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Sino-Soviet relations 1945-1970timeline US-Chinese relation1945-1975timeline Sino Soviet relations---Timeline 1945: World War II ends- Stalin wanted Mao

to form a coalition with Chiang against Imperial Japan. After the war, Stalin told Mao not to cease power, but to negotiate with Chiang because Stalin had signed a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance with the Nationalists in 1945. Chiang wanted to stop the USSRs illegal occupation of Tannu Uriankhai in Northern Mongolia. Stalin broke the treaty requiring Soviet withdrawal from Manchuria three months after Japans surrender and gave Manchuria to Mao. Stalin also gave Maos party $1 billion in material aid to help expel the Nationalists from continental China to establish the PRC. 1949: Communist China is created- Mao Zedong as leader 1950: Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance- Mao visits Moscow and gets a $300million low-interest loan and a 30-year military alliance. 1950-1953: Korean War 1953: Stalin dies and Khrushchev comes to power. Temporary revival of SinoSoviet friendship 1954: Khrushchev visits China and hands over Port Arthur naval base to PRC. Soviets provide technical aid in 156 industries in Chinas first 5 year plan and 520 mil rubles in loans. 1954: Geneva Conference- PRC and the USSR mutually persuaded Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh, to temporarily accept the Wests division of Vietnam. 1956: Khrushchev denounced Stalin 1958-1961: Chinas Great Leap Forward. Earlier China had followed the Soviet model of centralized economic development, emphasizing heavy industry, and delegating consumer goods to secondary priority; however, by the late 1950s, Mao had developed different ideas for how China could directly advance to the communist stage of Socialism, through the mobilization of Chinas workers 1959: Khrushchev meets Eisenhower to decrease Russo-American tensions. 1963: the PRC published The Chinese Communist Partys Proposal Concerning the General Line of the International Communist Movement [1], and the USSR replied with an Open Letter of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; [2] these were the final, formal communications between the two Communist parties. 1964: China has atomic bomb. Mao said that a counter-revolution in the USSR had re-established capitalism; consequently, the Chinese and Russian Communist parties broke relations, and the Warsaw Pact Communist parties followed Soviet suit. 1966-1976: Maos Cultural Revolution. Meant to re-establish Maos sole leadership of China. Aggravated, then severed PRC-USSR relations and relations with most of the Western world. Still, communist pragmatism: USSR and PRC gave aid to the Vietnamese communists led by Ho Chi Minh. The Chinese permitted Soviet aid materials to travel through China to North Vietnam during

the Vietnam War (1945-1975). 1967: Red Guards besiege Soviet embassy in Beijing. Despite unbroken formal diplomatic ties, relations froze in place. The PRC then raised the matter of the SinoSoviet territorial frontier Although demanding no territory, the Chinese insisted upon Soviet acknowledgement of that historic Russian injustice against China committed with the Treaty of Aigun (1858) and the Convention of Peking (1860); the Soviets ignored the matter. 1968: Border Tensions. The Soviet Army had amassed along the 4,380 km (2,738 mi.) frontier with China especially at the Xinjiang border, in northwest China, where Turkic separatists might easily be induced to insurrection. 1969: Political border tensions turn into armed raids and small-scale warfare.

US-SINO Relations 1945-United Nations founded in San Francisco 1945-1946-Marshall Mission-John Marshall tried to resolve the Chinese Civil war 1946-Wives of Chinese-Americans who had citizenship were allowed to immigrate without quotas or restrictions 1949-US State Department released "China White Paper" blaming Chiang and the KMT for their own problems 1949-Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China 1949-Mao sent troops into Tibet to spread the Revolution, CIA responded to Tibetan rebels' pleas for help. 1950-30 Year Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Assistance; US feared united global Communist menace 1950-1952-Land Reform Campaign in China 1950-North Korean forces invaded Souith Korea, started the Korean war (which was known in China as "The War to Resist America and Aid Korea"). PRC entered the war in October 1950. Fighting ended with armistice on July 27, 1953. The United States recognized Chiang Kai-shek's "Republic of China" on Taiwan as the legitimate government of China and did not recognize Mao's PRC 1953-1957-First "Five Year Plan" based on Soviet Model 1954-Geneva Conference to resolve French colonialism in Indo-China. John Foster Dulles, the American representative at the conference, blatantly refused to shake Chou Enlai's hand. 1955-Congress approved a mutual defense pact between the US and Taiwan 1954-1955-First Offshore islands Crisis (First Taiwan Strait Crisis) over the Ma-tsu and Quemoy Islands; PRC shelled KMT installations and US threatened retaliation 1957-Soviets launched Sputnik, inspiring Mao and CCP to believe that the Communists had the technological upperhand 1958-Communes organized as part of the Great Leap Forward; led to the "Three Hard Years" in which tens of millions starved 1958-Second Strait Crisis-samee islands, same US response 1959-Defense Minister Peng Dehuai challenged Mao's authority after failure of Great Leap Forward; Mao dismissed him but had to temporarily step down from the Presidency. Liu Shaoqi became President and thus began the "struggle between two lines"--gradualists like Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping v. Mao 1964-Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing military action in Vietnam 1964-China detonated its first nuclear weapon 1966-China tests its first successful nuclear missile 1966-Formation of the National Committee on US-China relations 1966-1968-The Cultural Revolution. Mao unleashes the Red Guards to bring revolutionary spirit to the youth and purge the Party. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping ousted as "capitalist roaders." 1967-China develops its own H-bomb 1968-1969-Mao called in the PLA to bring the Cultural Revolution and Red Guards under control

1971-President Nixon's "State of the World" speech 1971-US Ping Pong team invited to visit China, "Ping-pong diplomacy" 1971-Henry Kissinger's first secret trip to Beijing 1971-People's Republic of China acceded to the UN; Taiwan gave up its seat 1972-President Richard Nixon visited the PRC and released the First Shanghai Communique, which included the American position that "there is but one China and Taiwan is a part of China." 1973-Chou Enlai helped bring Deng Xiaoping back into the CCP 1974-Nixon resigned after Watergate 1975-President Gerald Ford visited Beijing but made no progress 1976-Premier Chou Enlai died of cancer 1976-Tangshan Earthquake killed a quarter of a million people 1976-Mao Zedong died. Hua Guofeng became Premier and Party Chairman; unexpectedly arrested the Gang of Four (Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Wang Hongwen, and Yao Wenyuan) in October