called descriptive generalization. For example, a grammarian may! give descriptions of such pronouns as /, they, it, him, etc. as objective personal pronouns with the following categories: first/third person, singular/plural, masculine, non-reflexive, animate/inanimate.

Although they require many ways of description they are all pronouns and each of them may be explicitly described in this fashion.

The other type of generalization is implicit and would be appropriate in the case of such words as language and dialect. This sort of description would be composed of individual events of speaking, writing, hearing and reading. From these events generalization may cover the linguistic behaviour of whole populations. In this connection Leech maintains 1 the importance of distinguishing two scales in the language. He calls them «register scale» and «dialect scale». «Register scale» distinguishes spoken language from written language, the language of respect from that of condescension, advertising from science, etc. The term covers linguistic activity within society. «Dialect scale» differentiates language of people of different age, sex, social strata, geographical area or individual linguistic habits (ideolect).

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

According to Leech the literary work of a particular author must be studied with reference to both—«dialect scale» and «register scale».

The notion of generality essential to Leech's criteria of classifying stylistic devices has to do with linguistic deviation.

He points out that it's a commonplace to say that writers and poets use language in an unorthodox way and are allowed a certain degree of «poetic licence». «Poetic licence» relates to the scales of descriptive and institutional delicacy.

Words like thou, thee, thine, thy not only involve description by number and person but in social meaning have «a strangeness value» or connotative value because they are charged with overtones of piety, historical period, poetics, etc.

The language of literature is on the whole marked by a number of deviant features. Thus Leech builds his classification on the principle of distinction between the normal and deviant features in the language of literature.

Among deviant features he distinguishes paradigmatic and syntagmatic deviations. All figures can be initially divided into syntagmatic or paradigmatic. Linguistic units are connected syntagmatically when they combine sequentially in a linear linguistic form.

Paradigmatic items enter into a system of possible selections at one Point of the chain. Syntagmatic items can be viewed horizontally, Paradigmaticvertically.

Paradigmatic figures give the writer a choice from equivalent items, which are contrasted to the normal range of choices. For instance, certain nouns can normally be followed by certain adverbs, the choice

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

dictated by their normal lexical valency: inches/feet/yard ~r away, e. g. He was standing only a few feet away.

However the author's choice of a noun may upset the normal system and create a paradigmatic deviation that we come across in literary and poetic language: farmyards away, a grief ago, all sun long. Schematically this relationship could look like this















yards farmyard



The contrast between deviation and norm may be accounted for by metaphor which involves semantic transfer of combinatory links.

Another example of paradigmatic deviation is personification. In this case we deal with purely grammatical oppositions of personal/ impersonal; animate/inanimate; concrete/abstract.

This type of deviation entails the use of an inanimate noun in a context appropriate to a personal noun.

As Connie had said, she handled just like any other aeroplane, except that she had better manners than most. (Shute). In this example she stands for the aeroplane and makes it personified on the grammatical level.

The deviant use of she in this passage is reinforced by the collocation with better manners, which can only be associated with human beings.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means



normal inanimate neuter




deviant animate female




normal inanimate neuter


car aeroplane


deviant animate female

This sort of paradigmatic deviation Leech calls «unique deviation» because it comes as an unexpected and unpredictable choice that defies the norm. He compares it with what the Prague school of linguistics called «foregrounding».

Unlike paradigmatic figures based on the effect of gap in the expected choice of a linguistic form syntagmatic deviant features result from the opposite. Instead of missing the predictable choice the author imposes the same kind of choice in the same place. A syntagmatic chain of language units provides a choice of equivalents to be made at different points in this chain, but the writer repeatedly makes the same selection. Leech illustrates this by alliteration in the furrow followed where the choice of alliterated words is not necessary but superimposed for stylistic effect on the ordinary background.

This principle visibly stands out in some tongue-twisters due to the deliberate overuse of the same sound in every word of the phrase. So instead of a sentence like "Robert turned over a hoop in a circle" we nave the intentional redundancy of "r" in "Robert Rowley rolled a

round roll round".

Basically the difference drawn by Leech between syntagmatic and Paradigmatic deviations comes down to the redundancy of choice in the first case and a gap in the predicted pattern in the second.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

This classification includes other subdivisions and details that cannot all be covered here but may be further studied in Leech's book.

This approach was an attempt to treat stylistic devices with reference to linguistic theory that would help to analyse the nature of stylistic function viewed as a result of deviation from the lexical and grammatical norm of the language.

2.2.3. I. R. Galperfn's classification of expressive means and stylistic devices

The classification suggested by Prof. Galperin is simply organised and very detailed. His manual «Stylistics» published in 1971 includes the following subdivision of expressive means and stylistic devices based on the level-oriented approach:

1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices.

2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices.

3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices*.

1. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices To

this group Galperin refers such means as:


onomatopoeia (direct and indirect): ding-dong; silver bells kle, tinkle;


2) alliteration (initial rhyme): to rob Peter to pay Paul;

' To avoid repetition in each classification definitions of all stylistic devices are given in the glossary

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

3) rhyme (full, incomplete, compound or broken, eye rhyme, internal rhyme. Also, stanza rhymes: couplets, triple, cross, framing/ring);

4) rhythm.

2. Lexical expressive means and stylistic devices

There are three big subdivisions in this class of devices and they all deal with the semantic nature of a word or phrase. However the criteria of selection of means for each subdivision are different and manifest different semantic processes.

I. In the first subdivision the principle of classification is the interac- tion of different types of a word's meanings: dictionary, contextual, derivative, nominal, and emotive. The stylistic effect of the lexical means is achieved through the binary opposition of dictionary and contextual or logical and emotive or primary and derivative meanings of a word.

A. The first group includes means based on the interplay of dictionary and contextual meanings:

metaphor: Dear Nature is the kindest Mother still. (Byron)


The camp, the pulpit and the law For rich man's sons are free.


Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

irony: // must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket.

B. The second unites means based on the interaction of primary and

derivative meanings:

polysemy: Massachusetts was hostile to the American flag, and she would not allow it to be hoisted on her State House;

zeugma and pun: May's mother always stood on her gentility; and Dot's mother never stood on anything but her active little feet. (Dickens)

C. The third group comprises means based on the opposition of

logical and emotive meanings:

interjections and exclamatory words:

All present life is but an interjection An 'Oh' or 'Ah' of joy or misery, Or a 'Ha! ha!' or 'Bah!'-a yawn or 'Pooh!' Of which perhaps the latter is most true.


epithet: a well-matched, fairly-balanced give-and-take couple. (Di- ckens)

oxymoron: peopled desert, populous solitude, proud humility. (Byron)

D. The fourth group is based on the interaction of logical and nominal meanings and includes:

antonomasia; Mr. Facing-Both-Ways does not get very far in this world. I (The Times)

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

II. The principle for distinguishing the second big subdivision ac- cording to Galperin is entirely different from the first one and is based on the interaction between two lexical meanings simultaneous- ly materialised in the context. This kind of interaction helps to call special attention to a certain feature of the object described. Here belong:

simile: treacherous as a snake, faithful as a dog, slow as a tortoise.

periphrasis: a gentleman of the long robe (a lawyer); the fair sex. (women)

euphemism: In private I should call him a liar. In the Press you should use the words: 'Reckless disregard for truth'. (Galsworthy)

hyperbole: The earth was made for Dombey and Son to trade in and the sun and the moon were made to give them light. (Dickens)

Ш. The third subdivision comprises stable word combinations in their interaction with the context:

cliches: clockwork precision, crushing defeat, the whip and carrot policy.

proverbs and sayings: Come! he said, milk's spilt. (Galsworthy)

epigrams: A thing of beauty is a joy for ever. (Keats)

Quotations: Ecclesiastes said, 'that all is vanity'. (Byron)

allusions: Shakespeare talks of the herald Mercury. (Byron)

decomposition of set phrases: You know which side the law's buttered. (Galsworthy)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

3. Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices

Syntactical expressive means and stylistic devices are not paradigmatic but syntagmatic or structural means. In defining syntactical devices Galperin proceeds from the following thesis: the structural elements have their own independent meaning and this meaning may affect the lexical meaning. In doing so it may impart a special contextual meaning to some of the lexical units.

The principal criteria for classifying syntactical stylistic devices are: ]

the juxtaposition of the parts of an utterance;

the type of connection of the parts;

the peculiar use of colloquial constructions;

the transference of structural meaning.

Devices built on the principle of juxtaposition

inversion (several types): A tone of most extravagant comparison Miss Tox said it in. (Dickens)

Down dropped the breeze. (Colerigde)

detached constructions: She was lovely: all of herdelightful. (Dreiser)

parallel constructions:

The seeds ye sowanother reaps, The robes ye weaveanother wears The arms ye forgeanother bears.


2.2. Different classifications of expressive means


In the days of old men made manners Manners now make men.


repetition: For glances beget ogles, ogles sighs, sighs wishes, wishes words, and words a letter. (Byron)

appear to be

enumeration: The principle production of these towns

soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers, and dock-yard men. (Dickens)


Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle- Know ye the land of the cedar and vine

'Tis the clime of the East'tis the land of the Sun.


climax: They looked at hundred of houses, they climbed thousands of stairs, they inspected innumerable kitchens. (Maugham)

antithesis: Youth is lovely, age is lonely; Youth is fiery, age is frost. (Longfellow)

Devices based on the type of connection include

Asyndeton: Soams turned away; he had an utter disinclination for talk,

''ke one standing before an open grave


Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

polysyndeton: The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. (Dickens)

gap-sentence link: It was an afternoon to dream. And she took outi Jon's letters. (Galsworthy)

Figures united by the peculiar use of colloquial constructions

Ellipsis: Nothing so difficult as a beginning; how soft the chin which' bears his touch. (Byron)

Aposiopesis (break-in-the-narrative): Good intentions but -; You just come home or I'll

Question in the narrative: Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? (Dickens)

Represented speech (uttered and unuttered or inner represented speech):

Marshal asked the crowd to disperse and urged responsible diggers to

prevent any disturbance


Over and over he was asking himself, would she receive him ?

Transferred use of structural meaning involves such figures as

Rhetorical questions: How long must we suffer? Where is the end? (Norris)

Litotes: He was no gentle lamb (London); Mr. Bardell was no deceiver.} (Dickens)

Since «Stylistics» by Galperin is the basic manual recommended for this course at university level no further transposition of its content is

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

deemed necessary. However other attempts have been made to clas- sify all expressive means and stylistic devices because some principles applied in this system do not look completely consistent and reliable. There are two big subdivisions here that classify all devices into either lexical or syntactical. At the same time there is a kind of mixture of principles since some devices obviously involve both lexical and syn- tactical features, e. g. antithesis, climax, periphrasis, irony, and others.

According to Galperin there are structural and compositional syntac- tical devices, devices built on transferred structural meaning and the type of syntactical connection and devices that involve a peculiar use of colloquial constructions. Though very detailed this classification provokes some questions concerning the criteria used in placing the group 'peculiar use of colloquial constructions' among the syntactical means and the group called 'peculiar use of set expressions' among the lexical devices. Another criterion used for classifying lexical ex- pressive means namely, 'intensification of a certain feature of a thing or phenomenon' also seems rather dubious. Formulated like this it could be equally applied to quite a number of devices placed by the author in other subdivisions of this classification with a different criteria of identification, such as metaphor, metonymy, epithet, repetition, inversion, suspense, etc. It does not seem quite just to Place all cases of ellipsis, aposiopesis or represented speech among colloquial constructions.

2.2.4. Classification of expressive means and stylistic devices by Y. M.Skrebnev

One of the latest classifications of expressive means and stylistic devices is given in the book «Fundamentals of English Stylistics» Ъ У Y. м. Skrebnev published in 1994 (47). Skrebnev's approach

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

demonstrates a combination of principles observed in Leech's system of paradigmatic and syntagmatic subdivision and the level-oriented approach on which Galperin's classification is founded. At the same time it differs from both since Skrebnev managed to avoid mechanical superposition of one system onto another and created a new consistent method of the hierarchical arrangement of this material.

Skrebnev starts with a holistic view, constructing a kind of language pyramid.

He doesn't pigeonhole expressive means and stylistic devices into appropriate layers of language like Leech and Galperin. Skrebnev first subdivides stylistics into paradigmatic stylistics (or stylistics of units) and syntagmatic stylistics (or stylistics of sequences). Then he explores the levels of the language and regards all stylistically relevant phenomena according to this level principle in both paradigmatic and syntagmatic stylistics.

He also uniquely singles out one more level. In addition to phonetics, morphology, lexicology and syntax he adds semasiology (or semantics).

According to Skrebnev the relationship between these five levels and two aspects of stylistic analysis is bilateral. The same linguistic material of these levels provides stylistic features studied by paradigmatic and syntagmatic stylistics. The difference lies in its different arrangement.

Paradigmatic stylistics (Stylistics of units)

«- 1.

Phonetics -> Syntagmatic

-> stylistics -> (Stylistics of -» sequences) ->

«- 2. Morphology «- 3. Lexicology «- 4. Syntax <- 5. Semasiology

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

paradigmatic stylistics

Looking closer into this system we'll be able to distinguish specific units and their stylistic potentials or functions. Thus paradigmatic stylistics (styUstics of units) is subdivided into five branches.

paradigmatic phonetics actually describes phonographical stylistic features of a written text. Since we cannot hear written speech but in our «mind» writers often resort to graphic means to reproduce the phonetic peculiarities of individual speech or dialect. Such intentional non-standard spelling is called «graphons» (a term borrowed from V.A.Kucharenko).

/ know these Eye- talians! (Lawrence)in this case the graphon is used to show despise or contempt of the speaker for Italians.

In Cockney speech whose phonetic peculiarities are all too well known you'll hear [ai] in place of [ei], [a:] instead of [au], they drop «h's» and so on. It frequently becomes a means of speech characterisation and often creates a humorous effect.

The author illustrates it with a story of a cockney family trying to impress a visitor with their «correct» English:

<'Father, said one of the children at breakfast. I want some more 'am Phase».—You mustn't say 'am, my child, the correct form is 'am,— retorted his father, passing the plate with sliced ham on it. «But I did say 'am, pleaded the boy». «No, you didn't: you said 'am instead of 'am». The mother turned to the guest smiling: «Oh, don't mind them, s 'r, pray. They are both trying to say 'am and both think it is 'am they Q re saying» (47, p. 41).

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Other graphic means to emphasise the «unheard» phonetic character istics such as the pitch of voice, the stress, and other melodic feature are italics, capitalisation, repetition of letters, onomatopoeia (soun' imitation).

E. g. I AM sorry; «Appeeee Noooooyeeeeerr» (Happy New Year) cock-


Paradigmatic morphology observes the stylistic potentials of gram:

forms, which Leech would describe as deviant. Out of several va rieties of morphological categorial forms the author chooses a less predictable or unpredictable one, which renders this form some stylistic connotation. The peculiar use of a number of grammaiical categories for stylistic purposes may serve as an ample example of this type of expressive means.

The use of a present tense of a verb on the background of a past-tense narration got a special name historical present in linguistics.

E. g. What else do J remember? Let me see.

There comes out of the cloud our house


Another category that helps create stylistic colouring is that of gender. The result of its deviant use is personification and depersonification. As Skrebnev points out although the morphological category of gender is practically non-existent in modern English special rules concern whole classes of nouns that are traditionally associated with feminine or masculine gender. Thus countries are generally classed as feminine (France sent her representative to the conference.) Abstract notions associated with strength and fierceness are personified as masculine while feminine is associated with beauty or gentleness (death, fear, war, angerhe, spring, peace, kindnessshe). Names of vessel

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

a nd other vehicles (ship, boat, carriage, coach, car) are treated as feminine.

/Another deviant use of this category according to Skrebnev is the use of animate nouns as inanimate ones that he terms «depersonification» illustrated by the following passage:

«Where did you find it?» asked Mord Em'ly of Miss Gilliken with a satirical accent.

«Who are you calling "it"?» demanded Mr. Barden aggressively. «P'raps you'll kindly call me 'im and not it». (Partridge)

Similar cases of deviation on the morphological level are given by the author for the categories of person, number, mood and some others.

Paradigmatic lexicology subdivides English vocabulary into stylistic layers. In most works on this problem (cf. books by Galperin, Arnold, Vinogradov) all words of the national language are usually described in terms of neutral, literary and colloquial with further subdivision into poetic, archaic, foreign, jargonisms, slang, etc.

Skrebnev uses different terms for practically the same purposes. His terminology includes correspondingly neutral, positive (elevated) and negative (degraded) layers.

Subdivision inside these categories is much the same with the ex- clusion of such groups as bookish and archaic words and special terms that Galperin, for example, includes into the special literary vocabulary (described as positive in Skrebnev's system) while Skreb- nev claims that they may have both a positive and negative stylistic function depending on the purpose of the utterance and the context. The same consideration concerns the so-called barbarisms or foreign

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

words whose stylistic value (elevated or degraded) depends on the kind of text in which they are used. To illustrate his point Skrebnee gives two examples of barbarisms used by people of different sociajB class and age. Used by an upper-class character from John Galsworl thy the word chic has a tinge of elegance showing the character** knowledge of French. He maintains that Italian words ciao and bambina current among Russian youngsters at one time were alsol considered stylistically 'higher' than their Russian equivalents. At the same time it's hard to say whether they should all be classified asl positive just because they are of foreign origin. Each instance of usee should be considered individually.

Stylistic differentiation suggested by Skrebnev includes the following stratification





Bookish and archaic words occupy a peculiar place among the other 1 positive words due to the fact that they can be found in any other group (poetic, official or professional).





2.2. Different classifications of expressive means




vulgar words.

Special mention is made of terms. The author maintains that the stylistic function of terms varies in different types of speech. In non- professional spheres, such as literary prose, newspaper texts, everyday speech special terms are associated with socially presti- gious occupations and therefore are marked as elevated. On the other hand the use of non-popular terms, unknown to the average speaker, shows a pretentious manner of speech, lack of taste or tact.

Paradigmatic syntax has to do with the sentence paradigm: complete- ness of sentence structure, communicative types of sentences, word order, and type of syntactical connection.

Paradigmatic syntactical means of expression arranged according to these four types include

Completeness of sentence structure



one-member nominative sentences.

Redundancy: repetition of sentence parts, syntactic tautology (prolepsis), Polysyndeton.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Word order

Inversion of sentence members.

Communicative types of sentences

Quasi-affirmative sentences: Isn't that too bad? = That is too bad.

Quasi-interrogative sentences: Here you are to write down your age and birthplace = How old are you? Where were you born?

Quasi-negative sentences: Did I say a word about the money (Shaw) = / did not say

Quasi-imperative sentences: Here! Quick! Come here! Be quick!

In these types of sentences the syntactical formal meaning of the structure contradicts the actual meaning implied so that negative sentences read affirmative, questions do not require answers but are in fact declarative sentences (rhetorical questions), etc. One commu- nicative meaning appears in disguise of another. Skrebnev holds that «the task of stylistic analysis is to find out to what type of speech (and its sublanguage) the given construction belongs.» (47, p. 100).

Type of syntactic connection


parenthetic elements;

asyndetic subordination and coordination.

Paradigmatic semasiology deals with transfer of names or what are traditionally known as tropes. In Skrebnev's classification these

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

expressive means received the term based on their ability to rename:

figures of replacement.

All figures of replacement are subdivided into 2 groups: figures of quantity and figures of quality.

Figures of quantity. In figures of quantity renaming is based on inexactitude of measurements, in other words it's either saying too much (overestimating, intensifying the properties) or too little (underestimating the size, value, importance, etc.) about the object or phenomenon. Accordingly there are two figures of this type.


E.g. You couldn't hear yourself think for the noise.

Meosis (understatement, litotes).

E. g. It's not unusual for him to come home at this hour.

According to Skrebnev this is the most primitive type of renaming.

Figures of quality comprise 3 types of renaming:

transfer based on a real connection between the object of nomi- nation and the object whose name it's given.

This is called metonymy in its two forms: synecdoche and periphrasis.

E- g. I'm all ears; Hands wanted.

Periphrasis and its varieties euphemism and anti-euphemism.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

E. g. Ladies and the worser halves; I never call a spade a spade, I ca it a bloody shovel.

transfer based on affinity (similarity, not real connection metaphor.

Skrebnev describes metaphor as an expressive renaming on the basis of similarity of two objects. The speaker searches for associations in] his mind's eye, the ground for comparison is not so open to view as with metonymy. It's more complicated in nature. Metaphor has no formal limitations Skrebnev maintains, and that is why this not a purely lexical stylistic device as many authors describe it (s Galperin's classification).

This is a device that can involve a word, a part of a sentence о a whole sentence. We may add that whole works of art can be viewe as metaphoric and an example of it is the novel by John Updike «Th Centaur».

As for the varieties there are not just simple metaphors like She i a flower, but sustained metaphors, also called extended, when one metaphorical statement creating an image is followed by another linked to the previous one: This is a day of your golden opportunity, Sarge. Don't let it turn to brass. (Pendelton)

Often a sustained metaphor gives rise to a device called catachresis (or mixed metaphor)which consists in the incongruity of the parts of a sustained metaphor. This happens when objects of the two or more parts of a sustained metaphor belong to different semantic spheres and the logical chain seems disconnected. The effect is' usually comical.

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

£. g. «For somewhere», said Poirot to himself indulging an absolute riot 0 f mixed metaphors «there is in the hay a needle, and among the sleeping dogs there is one on whom I shall put my foot, and by shooting the arrow into the air, one will come down and hit a glass-house!» (Christie)

A Belgian speaking English confused a number of popular proverbs

and quotations that in reality look like the following: to look for a needle in a haystack; to let sleeping dogs lie; to put one's foot down; I shot an arrow into the air (Longfellow); people who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

Other varieties of metaphor according to Skrebnev also include

Allusion defined as reference to a famous historical, literary, mytho- logical or biblical character or event, commonly known.

E.g. It's his Achilles heel (myth of vulnerability).

Personificationattributing human properties to lifeless objects.

E.g. How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth, Stol'n on his wing my three and twentieth year! (Milton)

Antonomasia defined as a variety of allusion, because in Skrebnev's view it's the use of the name of a historical, literary, mythological or biblical personage applied to a person described. Some of the most famous ones are Brutus (traitor), Don Juan (lady's man).

It should be noted that this definition is only limited to the allusive

nature of this device. There is another approach (cf. Galperin and others) in which antonomasia also covers instances of transference of common nouns in place of proper names, such as Mr. Noble Knight, Duke the Iron Heart.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Allegory expresses abstract ideas through concrete pictures.

E. g. The scales of justice; It's time to beat your swords into ploughshar

It should be noted that allegory is not just a stylistic term, but als a term of art in general and can be found in other artistic forms:

painting, sculpture, dance, and architecture.

transfer by contrast when the two objects are opposed implies irony.

Irony (meaning «concealed mockery», in Greek eironeia) is a device based on the opposition of meaning to the sense (dictionary and contextual). Here we observe the greatest semantic shift between the notion named and the notion meant.

Skrebnev distinguishes 2 kinds of ironic utterances:

obviously explicit ironical, which no one would take at their fac value due to the situation, tune and structure.

E. g. A fine friend you are! That's a pretty kettle offish!

and implicit, when the ironical message is communicated agaii a wider context like in Oscar Wilde's tale «The Devoted Friend» I where the real meaning of the title only becomes obvious after you read the story. On the whole irony is used with the aim of critical evaluation and the general scheme is praise stands for j blame and extremely rarely in the reverse order. However when | it does happen the term in the latter case is astheism.

E. g. Clever bastard! Lucky devil!

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

One of the powerful techniques of achieving ironic effect is the mixture of registers of speech (social styles appropriate for the occasion): high-flown style on socially low topics or vice versa.

Syntagmatic stylistics

Syntagmatic stylistics (stylistics of sequences) deals with the stylistic functions of linguistic units used in syntagmatic chains, in linear combinations, not separately but in connection with other units. Syntagmatic stylistics falls into the same level determined branches.

Syntagmatic phonetics deals with the interaction of speech sounds and intonation, sentence stress, tempo. All these features that charac- terise suprasegmental speech phonetically are sometimes also called prosodic.

So stylistic phonetics studies such stylistic devices and expressive means as alliteration (recurrence of the initial consonant in two or more words in close succession). It's a typically English feature because ancient English poetry was based more on alliteration than on rhyme. We find a vestige of this once all-embracing literary device in proverbs and sayings that came down to us.

E. g. Now or never; Last but not least; As good as gold.

With time its function broadened into prose and other types of texts.

It became very popular in titles, headlines and slogans.

». g. Pride and Prejudice. (Austin)

p osthumous papers of the Pickwick Club. (Dickens)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Work or wages/; Workers of the world, unite!

Speaking of the change of this device's role chronologically we should make special note of its prominence in certain professional areas of modern English that has not been mentioned by Skrebnev. Today alliteration is one of the favourite devices of commercials and advertising language.

E. g. New whipped cream: No mixing or measuring. No beating or bothering.

Colgate toothpaste: The Flavor's Fresher than everIt's New. Improved. Fortified.

Assonance (the recurrence of stressed vowels).


shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the angels name Lenore. (Рое)

Paronomasia (using words similar in sound but different in meaning with euphonic effect).

Tell this soul with sorrow laden, if within the distant Aiden; /|

The popular example to illustrate this device is drawn from E. A. Poe's Raven.

E.g. And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting

Rhythm and meter.

The pattern of interchange of strong and weak segments is called rhythm. It's a regular recurrence of stressed and unstressed syllables that make a poetic text. Various combinations of stressed and un- stressed syllables determine the metre (iambus, dactyl, trochee, etc.).

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

Rhyme is another feature that distinguishes verse from prose and consists in the acoustic coincidence of stressed syllables at the end of verse lines.

Here's an example to illustrate dactylic meter and rhyme given in Skrebnev's book

Take her up tenderly, Lift her with care, Fashion'd so slenderly Young and so fair.


Syntagmatic morphology deals with the importance of grammar forms used in a paragraph or text that help in creating a certain stylistic effect.

We find much in common between Skrebnev's description of this

area and Leech's definition of syntagmatic deviant figures. Skrebnev writes: «Varying the morphological means of expressing grammatical

notions is based

morphemes or frequent recurrence of morphological meanings

expressed differently

He also indicates that while it is normally considered a stylistic fault it acquires special meaning when used on purpose. He describes the effect achieved by the use of morphological synonyms of the genetive with Shakespearethe possessive case (Shakespeare's plays), prepositional o/-phrase (the plays of Shakespeare) and an attributive noun (Shakespeare plays) as «elegant variation» of style.

upon the general rule: monotonous repetition of

» (47, p. 146).

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Syntagmatic lexicology studies the «word-and-context» juxtaposition that presents a number of stylistic problemsespecially those con- nected with co-occurrence of words of various stylistic colourings.

Each of these cases must be considered individually because each literary text is unique in its choice and combination of words. Such phenomena as various instances of intentional and unintentional lexical mixtures as well as varieties of lexical recurrence fall in wifl this approach.

Some new more modern stylistic terms appear in this connection- stylistic irradiation, heterostylistic texts, etc. We can observe this sor of stylistic mixture in a passage from O'Henry provided by Skrebnev:

Jeff, says Andy after a long time, quite unseldom I have seen fit to impugn your molars when you have been chewing the rag with me about

your conscientious way of doing business

Syntagmatic syntax deals with more familiar phenomena since it has to do with the use of sentences in a text. Skrebnev distinguishes purely syntactical repetition to which he refers

parallelism as structural repetition of sentences though often accom- panied by the lexical repetition

(47, p. 149).

E. g. The cock is crowing, The stream is flowing


and lexico-syntactical devices such as

anaphora (identity of beginnings, initial elements).

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

E. g. If only little Edward were twenty, old enough to marry well and fend for himself, instead often. If only it were not necessary to provide a dowaryforhis daughter. If only his own debts were less. (Rutherfurd)

Epiphora (opposite of the anaphora, identical elements at the end of sentences, paragraphs, chapters, stanzas). E. g. For all averred, I had killed the bird. That made the breeze to blow. Ah wretch! Said they, the bird to slay, That made the breeze to blow!


Framing (repetition of some element at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, paragraph or stanza).

E. g. Never wonder. By means of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, settle everything somehow, and never wonder. (Dickens)

Anadiplosis (the final element of one sentence, paragraph, stanza is repeated in the initial part of the next sentence, paragraph, stanza.

E.g. Three fishers went sailing out into the West. Out into the West, as the sun went down.


Chiasmus (parallelism reversed, two parallel syntactical constructions contain a reversed order of their members). E. g. That he sings and he sings, and for ever sings heI love my Love and my Love loves me!


Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Syntagmatic semasiology or semasiology of sequences deals with semantic relationships expressed at the lengh of a whole text. As distinct from paradigmatic semasiology which studies the stylistic effect of renaming syntagmatic semasiology studies types of names used for linear arrangement of meanings.

Skrebnev calls these repetitions of meanings represented by sense units in a text figures of co-occurrence. The most general types of] semantic relationships can be described as identical, different orl opposite. Accordingly he singles out figures of identity, figures of\ inequality and figures of contrast.

Figures of identity

Simile (an explicit statement of partial identity: affinity, likeness, similarity of 2 objects).

E. g. My heart is like a singing bird. (Rosetti)

Synonymous replacement (use of synonyms or synonymous phrases to avoid monotony or as situational substitutes).

E. g. He brought home numberless prizes. He told his mother counties stories. (Thackeray)

E.g. I was trembly and shaky from head to foot.

Figures of inequality

Clarifying (specifying) synonyms (synonymous repetition used to characterise different aspects of the same referent).

2.2. Different classifications of expressive means

E.g. You undercut, sinful, insidious hog. (O'Henry)

Climax (gradation of emphatic elements growing in strength).

E. g. What difference if it rained, hailed, blew, snowed, cycloned?


Anti-climax (back gradationinstead of a few elements growing in intensity without relief there unexpectedly appears a weak or contrastive element that makes the statement humorous or ridiculous).

E. g. The woman who could face the very devil himself or a mousegoes

all to pieces in front of a flash of lightning. (Twain)

Zeugma (combination of unequal, or incompatible words based on the economy of syntactical units).

E. g. She dropped a tear and her pocket handkerchief. (Dickens)

Pun (play upon words based on polysemy or homonymy).

E. g. What steps would you take if an empty tank were coming toward

you?Long ones.

Disguised tautology (semantic difference in formally coincidental parts of a sentence, repetition here does not emphasise the idea but carries a different information in each of the two parts).

E. g. For East is East, and West is West

Figures of contrast


Oxymoron (a logical collision of seemingly incompatible words).

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

E. g. His honour rooted in dishonour stood, And faith unfaithful kept him falsely true.


Antithesis (anti-statement, active confrontation of notions used tol show the contradictory nature of the subject described).

E. g. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the era of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of


His fees were high, his lessons were light. (O'Henry)

An overview of the classifications presented here shows rather varie approaches to practically the same material. And even though thej contain inconsistencies and certain contradictions they reflect tluj scholars' attempts to overcome an inventorial description of devices, They obviously bring stylistic study of expressive means to an advanced level, sustained by the linguistic research of the 20' л century that allows to explore and explain the linguistic nature of the stylistic function. This contribution into stylistic theory made by modem' linguistics is not contained to classifying studies only. It has inspired exploration of other areas of research such as decoding stylistics or stylistic grammar that will be discussed in further chapters.


Despair. (Dickens)

Practice Section

1. What is the relationship between the denotative and connotative meanings of a word?

Practice Section

Can a word connote without denoting and vice versa? What are the four components of the connotative meaning and how are they represented in a word if at all?

2. Expound on the expressive and emotive power of the noun thing in the following examples:

Jennie wanted to sleep with methe sly thing/ But I told her I should undoubtedly rest better for a night alone. (Gilman)

-/ believe, one day, I shall fall awfully in love. -Probably you never will, said Lucille brutally. That's what most old maids are thinking all the time. Yvette looked at her sister from pensive but apparently insouciant eyes. Is it? she said. Do you really think so, Lucille? How perfectly awful for them, poor things! (Lawrence)

She was an honest little thing, but perhaps her honesty was too rational. (Lawrence)

So they were, this queer couple, the tiny, finely formed little Jewess with her big, resentful, reproachful eyes, and her mop of carefully-barbed black, curly hair, an elegant little thing in her way; and the big, pale-eyed young man, powerful and wintry, the remnant, surely of

some old uncanny Danish stock


3. How do the notions of expressive means and stylistic devices correlate? Provide examples to illustrate your point.

4. Compare the principles of classifications given in chapter 2. Which of them seem most logical to you? Sustain your view.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Draw parallels between Leech's paradigmatic and syntagmatic deviations and Skrebnev's classification. Apply these criteria to the analysis of the use of brethren and married in the following examples. Consider the grammatical category of number in A and the nature of semantic transfer in B. Supply the kind of tables suggested by Leech to describe the normal and deviant features of similar character. Comment on the kind of deviation in the nonce-word sistern in A and the effect it produces.

A. Praise God and not the Devil, shouted one of the Maker's male shills

from the other side of the room.

The criminal lowered his eyes and muttered at his shoes:

Ah cut anybody who bruise me with Latin, goddammit. Listen to him take the Mighty name in vain, brethren and sistern/ said Reinhart. (Berger)

B. My father was still feisty in 1940he was thirty years old and

restless, maybe a little wild beneath the yoke of my mother's family. He truly had married not only my mother but my grandmother as well, and also the mule and the two elderly horses and the cows and chickens and the two perilous-looking barns and the whole rocky hundred acres of

Carolina mountain farm. (Chappel)

5. What kind of syntagmatic deviation (according to Leech) is observed in the following instance? What is the term for this device in rhetoric and other stylistic classifications? Where does it belong according to Galperin and Skrebnev?

And in the manner of the Anglo-Saxon poetry that was its inspiration, he ended his sermon resoundingly:

Practice Section

High on the hill in sight of heaven, Our Lord was led and lifted up. That willing warrior came while the world wept, And a terrible shadow shaded the sun For us He was broken and gave His blood King of all creation Christ on the Rood.


6. What types of phonographic expressive means are used in the sentences given below? How do different classifications name and place them?

Стоп, now. I'm not bringing this up with the idea of throwing anything back in your teethmy God. (Salinger)

Little Dicky strains and yaps back from the safety of Mary's arms. (Erdrich)

Why shouldn't we all go over to the Metropole at Cwmpryddygfor dinner one night?" (Waugh)

I hear Lionel's supposeta be runnin away. (Salinger)

Who's that dear, dim, drunk little man? (Waugh) No

chitchat please. (O'Hara)

/ prayed for the city to be cleared of people, for the gift of being

alonea-l-o-n-e: which is the one New York prayer


* Here Cwmpryddyg is an invented Welsh town, an allusion to the difficult Welsh language.

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Sense of sin is sense of waste. (Waugh)

Colonel Logan is in the army, and presumably «the Major» was a soldier at the time Dennis was born. (Follett)

7. Comment on the types of transfer used in such tropes as metaphor, metonymy, allegory, simile, allusion, personification, antonomasia. Compare their place in Galperin's and Skrebnev's systems. Read up on the nature of transfer in a poetic image in terms of tenor, vehicle and ground: И. В. Арнольд Стилистика современного английского языка. М., 1990. С. 74-82. Name and explain the kind of semantic transfer observed in the following passages.

The first time my father met Johnson Gibbs they fought like tomcats. (Chappel)

/ love plants. I don't like cut flowers. Only the ones that grow in the

ground. And these water lilies

Each slender stalk is a green life rope. (Erdrich)

Each white petal is a great tear of milk.

/ think we should drink a toast to Fortune, a much-maligned lady. (Waugh)

first sigh of the instruments seemed to free some hilarious and

potent spirit within him; something that struggled there like the Genius in the bottle found by the Arab fisherman. (Cather)

But he, too, knew the necessity of keeping as clear as possible from that poisonous many-headed serpent, the tongue of the people. (Lawrence)


Practice Section

lily had started to ask me about Eunice. «Really, Gentle Heart», she said, «what in the world did you do to my poor little sister to make her skulk away like a thief in the night?» (Shaw)

The green tumour of hate burst inside her. (Lawrence)

She adjusted herself however quite rapidly to her new conception of people. She had to live. It is useless to quarrel with your bread and butter. (Lawrence)


the Tudors and the dissolution of the Church, then Lloyd George,

the temperance movement, Non-conformity and lust stalking hand in hand through the country, wasting and ravaging. (Waugh)

When the stars threw down their spears, And water'd heaven with their tears, Did he smile his work to see?


As distinct from the above devices based on some sort of affinity, real or imaginary, there are a number of expressive means based on contrast or incompatibility (oxymoron, antithesis, zeugma, pun, malapropism, mixture of words from different stylistic strata of vocabulary), Their stylistic effect depends on the message and intent of the author and varies in emphasis and colouring. It maybe dramatic, pathetic, elevated, etc. Sometimes the ultimate stylistic effect is irony. Ironic, humorous or satiric effect is always built on contrast although devices that help to achieve it may not necessarily be based on contrast (e. g. they may be hyperbole, litotes, allusion, periphrasis, metaphor, etc.)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

Some of the basic techniques to achieve verbal irony are:

praise by blame (or sham praise) which means implying the opposite of what is said;

minimizing the good qualities and magnifying the bad ones;

contrast between manner and matter, i. e. inserting irrelev; matter in presumably serious statements;

interpolating comic interludes in tragic narration;

mixing formal language and slang;

making isolated instances seem typical;

quoting authorities to fit immediate purpose;

allusive irony: specific allusions to people, ideas, situations, etc. that clash discordantly with the object of irony;

connotative ambivalence: the simultaneous presence of incom- patible but relevant connotations.

Bearing this in mind comment on the humorous or ironic impact of the following examples. Explain where possible what stylistic devices effect the techniques of verbal irony.

Have you at any time been detained in a mental home or similar institution? If so, give particulars.

I was at Scone College, Oxford, for two years, said Paul.

The doctor looked up for the first time.Don't you dare to make jokes here, my man, he said, or I'll have you in the strait-jacket in less than no time. (Waugh)

I like that. Me trying to be funny. (Waugh)

Practice Section

I drew a dozen or more samples of what I thought were typical examples

of American commercial

out of limousines on opening nightslean, erect, super-chic couples

who had obviously never in their lives inflicted suffering as a result of underarm carelessnesscouples, in fact, who perhaps didn't have any

I drew people in evening clothes stepping

I drew laughing, high-breasted girls aquaplaning without

a care in the world, as a result of being amply protected against such

national evils as bleeding gums, facial blemishes, unsightly hairs, and faulty or inadequate life insurance. I drew housewives who, until they reached for the right soap flakes, laid themselves wide open to straggly hair, poor posture, unruly children, disaffected husbands, rough (but slender) hands, untidy (but enormous) kitchens. (Salinger)

I made a Jell-0 salad.Oh, she says, what kind?The kind full of nuts

and bolts, I say, plus washers of all types. I raided Russel's toolbox for the special ingredients. (Erdrich)

Was that the woman like Napoleon the Great? (Waugh)

They always say that she poisoned her husband

deal of talk about it at the time. Perhaps you remember the case?No, said PaulPowdered glass, said Flossie shrilly,in his coffee.Turkish coffee, said Dingy. (Waugh)

there was a great

You folks all think the coloured man hasn't got a soul. Anythin's good enough for the poor coloured man. Beat him, put him in chains; load

Here Paul observed a responsive glitter in Lady

Circumference's eye. (Waugh)

him with burdens

In the south they also drink a good deal of tequila, which is a spirit "lade from the juice of the cactus. It has to be taken with a pinch of salt. (Atkinson)

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

«They could have killed you too, he said, his teeth chattering. If you had arrived two minutes earlier. Forgive me. Forgive all of us. Dolce Italia. Paradise for tourists.» He laughed eerily. (Shaw)

He was talking very excitedly to me, said the Vicar

interested in Church matters. Are you quite sure he is right in the head? I have noticed again and again since I have been in the Church that lay interest in ecclesiastical matters is often a prelude to insanity. (Waugh)

He seems deeply

So you're the Doctor's hired assassin, eh? Well, I hope you keep a firm hand on my toad of a son. (Waugh)

9. Explain why the following sentences fall into the category of quasi-questions, quasi-statements or quasi-negatives in Skreb- nev's classification. What's their actual meaning?

/ wish I could go back to school all over again.Don't we all, he said. (Shaw)

Are all women different? Oh, are they! (O'Hara)

/ don't think no worse of you for it, no, darned if I do. (Lawrence)

If it isn't diamonds all over his fingers! (Caldwell)

Devil if I know what to make of these people down here. (Christie)

Contact my father again and I'll strangle you. (Donleavy)

Don't you ever talk to Rose? Rose? Not about Mildred. Rose misses Mildred as much as I do. We don't even want to see each other. (O'Hara)

Practice Section

10. Why are instances of repetition in the sentences given below called disguised tautology? How does it differ from regular tautology? What does this sort of repetition imply?

Life is life.

There are doctors and doctors.

A small town's a small town, wherever it is, I said. (Shute)

I got nothing against Joe Chapin, but he's not me. I'm me, and another man is still another man. (O'Hara)

Well, if it can't be helped, it can't be helped, I said manfully. (Shaw)

Milan is a city, which cannot be summed up in a few words. For Dalian

speakers, the old Milanese dialect expression «Milan I'e Milam- (Milan

is just Milan) is probably the best description one can give. iPeroni)

Beer was beer, too, in those daysnot the gassy staff in bottles. (Dickens)

11. Does the term anti-climax (back-gradation) imply the opposite of climax (gradation)? What effect does each of these devices provide? How is it achieved in the following cases:

Philbrick, there must be champagne-cup, and will you help the men

putting up the marquee? And Flags, Diana!


Doctor with an expensive gesture. The prizes shall stand among the

banks of flowers-Flowers, youth, wisdom, the glitter of jewels, music, said ihe Doctor. I here must be a band.

And there must be flowers, Diana, banks officers, said the

No expense should be

Chapter 2. Expressive Resources of the Language

I never heard of such a thing, said Dingy. A band indeed/ You'll be having fireworks next. Andfireworks, said the Doctor, and do you think it would be a good thing to buy Mr. Prendergast a new tie? (Waugh)

We needed a kind rain, a blessing rain, that lasted a week. We needed wafer. (Erdrich)

At first there were going to be forty guests but the invitation list grew larger and the party plans more elaborate, until Arthur said that with so many people they ought to hire an orchestra, and with an orchestra there would be dancing, and with dancing there ought to be a good sized orchestra. The original small dinner became a dinner dance at the Lantenengo Country Club. Invitations were sent to more than three

hundred persons

Even the most hardened criminal therehe was serving his third sentence for blackmailremarked how the whole carriage seemed to be flooded with the detectable savour of Champs-Elysee in early June. (Waugh)


Hullo, Prendy, old wine-skin! How are things with you? Admirable, said Mr. Prendergast. I never have known them better. I have just caned twenty-three boys. (Waugh)

Chapter 3

Stylistic Grammar

The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures. Grammatical metaphor. Types of gramma- tical transposition. Morphological stylistlcs. Stylistic potential of the parts of speech. Stylistic syntax.

3.1. The theory of grammatical gradation. Marked, semi-marked and unmarked structures

One of the least investigated areas of stylistic research is the stylistic potential of the morphology of the English language. There is quite a lot of research in the field of syntagmatic stylistics connected with syntactical structures but very little has been written about the stylistic Properties of the parts of speech and such grammatical categories as gender, number or person. So it seems logical to throw some light on these problems.

An essentially different approach of modern scholars to stylistic research is explained by a different concept that lies at the root of this approach. If ancient rhetoric mostly dealt in registering, classifying

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

and describing stylistic expressive means, modern stylistics proceeds from the nature of the stylistic effect and studies the mechanism 0 f the stylistic function. The major principle of the stylistic effect is the opposition between the norm and deviation from the norm on whatever level of the language. Roman Jacobson gave it the most generalized definition of defeated expectancy; he claimed that it is 1 the secret of any stylistic effect because the recipient is ready and willing for anything but what he actually sees. Skrebnev describes it as the opposition between the traditional meaning and situational meaning, Arnold maintains that the very essence of poetic language is the violation of the norm. These deviations may occur on any level of the languagephonetic, graphical, morphological, lexical or syntactical. It should be noted though that not every deviation from the norm results in expressiveness. There are deviations that will only create absurdity or linguistic nonsense. For example, you can't normally use the article with an adverb or adjective.

Noam Chomsky, an American scholar and founder of the generative linguistic school, formulated this rule in grammar that he called grammatical gradation (27). He constructed a scale with two polesj grammatically correct structures at one extreme point of this scale and grammatically incorrect structures at the other. The first he called grammatically marked structures, the secondunmarked structures.

The latter ones cannot be generated by the linguistic laws of the given language, therefore they cannot exist in it. If we take the Russian sentence that completely agrees with the grammatical laws of this lan- guage Решил он меня обмануть and make a word for word translation into English we'll get a grammatically incorrect structure 'Decided

* In Chomsky's theory grammatically incorrect (unmarked) structures are labeled with an asterisk.

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition

ne me to deceive. A native speaker cannot produce such a sentence because it disagrees with the basic rule of word order arrangement in English. It will have to be placed at the extreme point of the pole that opposes correct or marked structures. This sentence belongs to what Chomsky calls unmarked structures.

Between these two poles there is space for the so-called semi-marked structures. These are structures marked by the deviation from lexical or grammatical valency. This means that words and grammar forms carry an unusual grammatical or referential meaning. In other terms this is called «transposition», a phenomenon that destroys customary (normal, regular, standard) valences and thus creates expressiveness of the utterance.

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition

Some scholars (e. g. Prof. E. I. Shendels) use the term grammatical metaphor for this kind of phenomena (30, 31). We know that lexical metaphor is based on the transfer of the name of one object on to another due to some common ground. The same mechanism works in the formation of a grammatical metaphor.

Linguistic units, such as words, possess not only lexical meanings but also grammatical ones that are correlated with extra-linguistic reality. Such grammatical categories as plurality and singularity reflect the distinction between a multitude and oneness in the real world. Such classifying grammatical meanings as the noun, the verb or the adjective represent objects, actions and qualities that exist in this world. Howev- er this extra-linguistic reality may be represented in different languages

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

in a different way. The notion of definiteness or indefiniteness is gram-

matically expressed in English by a special class of wordsthe article.

In Russian it's expressed differently. Gender exists as a grammatical

category of the noun in Russian but not in English and so on.

A grammatical form, as well as a lexical unit possesses a denotative

and a connotative meaning. There are at least three types of denotative grammatical meanings. Two of these have some kind of reference with the extra-linguistic reality and one has zero denotation, i. e. there is no reference between the grammatical meaning and outside world.

1. The first type of grammatical denotation reflects relations o| objects in outside reality such as singularity and plurality.

2. The second type denotes the relation of the speaker to the first type of denotation. It shows how objective relations are perceived by reactions to the outside world. This type of denotative meaning is expressed by such categories as modality, voice, definiteness and indefiniteness.

3. The third type of denotative meaning has no reference to the extra-linguistic reality. This is an intralinguistc denotation, conveying relations among linguistic units proper, e. g. the formation of past tense forms of regular and irregular verbs.

Denotative meanings show what this or that grammatical form desig- nates but they do not show how they express the same relation. How- ever a grammatical form may carry additional expressive information, it can evoke associations, emotions and impressions. It may connote

as well as denote. Connotations aroused by a grammatical form are ad-

herent subjective components, such as expressive or intensified mean-

ing, emotive or evaluative colouring. The new connotative meaning of grammatical forms appears when we observe a certain clash between

3.2. Grammatical metaphor and types of grammatical transposition

form and meaning or deviation in the norm of use of some forms. The stylistic effect produced is often called grammatical metaphor.

According to Shendels we may speak of grammatical metaphor when there is a transposition (transfer) of a grammatical form from one type of grammatical relation to another. In such cases we deal with a redistribution of grammatical and lexical meanings that create new connotations.

Types of grammatical transposition

Generally speaking we may distinguish 3 types of grammatical trans- position.

1. The first deals with the transposition of a certain grammar form into a new syntactical distribution with the resulting effect of contrast. The so-called 'historical present' is a good illustration of this type: a verb in the Present Indefinite form is used against the background of the Past Indefinite narration. The effect of vividness, an illusion of «presence», a lapse in time into the reality of the reader is achieved.

Everything went as easy as drinking, Jimmy said. There was a garage just round the corner behind Belgrave Square where he used to go every morn- ing to watch them messing about with the cars. Crazy about cars the kid was. Jimmy comes in one day with his motorbike and side-car and asks for some petrol. He comes up and looks at it in the way he had. (Waugh)

2. The second type of transposition involves boththe lexical and grammatical meanings. The use of the plural form with a noun whose lexical denotative meaning is incompatible with plurality (abstract nouns, proper names) may serve as an apt example.

The look on her face fears. (Mitchell)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

was full of secret resentments, and longings, and

3. Transposition of classifying grammatical meanings, that brings together situationally incompatible formsfor instance, the use of a common noun as a proper one.

The effect is personification of inanimate objects or antonomasia (a person becomes a symbol of a quality or trait/V/r. Know-Ail, Mr. Truth, speaking names).

Lord and Lady Circumference, Mr. Parakeet, Prof. Silenus, Colonel MacAdder. (Waugh)

3.3. Morphological stylistics. Stylistic potential of the parts of speech

3.3.1. The noun and its stylistic potential

The stylistic power of a noun is closely linked to the grammatical categories this part of speech possesses. First of all these are the categories of number, person and case.

The use of a singular noun instead of an appropriate plural form creates a generalized, elevated effect often bordering on symbolization.

The faint fresh flame of the young year flushes From leaf to flower and from flower to fruit And fruit and leaf are as gold and fire.


3.3. Morphological stylistics

The contrary devicethe use of plural instead of singularas a rule ,nakes the description more powerful and large-scale.

The clamour of waters, snows, winds, rains

The lone and level sands stretch far away. (Shelly)


The plural form of an abstract noun, whose lexical meaning is alien to the notion of number makes it not only more expressive, but brings about what Vinogradov called aesthetic semantic growth.

Heaven remained rigidly in its proper place on the other side of death, and on this side flourished the injustices, the cruelties, the meannesses, that elsewhere people so cleverly hushed up. (Green)

Thus one feeling is represented as a number of emotional states, each with a certain connotation of a new meaning. Emotions may signify concrete events, happenings, doings.

Proper names employed as plural lend the narration a unique gener- alizing effect:

If you forget to invite somebody's Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I had nothing to do with it. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of, and in spite of Arthur's and Edith's triple checking of the list. (O'Hara)

These examples represent the second type of grammatical metaphor formed by the transposition of the lexical and grammatical meanings.

The third type of transposition can be seen on the example of Personification. This is a device in which grammatical metaphor a Ppears due to the classifying transposition of a noun, because nouns

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

are divided into animate and inanimate and only animate nouns have he category of person.

Personification transposes a common noun into the class of proper names by attributing to it thoughts or qualities of a human being. As a result the syntactical, morphological and lexical valency of this noun changes:

England's mastery of the seas, too, was growing even greater. Last year

her trading rivals the Dutch had pushed out of several colonies therford)


The category of case (possessive case) which is typical of the proper nouns, since it denotes possession becomes a mark of personification in cases like the following one:

Love's first snowdrop Virgin kiss!


Abstract nouns transposed into the class of personal nouns are charged with various emotional connotations, as in the following examples where personification appears due to the unexpected lexico- grammatical valency:

The woebegone fragment of womanhood in the corner looked a little less terrified when she saw the wine. (Waugh)

The chubby little eccentricity, (a child)

The old oddity (an odd old person). (Arnold)

3.3. Morphological stylistics

The emotive connotations in such cases may range from affection to irony or distaste.

go, although the English noun has fewer grammatical categories than the Russian one, its stylistic potential in producing grammatical metaphor is high enough.

3.3.2. The article and its stylistic potential

The article may be a very expressive element of narration especially when used with proper names.

For example, the indefinite article may convey evaluative connotations when used with a proper name:

I'm a Marlow by birth, and we are a hot-blooded family. (Follett)

It may be charged with a negative evaluative connotation and diminish the importance of someone's personality, make it sound insignificant.

Besides Rain, Nan and Mrs. Prewett, there was a Mrs. Kingsley, the wife of one of the Governors. (Dolgopolova)

Л Forsyte is not an uncommon animal. (Galsworthy)

The definite article used with a proper name may become a powerful expressive means to emphasize the person's good or bad qualities.

Well, she was married to him. And what was more she loved him. Not 'be Stanley whom everyone saw, not the everyday one; but a timid, sensitive, innocent Stanley who knelt down every night to say his



Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

You are not the Andrew Manson I married. (Cronin)

In the first case the use of two different articles in relation to one person throws into relief the contradictory features of his character. |

The second example implies that this article embodies all the good qualities that Andrew Manson used to have and lost in the eyes of his wife.

The definite article in the following example serves as an intensifier of the epithet used in the character's description:

My good fellow, I said suavely, what brings me here is this: I want to see the evening sun go down over the snow-tipped Sierra Nevada. Within the hour he had spread this all over the town and I was pointed out for the rest of my visit as the mad Englishman. (Atkinson)

The definite article may contribute to the devices of gradation or help create the rhythm of the narration as in the following examples:

But then he would lose Sondra, his connections here, and his unclethis world! The loss! The loss! The loss! (Dreiser)

No article, or the omission of article before a common noun conveys a maximum level of abstraction, generalization.

looked carefully

at every piece of mail

How infuriating it was! Land which looked like baked sand became the Garden of Eden if only you could get water. You could draw a line with a pencil: on one side, a waterless barren; on the other, an irrigated luxuriance. (Michener)

Tlie postmaster and postmistress, husband and wife,


3.3. Morphological stylistics

tfot sound, not quiver as if horse and man had turned to metal. (Dolgopolova)

They went as though car and driver were one indivisible whole. (Dol- gopolova)

3.3.3. The stylistic power of the pronoun

The stylistic functions of the pronoun also depend on the disparity between the traditional and contextual (situational) meanings. This is the grammatical metaphor of the first type based on the transposition of the form, when one pronoun is transposed into the action sphere of another pronoun.

So personal pronouns We, You, They and others can be employed in the meaning different from their dictionary meaning.

The pronoun We that means «speaking together or on behalf of other people» can be used with reference to a single person, the speaker, and is called the plural of majesty (Pluralis Majestatis). It is used in Royal speech, decrees of King, etc.

And for that offence immediately do we exile him hence. (Shakespeare)

The plural of modesty or the author's we is used with the purpose to identify oneself with the audience or society at large. Employing the plural of modesty the author involves the reader into the action making him a participant of the events and imparting the emotions Prevailing in the narration to the reader.

our passion unrequited

My poor dear child, cried Miss Crawly, then?


Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

Are we pining in secret? Tell me all, and let me console you. (Thackeray)

The pronoun you is often used as an intensifier in an expressive address or imperative:

Just you go in and win. (Waugh)

Get out of my house, you fool, you idiot, you stupid old Briggs. (Thackeray)

In the following sentence the personal pronoun they has a purely expressive function because it does not substitute any real characters but has a generalising meaning and indicates some abstract entity. The implication is meant to oppose the speaker and his interlocutor to this indefinite collective group of people.

All the people like us are we, and everyone else is they. (Kipling)

Such pronouns as One, You, We have two major connotations: that of 'identification' of the speaker and the audience and 'generalization' (contrary to the individual meaning).

Note should be made of the fact that such pronouns as We, One, You that are often used in a generalized meaning of 'a human being' may have a different stylistic value for different authors.

Speaking of such English writers as Aldus Huxley, Bertrand Russel and D. H. Lawrence, J. Miles writes in her book «Style and Proportion»:

The power of Huxley's general ONE is closer to Russel's WE than to Lawrence's YOU though all are talking about human nature.

She points out that scientists like Charles Darwin, Adam Smith and many others write using ONE much in the same way as Huxley does.

3.3. Morphological stylistics

She maintains that it is not merely the subject of writing but the attitude, purpose and sense of verbal tradition that establish these distinctions in expression (41).

Employed by the author as a means of speech characterisation the overuse of the / pronoun testifies to the speaker's complacency and egomania while you or one used in reference to oneself characterise the speaker as a reserved, self-controlled person. At the same time the speaker creates a closer rapport with his interlocutor and achieves empathy.

You can always build another image for yourself to fall in love with. No, you can't. That's the trouble, you lose the capacity for building. You run short of the stuff that creates beautiful illusions. (Priestly)

When the speaker uses the third person pronoun instead of / or we he or she sort of looks at oneself from a distance, which produces the effect of estrangement and generalization. Here is an example from {Catherine Mansfield's diary provided in Arnold's book Стилистика английского языка (4, С. 187).

/ do not want to write; I want to live. What does she mean by that? It's hard to say. Possessive pronouns may be loaded with evaluative connotations and devoid of any grammatical meaning of possession.

Watch what you're about, my man! (Cronin)

Your precious Charles or Frank or your stupid Ashley/ (Mitchell)

The same function is fulfilled by the absolute possessive form in structures like Well, you tell that Herman of yours to mind his own business. (London)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

The range of feelings they express may include irony, sarcasm, anger contempt, resentment, irritation, etc.

Demonstrative pronouns may greatly enhance the expressive colouring of the utterance.

That wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social position she lived in! (London)

These lawyers! Don't you know they don't eat often? (Dreiser)

In these examples the demonstrative pronouns do not point at anything but the excitement of the speaker.

Pronouns are a powerful means to convey the atmosphere of informal or familiar communication or an attempt to achieve it.

// was Robert Ackly, this guy, that roomed right next to me. (Salinger)

Claws in, you cat. (Shaw)

Through the figurative use of the personal pronouns the author may achieve metaphorical images and even create sustained compositional metaphors.

Thus using the personal pronoun she instead of the word «sea» in one of his best works The Old Man and the Sea Ernest Hemingway imparts to this word the category of feminine gender that enables him to bring the feeling of the old man to the sea to a different, more dramatic and more human level.

He always thought of the sea as 'la mar' which is what people call her in Spanish when they love her. Sometimes those who love her say beta

3.3. Morphological stylistics

( hings about her but they are always said as though she were a woman. (Hemingway)

In the same book he calls a huge and strong fish a he:

He is a great fish and I must convince him, he thought. I must never let flint learn his strength. (Hemingway)

Such recurrent use of these pronouns throughout the novel is charged with the message of the old man's animating the elemental forces of the sea and its inhabitants and the vision of himself as a part of nature. In this case the use of the pronouns becomes a compositional device.

All in all we can see that pronouns possess a strong stylistic potential that is realized due to the violation of the normal links with their object of reference.

3.3.4. The adjective and its stylistic functions

The only grammatical category of the English adjective today is that of comparison. Comparison is only the property of qualitative and Quantitative adjectives, but not of the relative ones.

When adjectives that are not normally used in a comparative degree are used with this category they are charged with a strong expressive power.

Mrs. Thompson, Old Man Fellow's housekeeper had found him deader

than a doornail

This is a vivid example of a grammatical transposition of the second 1 Уре built on the incongruity of the lexical and grammatical meanings.


Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

In the following example the unexpected superlative adjective degree forms lend the sentence a certain rhythm and make it even more expressive:


millions of workers, understood to be the strangest, the cun-

ningest, the willingest our Earth ever had. (Skrebnev)

The commercial functional style makes a wide use of the violation of grammatical norms to captivate the reader's attention:

The orangemostest drink in the world.

The transposition of other parts of speech into the adjective creates stylistically marked pieces of description as in the following sentence:

A camouflage of general suffuse and dirty-jeaned drabness covers everybody and we merge into the background. (Marshall)

The use of comparative or superlative forms with other parts of speech may also convey a humorous colouring:

He was the most married man I've ever met. (Arnold)

Another stylistic aspect of the adjective comes to the fore when an adjective gets substantivized and acquires the qualities of a noun such as «solid, firm, tangible, hard,» etc.

All Europe was in arms, and England would join. The impossible had happened. (Aldington)

The stylistic function of the adjective is achieved through the deviant use of the degrees of comparison that results mostly in grammatical metaphors of the second type (lexical and grammatical incongruity).

3.3. Morphological stylistics

•j-] ie same effect is also caused by the substantivized use of the a( ijectives.

3.3.5. The verb and its stylistic properties

The verb is one of the oldest parts of speech and has a very developed grammatical paradigm. It possesses more grammatical categories that any other part of speech. All deviant usages of its tense, voice and aspect forms have strong stylistic connotations and play an important role in creating a metaphorical meaning. A vivid example of the grammatical metaphor of the first type (form transposition) is the use of 'historical present' that makes the description very pictorial, almost visible.

The letter was received by a person of the royal family. While reading


she was interrupted, had no time to hide it and was obliged to put


open on the table. At this enters the Minister D

He sees the letter

and guesses her secret. He first talks to her on business, then takes out

a letter from his pocket, reads it, puts it down on the table near the other letter, talks for some more minutes, then, when taking leave, takes the

royal lady's letter from the table instead of his own. The owner of the letter saw it, was afraid to say anything for there were other people in the room. (Рое)

The use of 'historical present' pursues the aim of joining different time systemsthat of the characters, of the author and of the reader all of whom may belong to different epochs. This can be done by m aking a reader into an on-looker or a witness whose timeframe is synchronous with the narration. The outcome is an effect of empathy ensured by the correlation of different time and tense systems.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

The combination and unification of different time layers may also be achieved due to the universal character of the phenomenon described a phenomenon that is typical of any society at any time and thus make the reader a part of the events described.

Various shades of modality impart stylistically coloured expressiveness to the utterance. The Imperative form and the Present Indefinite referred to the future render determination, as in the following example:

Edward, let there be an end of this. I go home. (Dickens)

The use of shall with the second or third person will denote the speaker's emotions, intention or determination:

If there's a disputed decision, he said genially, they shall race again. (Waugh)

Tlie prizes shall stand among the bank of flowers. (Waugh)

Similar connotations are evoked by the emphatic use of will with the first person pronoun:

Adam. Are you tight again ? Look out of the window and see if you can see a Daimler waiting. Adam, what have you been doing? I will be told. (Waugh)

Likewise continuous forms do not always express continuity of the action and are frequently used to convey the emotional state of the speaker. Actually all 'exceptions to the rule' are not really exceptions. They should be considered as the forms in the domain of stylistic studies because they are used to proclaim the speaker's state of mind, his mood, his intentions or feelings.

3.3. Morphological stylistics

go continuous forms may express:

conviction, determination, persistence:

Well, she's never coming here again, I tell you that straight; (Maugham)

impatience, irritation:

/ didn't mean to hurt you. -You did. You're doing nothing else; (Shaw)

surprise, indignation, disapproval:

Women kill me. They are always leaving their goddam bags out in the middle of the aisle. (Salinger)

Present Continuous may be used instead of the Present Indefinite form to characterize the current emotional state or behaviour:

-How is Carol? Blooming, Charley said. She is being so brave. (Shaw)

You are being very absurd, Laura, he said coldly. (Mansfield)

Verbs of physical and mental perception do not regularly have continuous forms. When they do, however, we observe a semi- marked structure that is highly emphatic due to the incompatible combination of lexical meaning and grammatical form.

Why, you must be the famous Captain Butler we have been hearing so



uch aboutthe blockade runner. (Mitchell)

must say you're disappointing me, my dear fellow. (Berger)

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

The use of non-finite forms of the verb such as the infinitive and participle I in place of the personal forms communicates certain stylistic connotations to the utterance.

Consider the following examples containing non-finite verb forms:

Expect Leo to propose to her! (Lawrence)

The real meaning of the sentence is It's hard to believe that Leo would propose to her!

Death! To decide about death! (Galsworthy)

The implication of this sentence reads Be couldn't decide about death!

To take steps! How? Winifred's affair was bad enough! To have a double dose of publicity in the family! (Galsworthy)

The meaning of this sentence could be rendered as He must take some steps to avoid a double dose of publicity in the family!

Far be it from him to ask after Reinhart's unprecedented geiup and environs. (Berger)

Such use of the verb be is a means of character sketching: He was not the kind of person to ask such questions.

Since the sentences containing the infinitive have no explicit doer of the action these sentences acquire a generalized universal character. The world of the personage and the reader blend into one whole as if the question is asked of the reader (what to do, how to act). This creates empathy. The same happens when participle I is used impersonally:

3.3. Morphological stylistics

jhe whole thing is preposterouspreposterous! Slinging accusations like this! (Christie)

But I tell you there must be some mistake. Splendor taking dope! It's ridiculous. He is a nonchemical physician, among other things. (Berger)

The passive voice of the verb when viewed from a stylistic angle may demonstrate such functions as extreme generalisation and deperson- alisation because an utterance is devoid of the doer of an action and the action itself loses direction.

he is a long-time citizen and to be trusted


Little Mexico, the area was called contemptuously, as sad and filthy a collection of dwellings as had ever been allowed to exist in the west. (Michener)

The use of the auxiliary do in affirmative sentences is a notable emphatic device:

/ don't want to look at Sit a. I sip my coffee as long as possible. Then I do look at her and see that all the colour has left her face, she is fearfully pale. (Erdrich)

So the stylistic potential of the verb is high enough. The major mechanism of creating additional connotations is the transposition of verb forms that brings about the appearance of metaphors of the first and second types.

^3.6. Affixation and its expressiveness

Unlike Russian the English language does not possess a great, variety of word-forming resources.

Chapter 3. Stylistic Grammar

In Russian we have a very developed system of affixes, with eval- uative and expressive meanings: diminutive, derogatory, endearing, exaggerating, etc.

Consider such a variety of adjectives малый-маленький-махонь- кий—малюсенький; большой—большеватый—большущий, преог- ромнейший; плохой— плоховатенький—плохонький. There are no morphological equivalents for these in English.

We can find some evaluative affixes as a remnant of the former morphological system or as a result of borrowing from other languages, such as: weakling, piglet, rivulet, girlie, lambkin, kitchenette.

Diminutive suffixes make up words denoting small dimensions, but also giving them a caressing, jocular or pejorative ring.

These suffixes enable the speaker to communicate his positive or negative evaluation of a person or thing.

The suffix -ian/-ean means 'like someone or something, especially connected with a particular thing, place or person', e. g. the pre- Tolstoyan novel. It also denotes someone skilled in or studying a particular subject: a historian.

The connotations this suffix may convey are positive and it is frequently used with proper names, especially famous in art, literature, music, etc. Such adjectives as Mozartean, Skakespearean, Wagnerian mean like Mozart, Shakespeare, Wagner or in that style.

However some of these adjectives may possess connotations connected with common associations with the work and life of famous people that may have either positive or negative colouring. For instance The Longman Dictionary of the English Language and Culture gives such

3.3. Morphological stylistics

definitions of the adjective Dickensian: suggesting Charles Dickens or kis writing, e. g. a the old-fashioned, unpleasant dirtiness of Victorian England: Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian grinmess. b the cheerfulness of Victorian amusements and customs: a real Dickensian Christmas.

The suffix -ish is not merely a neutral morpheme meaning a small degree of quality like bluebluish, but it serves to create 'delicate or tactful' occasional evaluative adjectivesbaldish, dullish, biggish. Another meaning is 'belonging or having characteristics of somebody or something'.

Most dictionaries also point out that -ish may show disapproval {self- ish, snobbish, raffish)